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International Relations Space Strategy, Policy, and Power
by
Eligar Sadeh

Introduction

The development of strategy by states serves and fulfills policy and links power to purpose. Policy provides a roadmap for the strategic goals that states pursue, including the pursuit of power. The focus of this OBO entry concerns strategy, policy, and power in the domain of outer space on the state level of analysis. Space strategy is directed to coordinate, integrate, and prioritize space activities across security, commercial, and civil sectors. Without strategy and policy, space activities continue to provide value but remain removed from the overall strategic picture of spacefaring states, and it becomes increasingly difficult to identify and execute policies and programs. Optimizing the use of space for power and for security, economic, civil, and environmental ends is essential, as dependence on (and use of) space is accelerating and space is increasingly integrated in the fabric of activities across all sectors and uses.

Strategy

The literature on space strategy discusses intellectual foundations and applications related to space activities (Dolman 2002, Johnson-Freese 2007, Klein 2006, Snead 2008). Creating strategy is not an easy task, as it must serve broader and more diverse interests than policy. Most of the attempts at space strategy are not really strategy. In fact, strategy rarely informs us on how to get from where we are today to where we want to be in the future—especially in light of rapid developments in technology and politics. Since there is the necessity to constantly adapt to changing circumstances, strategy development is more of a mind-set and way to think than anything else. Further, strategy does not necessarily solve problems related to the uses of space, especially strategy that cannot be accomplished politically within a reasonable timeframe. Concomitantly, strategy must focus on the entire range of space activities and move away from the tendency to solely address military and security related space activities (Sadeh 2010). There are a number of issues regarding strategy that are identified in the literature: developing consensus around a common theme, accounting for the reactions of space actors, mitigating resource constraints by prioritizing space at the national-level and by stimulating commercial development, and providing for sustainable uses of space and effective space governance of common problems such as orbital debris, spectrum use, and orbital slot allocations (Sadeh 2010). To further complicate matters, consensus that strategy is necessary is not sufficient for its formulation and implementation, as there is the need for political will and a process for strategic thinking (Moltz 2010). Political will is essential to define strategy, which is ultimately about the policy interests to be fulfilled. A process for strategic thinking can break down “stove pipes” and make interests more transparent among constituents and organizations to facilitate strategy development. The literature emphasizes that strategy represents a common language and framework that allows for the realization of policy (Moltz 2010, Sadeh 2010, Wirtz 2009).

  • Dolman, Everett C. Astropolitik: Classical Geopolitics in the Space Age. London: Frank Cass, 2002.

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    Dolman puts forward a geopolitical approach for space governance with the United States as the dominant power for ensuring norms and management of space as a peaceful and sustainable domain.

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  • Johnson-Freese, Joan. Space as a Strategic Asset. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

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    Johnson-Freese offers a strategic approach to space based on “soft power,” which includes developing space governance, expanding the “peaceful uses” of space as understood in the Outer Space Treaty, liberalizing space commerce, expanding commitments to human spaceflight and developing an inclusive space exploration global partnership among spacefaring states.

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  • Klein, John J. Space Warfare: Strategy, Principles and Policy. Oxford: Routledge, 2006.

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    Klein applies maritime strategy—linking of sea, land, military, and commercial objectives—to space issues. This entails space and national power and the interdependence between space and military operations; defending celestial lines of communications and strategic locations in space; and defense postures aimed at protection of space assets.

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  • Moltz, Clay M. “Space and Strategy: A Conceptual Versus Policy Analysis.” Astropolitics 8.2–3 (2010): 113–136.

    DOI: 10.1080/14777622.2010.522935Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Moltz addresses the challenges dealing with the development of a comprehensive strategy for space. He argues that the key challenge lies in the reality that the conceptual demands for strategy are incongruous with the context of politics and policymaking.

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  • Sadeh, Eligar. “Towards a National Space Strategy.” Astropolitics 8.2–3 (2010): 73–112.

    DOI: 10.1080/14777622.2010.522934Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Sadeh presents a report on the findings of a National Space Strategy Project. A number of topics important to the development of space strategy were indentified and discussed including intellectual foundations, political challenges, and specific issues that crosscut security, commercial, and civil space.

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  • Snead, James Michael. “Spacefaring Logistics Infrastructure.” Astropolitics 6.1 (2008): 71–94.

    DOI: 10.1080/14777620801908200Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Snead focuses on how large-scale space industrial development over the long term is essential for realizing space-related strategic goals.

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  • Wirtz, James J. “Space and Grand Strategy.” In Space and Defense Policy. Edited by Damon Coletta and Frances T. Pilch, 13–26. Oxford: Routledge, 2009.

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    Wirtz addresses the factors that constitute a grand strategy for space. Space as a “geography of strategic interests” is explored in the context of the importance of space for national security.

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Politics and Policy

Civil, commercial, and military space policy must meet practical demands and requirements in the present and at acceptable cost. Yet, the process of space policymaking interferes with these rational outcomes (Coletta and Pilch 2009, Sadeh 2011, and Sadeh 2003). The actors associated with space policymaking serve individual and organizational interests and goals, rather than being guided by an objective and rational standard. The process results in space programs that are not optimized, cost too much, and are not on schedule. Further, space policy accommodates a broad range of perceptions, interests, and topics: from issues of national defense and national security to the militarization of space. Also there are issues of commerce, science, and technology, such as the future of space commerce, access to space, politics of earth monitoring from space, and asteroidal utilization and collision avoidance. And there are less quantifiable characteristics to consider, such as the contribution of space exploration and development for societal benefit, the achievement of humanity as a spacefaring species and the search for extraterrestrial life (Astropolitics, Lambright 2003, Logsdon 1995–2008 in Exploring the Unknown, McDougall 1997, Space and Defense, Space Policy). There are three key stages to the making of space policy, which take place in the following order: the setting of goals by national leadership on the agenda; the formulation of appropriate means by administrative and executive agencies to achieve goals; and the allocation of resources by national governments to implement policy (Coletta 2009, Sadeh 2011, and Sadeh 2003). Nevertheless, the literature suggests that the initial impulse for space policy will often come not from national leadership but from advocacy coalitions (Sadeh 2011 and Sadeh 2003). These coalitions include political leaders, individuals from administrative and executive agencies, private interest groups, academia, and the commercial space industry. In addition to these advocacy coalitions, there are national-level institutional players who are regular sources of policy initiatives (Sadeh 2011). In recent years, sources have expanded to non-governmental actors, especially commercial enterprises, including both established industrial organizations, such as the major government contractors and entrepreneurial businesses utilizing private capital (Sadeh 2011).

  • Astropolitics.

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    Astropolitics is an academic journal dedicated to policy relevant and interdisciplinary analysis of civil, commercial, military, and intelligence space activities. Established in 2003 and published by Taylor and Francis, Routledge.

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  • Coletta, Damon, and Frances T. Pilch, eds. Space and Defense Policy. Oxford: Routledge, 2009.

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    Discusses the role of space in military and defense strategy and policy, outlines major actors in the space arena, examines the constraints of policy and law on activities in space, and addresses science and technology as they relate to space policy.

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  • Lambright, W. Henry, ed. Space Policy in the 21st Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

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    Addresses issues relating to the political context of space programs. The authors pose questions and provide analysis on the priorities and applications of space science, human spaceflight versus robotics, and commercial access to the space enterprise.

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  • Logsdon, John M., ed. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the United States Civil Space Program. 7 vols. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration History Series, 1995–2008.

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    This series of volumes provides documents and essays on the history, politics, and policies of the United States space program. The areas of focus include: organizing for space activities, international space cooperation, utilization of space assets, space launch, space exploration, and human spaceflight, and space and earth science.

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  • McDougall, Walter. The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

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    McDougall approaches the rise of the space age and the ensuing space race between the United States and the Soviet Union as a problem of public policy. The book examines the United States and Soviet space programs and their politics and policies from the 1940s through the 1970s.

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  • Sadeh, Eligar, ed. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective. London: Springer, 2003.

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    Provides a comprehensive survey of space policy at several levels of analysis entailing historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes.

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  • Sadeh, Eligar, ed. Politics of Space: A Survey. London: Routledge, 2011.

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    Provides an overview of the politics of space with regard to national space programs and the roles played by space organizations. This includes national space agencies and other governmental organizations with a role in space, intergovernmental organizations, space and aerospace companies, satellite communications service companies, and non-governmental organizations—such as research institutes, laboratories, grassroots groups, and private non-profit entities.

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  • Space and Defense.

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    Space and Defense is an academic journal that fosters ongoing dialogue concerning contemporary space policy issues and security in space topics. Established in 2006 and published by the United States Air Force Academy’s Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies.

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  • Space Policy.

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    Space Policy is an international, interdisciplinary journal that draws on the fields of international relations, economics, history, aerospace studies, security studies, development studies, political science, and ethics to provide discussion and analysis of space activities in their political, economic, industrial, legal, cultural, and social contexts. Established in 1985 and published by Elsevier Science.

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Power

The literature on space power in the context of strategy and policy considerations focuses on developing theoretical frameworks that help to define, categorize, explain, and anticipate ways in which space power can be pursued; how the various dimensions of space power connect to each other; and how they relate to the other instrumentalities of power that state and non-state actors may seek to achieve or retain (see Air and Space Power Journal; Astropolitics in Politics and Policy; Dolman 2002 in Strategy; Klein 2006 in Strategy; Hays and Lutes 2007; Lutes and Hays 2011; Lutes 2008; Oberg 1999; Sheldon and Gray 2011). Since the rise of the space age, space power evolved from prestige as a primary motivation of activity to where the primary commodity of space is information. The next space age may well be defined by the creation of wealth in space. Throughout these phases, space activities provide a means for enhancing not only military power but “soft power” as well (Johnson-Freese 2007 in Strategy; Lutes and Hays 2011; Lutes 2008; and Moltz 2008). The literature addresses how soft power, such as collective security arrangements and economic and political power, can serve as basis for projecting space power. Ultimately, space power is about creating a condition of enduring stability in space, which will depend upon how tensions between national interests are addressed and whether there emerges over time a convergent perception of what actions strengthen or undermine stability.

  • Air and Space Power Journal.

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    The Air and Space Power Journal promotes air and space power professional dialogue among United States Air Force members, as well as other English-speaking militaries around the world, to foster intellectual and professional development. Established in 1947 and published by the Air Force Research Institute’s Air University Press.

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  • Hays, Peter L., and Charles D. Lutes. “Towards a Theory of Spacepower.” Space Policy 23.4 (2007): 206–209.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.spacepol.2007.09.003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    There exists no widely accepted theory of space power, although links to the development of sea or maritime power theory are generally acknowledged. Hays and Lutes report on the intellectual efforts to build a framework to explicate the fundamental aspects of space power and its relation to the pursuit of economic development and national and international security.

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  • Klein, John J. “Space Power: An Ill-Suited Space Strategy.” Air and Space Power Journal 20.3 (2006): 77–84.

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    For the US military, space power has emerged as the dominant strategic framework for executing space-enabled war-fighting. Klein asserts that this framework, inherently offensive in nature and application, is ill-suited and that a “maritime-inspired” space strategy will better suit military purposes by ensuring the defense of celestial lines of communications and enhancing the protection of space assets.

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  • Lutes, Charles D. “Spacepower in the 21st Century.” Joint Force Quarterly 49.2 (2008): 66–73.

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    Lutes highlights themes of space power, especially related to issues of national security. Themes covered in the article include: theory and concept of space power, space power and the international system, and space power and strategic approaches to space security that encompass strategic space dominance, regulating space, cooperative interdependence, collective security, protection, dissuasion and deterrence, asymmetric approaches and “free riding.”

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  • Lutes, Charles D., and Peter L. Hays, eds. Toward a Theory of Spacepower: Selected Essays. Institute for National Security Studies: National Defense University Press, 2011.

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    This volume provides a comprehensive examination of space power, and it establishes the intellectual foundations for this emergent area of inquiry. Lutes and Hays compile a set of essays that address dimensions of space power across theory, economics and commerce, civil space, security space, international perspectives, politics, law, and technology.

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  • Moltz, James Clay. The Politics of Space Security: Strategic Restraint and the Pursuit of National Interests. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008.

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    Moltz argues that there is a compelling logic to the exercise of military restraint by all spacefaring actors because of their shared interest in maintaining safe and sustainable access to space. The main conclusion is that self-restraint is best achieved not by traditional military-strategic competitive postures, but by developing guidelines for the governance of the space environment.

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  • Oberg, James E. Space Power Theory. Montgomery, AL: Air University Press, 1999.

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    Oberg provides a pioneering perspective on theorizing about space power. The book examines the nature, scope, and theory of space power; technical, political, and legal impediments to the exercise of space power; and space power in a national context.

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  • Sheldon, John B., and Colin S. Gray. “Theory Ascendant? Spacepower and the Challenge of Strategic Theory.” In Toward a Theory of Spacepower: Selected Essays. Edited by Charles D. Lutes and Peter L. Hays. Institute for National Security Studies: National Defense University Press, 2011.

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    Sheldon and Gray provide a coherent strategic theory for space power and explain why previous attempts at theorizing about space power failed. They argue that the main reason for this failure is the tendency of theorists to rely on strategic analogies when framing a theory of space power.

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Weaponization

The active application of space power—space force application—depends in many ways on space weaponization (Wong and Fergusson 2010). A number of areas are discussed on the topic of space weaponization, such as whether space will be weaponized, which states will lead or oppose space weaponization, and how space weaponization can be controlled (Hays 2011 in Security). On the question of whether space will be weaponized, there are various schools of thought that range from pro-sanctuary arguments that view space as a peaceful and a protected domain to pro-weaponization schools that view the development and deployment of space weapons as essential for security and military superiority (Edwards, et al. 2002; MacDonald 2008; Mueller 2003; O’Hanlon 2004; and Wong and Fergusson 2010). Despite the operational challenges, economic costs, and diplomatic risks, attacks on space assets are technologically possible (Gouveia 2005). The range of technologies includes directed-energy weapons against space assets, kinetic-energy weapons against missile targets, and surface targets and space-based conventional weapons against surface targets (Edwards, et al. 2002). Even though space is not weaponized on an operational basis, the United States, Russia, and China developed and tested space weapons, and other states have made statements of intention to develop such weapons, including most notably the spacefaring states of India and Israel. Moreover, space assets are perceived as more vulnerable than ever to direct attack (Milowicki and Johnson-Freese 2008). At the same time, there exists a concerted effort internationally, through proposals on codes of conduct for peaceful and sustainable uses of space and through international space law, to mitigate, restrict, or ban the weaponization of the space domain (Krepon 2010 and Hitchens 2004 in Governance; Hitchens 2010 in International Space Cooperation). The other key aspect of the space weaponization issue involves missile defense. The link between missile defense programs and space weaponization lies in the pursuit of space-based ballistic defense programs. In the literature, assessments range from a security imperative to implement such programs to analysis that suggests the development of such programs can be destabilizing and can engender military competition and conflict (Independent Working Group on Missile Defense, Samson 2010).

  • Edwards, Sean, Bob Preston, Dana J. Johnson, Jennifer Gross, and Michael Miller. Space Weapons, Earth Wars. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2002.

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    Identifies various types of space weapon technologies, as well as under what circumstances the United States might acquire space weapons and what could lead other states to acquire space weapons.

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  • Gouveia, William. “An Assessment of Anti-Satellite Capabilities and Their Strategic Implications.” Astropolitics 3.2 (2005): 163–184.

    DOI: 10.1080/14777620590967208Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Gouveia describes capabilities of anti-satellite technology, assesses military impacts, and considers policy and security implications of space weaponization.

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  • Independent Working Group on Missile Defense. Missile Defense, the Space Relationship and the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, 2009.

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    Addresses the state of missile defense programs in the United States and examines the threat environment. In relation to space, the report recommends the development and deployment of space-based missile defenses.

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  • MacDonald, Bruce. China, Space Weapons and U.S. Security. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2008.

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    MacDonald discusses military space competition between the United States and China. In this report, it is argued that although some degree of offensive military space capabilities are inevitable, a strategy and policy based on space diplomacy between the United States and China to establish a secure and stable space environment is essential.

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  • Milowicki, Gene V., and Joan Johnson-Freese. “Strategic Choices: Examining the United States Military Response to the Chinese Anti-Satellite Test.” Astropolitics 6.1 (2008): 1–21.

    DOI: 10.1080/14777620801907913Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Milowicki and Johnson-Freese focus on the military response of the United States to the Chinese anti-satellite test of January 2007. The response, they argue, is a function of not only national security but also broader government policy with China.

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  • Mueller, Karl P. “Totem and Taboo: Depolarizing the Space Weapons Debate.” Astropolitics 1.1 (2003): 4–28.

    DOI: 10.1080/1477-760391832499Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Analyzes the various schools of thought regarding space weaponization. Mueller also debunks the argument that space weaponization is inevitable; rather, he says, it is a matter of purposeful political choice.

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  • O’Hanlon, Michael. Neither Star Wars, Nor Sanctuary: Constraining the Military Uses of Space. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2004.

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    O’Hanlon states that space should not be weaponized given the strategic and tactical uses of space assets. To this end, US military space policy should delay the weaponization of space without foreclosing that option in the future.

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  • Samson, Victoria. American Missile Defense: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2010.

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    Samson assesses how missile defense as pursued by the US Government is not necessarily optimized to protect the United States from missile attack and that a focus on missile defense risks military competition with peer-rivals, namely China and Russia, and others. Further, this volume links the decision to develop missile defense programs as an outcome of politics, rather than solely a matter of programmatic and security interests.

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  • Wong, Wilson W. S., and James Fergusson. Military Space Power: A Guide to the Issues. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2010.

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    Examines the historical, technological, and geopolitical assets of both the militarization and weaponization of space. Militarization is focused on force enhancement through the use of space assets, while weaponization concerns active force application.

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Governance

The use of space is marked by interdependence with strong incentives for cooperation and competition (Gallagher 2010 and Gallagher and Steinbruner 2008). Thus, a key issue for space strategy and policy concerns how to best govern the space environment through international cooperation (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research 2006, Wolter 2006). Space is a global commons characterized by scarce resources such as geosynchronous orbital slots and radio frequency spectrum, as well as congestion in high-value and high-traffic orbital regimes and environmental degradation problems of space weather and orbital debris. All space users are affected by these problems and all share a common interest in managing them efficiently (Rathgeber, et al. 2010). The concepts in the literature of “space as a global commons” and “shared strategic objectives” are important in this regard. Governance of the global commons of space focuses on common interests and governance mechanisms based on voluntary actions and mutual self-restraint. This norm is based on “governance without government”—different kinds of arrangements for organizing states and other international actors so that they can solve shared problems and achieve collective goals in the absence of an overarching political authority (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research 2006, DeBlois 1998, Grego and Wright 2010, Hitchens 2004, Krepon 2010). However, this norm alone does not provide adequate incentives to forgo short-term individual gains in return for long-term collective benefits, and it is challenging to sustain in the context of competitive security relationships among major spacefaring states and the increasing number and variety of other space actors. On the other hand, cooperation on the basis of shared strategic objectives maximizes security, civilian, commercial, and environmental benefits that can be gained from space. Incentives for this kind of cooperation are stronger if they include approaches to space cooperation that serve fundamental strategic goals of spacefaring states. Shared goals identified in the literature include to secure the space domain for everyone’s peaceful use; to protect space assets from various types of threats; and to derive value from space assets for power, security, economic, civil, and environmental ends (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research 2006, Gallagher 2010; Gallagher and Steinbruner 2008; Grego and Wright 2010).

  • DeBlois, Bruce M. “Space Sanctuary: A Viable National Strategy.” Air and Space Power Journal 12.4 (1998): 41–57.

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    DeBlois argues for a commitment to the peaceful uses of space and space as a global commons for free use and free access.

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  • Gallagher, Nancy. “Space Governance and International Cooperation.” Astropolitics 8.2–3 (2010): 256–279.

    DOI: 10.1080/14777622.2010.524131Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Gallagher identifies and discusses frameworks for the development of equitable rules and effective international institutions to address the central challenges entailed in uses of the space environment.

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  • Gallagher, Nancy, and John Steinbruner. Reconsidering the Rules for Space Security. Washington, DC: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2008.

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    Gallagher and Steinbruner recommend that the United States abandon its current policies and support international negotiations to build on the Outer Space Treaty by developing new rules that explicitly address the central problems of space security.

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  • Grego, Laura, and David Wright. Securing the Skies: Ten Steps the United States Should Take to Improve the Security and Sustainability of Space. Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists, 2010.

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    Grego and Wright examine the policy and governance challenges in keeping satellites safe and secure and enhancing stability in space.

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  • Hitchens, Theresa. Future Security in Space. Washington, DC: Center for Defense Information, 2004.

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    Hitchens describes threats to secure and sustainable operations in space—degradation of the space environment, problems caused by lack of transparency and the lack of accepted rules of behavior—and recommends actions to mitigate these threats.

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  • Krepon, Michael, ed. A Code of Conduct for Responsible Space-Faring Nations. Washington, DC: Stimson Center, 2010.

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    Krepon stresses that spacefaring nations need to endorse and practice codes of appropriate conduct in space. At a time when space is becoming congested and contested, secure and sustainable uses of space can be best realized, Krepon states, through agreement to mitigate space debris, refraining from purposeful interference against objects in space, and implementing space traffic management of space assets.

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  • Rathgeber, Wolfgang, Kai-Uwe Schrogl, and Ray A. Williamson, eds. The Fair and Responsible Use of Space. Berlin: Springer, 2010.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-211-99653-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the coordinated, ethically justifiable, and sustainable conduct of space activities dealing with fair rules in orbit and global engagement on space security issues. Outlines the current situation and identifies challenges from the strategy and policy perspectives.

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  • United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research. Building the Architecture for Sustainable Space Security: Conference Report, 30–31 March 2006. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 2006.

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    Discusses the threats posed to the peaceful uses of space, both in the context of technological developments and of political and military decisions. The potential for developing a rules-based approach for ensuring space security, such as a code of conduct, space asset security, and debris mitigation guidelines, is explored.

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  • Wolter, Detlev. Common Security in Outer Space and International Law. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 2006.

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    Wolter advances a framework for the multilateral and international governance of space based on the principles of international space law.

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International Space Cooperation

International cooperation directed at sharing knowledge among space scientists contributed to the realization of the space age (Bencke 1997, Logsdon 1996, Sadeh 2003). To illustrate, the first scientific satellite programs of both the United States and the Soviet Union were part of the 1957–1958 International Geophysical Year. This effort coordinated transnational scientific collaboration among scientists and technicians under the auspices of the International Council of Scientific Unions. With the end of the Cold War, international cooperation emerged as a major driving force for advancing national and commercial space programs. The literature on international space cooperation focuses on the evolution and dynamics of space cooperation among spacefaring states (Johnson-Freese 1990, Logsdon 1996, Sadeh 2003). In addition to state-level cooperation, the literature examines international institutions and organizations that facilitate international space cooperation (Graham and Huskisson 2009, Hitchens 2010, Hertzfeld 2011). The literature also addresses cooperation on specific space projects, such as the International Space Station (Sadeh 2004).

  • Bencke, Matthew J. The Politics of Space: A History of U.S.-Soviet/Russian Competition and Cooperation. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1997.

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    Bencke provides a political history of the United States and Soviet Union space policies from the start of the space age through the end of the Cold War. The analysis shows that despite the competition between the two superpowers in the context of the Cold War and the “space race,” persistent attempts at cooperation are a prevailing theme.

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  • Graham, Tom, and Darren Huskisson. “Cooperation in Space: International Institutions.” In Space and Defense Policy. Edited by Damon Coletta and Frances T. Pilch, 104–124. Oxford: Routledge, 2009.

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    Various international institutions support the international goals relating to cooperation in space. Graham and Huskisson describe the infrastructure underlying these institutions.

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  • Hertzfeld, Henry R. “International Organizations in Civil Space Affairs.” In Politics of Space: A Survey. Edited by Eligar Sadeh, 120–142. London: Routledge, 2011.

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    International organizations are important components of the political, economic, and social environment of space activities and space policy. Hertzfeld explores the extent and type of international organizations with a significant impact on civil space affairs.

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  • Hitchens, Theresa. “Multilateralism in Space: Opportunities and Challenges for Achieving Space Security.” Space and Defense 4.2 (2010): 3–26.

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    Hitchens reviews challenges to the multilateral institutions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, International Telecommunication Union, and the United Nations Conference on Disarmament. The article examines the need for better cross-fertilization of effort among the three institutions to mitigate the potential for competition and accidents, which contribute to a climate of tension and conflict.

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  • Johnson-Freese, Joan. Changing Patterns of International Space Cooperation. Melbourne: Orbit, 1990.

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    Johnson-Freese examines the history of international cooperation in space through an assessment of cooperation led by the United States, legal frameworks and international organizations, space commerce and space applications, and a number of specific projects including Spacelab, Apollo-Soyuz, International Solar Polar Mission, International Space Station and the Interagency Consultative Group.

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  • Logsdon, John M. “The Development of International Space Cooperation.” In Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the United States Civil Space Program. Vol. 2, External Relations. Edited by John M. Logsdon, 1–15. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration History Series, 1996.

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    Logsdon explores the development of international space cooperation from the perspective of the United States. Cooperation in space sciences, human spaceflight, and cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia are specifically analyzed.

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  • Sadeh, Eligar. “International Space Cooperation.” In Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective. Edited by Eligar Sadeh, 281–316. London: Springer, 2003.

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    Sadeh surveys and reviews historical patterns of international space cooperation including cooperation between the United States and Europe, Japan, and Russia respectively, and multilateral cases of cooperation encompassing the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, International Space Station, European Space Agency, Interagency Consultative Group, and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites.

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  • Sadeh, Eligar. “Technical, Organizational and Political Dynamics of the International Space Station Program.” Space Policy 20.3 (2004): 171–188.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.spacepol.2004.06.007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Sadeh analyzes the dynamics of cooperation of the International Space Station program from its inception in 1981 to the final framework agreements for cooperation concluded in 1998.

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Security

The foundational purposes of security space entail freedom of action in the space domain to support strategic decision making for national security (Hall 1995, Hays 2011, Hays, et al. 2000). For example, the literature discusses how support for the Outer Space Treaty was because of interest to ensure that space is legally defined and established for free access and free use for “peaceful” purposes on the basis of non-interference (Hall 1995, Hays 2011, Hays, et al. 2000, Stares 1985). This led to specific military uses of space for telecommunications and information gathering, meteorological data, remote sensing for geographic information, and intelligence-surveillance-reconnaissance (Day 2003, Handberg 2000, Hays 2011, Hays, et al. 2000, Mowthorpe 2004, Stares 1985, and Temple 2005). Also addressed is how such military uses of space were codified in arms control treaties between the United States and Soviet Union as non-interference with “National Technical Means of Verification” (Harrison 2011). Beginning in the 1980s, the US military, in particular, made the decision to make greater use of space assets for national security purposes. This allowed for military use of space assets not just for information gathering and intelligence-surveillance-reconnaissance for strategic ends but also for force enhancement and tactical support of military and intelligence activities. Here the literature explains the ways in which space capabilities provide the best (and sometimes only way) to pursue such transformational goals for the military (Hays 2011 and Hays, et al. 2000). The greater use of space for transformational change engendered a dependence on the use of space assets. This dependence creates vulnerabilities since space assets are subject to possible interference and disruption. The literature addresses this in the context of space deterrence and assurance and the issues associated with the weaponization of space (Handberg 2000, Mowthorpe 2004, Stares 1985, Wong and Fergusson 2010 in Weaponization). Related to this is the range of security strategies in space. The literature identifies a number of these, including: domination strategy by a comprehensive space power (Dolman 2002 in Strategy), space protection strategy to mitigate vulnerabilities (Klein 2006 in Strategy), constraining strategy based on policy and legal restrictions (Moltz 2008 in Power), spoiler strategy dealing with employing asymmetric power, such as an anti-satellite capability (Mowthorpe 2004), collaborative strategy through collective security arrangements (Gallagher and Steinbruner 2008 in Governance), and “free rider” strategy that seeks to minimize a security profile and depend on the protection of the international system or on other states (Wolter 2006 in Governance).

  • Day, Dwayne A. “Intelligence Space Program.” In Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective. Edited by Eligar Sadeh, 371–388. London: Springer, 2003.

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    Day examines the evolution of the US intelligence space program. In addition to US civil and military space programs, Day argues that the intelligence space program represents a third government program that was hidden until the 1990s and isolated from the military program.

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  • Hall, R. Cargill. “Origins of U.S. Space Policy: Eisenhower, Open Skies and Freedom of Space.” In Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the United States Civil Space Program. Vol. 1, Organizing for Exploration. Edited by John M. Logsdon, 213–229. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration History Series, 1995.

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    Hall explores the formulation of the first national space policy of the United States under the administration of President Eisenhower. This policy established the guiding principles for the United States space program and for the national space policies of all the presidential administrations that followed.

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  • Handberg, Roger. Seeking New World Vistas: The Militarization of Space. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2000.

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    Handberg explores the prospects of weaponizing space and assesses the policy implications that challenge the militarization of space.

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  • Harrison, Roger G. Space and Verification. Vol. 1, Policy Implications. United States Air Force Academy, CO: Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies, 2011.

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    Harrison determines to what extent multilateral agreements to limit disruptive actions in space and to establish norms of behavior are verifiable and considers under what circumstances space verification serves the national interests of the United States.

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  • Hays, Peter L. Space and Security: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2011.

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    Hays examines how the United States implemented policies designed to use space capabilities to enhance national security. In this volume, the history of military uses of space are reviewed, and specific military space issues are discussed, including military transformation, regulations and export controls, ballistic missile defense, space power, space weaponization, and congested aspects of space.

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  • Hays, Peter L., James M. Smith, Alan R. Van Tassel, and Guy M. Walsh. Spacepower for a New Millennium: Space and U.S. National Security. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

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    Reviews the evolution of US military perspectives and plans and programs for the use of space from the 1950s to the 21st century. This volume shows how and why the US military’s use of space moved from the highest strategic levels down to the tactical level.

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  • Mowthorpe, Matthew. The Militarization and Weaponization of Space. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2004.

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    Mowthorpe analyzes military space policies of the United States, Russia, and China since the Cold War period. The focus is on the development of ballistic missile defenses, other anti-satellite systems, and to what degree space will become weaponized.

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  • Stares, Paul B. The Militarization of Space: U.S. Policy, 1945–1984. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985.

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    Stares reviews the US military space program. Despite the militarization of space, Stares argues that the development of space weapons was resisted from the time of the Eisenhower Administration to maintain freedom of action in space.

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  • Temple, L. Parker. Shades of Gray: National Security and the Evolution of Space Reconnaissance. Washington, DC: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2005.

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    Temple describes the historical development of space reconnaissance capabilities within the context of the US space program.

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Deterrence and Assurance

Spacefaring states depend on the use of space assets to reach out, shape, support, and control events in any part of the globe and to enable global economies, information transfer, diplomatic communication, and collaboration (Hays 2011, Rendleman 2010). Concomitantly, space assets are vulnerable to interference and disruption, either due to natural hazards of the space environment or to deliberate efforts, such as electronic interference and anti-satellite weapons (Space Security). The literature examines how the prospects for interference and disruption of space assets serve as catalysts for a reappraisal of the political, diplomatic, economic, and technical means to protect against and deter threats to space assets (Coletta 2009; Harrison, et al. 2009; Hays 2011). However, deterrence strategy alone is incomplete since going first with an attack, implying deterrence failure, is always plausible in times of conflict, and there are some actors that cannot be deterred by traditional means. In addition, actors can be poor stewards of space and engage in irresponsible actions while in orbit. There are also space environmental threats, such as space debris and space weather, which clearly cannot be deterred. Given these reasons, the literature argues for space assurance, which incorporates protection, defense, and deterrence and addresses space governance to enable secure and sustainable uses of space (Moltz 2008 in Power; Rendleman 2010).

  • Coletta, Damon. “Space and Deterrence.” Astropolitics 7.3 (2009): 171–192.

    DOI: 10.1080/14777620903372982Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Coletta makes the case that deterrence as a core strategy to protect space assets is the only strategy the United States is equipped for militarily and politically.

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  • Harrison, Roger G., Deron R. Jackson, and Collins G. Shackelford. “Space Deterrence: The Delicate Balance of Risk.” Space and Defense 3.1 (2009): 1–30.

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    The United States has created a military structure that is satellite-dependent, without making corresponding improvements in the survivability of its space systems. This study examines the consequences of this structure—opportunity for asymmetric and preemptive attack—and ascertains how to structure a strategy of deterrence to persuade potentially hostile actors that the costs of attack will outweigh the benefits.

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  • Hays, Peter L. “National Security Space.” In Politics of Space: A Survey. Edited by Eligar Sadeh, 29–57. London: Routledge, 2011.

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    Space is increasingly contested, congested, and competitive. Hays examines how the United States is responding to these challenges: by placing more emphasis on developing and enhancing appropriate norms of responsible behavior, becoming selectively interdependent with state-of-the-world commercial and international capabilities, attempting to deny benefits from purposeful interference with space capabilities, and imposing costs for degrading or disrupting space capabilities.

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  • Rendleman, James D. “A Strategy for Space Assurance.” Astropolitics 8.2–3 (2010): 220–255.

    DOI: 10.1080/14777622.2010.523927Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Threats to space assets by hostile states and non-state actors are evolving. Rendleman argues that a space assurance strategy involving deterrence and defense of space assets, as well as global engagement, space situational awareness, and a responsive space industrial base infrastructure present the best opportunity to defend, protect, and secure the use of outer space.

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  • Space Security. Waterloo, ON: Pandora, 2004–2011.

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    This annual report surveys developments and trends in the security space sector. It aims to improve transparency with respect to space activities and to provide a common and comprehensive knowledge base to support the development of national and international policies that contribute to space security on the basis of secure and sustainable access to, and use of, space and freedom from space-based threats.

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Program Development

The literature on space program development assesses how the complex nature of space technology and political, organizational, and management challenges—as well as acquisitions, program requirements, budgets, and schedules and the complex operations of space systems— impact the development of space capabilities (Green, et al. 2009; Hastings, et al. 2003; Johnson 2002; LaPorte 2006; McCurdy 2001; Vaughan 1996). These realities of program development are playing out against a number of challenges in the space domain that include: conventional and unconventional threats; asymmetric warfare that demands new capabilities; “low-end actors,” in terms of resources with access to high-end capabilities; contractors that fail to execute on programs and fail to assume some of the research and development and the financial risks to allow developing technologies to be delivered as promised; cost and schedule overruns; and high-end capabilities that are priced too high (see Sadeh 2010 in Strategy). To add to all these challenges, the needs of customers for space technology have shifted. On the non-government, commercial side, the literature identifies market uncertainty, difficulty in finding financing, and the threat of substitution (Green, et al. 2009). Government can play roles as financier, risk reducer, and first customer through streamlined acquisition, acquisition reform, fixed-price development, and international collaboration (Green et al. 2009, Sadeh 2010 in Strategy). In addition, space systems are one-of-a-kind science experiments or exquisite operational systems (Chesley, et al. 2008; Maier and Rechtin 2009). As such, there is the potential for significant wasted resources, and failures are seldom benign.

  • Chesley, Julie, Wiley J. Larson, Marilyn McQuade, and Robert J. Menrad, eds. Applied Project Management for Space Systems. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2008.

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    Presents approaches and methodologies for managing complex space projects.

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  • Green, Steve G., Kurt A. Heppard, and Robert L. Tremaine. “The Acquisition Process: Acquiring Technology for Space and Defense.” In Space and Defense Policy. Edited by Damon Coletta and Frances T. Pilch, 231–243. Oxford: Routledge, 2009.

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    Explains how space systems are acquired by the government and assesses the changes implemented to address systemic acquisition issues.

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  • Hastings, Daniel E., Annalisa L. Weigel, and Myles A. Walton. Incorporating Uncertainty into Conceptual Design of Space System Architectures. Working Paper Series. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division, 2003.

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    Uncertainties, including political uncertainty, often constitute a central consideration in performance of engineering systems. Examines uncertainties specific to designing space systems.

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  • Johnson, Stephen B. The Secret of Apollo: Systems Management in American and European Space Programs. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

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    Johnson explores how scientists and engineers created systems management processes to coordinate large-scale space technology development with a particular focus on the Apollo space program.

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  • La Porte, Todd R. “Institutional Issues for Continued Space Exploration: High-Reliability Systems Across Many Generations- Requisites for Public Credibility.” In Critical Issues in the History of Spaceflight. Edited by Steven J. Dick and Roger D. Launius, 403–426. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2006.

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    La Porte ascertains the organizational challenges and issues involved in realizing high-performing and high-reliable space systems.

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  • Maier, Mark W., and Eberhardt Rechtin. The Art of Systems Architecting. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2009.

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    Maier and Rechtin provide a review of systems architecting—moving from a vague concept and limited resources to a system concept and executable program. The book delineates heuristic approaches to the development of systems drawing on examples of space systems.

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  • McCurdy, Howard E. Faster, Better, Cheaper: Low-Cost Innovation in the U.S. Space Program. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

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    McCurdy examines NASA’s management approach to space science missions applied during the 1990s and known as “Faster, Better, Cheaper.” This approach sought, but failed, to transform the agency where large-scale projects were the norm into one in which projects are smaller, less expensive, and less complex.

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  • Vaughan, Diane. The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture, and Deviance at NASA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

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    Analyzes the decision-making process that led to the fateful launch of the space shuttle Challenger in 1986. Vaughan uncovers an incremental descent in poor judgment on the part of managers and engineers, supported by a culture of high-risk technology that tended to normalize anomalies in system performance and reliability.

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Economics and Commerce

An important question examined in the literature regarding space economics and commerce is to what degree national governments enable or constrain the development of the space industrial base that forms the basis for conducting space activities (Bromberg 1999, Handberg 2006, Macauley 2003, Johnson 2007, The Space Report). The emergent strategy to date is for national governments to serve as “the space industrial base” through contracting, corporate ownership, subsidies and, more recently, government procurement and purchasing of commercial services. Other related issues of importance addressed in the literature include the role of economics as a driver for innovation and development in the space sectors; the role space plays in the national and global economies; and the nature of global space business and commerce and how this relates to strategic space advantages and wealth creation for spacefaring states (Chen and Macauley 2011, Handberg 2006, Macauley 2003, Johnson 2007, The Space Report, Vedda 2007). Regulations and acquisitions represent other areas discussed in the literature. In the area of regulations, for example, the literature demonstrates how the US government hinders commercial space and aerospace industries with export control policies and laws (Sadeh 2008). And in relation to acquisitions, the literature shows how budgetary and schedule overruns in the United States are managed through reforms to acquisition processes (Green, et al. 2009 in Program Development, Morris and Cox 2010, Sadeh 2010 in Strategy).

  • Bromberg, Joan Lisa. NASA and the Space Industry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

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    Bromberg explores how NASA’s relationship with the private, commercial aerospace sector works. The analysis examines ways in which the agency developed contractual relations with industry, how the agency either enabled or constrained the privatization of space projects, and the role the agency played in developing new space industries such as communications satellites and space launch vehicles.

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  • Chen, David D., and Molly K. Macauley. “Commercial Space Actors.” In Politics of Space: A Survey. Edited by Eligar Sadeh, 104–119. London: Routledge, 2011.

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    Chen and Macauley focus on contemporary commercial space actors. They argue that the effectiveness of these actors is most notable in advancing space legislative and regulatory policy to accommodate technological innovation and to nurture business and commercial opportunities.

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  • Handberg, Roger. International Space Commerce: Building from Scratch. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2006.

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    Handberg offers a political perspective on space commerce, and he explains how space commerce is intertwined with political issues that distort the markets for commerce, and how space commercial activities often conflict with national security interests. The book covers the key areas of space commerce, which include telecommunications, space launch, remote sensing, and position-navigation-timing services.

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  • Johnson, Stephen B. “The Political Economy of Spaceflight.” In Societal Impact of Spaceflight. Edited by Steven J. Dick and Roger D. Launius, 141–192.Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2007.

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    Johnson applies the concept of political economy to spaceflight.

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  • Macauley, Molly K. “Economics of Space.” In Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective. Edited by Eligar Sadeh, 181–200.London: Springer, 2003.

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    Macauley offers a review of the ways in which economics can contribute to the value of space.

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  • Morris, Langdon, and Kenneth J. Cox, eds. Space Commerce: The Inside Story by the People Who Are Making It Happen. Aerospace Technology Working Group, 2010.

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    Surveys space commerce from the perspective that government regulations and intervention, bureaucracy of large-scale aerospace companies, and incremental patterns of space technology development hinder emerging space business ventures known as “new commercial space.”

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  • Sadeh, Eligar. “Bureaucratic Politics Run Amok: The United
States and
Satellite Export
Controls.” Space and Defense 2.1 (2008): 17–25.

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    Sadeh argues that the regime of export controls in the United States weakens national security and harms commercial space. Discussed herein is the political process of export controls as applied to commercial satellites.

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  • The Space Report. Colorado Springs, CO: Space Foundation, 2006–2011.

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    The Space Report provides an annual overview of global space developments. The report includes highlights from all space sectors, how space activity affects people around the world, as well as information on global space budgets, revenues, and industry performance.

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  • Vedda, James A. “The Role of Space Development in Globalization.” In Societal Impact of Spaceflight. Edited by Steven J. Dick and Roger D. Launius, 193–206. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2007.

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    Vedda highlights the role of space development in globalization and examines how globalization influences space development.

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Launch

Launching spacecraft into orbit is one of the most challenging and critical aspects of spaceflight and a key element of any strategy and policy (Hall 1977–2011, Sadeh 2005). Challenges for space launch are compounded by the different actors that influence development: from strategists and war planners, engineers and scientists, politicians and industrialists, astronauts and cosmonauts, science fiction writers and journalists to regular citizens (Burrows 1998, Sadeh 2005). The literature argues that the high cost of space access is a primary impediment to greater government and commercial utilization of space (Butrica 2004; Heppenheimer 1997; Launius and Jenkins 2002; Livingston, et al. 2006). However, reviews of the different civil, commercial, and national security space launch customers demonstrate that for the majority of these customers, cost is a lower priority than optimizing for launch performance: i.e., reliability, safety, and schedule assurance (Foust 2010). Only for two emerging customer segments, small satellite space launches and entrepreneurial space ventures (including reusable rocketry) is cost a key factor (Butrica 2004; Foust 2010; Livingston, et al. 2006). Hence, existing launch systems actually meet customer needs, creating equilibrium in the marketplace. Several events, though, could disrupt that equilibrium in the near future, including the development of new reusable suborbital vehicles and a shift to commercial providers for cargo and crew transportation to low earth orbit (Morris and Cox 2010 in Economics and Commerce).

  • Burrows, William E. This New Ocean: The Story of the First Space Age. New York: Random House, 1998.

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    Burrows provides a comprehensive historical review of the rise of the space age through the development of space activities to the 1990s. This review is based on the perspectives of the different actors that all helped to realize spaceflight.

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  • Butrica, Andrew J. Single Stage to Orbit: Politics, Space Technology and the Quest for Reusable Rocketry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

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    Butrica examines the history concerning attempts to develop a reusable single-stage-to-orbit rocket. The book traces how the interplay of technology, corporate interests, and politics prevented operational single-stage-to-orbit rockets from coming to fruition and opted instead for a vision of space militarization and commercialization that dominates space policy.

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  • Foust, Jeff. “Space Launch Capabilities and National Strategy Considerations.” Astropolitics 8.2–3 (2010): 175–193.

    DOI: 10.1080/14777622.2010.522940Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Foust identifies and reviews the various customers for space launch and assesses the range of criteria for developing national space-launch strategy in the United States.

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  • Hall, R. Cargill. History of Rocketry and Astronautics. American Astronautical Society History Series. San Diego, CA: Univelt, 1977–2011.

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    This series of volumes includes the proceedings of the History Symposium of the International Academy of Astronautics. The focus is on the historical development of space launch and astronautics more generally. There were thirty-five volumes published as of 2011.

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  • Heppenheimer, T. A. Countdown: A History of Space Flight. New York: Wiley, 1997.

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    Heppenheimer chronicles the development of rockets, as well as the associated politics and pioneers of spaceflight.

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  • Launius, Roger D., and Dennis R. Jenkins, eds. To Reach the High Frontier: A History of U.S. Launch Vehicles. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2002.

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    Provides a historical account of the various space-launch vehicles developed in the United States since the rise of the space age in 1957. Encompasses the Atlas, Delta, Titan, and Saturn rockets; the space shuttle launch system; small launch vehicles, and the attempts at reusable launch vehicles; and solid rocket technology.

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  • Livingston, David, John Jurist, and Sam Dinkin. “Earth Orbit Access: A Look at Physics, Economics and Reality.” Astropolitics 4.3 (2006): 295–331.

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    The factors that influence the prospects of developing low-cost space-launch capabilities are examined. Achieving low-cost orbital access requires dealing with economic limitations of chemical rockets, lack of business planning, and failure to identify a workable path to evolve from an immature to a mature space-launch industry.

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  • Sadeh, Eligar. “The Evolution of Access to Space as an Idea and Technology.” Astropolitics 3.3 (2005): 305–318.

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    The focus of this article is on the evolution of access to space from its beginnings as an idea to its implementation as a usable technology for spaceflight. Sadeh investigates this historical evolution on the basis of the various actors that influenced development of space-launch capabilities.

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Human Spaceflight

The literature on human spaceflight examines the role played by its advocates. Since the rise of the space age, advocates of human spaceflight envision humanity as a spacefaring species and call for the exploration and the eventual settlement of the Moon and Mars (Sagan 1994, Zubrin 1999). Often, the expense associated with human spaceflight combined with the dominance of the engineering workforce prioritizes human spaceflight projects among political leaders in relation to scientific programs (Heppenheimer 2002, Launius and McCurdy 2008, McCurdy 1990). The literature also examines the range of rationales for human spaceflight, including scientific discovery and understanding, national security and military applications, economic competiveness and commercial applications, human destiny and survival of the species arguments, and geopolitics and national prestige (Launius and McCurdy 2008, Logsdon 2010). The historical development of human spaceflight capability was a result of two factors that are addressed in the literature. First, the development of ballistic missiles to support nuclear weapons deterrence after World War II established the engineering, technical know-how, and system management techniques that were applied to develop space-launch vehicles for both satellites and astronauts (Burrows 1998 and Sadeh 2005 in Launch; Johnson 2002 in Program Development). Second was the advent of the “space race” and the human spaceflight programs in the United States and the Soviet Union, which linked civil space pursuits to national security (Burrows 1998 in Launch; Logsdon 2010, McDougall 1997 in Politics and Policy; Siddiqi 2000). This resulted in political and budgetary support for these programs, leading to the development of technologies, technical and managerial know-how, and infrastructure and space industrial base development. The literature also addresses personalities—pioneering rocket scientists—that led to the development of human spaceflight capabilities and specific human spaceflight projects such as Apollo, the Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (Harford 1997; Heppenheimer 2002; Johnson 2002 in Program Development; McCurdy 1990, Neufeld 2007).

  • Harford, James J. Korolev: How One Man Masterminded the Soviet Drive to Beat America to the Moon. New York: Wiley, 1997.

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    Harford provides a biography of Sergei Korolev, chief engineer for the development of human spaceflight capabilities in the Soviet Union including Vostok, which took Yuri Gagarin into earth orbit in 1961; Voskhod; and Soyuz. Korolev was also in charge of the Soviet N-1 lunar launch vehicle system that failed.

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  • Heppenheimer, T.A. Development of the Space Shuttle, 1972–1981. Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 2002.

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    Heppenheimer provides two volumes on the development of the space shuttle. This volume focuses on the engineering, program management, and political challenges culminating in the first launch of the space shuttle Columbia in 1981.

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  • Launius, Roger D., and Howard E. McCurdy. Robots in Space: Technology, Evolution and Interplanetary Travel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

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    Launius and McCurdy examine the history and politics of the “human-versus-robotic” spaceflight debate, analyze the priority placed on the human spaceflight vision, assess the period when various developments permitted substantial advances in robotic missions relative to the human spaceflight alternative, and explore future prospects for interstellar flight.

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  • Logsdon, John M. John F. Kennedy and the Race to the Moon. New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2010.

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    Logsdon examines the political forces that shaped space policy in the United States during the Kennedy Administration with a focus on the Apollo space program.

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  • McCurdy, Howard E. The Space Station Decision: Incremental Politics and Technological Choice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.

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    McCurdy assess the politics that led to the formal decision in the United States to build the International Space Station. The book shows how public officials responsible for long-term science and technology policy maneuvered in a political system that demanded short-term flexibility.

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  • Neufeld, Michael J. Von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2007.

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    Neufeld provides a biography of Wernher von Braun, chief rocket engineer of the Nazi Third Reich, who became a key architect of the US human spaceflight program in the 1950s and 1960s and led the development of the Saturn launch system for the Apollo program that successfully placed astronauts on the lunar surface.

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  • Sagan, Carl. Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space. New York: Random House, 1994.

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    Sagan provides a reconnaissance of robotic missions of the planets in the solar system and makes the case that the very survival of the human species depends on space exploration and settlement of other worlds.

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  • Siddiqi, Asif A. Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race: 1945–1974. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2000.

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    Siddiqi first focuses on the Soviet missile programs of the 1940s and 1950s that enabled the development of spaceflight. Following this, he examines how the originally unified and coherent space program of the Soviet Union became corrupted as the scale of the enterprise grew and as the different program offices, known as design bureaus, competed one with the other.

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  • Zubrin, Robert. Entering Space: Creating a Spacefaring Civilization. New York: Penguin Putnam, 1999.

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    Zubrin advocates for the development of lunar bases, Mars settlements, and ultimately a spacefaring civilization entailing the settlement of the galaxy. He examines these prospects in the context of technology, history, and politics.

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Space Sciences

The onset of the space age is exemplified by the 1957–1958 International Geophysical Year (see International Space Cooperation) and the willingness among the two key spacefaring states of the time, the United States and the Soviet Union, to provide launch opportunities in exchange for scientific data. Given this context, the literature addresses how space science projects are conducted through international cooperation involving the sharing of scientific data and results, coordination of mission plans internationally to maximize data return, exchange of scientific flight instruments and cooperation in space launch (Newell 2010). Often, there are political and programmatic challenges to overcome and conflicts between the priorities of human spaceflight and space science (Roman 2001, Snyder 2001). This is well documented in the case of NASA (Launius and McCurdy 2008 in Human Spaceflight; Naugle and Logsdon 2001). In addition, there exists a workforce and professional divide between engineers, which fall into the human spaceflight camp, and scientists. The literature discusses how in the history of NASA this divide prevented cooperation within the agency (Launius and McCurdy 2008 in Human Spaceflight). Concomitantly, there tend to be differences and conflict within the space science community aligned with the primary science program areas of planetary sciences, solar physics, and space physics. Within these areas, the literature focuses on the history of specific missions that encompass robotic fly-by, one-way orbiting spacecraft, robotic landers on planets, asteroids in the solar system, and earth-orbiting and ground-based telescopes (Binder 2005, Chaisson 1998, Dethloff 2003).

  • Binder, Alan B. Lunar Prospector: Against All Odds. Tucson, AZ: Ken, 2005.

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    Binder provides a detailed technical and political history of the development of the Lunar Prospector mission for which he served as principal investigator. Lunar Prospector turned up evidence of water on the moon and achieved this result by successfully making use of the “faster, better, cheaper” approach applied during the development of the project.

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  • Chaisson, Eric. The Hubble Wars: Astrophysics Meets Astropolitics in the Two-Billion-Dollar Struggle over the Hubble Space Telescope. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

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    Chaissson chronicles the infighting among NASA officials, the military intelligence community, industry, scientists and policymakers that beset the ten-year Hubble Space Telescope project. Despite these obstacles, the Hubble Space Telescope revolutionized human knowledge of the solar system, the Milky Way Galaxy, and the distant galaxies of deep space.

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  • Dethloff, Henry C., and Ronald A. Schorn. Voyager’s Grand Tour: To the Outer Planets and Beyond. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003.

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    Dethloff and Schorn provide a comprehensive account of the Voyager program of the United States in terms of history and related scientific and engineering achievements. Voyager embarked on a “grand tour” of the solar system and to this date is still transmitting as it continues into interstellar space.

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  • Naugle, John E., and John M. Logsdon. “Space Sciences: Origins, Evolution and Organization.” In Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the United States Civil Space Program. Vol. 5, Exploring the Cosmos. Edited by John M. Logsdon, 1–15. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2001.

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    Naugle and Logsdon review the development of the space science program of NASA. Since the development of a coordinated program in 1964, the agency has conducted a sophisticated and productive scientific program, though not without tension between the agency, space scientists, and policymakers.

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  • Newell, Homer E. Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2010.

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    Newell surveys the evolution of the space science program of the United States. The book examines technological advances, explores the relationship of space science to general science, and places the space science program in a broader social, political, and economic milieu.

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  • Roman, Nancy Grace. “Exploring the Universe: Space-Based Astronomy and Astrophysics.” In Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the United States Civil Space Program. Vol. 5, Exploring the Cosmos. Edited by John M. Logsdon, 501–545. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2001.

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    Roman discusses the evolution of NASA’s astronomy program. The various astronomy projects are surveyed, as well as the technical and social challenges, scope of international cooperation and relations with the human spaceflight program.

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  • Snyder, Amy Paige. “NASA and Planetary Exploration.” In Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the United States Civil Space Program. Vol. 5, Exploring the Cosmos. Edited by John M. Logsdon, 263–300. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2001.

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    Snyder looks at the development of NASA’s planetary sciences program. The range of specific missions are reviewed within the context of the program management and political challenges.

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Earth Sciences and Observations

The vantage point of space as a means of observing domestic and international natural resources represents an important source of information and science with strategic, policy, and commercial implications (Baker, et al. 2001, National Research Council 2008, Gabrynowicz 2007, Lambright 2007, Macauley 2010, Committee on Earth Observation Satellites 2010). Yet, there exists debate in the literature as to whether earth observations are complementary or a distraction to strategy and policy (Macauley 2010). On one hand, earth observations provide critical information and science, which complements strategic, security, and commercial interests (Baker, et al. 2001; Macauley 2010). On the other hand, earth observations can be a distraction from these interests as scientists who set goals for earth observation programs put forward interests that center on scientific advancement (National Research Council 2008, McElroy and Williamson 2004). There is a great deal of cooperation worldwide with earth observations, which the literature addresses. Although data access can be limited as a result of fees, and there are key differences between science collaboration (which is more common) and sharing information about valued natural resources that are under sovereign control of states, there is, for example, cooperation with the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites and the Group on Earth Observation as an outcome of the G8 (Gabrynowicz 2007, Sadeh 2010, Committee on Earth Observation Satellites 2010). Related to all this is the concept of Global Earth Observation System-of-Systems. And earth observations are essential to the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  • Baker, John C., Kevin O’Connell, and Ray A. Williamson, eds. Commercial Observation Satellites: At the Leading Edge of Global Transparency. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2001.

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    Focuses on the political implications, policies, and capabilities related to the development of commercial earth-observing satellites and to the gathering of remote sensing data by those satellites.

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  • Committee on Earth Observation Satellites. Satellites, Science and Society. Committee on Earth Observation Satellites, 2010.

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    This report highlights the achievements of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites, which addresses access to data issues and information on earth observation systems and services worldwide to most effectively exploit uses of data.

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  • Gabrynowicz, Joanne Irene. The Land Remote Sensing Laws and Policies of National Governments: A Global Survey. Jackson, MS: The National Center for Remote Sensing, 2007.

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    Gabrynowicz reviews laws and policies among spacefaring states concerning space-based remote sensing systems. States reviewed include Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, European Community, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Nigeria, Poland, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

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  • Lambright, W. Henry. “NASA and the Environment: Science in a Political Context.” In Societal Impact of Spaceflight. Edited by Steven J. Dick and Roger D. Launius, 313–330. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2007.

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    Lambright assess the evolution of NASA’s environmental mission. Following this, the impacts of this mission are discussed in the context of environmental politics and the environmental movement more broadly.

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  • Macauley, Molly K. “Earth Observations in a National Space Strategy.” Astropolitics 8.2–3 (2010): 205–219.

    DOI: 10.1080/14777622.2010.523298Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Macauley probes the management of earth observations data as strategic information: i.e., how to collect, analyze, and disseminate data, and whether and how much to cooperate internationally.

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  • McElroy, John H., and Ray A. Williamson. “The Evolution of Earth Science Research from Space: NASA’s Earth Observing System.” In Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the United States Civil Space Program. Vol. 6, Space and Earth Sciences. Edited by John M. Logsdon, 441–473. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration History Series, 2004.

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    McElroy and Williamson discuss the history of NASA’s Earth Observing System. The agency restructured the program focus of earth sciences from within the space science program to a distinct, separate program, and the political implications of earth science became apparent to policymakers.

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  • National Research Council. Earth Observation from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievement. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2008.

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    Describes how satellite observations revolutionized earth studies and engendered a new era of multidisciplinary earth sciences. The ability to gather satellite images is improving the understanding of earth’s dynamic processes and helping society to govern and manage limited resources and environmental challenges.

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  • Sadeh, Eligar. “Policies and Regulation of Earth Observation Services.” In National Regulation of Space Activities. Edited by Ram S. Jakhu, 443–458. London: Springer, 2010.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-9008-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Sadeh examines earth observation date policy coordination and the regulation and licensing of commercial remote sensing in the United States.

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Comparative Strategy and Policy

The literature on comparative strategy and policy explores rationales for those programs (see Handberg and Li 2006, Harvey 2001; Launius and McCurdy 2008 in Human Spaceflight. Also see Nardon 2011; Pant and Lele 2010; Pekkanen and Kallender-Umezu 2010; Petroni, et al. 2009; Space Policies, Issues and Trends). Although military and intelligence applications were the first and most enduring reasons to develop space, international prestige became a key driver in the 1960s, at the time of superpower competition between the United States and the Soviet Union (Burrows 1998 in Launch; as well as Coletta and Pilch 2009, McDougall 1997, Sadeh 2011 in Politics and Policy). The literature illustrates how exploration of the solar system and the universe, starting with the moon, was a major boost in prestige and an important opportunity for propaganda during the Cold War. As several types of satellite applications became available, space came to include considerations of commerce and business. Motivations to develop space also include an important and unique psychological factor as nations see space as a new frontier (Sagan 1994 and Zubrin 1999 in Human Spaceflight). At the same time, space means different things for different states. In this vein, the literature focuses on identifying the type of appeal spacefaring states see in space, as well as the relevant space power, strategy, and policy drivers (Handberg and Li 2006; Harvey 2001; Logsdon and Moltz 2008; Nardon 2011; Pant and Lele 2010; Pekkanen and Kallender-Umezu 2010; Petroni, et al. 2009; Space Policies, Issues and Trends). This in many ways determines the space programs states pursue. The setting for this pursuit lies in the policies and laws governing the conduct of space activities (Jakhu 2010).

  • Handberg, Roger, and Zhen Li. Chinese Space Policy: A Study in Domestic and International Politics. Oxford: Routledge, 2006.

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    Explains the beginnings and expansion of China’s space program, analyzing how China is now able to hold such ambitions and how the interaction between technology, politics, and economics influenced the development of the Chinese space program.

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  • Harvey, Brian. Russia in Space: The Failed Frontier? London: Springer, 2001.

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    Harvey provides a comprehensive history of the Russian Space Program, from its Sputnik origins to the privatized attempts for the Mir Space Station, including both robotic and human programs. Within this context, technical, political, historical, human, and organizational issues are addressed.

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  • Jakhu, Ram S. National Regulation of Space Activities. London: Springer, 2010.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-9008-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This volume comprehensively addresses national space policies and laws governing the conduct of space activities in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, India, Japan, The Netherlands, China, South Africa, Russia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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  • Logsdon, John M., and James Clay Moltz, eds. Collective Security in Space: Asian Perspectives. Washington, DC: Space Policy Institute, George Washington University, 2008.

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    This publication highlights the multilateral context of space security issues in the Asia-Pacific region. It offers perspectives from Malaysia, Australia, India, China, South Korea, Japan, and the United States.

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  • Nardon, Laurence. “Developed Space Programs.” In Politics of Space: A Survey. Edited by Eligar Sadeh. London: Routledge, 2011.

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    Nardon surveys the programs of a number of spacefaring states with a focus on the space policy drivers and rationales of those programs. States surveyed include Russia, Europe, China, Japan, India, and Israel.

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  • Pant, Harsh V., and Ajey Lele. “India in Space: Factors Shaping the Indian Trajectory.” Space and Defense 4.2 (2010).

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    Pant and Lele examine the political drivers of the Indian space program as to civil and military uses.

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  • Pekkanen, Saadia M., and Paul Kallender-Umezu. In Defense of Japan: From the Market to the Military in Space Policy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010.

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    Pekkanen and Kallender-Umezu provide an account of the history, politics, and policies of Japan’s space program. It is argued that the sum total of civil-to-market and market-to-military moves across space-launch vehicles, satellites, and spacecraft and emerging related technologies mark Japan as an advanced military space power.

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  • Petroni, Giorgio, Karen Venturini, Chiara Verbano, and Silvia Cantarello. “Discovering the Basic Strategic Orientation of Big Space Agencies.” Space Policy 25.1 (2009): 45–62.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.spacepol.2008.12.010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Identifies the basic strategic orientations of the Brazilian, French, European, Japanese, Indian, and Russian national space agencies. Basic strategic orientations indicate the real space exploration objectives of these states.

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  • Space Policies, Issues and Trends. Vienna: European Space Policy Institute, 2007–2011.

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    This annual report provides an overview of key policy issues and developments regarding space activities in Europe. The report presents new trends in space activities, describes their underlying issues, analyzes their effects on space policies worldwide, and describes policy options for Europe.

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LAST MODIFIED: 07/24/2012

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199743292-0080

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