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International Relations Geopolitics and Geostrategy
by
Hall Gardner

Introduction

Concepts of geopolitics and geostrategy are moving in new directions in the aftermath of the Soviet collapse in 1991 and the antistate “terrorist” attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001. A reconceptualization has proved necessary in the effort to better analyze the global ramifications of the collapse of the amphibious Soviet empire, if not predict the future geopolitical contours of the global system. At present, the essentially insular United States continues to sustain global military predominance, but appears to be losing its overseas political and economic influence in a number of regions due to the rise of emerging powers. Questions remain as to whether a new form of polycentrism is truly in the making, how long the United States can sustain its global predominance, and whether the advent of globalization and rise of new regional powers will result in wider regional, if not global conflict, or else in new systems of global governance that could help mediate more traditional territorial state rivalry. This article examines works that deal with geopolitics and geostrategy and that generally seek to examine multiple systemic factors that affect global decision-making processes, not to overlook the forces of globalization as they have impacted upon more traditional geopolitical analysis. It consequently looks at those studies that seek to formulate or discuss the multidimensional aspects of global strategy, including military strategy and diplomacy, particularly when the latter is used as the art of statecraft to reach settlements over territory or other vital issues of geostrategic, military-technological or political-economic concerns.

General Overviews

This section provides a list of general introductory texts in the field of geopolitics that explain the relationship between geography and politics. Agnew 2002 discusses the history of geopolitical thinking while seeking to analyze issues such as environmentalism, drug trafficking, and international terrorism. Braden 1999 seeks to show how geography, demography, and economics impact politics and international relations. Ó Tuathail 2006 provides critical perspectives on a wide range of geopolitical issues. Flint 2006 creates a process-and-feedback model for understanding the dynamics of geopolitics. Gray 2007 explains the nature of strategic thinking from the French Revolution to the war on “terrorism.” Lacoste 2006 analyzes the geopolitical interests of the major powers—the United States, Europe, Russia, China, India, Japan, and Brazil. Morgenthau and Thompson 1985 develops the theory and practice of geopolitics as a struggle for power. Taylor 2007 examines the shifting nature of contemporary politics by means of a comprehensive examination of the geopolitical landscape.

  • Agnew, John. Making Political Geography. London: Hodder Arnold, 2002.

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    An introductory text that explains how changing geopolitical contexts have been critical to the making of political geography. Discusses the history of geopolitical thinking while seeking to analyze issues of environmentalism, drug trafficking, and international terrorism. Identifies three “waves” of political geography during the last three decades: the spatial-analytical approach, the political-economic critiques, and the postmodern approaches.

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  • Braden, Kathleen, and F. M. Shelley. Engaging Geopolitics. London: Longman, 1999.

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    An introduction into the ways in which geography, demography, and economics impact on politics and international relations. Develops classic and contemporary geopolitical concepts and applies them to key global issues.

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  • Flint, Colin. Introduction to Geopolitics. London and New York: Routledge, 2006.

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    Provides an introduction to and brief history of geopolitics. Creates a framework for understanding geopolitics that involves a process-and-feedback model. The latter helps to explain how geopolitical tension can result in conflict and whether such conflicts can result in just and long-lasting resolutions. Includes a discussion of the geography of terrorism.

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  • Gray, Colin. War, Peace, and International Relations: An Introduction to Strategic History. Strategy and History. London and New York: Routledge, 2007.

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    Explains the nature of strategic thinking from the French Revolution through the 19th century, World War I, World War II, the Cold War, and the “war on terrorism.”

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  • Lacoste, Yves. Géopolitique, la longue histoire d’aujourd’hui. Paris: Larousse, 2006.

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    Analyzes the major geopolitical issues confronted by the American “ hyperpower” as well as those of Europe, Russia, China, India, Japan, and Brazil. Discusses conflicts in the Mediterranean, Middle East, Central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Balkans, involving demography, energy, water, and food.

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  • Morgenthau, Hans, and Kenneth Thompson. Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. 6th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1985.

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    First published in 1948, this classic work develops the theory and practice of geopolitics as a struggle for power and evaluates national power by showing the interrelationships between geostrategic positioning, the relative economic and technological capabilities of states, international public opinion, international law and morality, international government and diplomacy, and the regional and global balance of power.

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  • Ó Tuathail, Gearóid, Simon Dalby, and Paul Routledge, eds. The Geopolitics Reader. 2d ed. London and New York: Routledge, 2006.

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    Introductory text that provides critical perspectives on a wide range of texts that examine imperialism, Cold War geopolitics, and post–Cold War geopolitical dangers, in addition to anti-geopolitical movements.

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  • Taylor, Peter J. Political Geography: World-Economy, Nation-State, and Locality. 5th ed. Harlow, UK: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007.

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    This introductory text examines the shifting nature of the contemporary geopolitical landscape.

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Journals

This section presents a wide variety of journals that either focus on geopolitical and geostrategic perspectives or else incorporate such perspectives. Comparative Strategy examines the latest US government, foreign, and NATO documentation on major defense and strategic issues. Geopolitics explores the theoretical implications of contemporary geopolitics and geopolitical change with particular reference to territorial problems and issues of state sovereignty. Geopolitics of Energy provides analysis on the political and economic factors affecting energy and their impact on national energy policies, the international environment, and prices. Géostratégiques examines the interrelationship between geostrategy and geopolitics, as well as international relations in general, with an emphasis on the greater Middle East. Global Change, Peace & Security addresses practical and theoretical questions posed by a rapidly globalizing world. Hérodote is one of the few journals to focus exclusively on geopolitics and not international relations. Political Geography publishes research on geostrategic regions and the spatial structure of states, quantitative studies, as well as political-economic approaches to political geography. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management links scientific and technological analysis with the strategic needs of policymakers and management and with attention to issues of technological geopolitics.

Geohistorical Approaches

This section selects works that explore geopolitical and geostrategic thinking in a geohistorical context. Aron 1966 is a classic of international relations and geopolitics. Atkinson and Dodds 2000 seeks to show how geopolitics has been created, negotiated, and contested within differing political and historical sociopolitical environments. Carr 2001 discusses the nature of power, morality, and law in international politics, in addition to the prospects of international order. Dehio 1962 examines European rivalries on the continent and abroad for four centuries prior to the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II. Kennedy 1991 examines the global strategies of 18th-, 19th-, and 20th-century empires. Mackinder 1981, first published in 1919, argued that power was beginning to shift from insular empires to continental states. Liska 1990 explores the dynamics and the evolution of successive state and empire systems from Mesopotamia to the present.

  • Aron, Raymond. Peace and War: A Theory of International Relations. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966.

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    A classic of international relations and geopolitics. Section 1, “Theory” argues that a global “science” of international relations cannot be fabricated. Section 2, “Sociology,” studies the ways in which subpolitical forces influence foreign policy. Section 3, “History,” looks at the emergence of “universal history” interlinking diverse peoples (now called “globalization”). Section 4, “Praxeology,” argues for a prudent foreign policy somewhere between Machiavelli and idealism.

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  • Atkinson, David, and Klaus Dodds, eds. Geopolitical Traditions: A Century of Geopolitical Thought. Critical Geographies 7. London and New York: Routledge, 2000.

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    Taking examples from Japan, Italy, Portugal, Argentina, India, Israel, and France, the authors develop concepts from human and political geography, politics, international relations, and sociology in an effort to explain how geopolitics has been created, negotiated, and contested within differing political and historical sociopolitical environments.

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  • Carr, Edward Hallett. The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919–1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001.

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    A classic text, the book seeks to define an alternative form of realist strategy (in the realist debate with utopian thinking), and discusses the role of power, morality, and law in international politics, in addition to the prospects of international order. First published in 1940.

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  • Dehio, Ludwig. The Precarious Balance: Four Centuries of the European Power Struggle. Translated by Charles Fullman. New York: Knopf, 1962.

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    Examines European rivalries on the continent and abroad for four centuries prior to the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of European predominance. Argues that Europe would have been taken over by a hegemonic power had the European system been closed and not open to imperial overseas expansion.

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  • Kennedy, Paul, ed. Grand Strategies in War and Peace. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991.

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    Scholars examine grand strategy from a historical perspective. The work first examines 18th-, 19th- and 20th-century British strategy as an insular state, before turning to the strategy of continental powers, Rome, Imperial Spain, Germany, France, and the Soviet Union. Concludes with an examination of American Grand Strategy.

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  • Liska, George. Ways of Power: Pattern and Meaning in World Politics. Oxford: Blackwell, 1990.

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    Explores the dynamics and the evolution of successive state and empire systems from Mesopotamia to the present. Work seeks to develop a phenomenology of the ways of power and explore the interactions between morality, culture, power, and geostrategy.

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  • Mackinder, Halford John. Democratic Ideals and Reality: A Study in the Politics of Reconstruction. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1981.

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    Classic geopolitical analysis that influenced post–World War II American strategy by arguing that power was shifting from insular empires to continental states, in part due to the advent of railroads, and rivalry over eastern Europe, “the geographical pivot of history.” Book explicates his the author’s famous maxim: “Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland: Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island: Who rules the World-Island commands the World.” First published in 1919.

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Geostrategy as the Art of War

Works selected for this section look at the transformation of war over the centuries. Chaliland 1994 provides writings on the strategy of war from ancient times until the present. Géré 2005 examines conflicts in the aftermath of the Cold War in relationship to the “revolution in military affairs.” Liddell Hart 1974 defines and applies concepts of grand strategy. Luttwak 2001 examines the interactions between five levels of strategy: the technical, the tactical, the operational, the theater strategic, and the grand strategic. Mahan 1889 helped set the foundation for the United States to emerge as a global superpower through emphasis on sea power. Paret, et al. 1986 analyzes the origins of modern warfare, the technological and economic impact of the Industrial Revolution upon war, and the advent of revolutionary warfare and nuclear strategy. Van Creveld 1991 analyzes the art of war from the 18th and 19th centuries until the end of the Cold War. Van Creveld 2000 explores military thought and strategy with a focus on how technology has changed military tactics.

  • Chaliland, Gérard, ed. The Art of War in World History: From Antiquity to Nuclear Weapons. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

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    Contains writings from ancient and modern Europe, China, Byzantium, the Arab world, Persia, and the Ottoman Empire. In addition to providing the views of imperial strategists, such as Julius Caesar, Napoleon, Walter Raleigh, and Rommel, the work also examines “irregular” or unconventional warfare as engaged in by Cortés, Lawrence of Arabia, and even Gandhi. Explicates the struggles between nomadic and sedentary peoples, and the conflicts between Christianity and Islam.

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  • Géré, François. La nouvelle géopolitique: Guerres et paix aujourd’hui. Petite encyclopédie Larousse. Paris: Larousse, 2005.

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    Concisely written, examines conflicts in the aftermath of the Cold War in relationship to the “revolution in military affairs” in the effort to deal with the new threats of terrorism and nuclear proliferation and to achieve a long-lasting peace.

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  • Liddell Hart, B. H. Strategy: The Indirect Approach. 2d rev. ed. New York:Signet, 1974.

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    Discusses the role of grand strategy as a means “to co-ordinate and direct all the resources of a nation, or band of nations, towards the attainment of the political object of the war.” Grand strategy needs to take account of— and apply—the power of both financial and ethical pressure to weaken the opponent’s will at the same time that it looks beyond the immediate conflict to the future peace.

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  • Luttwak, Edward. Strategy: The Logic of War and Peace. Rev. ed. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 2001.

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    Examines the interactions between five levels of strategy: the technical, the tactical, the operational, the theater strategic, and the grand strategic. Raises the question of “paradoxical logic,” where any action will ultimately become self-defeating, versus more traditional linear logic, that more is better, and applies these concepts to specific conflicts.

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  • Mahan, A. T. The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783. Boston: Little, Brown, 1889.

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    Helped set the foundation for the United States to emerge as a global superpower by arguing for the advantages of sea power over land power.

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  • Paret, Peter, Gordon Craig, and Felix Gilbert, eds. Makers of Moderns Strategy from Machiavelli to the Modern World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.

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    A revision and expansion of Edward Meade Earle’s 1943 edition; contributors to the newer edition analyze the origins of modern war (from Machiavelli), the expansion of war (from Napoleon), the technological and economic effects of the Industrial Revolution on warfare from the 19th century to World War II, and the advent of revolutionary warfare and nuclear strategy in the Cold War.

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  • van Creveld, Martin. The Transformation of War: The Most Radical Reinterpretation of Armed Conflict since Clausewitz. New York: Free Press, 1991.

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    By way of critiquing Clausewitz, this work analyzes the art of war from the 18th and 19th centuries up until the contemporary period, reinterpreting the reasons, laws, and goals for war, as well as the strategies of how war is fought, in addition to speculating on the future of warfare.

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  • van Creveld, Martin. The Art of War and Military Thought. London: Cassell, 2000.

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    Explores military thought and strategy with a focus on how technology has changed military tactics as practiced in China, Greece and Rome, up until 19th- and 20th-century Germany; continues by examining 20th-century perspectives on guerrilla warfare and terrorism.

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Geostrategy as Diplomacy

Along with the use of force, diplomacy plays a key role in strategy when use of force is either inappropriate or else fails to achieve its goals. Berridge 2001 provides an introduction to the theory and the art of statecraft and diplomacy. Craig and George 1995 reflects on the use of force, statecraft, and diplomatic challenges. Der Derian 1987 explores the historically shifting interaction between power, cultural estrangement, and diplomatic mediation. Freeman 1997 examines the inter-linkage between national interests, statecraft and diplomatic strategy, and tactics. Kissinger 1994 summarizes three centuries of Western diplomacy, with special attention to Wilsonian idealism. Nicolson 1969 examines the origins of diplomacy and its development.

  • Berridge, G. R., Maurice Keens-Soper, and T. G. Otte. Diplomatic Theory from Machiavelli to Kissinger. Studies in Diplomacy; New York: Palgrave, 2001.

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    Provides an introduction to the theory and the art of statecraft and diplomacy and explicates the theories of Machiavelli, Guicciardini, Grotius, Richelieu, Wiequefort, Callieres, Satow, and Kissinger.

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  • Craig, Gordon A., and Alexander L. George. Force and Statecraft: Diplomatic Problems of Our Time. 3d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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    Explains the emergence of the “great powers”; the beginnings of diplomatic revolution after World War I; and the history of statecraft, negotiation, deterrence, coercive diplomacy, and crisis management. Concludes with reflections on force, statecraft, and diplomatic challenges.

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  • Der Derian, James. On Diplomacy: A Genealogy of Western Estrangement. Oxford: Blackwell, 1987.

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    Book contends that diplomacy is not a product of rationality, but represents a mix of historically shifting interaction between power, cultural estrangement, and diplomatic mediation.

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  • Freeman, Charles W., Jr. Arts of Power: Statecraft and Diplomacy. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1997

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    Examines the interrelationships between national interests, statecraft, and diplomatic strategy and tactics.

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  • Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.

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    Beginning with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, this work summarizes three centuries of Western diplomacy, devoting special attention to the influence of Wilsonian idealism on 20th-century American foreign policy.

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  • Nicolson, Harold. Diplomacy. London: Oxford University Press, 1969.

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    A classic text first published in 1939, the work examines the origins of diplomacy and its development. Seeks to explain the nature of diplomacy and the qualifications that make for a good diplomat.

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Cold War Geopolitical Perspectives

This section covers books that discuss American global strategy before or during the Cold War, from global strategic or geopolitical perspectives. Gaddis 2005 examines the history of containment through the end of the Cold War. Kennan 1984 discusses the roots of the Cold War, the nuclear arms race, and US war in Vietnam. Liska 1978 compares and contrasts the evolution of successive state and empire systems: Rome, Great Britain, and the United States. May 1993 discusses the original 1950 document known as National Security Council Report 68 (NSC-68), which helped set the contours for US global strategy during the Cold War. Spykman 2007 envisioned the nature of geopolitical rivalries after World War II.

  • Gaddis, John Lewis. Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of American National Security Policy during the Cold War. Rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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    Updated edition examines the history of containment through the end of the Cold War. Beginning with Franklin D. Roosevelt’s postwar plans, Gaddis critiques Kennan’s strategy of containment; National Security Council Report 68 (NSC-68); the Eisenhower-Dulles “New Look”; the Kennedy-Johnson “flexible response” strategy; and the Nixon-Kissinger strategy of détente. Assesses how Reagan and Gorbachev brought the Cold War to an end.

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  • Kennan, George. American Diplomacy. Exp. ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

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    Expanded edition retains the lectures and essays first published in 1951 as American Diplomacy, 1900–1950 and adds two lectures delivered in 1984 as well as a new preface by the author. Discusses the roots of the Cold War, the nuclear arms race, and the US war in Vietnam.

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  • Liska, George. Career of Empire: America and Imperial Expansion over Land and Sea. Studies in International Affairs. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.

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    Compares and contrasts the dynamics and the evolution of successive state and empire systems of the Roman Empire, Great Britain, and the United States.

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  • May, Ernest R., ed. American Cold War Strategy: Interpreting NSC 68. Bedford Books in American History. Boston: Bedford St. Martin’s, 1993.

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    Discusses the 1950 National Security Council Report 68 (NSC-68), which helped set the contours for US global strategy during the Cold War. Provides commentary by US officials, as well as scholarly perspectives on NSC-68 from observers from the United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, Norway, and China.

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  • Spykman, Nicholas. America’s Strategy in World Politics: The United States and the Balance of Power. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2007.

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    Written during World War II, argued that the conquests of Germany and Japan raised fears of US geopolitical encirclement and warned that the United States could not safely retreat into isolationism. Spykman envisioned how Washington could help shape the post–World War II global balance of power in rivalry with Moscow, foresaw the rise of China, and argued that the Middle East would play a pivotal role in the postwar world. Originally published in 1942.

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Post–Cold War American Geostrategy

Selected works define and articulate American global strategy after the Cold War. Art 2009 provides an overview of American grand strategy. Brzezinski 1997 discusses US policy toward Russia and the Eurasian “chessboard” as an area of geopolitical rivalry. De Blij 2007 examines a number of key political-geographical questions that influence American national security. Gardner 1997 examines NATO–European Union–Russian relations in the aftermath of the Soviet collapse. Gardner 2010 argues for the creation of internationalized “regional security communities” in an effort to resolve a number of key geopolitical disputes throughout the world. Gray and Sloan 1999 looks to the revival of geopolitics following the Soviet collapse and the new space-based field of “astropolitics.” Guertner 1993 examines American strategy in its differing dimensions. Sicker 2002 focuses on the geopolitical and geostrategic factors that have helped shape American national security policies toward North and South America.

  • Art, Robert J. America’s Grand Strategy and World Politics. New York: Routledge, 2009.

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    Provides an overview of American grand strategy. Essays explore the use of force, coercive diplomacy, nuclear deterrence, defense policy, the role of NATO, and US-European relations.

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  • Brzezinski, Zbigniew. The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

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    Explains why the United States represents a hegemony of a new type and then discusses Russian policy and the Eurasian “chessboard” as an area of geopolitical rivalry. Advocates creation of a trans–Euro-Atlantic-Eurasian security system.

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  • De Blij, Harm. Why Geography Matters: Three Challenges Facing America: Climate Change, the Rise of China, and Global Terrorism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

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    Argues that geographers look at the world “spatially” as opposed to “temporally” or “structurally” in examining questions that impact on American national security, such as the rise of China and global terrorism, as well as climate change, topography, demographics, national boundaries, and the distribution of languages, religions, energy deposits, and pipelines.

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  • Gardner, Hall. Dangerous Crossroads: Europe, Russia, and the Future of NATO. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997.

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    Examines the relations between NATO, the European Union, Russia, and China in the aftermath of Soviet collapse, as well as conflicts within the Russian Federation and the nearby countries. Looks at US congressional support for NATO enlargement; sees the former Yugoslavia as a testing ground for US–European–Russian cooperative-collective security. Critiques NATO enlargement and argues for strengthening international regimes and cooperative-collective security.

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  • Gardner, Hall. Averting Global War. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

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    Examines geopolitical disputes and tensions and conflicts in the NATO–European–Russian relationship; in Iraq, Iran, North–South Korea, China–Taiwan, and US–Venezuela (including immigration and war on drugs). Argues that the United States, Europe, and Russia need to provide security guarantees to a series of internationalized “regional security communities” to sustain global peace.

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  • Gray, Colin S., and Geoffrey Sloan, eds. Geopolitics, Geography and Strategy. London and New York: Routledge, 1999.

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    Examines both the theory (including Mackinder, Mahan, and Haushofer) and practice of geostrategy, which are seen to influence both noncooperative and cooperative strategic behavior in all its multidimensional land, sea, air, and space aspects (including “cyberspace”). Looks to the revival of geopolitics following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the new space-based field of “astropolitics.”

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  • Guertner, Gary L., ed. The Search for Strategy: Politics and Strategic Vision. Contributions in Military Studies 143. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1993.

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    Authors describe how America’s military strategy was being developed in a post–Cold War political environment. The work helps define the domestic constraints that are linked to the formulation of military strategy, and reveals how difficult it is to build a consensus for American military leadership in a multipolar world. Examines strategy in its differing dimensions—as politics, as deterrence, and as collective security and collective defense.

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  • Sicker, Martin. The Geopolitics of Security in the Americas: Hemispheric Denial from Monroe to Clinton. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.

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    Focuses on the geopolitical and geostrategic factors that have helped shape American national security policies toward North and South America and problems of interstate relations within the hemisphere.

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Geopolitics of Europe and Eurasia

This section examines books dealing primarily with the geopolitics and geo-economics of Europe and Eurasia. Balladur 2009 recommends steps for bringing the United States and European Union closer together through the formation of a transatlantic strategic and economic council. Davis and Azizian 2006 argues that Central Asia after the Soviet collapse represents a key pivotal geostrategic and geo-economic region. De Gucht 1991 examines a wide variety of topics that affect the strategic choices European countries face. Kemp 2010 analyzes the rise of India, China, and other Asian countries as they expand their geo-economic interests into the “greater” Middle East. Klare 2009 critically examines the burgeoning international demand for energy and resources. Laruelle 2008 examines Eurasianism as a political theory and movement. Lucas 2008 focuses on Russian efforts to monopolize the supply of energy to Europe and the geo-economics of “pipeline politics.” Mouritzen and Wivel 2005 focuses on the post–Cold War era in analyzing the Benelux, Nordic, and Baltic states as well as states in central, eastern, and southern Europe. Sengupta 2009 raises questions whether Russia’s destiny lies in Europe or Asia and whether Central Asia, represents a “pivot” of history in contemporary circumstances.

  • Balladur, Edouard. For a Union of the West between Europe and the United States. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 2009.

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    Recommends steps for bringing the United States and European Union closer together through the formation of a transatlantic strategic and economic council that would seek to implement a more stable international monetary system, greater cooperation over energy and environment, and a transatlantic common market to counter the rise of China, India, and other powers.

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  • Davis, Elizabeth Van Wie, and Rouben Azizian, eds. Islam, Oil and Geopolitics: Central Asia after September 11. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.

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    Argues that Central Asia represents a key pivotal region due to its energy resources, Islamic population with potential links to global terror networks, and geographic position after the September 11, 2001, attacks. Explains why the United States, Russia, and China are vying for strategic and energy interests in Central Asia, but finding opportunities for both cooperation and competition, along with Iran, Turkey, India, and Pakistan.

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  • De Gucht, Karel, Valery Giscard d’Estaing, and Stephan Keukeleire. Time and Tide Wait for No Man: The Changing European Geopolitical Landscape. Westview, CT: Praeger, 1991.

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    Examines a wide variety of topics that affect the strategic choices European countries face: the nature of German identity and Germany’s perception of security, doubts about American foreign policy and US commitment to nuclear deterrence, and the growing political role of the European Economic Community.

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  • Kemp, Geoffrey. The East Moves West: India, China, and Asia’s Growing Presence in the Middle East. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2010.

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    Analyzes the rise of India, China, and other Asian countries (Pakistan, South Korea, and Japan) as they expand their geo-economic interests into the “greater” Middle East and Israel.

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  • Klare, Michael T. Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet: The New Geopolitics of Energy. New York: Henry Holt, 2009.

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    Critically examines the burgeoning international demand for energy and resources, resulting in geo-economic rivalry and potential conflict.

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  • Laruelle, Marlène. Russian Eurasianism: An Ideology of Empire. Translated by Mischa Gabowitsch. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

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    Examines Eurasianism as a political theory and movement in discussing the views of three Russian Eurasianists. Work also examines the views of non-Russian neo-Eurasianism and Islamic political parties, as well as neo-Eurasianism in Kazakhstan and Turkey.

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  • Lucas, Edward. The New Cold War: Putin’s Russia and the Threat to the West. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

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    Examines Vladimir Putin’s rise to power and what is called the “new Tsarism.” Argues that eastern Europe sits on the frontline of a new Cold War and focuses on Russian efforts to monopolize the supply of energy to Europe and the geo-economics of “pipeline politics.”

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  • Mouritzen, Hans, and Anders Wivel. The Geopolitics of Euro-Atlantic Integration. Europe and the Nation State 9. London: Routledge, 2005.

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    Develops a constellation theory that helps explain European foreign policies in a comparative perspective. Focuses on the post–Cold War era in analyzing the Benelux, Nordic, and Baltic states as well as states in central, eastern, and southern Europe. Argues that the impact of past geopolitics persists in the collective memories of a number of populations. Envisions scenarios for the future of Europe.

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  • Sengupta, Anita. Heartlands of Eurasia: The Geopolitics of Political Space. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2009.

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    Analyzes differing interpretations and reinterpretations of Mackinder’s theory of the “pivot of history” and of the “heartlands” (with a focus on the Central Asian region and Uzbekistan in particular). It examines geopolitical imaginations with respect to space, identity, ethnic composition, and natural resources. Questions whether Russia’s destiny lies in Europe or Asia and whether Central Asia represents a “pivot of history” in contemporary circumstances.

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Reconceptualizing Geopolitics after the Cold War

With a few exceptions, the end of the Cold War in 1989, followed by the largely unexpected Soviet collapse, led to a reconceptualization of geopolitics. Dalby and Ó Tuathail 1998 explores issues related to ways in which popular cultural assumptions about geography influence discourses related to contemporary geopolitics and political economy. Demko and Wood 1994 examines how the concept and role of the nation-state are being challenged by globalization. Derluguian and Greer 2000 argues that globalization is not a useful analytic term but can be regarded as a framework for contemporary geopolitical debate on the future of world power. Kemp and Harkavy 1997 provides an overview of the new concepts in international relations and their relevance to the strategic geography of the “greater” Middle East region. Mearsheimer 2001 explicates a more traditional geopolitical perspective. Ó Tuathail 1996 develops a “critical geopolitics” approach to the examination of the historically changing nature of the struggle over borders and space.

  • Dalby, Simon, and Gearóid Ó Tuathail. Rethinking Geopolitics. New York: Routledge, 1998.

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    Contributors explore issues related to ways in which popular cultural assumptions about geography influence discourses related to contemporary geopolitics and political economy. Issues explored include the historical formulations of states and cold wars, the geopolitics of the Holocaust, the gendered dimension of Kurdish insurgency, the revolt of the Zapatistas and the Chiapas, the new “cyberpolitics,” conflict simulations in the US military, and the emergence of a new geopolitics of global security.

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  • Demko, George J., and William B. Wood, eds. Reordering the World: Geopolitical Perspectives on the Twenty-First Century. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1994.

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    Contributors examine how the concept and role of the nation-state are being challenged by global and instantaneous financial and telecommunication connections, as well as multinational and nongovernmental organizations, in addition to boundary disputes, refugee flows, ecological degradation, and UN intervention in civil wars.

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  • Derluguian, Georgi M., and Scott L. Greer. Questioning Geopolitics: Political Projects in a Changing World-System. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000.

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    Critically examines the views that East Asia could become the center of the world; that the Soviet Union collapsed for reasons similar to those that nearly destabilized the United States in 1973; and that emerging regional economic networks represent new phenomena that are not based on previous historical formations.

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  • Kemp, Geoffrey, and Robert E. Harkavy. Strategic Geography and the Changing Middle East. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1997.

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    Provides an overview of the new concepts in international relations that have emerged since the end of the Cold War and their relevance for the discussion of the strategic geography of the “greater” Middle East region.

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  • Mearsheimer, John. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: Norton, 2001.

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    Develops a neorealist and more traditional geopolitical perspective in applying the concept of “offensive realism” to the historical record since the Napoleonic wars. Argues that the next twenty years have a high potential for war, with China emerging as the most destabilizing factor.

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  • Ó Tuathail, Gearóid. Critical Geopolitics: The Politics of Writing Global Space. London: Routledge, 1996.

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    Develops a “critical geopolitics” approach to the examination of the historically changing nature of the struggle over borders and space in arguing that geopolitics is not given by the earth but an “active writing of the earth” by an expanding, centralizing state. The book outlines a general theory of geo-power, and examines 20th-century governmental attempts to impose notions of geographical knowledge, with a focus on Bosnia and Ireland.

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  • Parker, Geoffrey. Geopolitics: Past, Present, and Future. London: Pinter, 1998.

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    Discusses the history of geopolitics from its origins in the late 19th century and how new concepts of geopolitics have begun to analyze ethnic, national, and religious conflicts; environmental issues; inequalities in the distribution of the world’s resources; and the impact of globalization. Explores the need for new geopolitical structures in developing ideas of world order.

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Re-Reconceptualizing Geopolitics after September 11

The September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon by an anti-state organization led to a re-reconceptualization of geopolitics. Agnew 2003 explores how European rivalries imposed their views of the nation-state on other countries and peoples. Brunn 2004 examines the impact of the September 11 attacks on international relations and the foreign policies of the United States and other countries. Cohen 2008 traces the geopolitical restructuring of the world’s major powers since the end of the Cold War and their interaction with different regions. Coutau-Bégarie 2007 argues that the dynamics of globalization requires an urgent reexamination of the geopolitics of the ocean that unifies geo-economics with largely overlooked aspects of geostrategy. Flint 2005 examines conflict and war in light of nationalism, religion, gender identities, state ideology, border formation, genocide, spatial rhetoric, terrorism, and a variety of resource conflicts. Kearns 2009 studies geopolitics as the interrelationships between empires, states, individuals, private companies, NGOs, and multilateral agencies as tensions between these entities are expressed and shaped spatially. Sempa 2007 emphasizes traditional geopolitical theories in explaining the outcome of the Cold War, and examines the potential for conflict in the Asia Pacific region. Solomon 2008 explains how globalization, regionalization and democratization affect global security in the United States, Latin America, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Russia, the Middle East, and Africa.

  • Agnew, John. Geopolitics: Re-Visioning World Politics. 2d ed. London and New York: Routledge, 2003.

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    Explores how European rivalries imposed their ways and views of the nation-state upon other countries and peoples by means of visualizing the world as a whole, and by defining world regions as modern or backward. Likewise discusses the implications of the September 11 attacks, the continued expansion of the EU and NATO, the near bankruptcy and failure of a number of states, plus the Israeli-Palestine conflict.

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  • Brunn, Stanley D., ed. 11 September and its Aftermath: The Geopolitics of Terror. London: Frank Cass, 2004.

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    Essays examine the impact of the September 11 attacks on international relations and the foreign policies of the United States and other countries; the study looks at the role of the visual and print media (including tabloid journalism and web pages) in covering terrorist actions and discusses the responses of civil society and nongovernmental organizations, and issues concerning environmental security.

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  • Cohen, Saul Bernard. Geopolitics: The Geography of International Relations. 2d ed. Rowman &and Littlefield, 2008.

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    By tracing the dynamic geopolitical restructuring of the world’s major powers since the end of the Cold War, and their interaction with different regions, the work develops a theory of geopolitical structuration. The work identifies “gateways” and “shatterbelts” and marginalized regions. The future of the periphery of the Eurasian Heartland largely depends on whether the major powers adopt policies of accommodation or competition.

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  • Coutau-Bégarie, Hervé. L’océan globalisé: Géopolitique des mers au XXIème siècle. Paris: Economica, 2007.

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    Argues that the dynamics of globalization requires an urgent reexamination of the geopolitics of the ocean that unifies geo-economics with largely overlooked aspects of geostrategy. Work analyzes issues including naval strategy and capabilities, piracy, terrorism, illicit activities, weapons proliferation, energy, fishing, maritime resources, and environmental concerns.

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  • Flint, Colin, ed. The Geography of War and Peace: From Death Camps to Diplomats. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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    Contributors examine conflict in light of nationalism, religion, gender identities, state ideology, border formation, genocide, spatial rhetoric, terrorism, and a variety of resource conflicts. The final section on the geography of peace covers peace movements, diplomacy, the expansion of NATO, and the geography of postwar reconstruction. Case studies of numerous conflicts include Israel and Palestine, Afghanistan, Northern Ireland, Bosnia-Herzogovina, West Africa, and the attacks of September 11.

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  • Kearns, Gerry. Geopolitics and Empire: The Legacy of Halford Mackinder. Oxford Geographical and Environmental Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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    Studies geopolitics as the interrelationships between empires, states, individuals, private companies, NGOs and multilateral agencies as tensions between these entities are expressed and shaped spatially. In critiquing Mackinder’s views, and analyzing American strategy, the work argues that more powerful states must sustain their imperial status or step aside to let other states rule.

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  • Sempa, Francis. Geopolitics: From the Cold War to the 21st Century. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2007.

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    Emphasizes traditional geopolitical theories in explaining the outcome of the Cold War. Russian instability, India-Pakistan nuclear conflict, and Chinese bids for dominance have transformed the Asia-Pacific region into what Mahan called “debatable and debated ground.” Russia, Turkey, Iran, India, Pakistan, China, Japan, the Koreas, and the United States all have interests that collide in one or more of the areas of this region.

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  • Solomon, Hussein, ed. Challenges to Global Security: Geopolitics and Power in an Age of Transition. Toda Institute Book Series on Global Peace and Policy 2. London: I. B. Tauris, 2008.

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    Differing scholars explain how globalization, regionalization, and democratization affect global security in the United States, Latin America, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Russia, the Middle East, and Africa, and how they influence questions regarding economics, politics, religion, and human rights.

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LAST MODIFIED: 03/02/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199743292-0056

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