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International Relations Leadership in International Affairs
by
Joseph Cerami

Introduction

The literature on leadership in international affairs is interdisciplinary and, of course, extensive. For the purpose of this bibliography, leadership is considered as the art of influencing people, organizations, and institutions to accomplish specific purposes, such as missions that serve public and national interests. There are three starting assumptions for developing this bibliography. One assumption is that a bibliography of leadership in international affairs involves writings that assist leaders and managers for public service in government and nonprofit organizations that have significant responsibilities in the international and national-security policy (foreign, defense, and homeland), intelligence, and international-economics policy arenas. A public service orientation is centered primarily, but not exclusively, within the context of the institutions, organizations, and people engaged in governance—in international and public affairs. In brief, the bibliography is centered on writing that assists in addressing real-world leadership challenges and problems for both academics and practitioners. A second assumption is that this kind of bibliography should cover the study of both the leading theories and practices of public executives. Leadership knowledge and skill development include being grounded in a variety of theoretical perspectives on leadership and management by examining the scholarly literature and relevant research and case studies, as well as studying personal, interpersonal, and group skills. A third assumption is that the study of leadership should include the notion of leading change or change management. There are broader themes here regarding the changing international environment, the demands for institutional and organizational innovation and reform to adapt to those changes, and the impact of these demands on politicians and public managers, as ethical leaders, at all levels (participative, organizational, and institutional) and frequently working across multiple sectors (public, private, and nonprofit). The ideas of leadership and innovation and public-sector institutional and organizational reform, all in the context of a turbulent strategic environment, are worthy of attention. The distinctive approach for this bibliography includes meeting several objectives for the study of leadership in international affairs by examining the contrasting theories and conceptual frameworks from the interdisciplinary literature on leading and managing people, organizations, and institutions; the roles and functions of leaders and managers as executives in public institutions and organizations that engage in multisectoral activities such as public-private-nonprofit partnerships; the research on the theories and practices of critical personal, interpersonal, and group skills for developing effective and ethical public-sector officials in international affairs; and three current themes on leadership and management in international affairs: (1) the state, governance, and world order; (2) public service and the roles of public executives; and (3) personal, organizational, and institutional leadership, innovation, and change.

General Overviews

The interdisciplinary literature on leadership includes books targeted for academic fields, such as political science, psychology, and management, as well as for specific sectors, namely, public, private, and nonprofit organizations. These variations account for the multiple definitions of leadership and the growing number of leadership concepts and approaches to leader development. Below are books that are important for understanding major approaches to leadership in international affairs from the perspectives of the main academic disciplines. Allison and Zelikow 1999, Kissinger 1994, Kellerman 2008, and Nye 2008 provide insights from political science, history, and international relations. Goleman, et al. 2002 is a book on emotional intelligence that highlights psychology. Kotter 1999 and Kouzes and Posner 2007 reflect research stemming primarily, but not exclusively, from business-management schools. Northouse 2010 provides summary chapters in a textbook fashion that address mainstream leadership theories from the field of leadership studies.

  • Allison, Graham, and Philip Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. 2d ed. New York: Longman, 1999.

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    Essential framework for thinking about leadership in policy and decision making. Models for analysis include the rational actor, organizational behavior, and governmental politics. The chapters on each model include a thorough review from the relevant interdisciplinary literature. Includes an important update of the authors’ Cuban Missile Crisis case study.

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  • Goleman, Daniel, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee. Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002.

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    Introduces research from neuroscience and the concept of emotional intelligence. Includes chapters on resonant and dissonant leadership styles, personal leader development, and team and organizational development.

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  • Kellerman, Barbara. Followership: How Followers Are Creating Change and Changing Leaders. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2008.

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    Kellerman directly addresses the lack of research and thinking in the field about the role of followers. Provides a typology along with examples of followers based upon their level of engagement: isolated, bystander, participant, activist, and diehard.

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  • Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.

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    Chapters focus on historical cases from US and European history. Kissinger centers the book on the concepts of realism and idealism. He provides insights on statecraft, involving chief executives as statesmen, diplomats, and policymakers. The book includes insights from his experience as secretary of state and national security adviser.

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  • Kotter, John P. John P. Kotter on What Leaders Really Do. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999.

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    Remains an essential book, from the business-school perspective, on change management. Continues the threads in his previous work on leading change and the extraordinary difficulties and high failure rates of efforts at transformational change. Distinguishes different roles for leaders and managers.

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  • Kouzes, James M., and Barry Z. Posner. The Leadership Challenge. 4th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007.

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    Popular best seller from among the many books that stress best practices. Presents five practices, encouraging “exemplary” leaders to model the way, inspire shared vision, challenge processes, enable, and motivate others.

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  • Northouse, Peter G. Leadership: Theory and Practice. 5th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2010.

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    Textbook that concisely reviews leadership concepts and theories. Chapters address trait, skill, style, and psychodynamic approaches; contingency, path-goal, and leader-member exchange theory; and transformational, team, and ethical leadership. Additional chapters cover recent literature on “Women and Leadership” and “Culture and Leadership.” Each chapter includes a summary of strengths, criticisms, applications, case studies, and references.

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  • Nye, Joseph S., Jr., The Powers to Lead. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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    Short, analytical primer from a Harvard professor, former dean, and high-level public official. Includes research on the gaps in the current leadership literature, especially the lack of research on leadership in public and international affairs identified in public leadership surveys. His focus is on smart power, and he identifies styles and skills for leaders in modern democratic societies. Also discusses contextual and emotional intelligence and ethical leadership.

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Institutional and Strategic Leadership

One important starting point for the study of leadership is at the senior levels (in contrast to the organizational, group, team, or personal and interpersonal levels). The list below may not be direct in lineage from the classical “heroic” school, but it does reflect the fields’ emphasis on leadership from the strategic level. An institution in this context is meant to reflect the ways society orders its social systems and the way that formal and informal leaders influence and guide the efforts of their populations. Selznick 1957 remains the classic from the public-administration literature on institutional leadership. Bennis and Nanus 1997 stresses the leader’s role in creating vision and empowering followers, which is at times referred to as the neocharismatic school. Burns 1978 is a classic work on transformational leadership that emphasizes the moral and ethical roles of political leaders by differentiating “moral” leaders from amoral power-broker and transactional leaders. From an American perspective, Brookhiser 2008, Edwards 2009, and Neustadt 1990 provide important contrasting views on the nature, roles, and performance of presidents. In addressing top-level leadership in US international affairs, Daadler and Destler 2009 and Rodman 2009 provide insights into the National Security Council, a unique interagency organizational form designed to provide policy advice to presidents, specifically for their leadership role in international affairs.

  • Bennis, Warren, and Burt Nanus. Leaders: Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: HarperBusiness, 1997.

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    This book emphasizes vision, empowerment, organizational learning, and trust. Highlights leadership as individuals evolving in a continuous process to become integrated human beings, creating a social architecture that generates intellectual capital, committing to a vision and goals, generating and sustaining trust, being optimistic, and having a bias for action.

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  • Brookhiser, Richard. George Washington on Leadership. New York: Basic Books, 2008.

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    A creative approach to assess Washington’s leadership in accordance with modern ideas. Stresses Washington’s failures and his ability to learn from his experiences in military affairs, business, and government. Makes the crucial point that, even for Washington, leadership is a learned skill.

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  • Burns, James MacGregor. Leadership. New York: Harper & Row, 1978.

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    Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award winner. Contrasts transformational versus transactional leadership. Transformational leaders raise a society’s moral standards and values, as opposed to autocrats who are power wielders. Burns examines the leaders and dictators of the mid-20th century, with Franklin Roosevelt as the example of a transformational leader.

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  • Daalder, Ivo H., and I. M. Destler. In the Shadow of the Oval Office: Profiles of the National Security Advisers and the Presidents They Served: from JFK to George W. Bush. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009.

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    The National Security Council is the highest-level interagency structure for policy and decision making for US presidents’ international leadership. The recent merging of national security, economics, and homeland security makes the National Security Council an important laboratory for thinking about international leadership as a collective, multiagency, and multisectoral activity.

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  • Edwards, George C., III. The Strategic President: Persuasion and Opportunity in Presidential Leadership. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

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    Edwards examines presidents leading the public and Congress in best cases as well as less favorable contexts. Concludes that “presidential power is not the power to persuade.” He stresses a new concept for understanding presidential leadership to go beyond Neustadt and the role of persuasion that he calls facilitative leadership.

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  • Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents: The Politics of Leadership from Roosevelt to Reagan. New York: Free Press, 1990.

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    Considered the classic book on presidents and the power of effective communication. Argues for the need for presidents to understand using persuasion, in its symbolic and constitutional forms, to enhance their influence with Congress, agencies, the media, states, private interests, allies, and public and international opinion.

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  • Rodman, Peter W. Presidential Command: Power, Leadership, and the Making of Foreign Policy from Richard Nixon to George W. Bush. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2009.

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    Rodman argues that a leader’s personality matters and explains much about how complex systems really work. In the end it is the president’s ability to operate in a commanding style over a disciplined staff process that leads to effective leadership at the presidential level.

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  • Selznick, Philip. Leadership in Administration: A Sociological Interpretation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957.

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    Distinguishes institutional leaders as statesmen in contrast to administrative leaders. Institutional leaders must be responsive to change while tending to social needs and pressures. Institutions must be adaptive organisms guided by institutional leaders who promote and protect fundamental and overarching values.

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Organizations, Bureaucracy, and Bureaucratic Politics

The literature on organization theory and bureaucratic politics is at the nexus of four important disciplines. Organization theory is most prominent in the management and psychology fields. The study of bureaucracy is mainly found in the political-science subfield of public administration, which is usually stratified further into the areas of public management and public policymaking (see Bertelli and Lynn 2006, Meier and Bohte 2007, Wilson 2000, and Shafritz and Hyde 2008). Finally, bureaucratic politics is normally the concern of political scientists (see Allison and Zelikow 1999, cited under General Overviews; Shafritz and Hyde 2008; and Halperin, et al. 2006). Of course there is much overlap in these major disciplines. In the earlier management and public-administration literature, leadership would be described as a function of management or of the executive. In public administration in particular there was universal criticism of the idea of developing scientific management, leading to the saying that there is no one best way to manage (or lead). At the same time, the notion of POSDCORB—the management functions of planning, organization, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting—is usually highlighted as a sound way to describe the essentials for organizational and public management. More recent scholars argue that the idea of leaders as responsible for change and managers as responsible for systems is outdated in this age of information technology and globalization (Bolman and Deal 2008). In addition, earlier leadership ideas, especially regarding visionary leadership and strategic management, seemed disconnected from the realities of work and the requirements for effective organizational and governmental performance. Given the significance of context, the shifting realities of the threats and opportunities in the international and domestic environments, and generational changes in the workplace for organization cultures (see Khademian 2002 and Schein 2004) in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors, the possibility of unifying theories remains challenging and remote. In the meantime, the separate disciplines offer a rich and diverse literature for studying organizations, bureaucracy, and bureaucratic politics.

  • Bertelli, Anthony M., and Laurence E. Lynn Jr.. Madison’s Managers: Public Administration and the Constitution. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

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    The authors develop their notion of managerial responsibility from the constitutional separation of powers and other founding precepts. Their prescriptions include a commitment to judgment, balance, rationality, and accountability in managerial practice. The discussion draws on political economy and public-administration literatures.

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  • Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership. 4th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.

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    Reframing is the ability to use multiple analytical lenses for organizational leadership. Addresses managerial thinking, social architecture, human resources, and politics as competitive arenas between conflicting interests over scarce resources, for power and influence; also explores organizational culture and performance. Final section focuses on leadership practices, change, ethics, and leader development.

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  • Halperin, Morton H., Priscilla A. Clapp, and Arnold Kanter. Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy. 2d ed. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2006.

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    Seasoned academic-practitioners provide advice and case studies for understanding the US government decision-making and implementation processes. Includes sections on the expanding congressional roles and increasingly complex organizational and interagency structures, rules, and issues that limit the US capacity for leadership in national security affairs.

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  • Khademian, Anne M. Working with Culture: How the Job Gets Done in Public Programs. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2002.

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    Focuses on the impact of public agencies’ organizational cultures in policymaking, program development, and implementation. Draws on private-sector research and applies those findings and practices to public management. Framework links public management and performance, and viewing tending to culture as an essential responsibility of top managers.

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  • Meier, Kenneth J., and John Bohte. Politics and the Bureaucracy: Policymaking in the Fourth Branch of Government. 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2007.

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    Public-administration textbook on the federal bureaucracy in American government. Topics include administrative ethics, political control of the bureaucracy, public choice models of bureaucratic politics, and state and local bureaucracies. Provides examples and case studies along with reflections on the current political debates and their impact on federal agencies.

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  • Schein, Edgar H. Organizational Culture and Leadership. 3d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.

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    Research on the topics of organizational culture, effective leadership, and performance. Changing organizational culture, along with integrating diverse cultures, remains among the thorniest leadership challenges. Essential reading on the topic, although implementing effective practices remains an elusive skill for leaders at all levels, especially when working in multicultural contexts.

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  • Shafritz, Jay M., and Albert C. Hyde. Classics of Public Administration. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2008.

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    Covers major areas in traditional public administration, starting with Woodrow Wilson on the politics-administration dichotomy. Includes articles and chapters by the classic authors on the topics of bureaucracy, organization theory, human-resources management, the budgetary process, public policy, implementation, evaluation, intergovernmental relations, and public-service ethics.

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  • Wilson, James Q. Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why They Do It. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

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    Master work for understanding bureaucracies, especially federal agencies. Case studies on armies, prisons, and schools. Provides useful advice for thinking about ways to become a skilled public leader, including: identifying critical tasks, infusing a sense of mission, and integrating and aligning the agency’s incentives, culture, and authority.

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Leadership Skills

The literature on skills stresses the similarities between leadership and management and typically divides the necessary skills between levels, such as top, middle, and emerging managers and leaders. Other typologies differentiate between strategic and organizational teams and workgroups, and personal and interpersonal leadership skills. No one book is available that provides insights for all levels, organizational types, sectors, and contexts. For what are commonly referred to as individual leadership/management skills, Whetten and Cameron 2011 provides a complete set of chapters that address personal, interpersonal, and group skills. For leadership as policy problem solving see Bardach 2008, a policy-analysis guide. Drucker and Maciariello 2008 focuses on the notion of organizational management skills. Those in government bureaucracies will find the compass metaphor in Haass 1999 an important concept for becoming a more effective bureaucratic player. With more tasks in all sectors being done by collective and multisectoral workgroups, the literature on teams and teambuilding is essential reading (see Hackman 2002, Thompson 2007, and the chapter on the topic in Whetten and Cameron 2011). Finally, for those who consider critical thinking an essential leadership skill, see Paul and Elder 2006.

  • Bardach, Eugene. A Practical Guide for Policy Analysis: The Eightfold Path to More Effective Problem Solving. 3d ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2008.

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    The prescribed path for policy analysis includes problem solving, assembling evidence, constructing alternatives, selecting criteria, projecting outcomes, confronting trade-offs, deciding, and telling the story. Appendixes include a sample RAND study, a survey of eleven types of US government policy instruments, and a list of semantic tips for policy analysts.

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  • Drucker, Peter F., and Joseph A. Maciariello. Management. Rev. ed. New York: HarperCollins, 2008.

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    A comprehensive treatment of Drucker’s ideas, including management responsibilities, institutional performance, productive work and workers, and social impacts and responsibilities. Internal dimensions include managerial and personal skills, as well as effectiveness in performing tasks. The external dimensions include innovation and entrepreneurship, performance, and results in serving the common good in society.

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  • Haass, Richard N. The Bureaucratic Entrepreneur: How to Be Effective in Any Unruly Organization. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999.

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    Primer for emerging leaders on succeeding in the government and nonprofit sectors. Compass metaphor illustrates developing effective relationship with your boss, staff, colleagues, and others (media, Congress, and public). Prescribes five principles: setting an agenda, seeking opportunities, serving with integrity, maintaining awareness and being prepared, and paying attention to relationships.

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  • Hackman, J. Richard. Leading Teams: Setting the Stage for Great Performances. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002.

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    Hackman discusses creating a real team, setting a compelling direction, providing an enabling team structure and organizational context (including coaching and education), and building effective team-performance processes. He includes a discussion of team-leader execution skills, along with thoughts about overcoming the obstacles to effective teamwork.

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  • Paul, Richard, and Linda Elder. Critical Thinking: Learn the Tools the Best Thinkers Use. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2006.

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    The art of critical thinking includes analyzing, evaluating, and improving excellence in thought; figuring out your thinking strengths and weaknesses; and building on strengths and reducing weaknesses. The authors’ intellectual tools are designed to raise self-awareness and build analytical and practical thinking skills.

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  • Thompson, Leigh L. Making the Team: A Guide for Managers. 2d ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2007.

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    Includes sections on teams and teambuilding skills; performance criteria; tasks, people, and relationships; communication and collective intelligence; team decision making; and high-performance strategies. Also examines interteam competition and using information technology, including virtual and transnational teams. Includes research from 130 short case studies from Northwestern University’s Kellogg School of Management.

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  • Whetten, David A., and Kim S. Cameron. Developing Management Skills. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall/Pearson, 2011.

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    Human-resources approach to leadership/management skill development. Sections include skill learning, analysis (cases), and application (exercises). Chapters on personal skills (self-awareness, stress, problem solving), interpersonal skills (communication, power, influence, motivation, conflict), and group skills (empowering and delegating, teams, change). Supplements on oral and written presentations, interviewing, and meetings.

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Ethical Leadership

The earliest writings on what we now commonly refer to as leadership addressed the importance of the good leader and character for the benefit of society (see Marcus Aurelius 2005). In this respect, the leadership literature emerges from the field of ancient philosophy. Regardless of the long history of thought given to the significance of moral reasoning and behaviors and the emphasis on professional codes of ethics, the current study of leadership, especially in an intercultural context, continues to bedevil leaders in all sectors with stark examples of failures in distinguishing what is ethical behavior. Standards, decisions, and choices regarding what amounts to ethical thinking remain difficult for leaders at all levels. Scholars continue to philosophize on the nature of noble leaders, as well as to provide frameworks for moral reasoning. The authors below all make significant contributions to the field of ethical leadership. Amstutz 2008 and Rosenthal and Barry 2009 are important books outlining concepts, theories, and case studies involving international ethics. For a psychological perspective, especially on the notion of moral reasoning, see Price 2008. For writing on the nature of a US moral-realism approach, see Niebuhr 2008. Walzer 2006 remains a significant source for just-war theory. Insights on moral foreign policy and statecraft can be found in Nolan 2004 and Etzioni 2007. For a concise and thoughtful stoic philosophy on leadership and ethics, the classic work Marcus Aurelius 2005 provides timeless wisdom for leaders at all levels.

  • Amstutz, Mark R. International Ethics: Concepts, Theories, and Cases in Global Politics. 3d ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.

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    Chapters include the philosophical roots for studying ethics in international affairs. Each chapter includes two or three case studies, including ancient (Peloponnesian Wars) as well as current history (the Bush Doctrine). Cases also include humanitarian issues (Rwanda, Haiti, Somalia) and contemporary policy issues (foreign aid, immigration, climate change).

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  • Etzioni, Amitai. Security First: For a Muscular, Moral Foreign Policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.

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    Rejects culture as a cause of conflict and democratization as a basis for foreign policy. Etzioni prefers the development of an international, principled yet pragmatic moral culture that rejects violence and addresses two key security issues—preventing cross-border attacks as well as genocide and ethnic cleansing.

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  • Marcus Aurelius. Meditations. Translated by Maxwell Staniforth. Baltimore: Penguin, 2005.

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    Personal journal of Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius (born 121 CE). Reflections noted for their “humane wisdom and gentle charm” in addressing timeless philosophical questions on the nature of the universe and living a noble life. Stoicism is viewed as the foundation for Christian theology and Western values.

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  • Niebuhr, Reinhold. The Irony of American History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

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    Espouses Christian, or principled, realism. Commentary on US statecraft presents moral reasoning balancing humility and wisdom to address good and evil in the post–World War II world. Bacevich refers to Niebuhr’s work as the most important book ever written on American foreign policy. First published in 1952 (New York: Scribner).

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  • Nolan, Cathal J., ed. Ethics and Statecraft: The Moral Dimension of International Affairs. 2d ed. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.

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    Major themes include peacemaking, ethics and statecraft in war, and international reform. Highlights cases of ethical decision making by statesmen in times of war, peace, and transformation. Authors focus on the role of leaders and ethical norms to explain state behavior.

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  • Price, Terry L. Leadership Ethics: An Introduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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    Encourages decision makers to reflect on moral theory and leaders to think about themselves and their goals. Includes empirical research on the moral psychology of decision making. Part one covers leader-centric approaches to the beliefs, desires, and characteristics of individual leaders. Part two focuses on group-centric approaches and the nature of collective leadership.

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  • Rosenthal, Joel H., and Christian Barry, eds. Ethics and International Affairs: A Reader. 3d ed. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2009.

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    Studies of the moral traditions that provide a language and guidelines for ethical judgment. Also addresses specific issues such as cultural relativism, public and private morality, and prudence in political leadership. The main sections of the book cover conflict and reconciliation; interventions; governance, law, and membership; and global economic justice.

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  • Walzer, Michael. Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations. 4th ed. New York: Basic Books, 2006.

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    Covers the modern war’s moral dimensions. Addresses the moral reality of war, with cases such as Thucydides, Clausewitz, Sherman, Hitler, and others. Discusses theories of aggression, law and order in international societies, war conventions and the use of warfare and violence against armies and noncombatants, and terrorism and guerrilla warfare.

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International and Intercultural Leadership and Governance

The field of leadership studies evolved from mostly Western and especially American views of leadership and management. In the business sector, the language, concepts, and research have been heavily influenced by US business-school programs and their faculties. Even in the field of international relations, graduate education in the US experience is centered on the English language and accompanying Western history, ideas, and biases. The significance of globalization and the growth of multinational corporations, organizations, and nonprofits are greatly expanding the need for more international and intercultural perspectives on leadership. The research in House, et al. 2004 and Chhokar, et al. 2007 brings to light the significant differences in the ways that societies define leadership and think of the roles of leaders and followers. New work on the nature of civilizations addresses the notion of plural and pluralistic perspectives (see Katzenstein 2010). Practical advice for leading across cultures, at the personal and interpersonal levels, is highlighted in Storti 1999. One great challenge for leadership in international affairs involves the current issues regarding state building for failed, failing, and fragile states. In that discussion the works Collier 2007, Fukuyama 2004, and Ghani and Lockhart 2008 provide important, but still developing, insights on economic, political, and social development. Jandt 2009 provides a textbook on intercultural communications. These research efforts bring us back to one of the starting of assumptions in this bibliography’s general overview: the significance of a deep understanding of the nature of the state, governance, and world order for effective leadership in international affairs in the 21st century.

  • Chhokar, Jagdeep S., Felix C. Brodbek, and Robert J. House, eds. Culture and Leadership across the World: The GLOBE Book of In-depth Studies of 25 Societies. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2007.

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    Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness studies: Manhattan Project of research on culture and leadership. Includes qualitative data on twenty-five of the sixty-two societies examined in House, et al. 2004. Insights on leadership in different cultures and inferences about the limits of universal leadership theories and methods in international and cross-cultural contexts.

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  • Collier, Paul. The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done about It. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

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    The fifty poorest states, with 1 billion people, are hampered by development traps, including civil wars, natural-resource dependencies, geographical disadvantages, and bad governance. Policy solutions include targeted and preferential trade policies, anticorruption laws, refocusing international charters, and engaging in selective military and humanitarian interventions.

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  • Fukuyama, Francis. State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004.

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    Analyzes “stateness” as the functions, capabilities, and legitimacy of governments. Examines the effects of state weakness and the lack of knowledge (from political economy and public administration) on the capacities, influence, and performance of failing states. Discusses the erosion of sovereignty and democratic legitimacy, and contrasts US and European approaches to development.

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  • Ghani, Ashraf, and Clare Lockhart. Fixing Failed States: A Framework for Rebuilding a Fractured World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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    Main sections diagnose the problems of failed states, provide a development framework, and offer examples of the authors’ approach in action. The authors use their Afghanistan experience to develop integrated approaches to state building and provide independent, authoritative, and practical policy advice to the international community and national leaders.

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  • House, Robert J., Paul J. Hanges, Mansour Javidan, Peter W. Dorfman, and Vipin Gupta, eds. Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2004.

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    Contributions from approximately eighteen thousand middle managers from one thousand organizations in sixty-two societies. Long-term research study of the culturally specific ways that different societies define effective leadership. Cited as the most comprehensive study of cross-cultural variations in the study of effective international leadership and organizational performance.

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  • Jandt, Fred E., ed. An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community. 5th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2009.

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    Expands verbal and nonverbal skills to communicate in unfamiliar settings, recognize the influence of culture, and expand the knowledge of other culture’s norms and values. Case studies and chapters on topical issues in global affairs such as women, families, and children; Arab culture; immigration; and assimilation and integration.

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  • Katzenstein, Peter J., ed. Civilizations in World Politics: Plural and Pluralist Perspectives. New York: Routledge, 2010.

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    Alternative to Huntington’s clash-of-civilizations thesis. Six case studies illuminate the pluralistic viewpoint. Cases include United States, Europe, China, Japan, and India, as well as Afro-Eurasian perspectives. Introduction explores Katzenstein’s ideas about the multiple actors, traditions, and practices in pluralistic civilizations. Concluding chapter presents a conceptual framework for thinking about civilizations.

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  • Storti, Craig. Figuring Foreigners Out: A Practical Guide. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 1999.

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    Guide for understanding cultural values and behaviors. Includes training exercises for individuals and groups. Chapters illustrate the ways different cultures think about self, social responsibility, communications, and workplace norms. Conclusions address developing cross-cultural perspectives and awareness. Author draws on the research of prominent interculturalist scholars.

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LAST MODIFIED: 03/02/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199743292-0059

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