International Relations Peace of Utrecht
by
Marsha Frey, Linda Frey
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 April 2014
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199743292-0101

Introduction

The agreements that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession, often collectively referred to as the Peace of Utrecht, include the twenty-three treaties signed from January 1713 to February 1715 and that between Austria and Spain in 1725, prompting one contemporary to note that Utrecht “like the peace of God, [was] beyond human understanding” (Charles Mordaunt, Earl of Peterborough, quoted in A. D. Machlachan, “The Road to Peace,” in Britain after the Glorious Revolution, 1689–1714, edited by Geoffrey Holmes [London: Macmillan, 1969], p. 197). Moreover, the decisive military advantage of the powers allied against Louis XIV was not reflected in the settlement, except for that with Britain. That pacification, which may be considered the last of the partition treaties, ended a war that broke out in 1702 over the question of who would succeed Charles II. Negotiations began as early as 1706 and more seriously, though no less successfully, through 1709, until the Tory victory (1710) allowed the British ministry to initiate secret negotiations with the French. The negotiations at Utrecht, for the most part, merely ratified decisions reached previously either in Paris and or in London. During these diplomatic maneuvers the British managed to secure their own interests to such a degree that the duke of Shrewsbury refused to sign. He condemned the proceedings as “bargaining for ourselves apart and leaving your friends to shift” (Linda Frey and Marsha Frey, eds., The Treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession: An Historical and Critical Dictionary [Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1995], p. 431). The conference that began in January 1712 ended fifteen months later. Issues of religion, trade, and colonies bedeviled the congress. Many delegates signed the pacification on 11–12 April 1713, but the representatives of the Holy Roman Empire and of Emperor Charles VI decided to continue the fight until 1714 (the Treaties of Rastatt [Rastadt] and Baden). Charles VI gained the Spanish Netherlands and a strong hand in Italy, including Sardinia, Naples, Milan, Mantua, and the Tuscan ports. The Holy Roman Empire fared less well; it basically retained the Ryswick settlement. Britain gained Newfoundland, Acadia, the Asiento (or Assiento), recognition of the Protestant succession, and with its acquisition of Gibraltar and Minorca, naval supremacy in the western Mediterranean. The Netherlands acquired a barrier (ultimately ineffective), and Savoy gained a more defensible, although not a more extended, Alpine barrier. Portugal had to be content with an antebellum frontier but did acquire Sacramento in the New World. Prussia gained recognition of the kingship and some minor territories. France kept the entire left bank of the Rhine but ceded all lands on the right bank except Landau. Louis XIV retained Cape Breton, what became Prince Edward Island, and the fishing rights in Newfoundland. Louis XIV’s grandson, Philip V, kept Spain and Spanish America but had to renounce his right of succession to the French throne. Louis XIV abandoned his Italian allies, but he continued to support the Wittelsbach electors of Bavaria and Cologne, who were restored. The British abandoned the Catalans, who lost their historic liberties. Except in Italy and North America, the frontiers remained remarkably durable.

General Overviews

Bély 1990 is thoroughly grounded in the archives and is invaluable for providing the actual details of the meetings and an understanding of the diplomatic protocols and milieu. The book is very useful in setting the conferences in the context of early modern diplomacy and diplomatic practice. Bély 1992 is a much shorter treatment of the topic. Lucien Bély argues that the war marked the end of a certain French supremacy and that Utrecht established a solid European equilibrium. Ward 1908 pursues an Anglocentric approach and provides a rather overwhelming discussion of the settlement, not designed for the beginner. The author asserts that the peace settlement achieved the goal of checking the power of France. Pitt 1970 is a very useful and analytic summary of the pacification for both the general reader and the interested scholar. The author’s discussion begins earlier with the preliminaries of 1706. He sees the peace as essentially negative in that it checked the ambitions of both France and Austria and gave the system some stability. Weber 1891, based on archival material, is designed for the specialist interested in negotiations among the major powers. Onnekink and Bruin 2013 is an astute summary of the war and the peace. The catalogue of Bruin and Brinkman 2013 provides insights for both the general reader and the specialist. Landosle 1923 offers a French perspective on the negotiations at Baden. Weber 1890 provides a very detailed assessment of the negotiations at Rastatt, which the author views as “a comedy.”

  • Bély, Lucien. Espions et ambassadeurs au temps de Louis XIV. Paris: Fayard, 1990.

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    An invaluable and detailed guide to the negotiations preceding and during the Congress of Utrecht. Many picturesque details enliven this erudite study. Encyclopedic knowledge of the congress, its diplomats, and its spies that is set in the context of the time. Not for the uninitiated.

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  • Bély, Lucien. Les relations internationales en Europe, XVIIe–XVIIIe siècles. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1992.

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    Good general introduction to the topic. Emphasizes political stabilization after the incessant conflicts of the 17th century.

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  • Bruin, Renger de, and Maarten Brinkman, eds. Peace Was Made Here: The Treaties of Utrecht, Rastatt and Baden 1713–1714. Petersberg, Germany: Imhof, 2013.

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    Catalogue of an exhibition held at the Central Museum, and subsequently at Madrid, Rastatt, and Baden. Includes a description of the main exhibition pieces, beautiful illustrations, and nine essays by experts in the field on the war and the subsequent peace.

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  • Landosle, Hyrvoix de. “Le Congrès de Bade-en-Suisse, 1714.” Revue des questions historiques 98 (January 1923): 33–64.

    DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521075244Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Detailed, anecdotal account of the negotiations from a French perspective. Exclusively French-language printed sources.

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  • Onnekink, David, and Renger de Bruin. De Vrede van Utrecht (1713). Hilversum, The Netherlands: Verloren, 2013.

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    Very good general introduction to the peace that sets it in the European context with interesting illustrations.

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  • Pitt, H. G. “The Pacification of Utrecht.” In The New Cambridge Modern History. Vol. 6, The Rise of Great Britain and Russia, 1688–1715/25. Edited by John S. Bromley, 446–479. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

    DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521075244Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This nuanced discussion begins with the preliminaries. Pitt contends that Viscount Bolingbroke secured “a lasting settlement for Europe and a series of exclusive advantages for Britain” (p. 471).

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  • Ward, A. W. “The Peace of Utrecht and the Supplementary Pacifications.” In The Cambridge Modern History. Vol. 5, The Age of Louis XIV. Edited by A. W. Ward, 437–459. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1908.

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    A brief but useful summary of the provisions of the peace and the supplementary pacifications. Essentially a positive assessment that emphasizes that the treaties established the basis for peace for more than a generation. Not designed for the unsophisticated student. A bit dated.

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  • Weber, Ottocar. “Der Friede von Rastatt.” Deutsche Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft 8 (1890): 273–310.

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    Underscores French gains at the treaty, especially the retention of Landau and the restitution of the Wittelsbach electors. Impressive range of sources. Very dense.

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  • Weber, Ottocar. Der Friede von Utrecht: Verhandlungen zwischen England, Frankreich, dem Kaiser und den Generalstaaten, 1710–1713. Gotha: Friedrich Andreas Perthes, 1891.

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    A traditional political and diplomatic narrative limited to the major powers.

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Reference Works

Information on the Peace of Utrecht tends to be scattered in works on specific topics with the exception of the critical dictionary by Frey and Frey 1995. Experts in the United States and Europe have provided analytic articles with brief bibliographies. There is an introduction, an extensive chronology, and a bibliography.

Collections of Treaties

Lamberty 1724–1740 includes not only treaties but also letters, resolutions, memoranda, and more dating from the succession crisis. Freschot 1715 includes a number of useful, translated documents about the peace but provides no introductions and no notes. The author has reproduced a number of documents not always included with the treaties. Those who are looking for the text of a treaty should begin with Parry 1969–1981, which includes printed treaties in their original languages plus translations into French and English. In some cases, there are introductions, but they are short. There are no annotations. There is also a useful three-volume index. Unfortunately, this collection is usually found only in major law libraries. Davenport and Paullin 1919–1937 covers a wider range of treaties than one might suspect from the title. The first three volumes have excellent introductions and appended bibliographies, which are especially helpful for the general reader. Dumont 1726–1731 is a classic and still useful work that includes truces and capitulations, but it is not annotated. Vast 1899 limits its collection to treaties concluded with France, just as Castro 1856 and Castro and Biker 1872–1900 do for Portugal and Jenkinson 1969 for Britain. These works are not annotated. Even more limited in scope is the Treaty of Navigation and Commerce between Princess Anne and Prince Philip V, but it is important because of the issue of the Asiento, among others.

  • Castro, José Ferreira Borges de, ed. Collecção dos tratados, convenções, contratos e actos publicos celebrados entre a coroa de Portugal e as mais potencias desde 1640 até presente. 8 vols. Lisbon, Portugal: Imprensa Nacional, 1856.

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    Invaluable collection of treaties and other agreements between Portugal and other powers printed in Portuguese and often in the other language. Volume 2 provides definitive editions of the treaties that Portugal signed at Utrecht.

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  • Castro, José Ferreira Borges de, and Julio Firmino Judice Biker, eds. Supplemento á collecção dos tratados, convenções, contratos e actos publicos celebrados entre a coroa de Portugal e as mais potencias desde 1640. 22 vols. Lisbon, Portugal: Imprensa Nacional, 1872–1900.

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    Useful compilation of diplomatic documents. Volume 10 covers Utrecht.

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  • Davenport, Frances Gardiner, and Charles Oscar Paullin, eds. European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies. 4 vols. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution, 1919–1937.

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    Volume 3 covers 1698–1715 and Volume 4 covers 1716–1835. Some of the treaties are in English, and some English translations are provided. Volume 4, edited by Paullin, has neither introductions nor bibliographies.

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  • Dumont, Jean, Baron de Carlscroon, ed. Corps universel diplomatique du droit de gens. 8 vols. The Hague: P. Husson and Charles Levier, 1726–1731.

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    An invaluable compilation of the treaties in Volume 8, Part 1. Compiled by a former soldier, publicist, and historiographer of the emperor who is known for his pamphlets against Louis XIV.

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  • Freschot, Casimir. The Compleat History of the Treaty of Utrecht, Also That of Gertruydenberg, Containing All the Acts, Memorials, Representations, Complaints, Demands, Letters, Speeches, Treaties, and Other Authentick Pieces Relating to the Negotiations There, to Which Are Added the Treaties of Radstat and Baden. 2 vols. London: A. Roper, 1715.

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    A collection of primary documents in English published as a partisan defense of the peace but still useful.

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  • Jenkinson, Charles, ed. A Collection of All the Treaties of Peace, Alliance, and Commerce between Great Britain and Other Powers. 3 vols. New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1969.

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    Volumes 1 and 2 cover the treaties, no annotation. Charles Jenkinson was the first earl of Liverpool. Originally published in 1785.

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  • Lamberty, Guillaume de. Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire du XVIIIe siècle. The Hague: H. Scheurleer, 1724–1740.

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    An astute Swiss contemporary who represented Hanover at The Hague from 1706 to 1718. His privately circulated newsletters made him so well known at The Hague that the expression “lambertines” could mean publicists. Volumes 6–8 cover the period from 1710 to 1714. Available in a digital version through the Library of Congress.

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  • Parry, Clive, ed. The Consolidated Treaty Series. 231 vols. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana, 1969–1981.

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    Volumes 26–32 cover 1706–1727. Brief introductions to the treaties, some of which are reproduced in more than one language. There is also Clive Perry, ed., Index-Guide to Treaties, 3 vols. (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana, 1979–1986), which is annotated.

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  • Treaty of Navigation and Commerce between . . . Princess Anne, by the Grace of God, Queen of Great Britain . . . and Prince Philip the Vth, the Catholick King of Spain: Concluded at Utrecht the 28–9 Day of November–December 1713. London: J. Roberts, 1738.

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    A controversial treaty.

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  • Vast, Henri, ed. Les grands traités du règne de Louis XIV. Vol. 3, La succession d’Espagne: Traités d’Utrecht, de Rastadt et de Bade, 1713–1714. Paris: Alphonse Picard, 1899.

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    Limited to France but useful.

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Preliminaries

These authors focus on the early negotiations that were abortive and the British initiative in 1710 that was successful. Noorden 1870–1882 sets questions in the larger context up to 1710 and has a strong archival base, including Dutch sources. Stork-Penning 1958, based exclusively on Dutch archives and printed sources, analyzes in depth the preliminaries, emphasizing the Dutch policy of maintaining the alliance with Britain. Van der Bijl 1966 limits the discussion to 1706, underscoring the Dutch willingness to continue the war. Reese 1933 narrows in on 1708–1709 and emphasizes the divergent war aims of the alliance in the Mediterranean and the breakdown of negotiations in 1709. Rule 1970 provides an astute analysis of the preliminaries and the hopes of Jean Baptiste Colbert, Marquis de Torcy, that the allies would alter the harsh peace terms. Braubach 1987 emphasizes the attempt to create a barrier in the Holy Roman Empire against France. Trevelyan 1934 provides insights on the negotiations of Edward Villiers, Earl of Jersey, with a French agent. For additional information, see Barrier.

  • Braubach, Max. “Geheime Friedensverhandlungen am Niederrhein, 1711/12.” Düsseldorfer Jahrbuch: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Niederrheins 44 (1987): 189–209.

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    Detailed account of the negotiations to create a barrier in the Holy Roman Empire against France that came to nothing. Traditional diplomatic history for the specialist. For additional information, see Holy Roman Empire.

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  • Noorden, Carl von. Europäische Geschichte im achtzehnten Jahrhundert. 3 vols. Düsseldorf: Julius Buddeus und Duncker und Humblot, 1870–1882.

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    General in scope but covers only up to 1710. Beautifully written, well-drawn personalities. For advanced students.

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  • Reese, Werner. Das Ringen um Frieden und Sicherheit in den Entscheidungsjahren des Spanischen Erbfolgekrieges, 1708 bis 1709. Munich: C. H. Beck, 1933.

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    Based on Austrian sources. Discusses the divergent war aims of the Grand Alliance in the Mediterranean and Wratislaw’s goals to secure Spanish territories in Italy within the context of the breakdown of negotiations in 1709.

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  • Rule, John C. “France and the Preliminaries to the Gertruydenberg Conference, September 1709 to March 1710.” In Studies in Diplomatic History: Essays in Memory of David Bayne Horn. Edited by Ragnhild Hatton and M. S. Anderson, 97–115. London: Longman, 1970.

    DOI: 10.1093/ehr/XLIX.CXCIII.100Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Torcy’s hopes for peace were doomed by Anthonie Heinsius’s “evasiveness,” the duke of Marlborough’s “skepticism,” and Austrian “intransigence.” Accessible to students. For additional information, see United Provinces.

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  • Stork-Penning, Johanna G. Het Grote Werk: Vredesonderhandelingen gedurende de Spaanse Successie-Oorlog, 1705–1710. Groningen, The Netherlands: Wolters, 1958.

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    An in-depth analysis of the peace preliminaries that emphasizes the pivotal guidance of Anthonie Heinsius and the sincerity of Louis XIV in undertaking the negotiations. For specialists. For additional information, see United Provinces.

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  • Trevelyan, George M. “The ‘Jersey’ Period of the Negotiations Leading to the Peace of Utrecht.” English Historical Review 49 (January 1934): 100–105.

    DOI: 10.1093/ehr/XLIX.CXCIII.100Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reprints letters dating from 10 July 1710 to 5 May 1711 from the Archives des Affaires Étrangères on the negotiations of Edward Villiers, Earl of Jersey, with a French secret agent. Accessible to students.

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  • van der Bijl, Murk. “De Franse politieke agent Helvetius over de situatie in de Nederlandse Republiek in het jaar 1706.” Bijdragen en Mededelingen van het Historisch Genootschap 80 (1966): 152–194.

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    Discusses Helvétius’s assessment in 1706 of the Dutch willingness to continue the war. For the specialist. For additional information, see United Provinces.

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France

A wealth of material has been published on Louis XIV and his wars. The War of the Spanish Succession has drawn particular attention because of the protracted nature of the conflict and the French bankruptcy. Although France lost the war, it won the peace. While the material on the Treaty of Utrecht is dispersed throughout a number of books, many historians have written extensively on the diplomacy of the time and the expansion of the French diplomatic service. Jean Baptiste Colbert, Marquis de Torcy, the French secretary of state, played a pivotal role in the negotiations. Two of the negotiators, Melchior de Polignac and Claude-Louis-Hector Villars, have generated particular attention.

Court and Government

The Commission des Archives diplomatiques at the Ministère des Affaires Étrangères has published a series (Commission des Archives Diplomatiques 1884–1913) that provides information on the states with which France maintained diplomatic relations and detailed instructions to its accredited representatives. Picavet 1930 discusses the organization and method of the French diplomatic service. Legrelle 1892 provides a lucid overview of French diplomacy from the French viewpoint. The author argues that France showed its invincibility against the “semibarbarous.” This dated and biased source reprints some important documents. Miquelon 2001 focuses on the mercantile and maritime nature of the empire, in particular the French claims to Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island. The author emphasizes the importance of Chancellor Pontchartrain in the imperial negotiations. The classic study Wolf 1968, a rather exculpatory biography, is built upon an impressive array of primary materials. Lossky 1994, exclusively a political and diplomatic history, differs with Wolf 1968 in offering a more critical view of the king, whose ideas are shown to have evolved over time. Rule 1969 brings together experts to reevaluate historical interpretations of the Sun King. Saint-Simon 1879–1930, written by a contemporary noble of the sword, provides cynical but invaluable insights into the machinations at the French court.

Individuals

The French secretary of state from November 1709, Jean Baptiste Colbert, Marquis de Torcy, played the pivotal role in both the preliminary and the final negotiations for peace. That role is illuminated in his journal (Torcy 1903) and his more extensive memoirs (Torcy 1757). Wickham Legg 1914 has reproduced Torcy’s memorandum on the negotiations with Matthew Prior on the British preliminaries. Paul 1922, a biography of Melchior de Polignac, one of the French representatives at Gertruydenberg and subsequently at Utrecht, is based exclusively on French archives and probably overstates his achievements. His secretary at Utrecht, Charles Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre, is famous for his Projet pour render la paix perpetuelle en Europe (Saint-Pierre 1713). A marshal of France, Claude-Louis-Hector Villars also played a key role as a French representative at Rastatt. His descendant, Charles de Vogüé, a diplomat by training, compiled his correspondence and a biographical sketch of the man who saved France (see Vogüé 1888). In contrast, Carré 1936 is designed for the general audience. The author sees Villars through the eyes of the French army of the 1930s and portrays him as an expert at mobile warfare. Haussonville 1908 underscores the role of the duchess of Burgundy and the importance of the alliance with Savoy. Jean-Baptiste du Bos was employed by Torcy as a diplomat and publicist and served at Utrecht. Du Bos 1712 issues a call for peace and opposes “chimerical ambition.”

Great Britain

The majority of the literature on Utrecht has centered on Britain because of its predominant role in the war and in the peace. The triumph of the Tory Party, coupled with the war weariness of the population, allowed British statesmen to conclude virtually a separate peace and led to accusations that Britain had betrayed its allies. The controversy around that decision, including its denunciation by the Whigs as treasonous and the roles of Robert Harley and Viscount Bolingbroke, has generated a significant literature. The Anglo-French negotiations dictated the general outline of the peace that secured Britain’s significant gains.

Court and Government

Gregg 1980 remains the standard biography of Anne, the queen whose watchword was duty and who was concerned with the question of peace and the succession in the last years of her life. It is based on an extensive array of European archives. Trevelyan 1930–1934 remains the standard overview of Anne’s reign, while Klopp 1888 proves a denser, more difficult study. Hattendorf 1987 provides a strategic overview of the war and the peace. For primary documents, Hardwicke 1778 is invaluable, as is Wickham Legg 1925, though the latter prints only diplomatic instructions.

  • Gregg, Edward. Queen Anne. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980.

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    Anne was hostile toward organized political parties, a captive of her invalidism from gout, rheumatism, smallpox, and numerous pregnancies. She was estranged from her father and sister, a selfish, isolated figure.

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  • Hardwicke, Philip Yorke, ed. Miscellaneous State Papers from 1501 to 1726. 2 vols. London: W. Strahan, 1778.

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    Discussion of Utrecht in Volume 2, pp. 482–520. Includes some of the papers of Harley, Matthew Prior, and Bolingbroke. Minimal annotation.

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  • Hattendorf, John B. England in the War of the Spanish Succession: A Study of the English View and Conduct of Grand Strategy, 1702–1712. New York: Garland, 1987.

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    An impressively researched study based on extensive archives in Britain, the United States, The Netherlands, and Germany. Chapter 12 covers the issue of strategy from 1710 to 1713 during the peace negotiations. Underscores Britain’s goal to establish a new balance of power in Europe by the use of military and naval power.

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  • Klopp, Onno. Der Fall des Hauses Stuart und die Succession des Hauses Hannover in Gross-Britannien und Irland im Zusammenhange der europäischen Angelegenheiten von 1660–1714. Vienna: Wilhelm Braumüller, 1888.

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    Extensively researched, this work remains a classic. Volume 14 covers the years 1711 to 1714, but pp. 68–85 are particularly useful on the peace.

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  • Trevelyan, George M. England under Queen Anne. 3 vols. London: Longman, 1930–1934.

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    Engaged and engaging, by a master of the field. Can be read with pleasure by general readers. Witty, astute, nostalgic view of the past. Generous vindication of Bolingbroke by a Whig historian. Delightful, narrative skill. Nationalistic bias. Brilliant discussion of character and motives. Volume 3 covers the peace and the Protestant succession.

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  • Wickham Legg, Leopold George, ed. British Diplomatic Instructions, 1689–1789. Vol. 2, France, 1689–1721. London: Royal Historical Society, 1925.

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    Invaluable diplomatic instructions for the duke of Marlborough and Townshend (1709–1710), Matthew Prior (1711, 1712), Viscount Bolingbroke (1712), the bishop of Bristol and the earl of Strafford (1712–1713), Matthew Prior (1712–1715), and the duke of Shrewsbury (1712–1713).

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Tory Party

Feiling 1924 provides a detailed political study of the period, as does Salomon 1894, although Salomon 1894 is far more difficult and not as readable. Parliamentary History of England, from the Earliest Period to the Year 1803 (Cobbett 1966) is an invaluable primary source, as is Reports from Committees of the House of Commons (House of Commons 1803). Holmes 1969 concentrates on the interplay between Harley and Bolingbroke and its significance, as does MacLachlan 1969. MacLachlan 1969, however, concentrates on why the Tories wanted to conclude a peace. Hill 1973 focuses on the importance of the preliminaries, and McKay 1971 underscores the policy differences about Savoy. Dickinson 2008 emphasizes the political impact of the peace on English political life.

  • Cobbett, William. Parliamentary History of England, from the Earliest Period to the Year 1803. 36 vols. New York: Johnson Reprint, 1966.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0018246X00005859Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Volume 7 covers 1714–1722. Particularly valuable are the articles of impeachment of those involved in the peace (pp. 114–219 and pp. 246–266). The earl of Strafford was accused of “prostituting the honor of her majesty” (Volume 7, p. 149).

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  • Dickinson, H. T. “Politique britannique et luttes de partis dans les négociations du Traité d’Utrecht.” In Le Négoce de la paix: Les nations et les traités franco-britanniques, 1713–1802; Actes de la journée d’études de Rouen du 6 juin 2003. Edited by Jean-Pierre Jessenne, Renaud Morieux, and Pascal Dupuy, 15–46. Paris: Société des Études Robespierristes, 2008.

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    Nuanced examination of the impact of peace on English political life based on a wide range of primary and secondary sources.

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  • Feiling, Keith Grahame. A History of the Tory Party, 1640–1714. Oxford: Clarendon, 1924.

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    A classic study of Tory political machinations highlighting the roles of Harley and Bolingbroke in the Utrecht negotiations.

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  • Hill, Brian W. “Oxford, Bolingbroke, and the Peace of Utrecht.” Historical Journal 16 (1973): 241–263.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0018246X00005859Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Argues that Harley rather than Bolingbroke was chiefly responsible for the peace. Hill stresses that the preliminary peace agreements in 1711 were initiated by Harley.

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  • Holmes, Geoffrey. “Harley, St. John, and the Death of the Tory Party.” In Britain after the Glorious Revolution, 1689–1714. Edited by Geoffrey Holmes, 216–237. London: Macmillan, 1969.

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    The two most adept politicians, Harley and Bolingbroke, engaged in an internecine quarrel that divided the party and paralyzed its leadership. This contest reflected the larger division within the party itself over both domestic and foreign policy.

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  • House of Commons. Reports from Committees of the House of Commons. Vol. 1. London: n.p., 1803.

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    Includes the Report from the Committee of Secrecy, 1715, and the grounds for the impeachment of Harley, Bolingbroke, the earl of Strafford, and Ormond that are based on public letters of the secretary of state (pp. 1–99).

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  • MacLachlan, A. D. “The Road to Peace, 1710–13.” In Britain after the Glorious Revolution, 1689–1714. Edited by Geoffrey Holmes, 197–215. London: Macmillan, 1969.

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    In this essay the author attempts to explain the chain of causes that led the Tories to make peace and reassesses the roles of Harley and Bolingbroke. Views Harley as having a “tortuous mind” and “confused objectives” as well as being opportunistic, hypocritical, and pragmatic.

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  • McKay, Derek. “Bolingbroke, Oxford, and the Defence of the Utrecht Settlement in Southern Europe.” English Historical Review 86 (April 1971): 264–284.

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    Well argued. The author analyzes Bolingbroke’s attempt to defend the Mediterranean settlement and to protect Savoy by working with France and against the emperor. In contrast, the earl of Oxford (Robert Harley) hoped to rebuild the traditional alliance system. Importance of ministerial differences over foreign policy. For additional information, see Savoy.

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  • Salomon, Felix. Geschichte des letzten Ministeriums Königin Annas von England (1710–1714) und der englischen Thronfolgefrage. Gotha, Germany: Friedrich Andreas Perthes, 1894.

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    Nuanced, sophisticated, meticulous work. Not for the faint of heart.

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Statesmen

Bolingbroke 1798 is a useful collection of letters in both the original and the translation of this brilliant secretary, while Bolingbroke 1932 attempts to justify the peace. Dickinson 1970 is a very readable, objective view. In contrast, Biddle 1974 compares Bolingbroke and Harley, their temperaments and strategies. Hill 1988, a biography of Harley, a manipulative politician, is a bit exculpatory. Nicholson and Turberville 1930, a readable biography of the earl of Shrewsbury, who was important both as a statesman and as a diplomat, is a valuable and analytic study. Somerville 1932 reprints Shrewsbury’s letters. Shrewsbury served as lord chamberlain in 1710, but he refused to sign the preliminaries or serve as plenipotentiary at Utrecht. He later served as ambassador extraordinary to France, where he negotiated a number of important issues. For additional information, see Tory Party.

Diplomats

Herman 1988 is a thorough study of the earl of Strafford at Utrecht. Eves 1973 and Wickham Legg 1921 are readable biographies of Matthew Prior, a self-serving but talented poet and diplomat who played a critical role in Paris during the negotiations (see also Medals). Wickham Legg 1921 is the most critical account, while Eves 1973 is the most favorable and least convincing. Frey, et al. 1979 reprints the interesting correspondence of William Harrison, the personable queen’s secretary at The Hague. Hatton 1970 is a valuable, accessible study of John Drummond, an English agent in The Netherlands.

  • Eves, Charles Kenneth. Matthew Prior: Poet and Diplomatist. New York: Octagon, 1973.

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    Exculpatory in tone, based on manuscript sources not available to previous biographers. Vivid re-creation of the time and Prior as both poet and diplomat. Favorable, sympathetic, overestimates his achievements. Originally published in 1939.

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  • Frey, Linda, Marsha Frey, and John C. Rule, eds. Observations from The Hague and Utrecht: William Harrison’s Letters to Henry Watkins, 1711–1712. Columbus: Ohio State University Libraries, 1979.

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    Letters of an energetic young journalist, who served as queen’s secretary to the British embassy at The Hague, to his immediate superior. He emerges as a diligent, talented writer with a unique sense of humor.

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  • Hatton, Ragnhild. “John Drummond in the War of the Spanish Succession: Merchant Turned Diplomatic Agent.” In Studies in Diplomatic History: Essays in Memory of David Bayne Horn. Edited by Ragnhild Hatton and M. S. Anderson, 69–96. London: Longman, 1970.

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    English agent dominated by self-interest who played a critical role in London in 1711 and 1712 and in Anglo-Dutch negotiations. Participated in the Utrecht negotiations concerning English trade in the southern Netherlands.

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  • Herman, Mark C. “Sir Thomas Wentworth, Third Earl of Strafford, and the Treaty of Utrecht, 1711–1713.” PhD diss., University of South Carolina, 1988.

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    Thorough use of British archival sources. Strafford, who was influenced by Harley, played a minor role in the settlement. Lord Hervey called Strafford “a dirty executor of a dirty errand” (John, Lord Hervey, Memoirs of the Reign of George the Second from His Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline, edited by John Wilson Croker [Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1848], Volume 1, p. 394).

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  • Wickham Legg, Leopold George. Matthew Prior: A Study of His Public Career and Correspondence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1921.

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    The standard account of this important envoy’s public life and career. Based on British, French, and Dutch sources. Extensive quotations from primary sources. Wickham Legg describes Prior as having a “vicious exterior” and as being “ungrateful, factious, selfish, gross, fond of low company, foul-mouthed and foul-penned” (p. 277). Not a flattering portrait.

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Publicists

Müllenbrock 1997 analyzes the critical contemporary literature on the peace. Scott 1815 includes a number of contemporary English pamphlets. Wilson 1830 is a bit dated but still useful. The author analyzes the writings of Daniel Defoe, whom he sees as a Whig by conviction and a turncoat by practice. Ehrenpreis 1962–1983 remains the classic biography of Jonathan Swift. Swift 1951 is a reprint of Swift’s most famous pamphlets and works. Hare 1711 and Hare 1712 offer a refutation of Swift. Several publications of the time either attacked the barrier, such as T. R. 1713, or defended the treaty, such as Poyntz 1713.

  • Ehrenpreis, Irvin. Swift: The Man, His Works, and the Age. 3 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962–1983.

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    Volume 2 focuses on 1699 to 1714. Definitive biography, diligently researched. Thorough, accurate, scholarly, comprehensive but flawed by psychological speculations and by the author downplaying the reality of political parties. Often subjective judgments. Sympathetic to Swift; ignores his deceit for political ends.

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  • Hare, Francis. The Management of the War: In a Letter to a Tory-Member. London: A. Baldwin, 1711.

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    A Whig defends his party.

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  • Hare, Francis. A Full Answer to the Conduct of the Allies: To Which Is Added Some Observations on the Remarks on the Barrier Treaty. London: n.p., 1712.

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    A lively refutation of Swift and his famous pamphlet. For additional information, see Barrier.

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  • Müllenbrock, Heinz-Joachim. The Culture of Contention: A Rhetorical Analysis of the Public Controversy about the Ending of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1710–1713. Munich: Fink, 1997.

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    Analyzes the rhetorical features of the various poems, pamphlets, broadsides, essays, newspapers, and sermons published on the peace.

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  • Poyntz, Stephen. The Barrier-Treaty Vindicated. London: A. Baldwin, 1713.

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    Spirited defense of the treaty by the confidential secretary of Townshend, the Whig who drew up the 1709 barrier treaty.

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  • Scott, Sir Walter, ed. A Collection of Scarce and Valuable Tracts on the Most Interesting and Entertaining Subjects. 2d ed. Vol. 13. London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1815.

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    Volume 13 contains a number of English pamphlets written at the time about the peace.

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  • Swift, Jonathan. The Prose Works of Jonathan Swift. 14 vols. Edited by Herbert Davis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1951.

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    The critical edition. Especially valuable are Volume 7, The History of the Four Last Years of the Queen (Tory exculpatory view of the negotiations), and Volume 6, Political Tracts, 1711–1713, which includes “The Conduct of the Allies” (1711) and “Remarks on the Barrier Treaty” (1712) (basically defenses of the peace and the Tory government). For additional information, see Barrier.

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  • T. R. Remarks on the Barrier-Treaty Vindicated in a Letter to the Author. London: John Morphew, 1713.

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    Attacks the idea that procuring an alliance with the Dutch will protect the Protestant succession.

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  • Wilson, Walter. Memoirs of the Life and Times of Daniel Defoe. 3 vols. London: Hurst, Chance, 1830.

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    Wilson contended that Utrecht was a peace that “provided satisfaction only to the enemy” (Volume 3, p. 303). Affirms the treachery and dishonor of the peace. Reproduces many of Defoe’s writings in the text. Remains sympathetic to Defoe, whom he questionably praises for the rectitude of his principles and his role as a “moralist.”

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Holy Roman Empire

Most of the rulers of the states of the Holy Roman Empire, with the exception of the Wittelsbach electors who aligned with France, fought with the emperor. The role of Brandenburg-Prussia, which made a major commitment to the war, has been debated because of that state’s involvement in western Europe rather than in northern Europe. Trier and Lorraine were particularly vulnerable to French forces. The empire and the emperor, the Habsburg claimant to the Spanish throne, refused to sign the peace at Utrecht and decided to fight on. They did not conclude peace until 7 March 1714 at Rastatt (Charles VI) and 7 September at Baden (the Holy Roman Empire). Vienna and Madrid did not reach an agreement until 1725. Prince Eugene of Savoy played a key role as both general and diplomat.

Austria

Charles VI is treated in Rill 1992, a study based on secondary literature. Rill 1992 accepts the traditional view and emphasizes Charles’s international role and the increasing petrification of the imperial institutions. O’Reilly 2009, based on an extensive range of sources, casts new light on the influence of the Spanish style and life on Charles VI. Jarnut-Derbolav 1972 provides a specialized study of the Austrian representatives in London based on Czech and Austrian archives. Prince Eugene of Savoy, one of the greatest commanders of his age, also served as the negotiator at Rastatt. Arneth 1858 was written by an Austrian historian and archivist who based the work on Austrian archives. In this pioneering work that sets questions in an international context, Prince Eugene the man still proves illusive. Braubach 1963–1965 is a classic and monumental account of Eugene by the Bonn historian Max Braubach. He has moved beyond the official sources to create a more personal and sympathetic portrait of this soldier. Written by a French army general, Béthouart 1975 is a beautifully written portrayal based on archival sources. McKay 1977 is an archive-based study that underscores Eugene’s loyalty to the rulers he served and to his ideals.

Brandenburg-Prussia

Droysen 1868–1886 and Waddington 1921–1922 provide traditional readable surveys. Droysen 1868–1886, written by an ardent patriot, emphasizes Frederick William’s decision to secure the Orange inheritance at Utrecht but to fight on as an elector. Waddington 1921–1922 is a more readable and objective survey. Frey and Frey 1984 provides an accessible portrait of Frederick I in this revisionist study that emphasizes the gains Frederick secured in the West, such as recognition of the kingship, in contrast to the problematic nature of a commitment in the Northern War. Schaumburg 1878 provides a very detailed history of the efforts to acquire Moers and Guelders.

  • Droysen, Johann Gustav. Geschichte der preussischen Politik. 5 vols. Leipzig: Veit, 1868–1886.

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    Volume 2 (pp. 26–41) covers the Treaty of Utrecht. Underscores that, in the change of regimes from Frederick to his son, Frederick William confronted two critical questions: acceptance of Utrecht, a settlement that his father had detested, and involvement in the Northern War.

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  • Frey, Linda, and Marsha Frey. Frederick I: The Man and His Times. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984.

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    Characterizes Frederick I as a much stronger ruler than traditionally depicted who consistently sought to protect his kingdom, to safeguard Protestants, and to fulfill what he saw as a moral commitment to the Holy Roman Empire.

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  • Schaumburg, E. V. “König Friedrich I. und der Niederrhein: Die Erwerbung von Moers und Geldern.” Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Landeskunde 15 (1878): 303–368.

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    Continued on pp. 550–562 and in Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Landeskunde 16 (1879): 176–292. Archive-based history of negotiations to acquire these critical lands.

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  • Waddington, Albert. Histoire de Prusse. 2 vols. Paris: Plon Nourrit, 1921–1922.

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    Volume 2 concentrates on the period 1688–1740. Extensive documentation. Use of both primary and secondary sources. Clear, impartial, detailed, accessible to the general reader. Vivid portraits. Clumps notes at the beginning of the chapter, alas.

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Wittelsbachs

The two Wittelsbach electors of Bavaria and of Cologne aligned with Louis XIV, were put under the ban of the Holy Roman Empire, and were reinstated only by the Treaties of Rastatt and Baden. Hüttl 1976, based on an extensive use of archives in Vienna, Munich, Brussels, Paris, Madrid, London, and the Vatican, emphasizes Max Emanuel’s ambition to forge Bavaria into a major European power and the costs in the devastation of his lands. Ennen 1851 includes the edited letters of Joseph Clemens of Cologne together with a learned introduction. Braubach 1949 underscores the role of Joseph Clemens from 1711 as an intermediary between Versailles and Vienna. Jadin 1968 takes its material from the secret archives of the Vatican, the correspondence of Karg de Bebenbourg, who served as the chancellor of Joseph Clemens, with the papal secretary of state. It analyzes Bebenbourg’s defense of France and of the two electors.

  • Braubach, Max. “Kurfürst Joseph Clemens von Köln als Vermittler zwischen Versailles und Wien.” Annalen des Historischen Vereins für des Niederrhein 146.7 (1949): 228–238.

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    Important diplomatic role of the elector of Cologne after 1711. For the specialist.

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  • Ennen, Leonard, ed. Der spanische Erbfolgekrieg und der Churfürst Joseph Clemens von Cöln. Jena, Germany: Friedrich Mauke, 1851.

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    Provides a long introduction and an edition of letters pertaining to the archbishop of Cologne, the Wittelsbach ally of Louis XIV during the War of the Spanish Succession. Contemporary documents for the specialist.

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  • Hüttl, Ludwig. Max Emanuel: Der blaue Kurfürst, 1679–1726; Eine politische Biographie. Munich: Süddeutscher Verlag, 1976.

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    Emphasizes the costs and failure of Emanuel’s ambitions. Appropriate for graduate students.

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  • Jadin, Louis, ed. Correspondance du Baron Karg de Bebenbourg, chancelier du Prince-Évêque de Liège, Joseph-Clément de Bavière, Archevêque Électeur de Cologne avec le Cardinal Paolucci, Secrétaire d’État, 1700–1719. 2 vols. Rome: Institut Historique Belge de Rome, 1968.

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    Bebenbourg sought papal support for the two Catholic electors, who had been placed under the ban of the empire, by invoking the dangers of Protestantism and arousing opposition to the United Provinces and Great Britain. An engaged and engaging witness.

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Other Rulers

Most of the empire, with the exception of the Wittelsbachs, sided with the Habsburgs during the war and continued the fight after Utrecht. Granier 1954 was written by a student of Max Braubach who mined the archives of Hanover and Düsseldorf and mastered the literature to create this detailed study of the German Reichstag during the war. The empire as a whole did not profit from the war. Braubach 1936 discusses the failure to recover Alsace and Lorraine. Braubach 1937 analyzes the archbishop of Trier, a loyal friend of the Habsburgs and an enemy of France. The maritime powers had promised but were unable to protect his lands from French rapacity. Trier was involved in the discussions about creating a defensive barrier against France. Schnath 1978, based on extensive archival research, examines the role of George, elector of Hanover and subsequently king of England. Hatton 2001 is a revisionist, more positive view based on extensive research. The role of another, Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz-Neuburg, is examined in Sante 1924, which argues that his attempt to maintain a middle position between France and the Holy Roman Empire cost him the Upper Palatinate and the Bavarian electoral dignity. The author emphasizes the importance of the elector’s allegiance to the emperor. Sante 1924 is challenged by Müller 1986, which emphasizes the religious dimensions of the elector’s policies and his attempts to reconcile Vienna and Paris and to free the emperor from his dependency on the Protestant powers. Baumont 1894 provides a sympathetic portrayal of the duke of Lorraine, a courageous and very popular ruler whose lands covered an area that was strategically vulnerable and occupied by French troops despite its neutrality.

  • Baumont, H. Études sur le règne de Léopold, duc de Lorraine et de Bar, 1697–1729. Paris: Berger-Levrault, 1894.

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    Extensively documented discussion of the duke of Lorraine’s difficult balancing act between the Holy Roman Empire and France as the ruler of a country ravaged by war. For additional information, see Preliminaries.

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  • Braubach, Max. “Um die ‘Reichsbarriere’ am Oberrhein: Die Frage der Rückgewinnung des Elsass und der Wiederherstellung Lothringens während des Spanischen Erbfolgekrieges.” Zeitschrift für de Geschichte des Oberrheins 89 (1936): 481–530.

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    Detailed, sophisticated argument about the inability to recover Alsace and Lorraine and the tragic consequences, namely, a search for security rather than a national commitment to fellow Germans that reinforced dynastic territorialism. Only for specialists.

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  • Braubach, Max. “Kurtrier und die Seemächte während des Spanischen Erbfolgekrieges.” Historisches Jahrbuch 57 (1937): 385–419.

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    Partially based on the papers of Johann Heinrich von Kaiserfeld, Trier representative at The Hague (1692–1718), who sought military assistance and compensation for the French devastation. For the specialist.

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  • Granier, Gerhard. “Der deutsche Reichstag während des Spanischen Erbfolgekrieges, 1700–1714.” PhD diss., Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, 1954.

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    Detailed study of the German Reichstag. Section 6 focuses on the period from the fall of 1711 to the fall of 1714.

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  • Hatton, Ragnhild Marie. George I. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001.

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    Portrait of the elector who was politically astute and played an active role in fostering peace. Not totally convincing. Definitive work but dense. Originally published in 1978.

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  • Müller, Klaus. “Kurfürst Johann Wilhelm und die europäische Politike seiner Zeit.” Düsseldorfer Jahrbuch 60 (1986): 1–23.

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    Focuses on Wilhelm’s attempts to consolidate his power and prestige as absolute ruler and the religious facet of his policies. For specialists.

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  • Sante, George Wilhelm. “Die kurpfälzische Politik des Kurfürsten Johann Wilhelm vornehmlich im Spanischen Erbfolgekrieg, 1690–1716.” Historische Jahrbuch 44 (1924): 19–64.

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    Examines Wilhelm’s failure to secure the Upper Palatinate and the Bavarian electoral dignity. Technical study.

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  • Schnath, Georg. Geschichte Hannovers im Zeitalter der neunten Kur und der englischen Sukzession. Vol. 3, 1698–1714, Ohne die Vorgeschichte der englischen Sukzession. Hildesheim, West Germany: August Lax Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1978.

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    In this classic account chapter 14 covers the peace negotiations in 1713 and 1714. George of Hanover played a key role in the war and opposed the Tory abandonment of the allies. For specialists.

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Publicists

Jean Dumont, an Austrian publicist, promotes Austrian aims in Dumont 1711 and subsequently attacks the peace in Dumont 1713. Written by a contemporary, Leibniz 1862a attacks the Tory peace, arguing that a continuation of the war can favor only the imperial cause. The author’s views are discussed in Fransen 1933. Two anonymous pamphlets, Raisons pourquoi sa Majesté Imperiale n’a pas concouru à la paix (cited under Austria) and Wichtige Ursachen: Welche Ihro Römische Käyserliche Majestät Carol den VI, defend the imperial decision to leave the negotiations at Utrecht and continue the war.

Hungary

Archivum Rákóczianum, Rákóczi 1739, and Ráday 1955–1961 are invaluable primary sources for comprehending this tumultuous period in Hungary’s history. Archivum Rákóczianum contains the most extensive collection of François Rákóczi II’s correspondence and works, while Rákóczi 1739 provides a vivid retelling of this insurrection in Hungary, which took place from 1703 to 1711, and Ráday 1955–1961 is a critical source for understanding the diplomatic overtures of the Hungarians. Köpeczi and Várkonyi 1976 remains the standard and most valuable biography, while Köpeczi 1971 provides critical insights into Rákóczi’s diplomacy, particularly with France. Várkonyi 1991 places the peace of Szatmár (1711) in the broader European context.

Papacy

Both Caracciolo 1968 and Santini 1969 provide critical insights into papal diplomacy. Caracciolo 1968 analyzes the work of the papal legate at Utrecht and Baden, and Santini 1969 that of the internuncio in the Low Countries.

  • Caracciolo, Alberto. Domenico Passionei. Rome: Edizioni di Storia et Letteratura, 1968.

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    Author underscores the cosmopolitanism of this brilliant scholar, the papal delegate at Utrecht and Baden, who urged the Catholic princes to support the controversial inclusion of article 4 of the Treaty of Ryswick. Appendix includes a number of letters.

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  • Santini, Vincenzo. La correspondance de Vincenzo Santini Internonce aux pays-Bas, 1713–1721. Edited by Jacques Thielens. Brussels: Institut Historique Belge de Rome, 1969.

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    Letters of Vincenzo Santini, doctor of canon law, later nuncio at Cologne and Poland. These documents cast light on the implications of and the dangers posed to the Catholic Church by the implementation of the barrier treaties and the importance of article 4 of Ryswick at both Utrecht and Baden. Critical edition. For additional information, see Barrier.

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Portugal

Prestage 1938 is a very broad but readable account of Portugal during the war and the ensuing peace. Brazão 1934 provides a general treatment of the treaties that Portugal signed, while Brazão 1938 is a far more detailed scholarly work. Santarém, et al. 1842–1876 is very useful for its extensive diplomatic coverage, while Bem 1792–1794 is valuable for its in-depth account of the negotiations of the capable conde de Tarouca at London and Utrecht.

  • Bem, Thomas Caetano de. Memorias historicas chronologicas dos clerigos regulares. 2 vols. Lisbon, Portugal: Regia Officinia Typografica, 1792–1794.

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    Volume 2 (pp. 34–162) provides a minute account by D. Luiz Caetano de Lima, the chaplain and secretary of the conde de Tarouca at London and Utrecht.

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  • Brazão, Eduardo. Portugal no Congresso de Utrecht, 1712–1715. Lisbon, Portugal: Imprensa Lucas, 1934.

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    A short summation of the treaties that Portugal concluded at the end of the war.

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  • Brazão, Eduardo. Relações externas de Portugal: Reinado de d. João V. 2 vols. Oporto, Portugal: Livraria Civilização-Editora, 1938.

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    Volume 1, chapter 2 (pp. 219–292), covers the treaty of Utrecht. Chapter 3 (pp. 293–328) covers the consequences of the peace for Portugal. Based predominantly on Portuguese sources. Extensive analysis of the peace and its consequences. Includes important diplomatic correspondence of Tarouca and others.

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  • Prestage, Edgar. Portugal and the War of the Spanish Succession. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1938.

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    A fairly short but useful account. Includes a translation of the notable Dom Luís da Cunha’s questions to the king and his answers in appendix 6 and the conclusion of Volume 4 of the Memorias of Cunha, the second plenipotentiary at the peace.

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  • Santarém, Manuel Francisco de Barros e Sousa, Luiz A. Rebello da Silva, and José da Silva Mendes Leal Junior, eds. Quadro elementar das relações politicas e diplomaticas de Portugal com as diversas potencias do mundo, desde o principio da monarchia portugueza até aos nossos dias. 18 vols. Paris: J. P. Aillaud, 1842–1876.

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    A detailed and useful study.

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Savoy

Carutti 1856, Symcox 1983, and Storrs 2007 provide general introductions to Victor Amadeus’s reign. Carutti 1856 remains the standard interpretation. Symcox 1983 focuses on the development of absolutism, and Storrs 2007 concentrates on diplomacy and the effects of war on the development of the state. Baraudon 1896, Quazza 1965a, and Quazza 1965b stress the importance of Savoy and its position in the early 18th century. Manno, et al. 1886 includes the edited, annotated diplomatic correspondence with France from 1713 to 1719, which details the impact of the Utrecht settlement on Franco-Savoyard relations. Viora 1930 more narrowly concentrates on the impact of the peace on the Waldensians. For additional information, see Sardinia/Sicily.

  • Baraudon, Alfred. La maison de Savoie et la triple alliance, 1713–1722. Paris: E. Plon Nourrit, 1896.

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    This work, based on French sources, examines the ramifications of the Peace of Utrecht and the aggrandizement of Savoy in an international context.

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  • Carutti, Domenico. Storia del regno di Vittorio Amedeo II. Turin, Italy: Tipografia Paravia e Compagnia, 1856.

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    This work underscores the duke’s achievements in attaining a royal title and expanding his territories. Chapter 18 covers the Peace of Utrecht and the consequences for Savoy.

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  • Manno, Antonio, Ermanno Ferrero, and Pietro Vayra, eds. Relazioni diplomatiche della monarchia di Savoia dalla prima alla seconda restaurazione, 1559–1814. 3 vols. Turin, Italy: Fratellia Bocca Librai di S. M., 1886.

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    Invaluable collection of diplomatic instructions and dispatches, many of which detail the repercussions of the Italian settlement on European international relations.

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  • Quazza, Guido. “L’Italia e l’Europa durante le Guerre di Successione, 1700–1748.” In Storia d’Italia. Compiled by Nino Valeri, 779–936. Turin, Italy: Unione Tipografica, 1965a.

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    Impressive archival study that stresses that Utrecht ended the hegemony of Spain in Italy and underscores the importance of the Italian issue after the peace. Shows how Farnese and Giulio Alberoni intrigued to reopen the Italian question after the war. Comprehensive. Treats this period as an epilogue to earlier foreign domination.

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  • Quazza, Guido. Il problema italiano e l’equilibrio europea, 1720–1738. Turin, Italy: Deputazione Subalpina di Storia Patria, 1965b.

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    Well-documented study based on critical, scrupulous, and extensive archival work emphasizing the primacy of foreign policy, focused on Savoy-Sardinia. Prints dispatches of Sardinian diplomats. Argues that the Italian dynastic and territorial problem dominated European politics in the early 18th century. Excellent.

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  • Storrs, Christopher. War, Diplomacy, and the Rise of Savoy, 1690–1720. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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    Based on an impressive array of archival sources. Underscores the “striking achievements” of Savoyard diplomacy, including a more defensible frontier with France. Diplomatic triumphs secured territorial gains and transformed the state.

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  • Symcox, Geoffrey. Victor Amadeus II: Absolutism in the Savoyard State, 1675–1730. London: Thames and Hudson, 1983.

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    Although his focus is on the development of Savoyard absolutism, the author casts light on foreign relations with a chapter on the Utrecht negotiations (chapter 12) and another chapter on the aftermath (chapter 13). He also discusses the strategic and diplomatic ramifications of the War of the Spanish Succession. Based on documents in the Archivio de Stato at Turin.

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  • Viora, Mario. Storia delle leggie sui Valdesi di Vittorio Amedeo II. Bologna, Italy: Nicola Zanichelli, 1930.

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    Well-documented juridical and historical analysis of the legal position of the Waldensians. Part 2, chapter 3, section 3, covers the Treaty of Utrecht and the French cession of the Pragelato conditional on Victor Amadeus’s refusal to grant toleration to the Waldensians. Italian archival sources.

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Spain

For Spain, the War of the Spanish Succession was not only an international war but also a civil war that devastated the country. Part of the population, particularly the Catalans, aligned with the Habsburg claimant Charles and, as a consequence, lost most of its regional liberties with the triumph of the Bourbon claimant Philip. This loss, coupled with the siege of Barcelona, has generated a great deal of literature and controversy. Philip V retained Spain and the overseas empire. Spain’s territorial losses in Italy were particularly significant and ensured further warfare. The cession of Gibraltar poisoned Anglo-Spanish relations and continues to affect them in the early 21st century.

Court and Government

Hargreaves-Mawdsley 1973 provides political and diplomatic documents in English without annotations. Baudrillart 1890 is the classic work, based on French and Spanish materials, that covers the period from 1700 to the Treaty of Seville of 1729. Coxe 1813 provides an overview, based on British sources, that is still important. Lynch 1989 and Kamen 1969 emphasize the importance of the war in transforming Spain, but the image of Philip in Lynch 1989 is much more negative. The author sees the king as a greater liability than the previous ruler, Charles II. Lynch 1989 is a standard work, but it is based almost exclusively on printed sources. Kamen 1969, based on an impressive array of Spanish, Flemish, and British sources, focuses on the war and the revolts in the provinces. Kamen 2001 creates a more positive image than the classic accounts, emphasizing Philip’s policy of regenerating the state. A number of works discuss Spanish policy in the wake of Utrecht. Martín 1964, written by an eminent historian, grounds its argument about the collapse of Spanish power in the Mediterranean on a solid archival base. Courcy 1891 discusses Spanish developments after Spain’s virtual exclusion from Utrecht, with a narrow focus on 1713–1715.

Individuals

Written by a believer in absolute monarchy and a supporter of the Bourbon contender Philip, San Felipe 1957 provides an eyewitness account of the war and the ensuing peace. An energetic fighter in the struggle for Spain, the author subsequently served as the Spanish representative to Utrecht and supported Philip’s attempts to overturn the settlement. Another contemporary, stationed at the court, Ursins (Anne Marie “Orsini”) accompanied Maria Louisa of Savoy, the bride of Philip V, to Spain and became her confidante. This unofficial French agent, whom she supported and protected, exerted a powerful influence over the young king. Orsini 1859 reproduces her letters, which are frank and revealing. Cermakian 1969 is a classic account grounded in archival research that aims to reveal the woman behind the legend. This scholarly account emphasizes the role of Ursins in winning over the Spanish to the French heir and his queen. Rota 1934 discusses the attempts of Giulio Alberoni to overturn Utrecht and regain the Italian lands for Spain. Van der Veen 2007 analyzes the life of Johan Willem Ripperda, an ambitious and important opportunist at the court who concluded the 1725 treaty with Charles VI.

Swiss Confederation

Mercier 1939 revolves around the mission of the Comte du Luc, the French representative to the Swiss. Henri Mercier’s book, based on the archives in Paris and Bern, has a French bias. Mercier 1917 focuses on the role of du Luc in countering Protestant demands at Baden. The strongest is Gröbli 1975, which focuses on du Luc, who also served as French representative at Baden. This well-documented book, based on archives in Switzerland and in Rome, sets the issues of the day within the context of French relations with the Swiss Confederation. Bucher 1951 is not as strong but emphasizes British support for the Prussian acquisition of Neuchâtel, a topic that is not widely understood.

  • Bucher, Beatrice. Abraham Stanyan: Die englische Diplomatie in der Schweiz zur Zeit des Spanischen Erbfolgekrieges. Zurich, Switzerland: Juris-Verlag, 1951.

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    Emphasizes the British attempt to check French influence and to support the Protestant cantons.

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  • Gröbli, Fredy. Ambassador du Luc und der Trücklibund von 1715: Französische Diplomatie und eidgenössisches Gleichgewichte in den letzten Jahren Ludwigs XIV. 2 vols. Basel, Switzerland: Helbing und Lichtenhahn, 1975.

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    A new era of relations between France and the Swiss Confederation. Importance of religious issues. Only for experts.

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  • Mercier, Henri. “La Suisse et le Congrès de Bade (5 juin–7 septembre 1714).” Anzeiger für schweizerische Geschichte 15 (1917): 1–31.

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    Discussion of the role of du Luc, especially in countering Protestant demands, that is based entirely on French sources.

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  • Mercier, Henri. Une vie d’ambassadeur du Roi Soleil: Les missions de Ch.-F de Vintmille, Comte du Luc, auprès des Ligues Suisses (1708–1715) et du Saint-Empire. Paris: Éditions La Bourdonnais, 1939.

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    Pro-French bias built on archives in Paris and Bern. Underscores the importance of the Swiss Confederation and the role of du Luc, one of the representatives at Baden.

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United Provinces

Coombs 1958 is an invaluable source on the critical but conflict-ridden Anglo-Dutch alliance. De Jongste and Veenendaal 2002 and Graswinkel 1958 offer brief biographical sketches of Anthonie Heinsius, the grand pensionary, and Adolf Hendrik van Rechteren (Almelo), the diplomat. De Jongste and Veenendaal 2002 provides essays on the controversies and consequences of the war. Geyl 1937 offers a critical interpretation of the war and the peace, which the author sees as a major blow to the self-confidence of the Dutch. Stork-Penning 1967 stresses the conservative nature of the Dutch policies and the view of the Dutch that there could be no safety without a general peace. Johanna G. Stork-Penning also underscores the increasingly divergent war aims of the allies and the uneasy partnership with the British. Onnekink 2005 analyzes the Dutch interpretation of the negotiations. Aalbers 1980 discusses the aftermath of the war with an emphasis on the crippling debt and how that limited the foreign policy options of the Dutch. For additional information, see Barrier.

  • Aalbers, Johan. De Republiek en den vrede van Europa: De buitenlandse politiek van de Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden na de vrede van Utrecht (1713), voornamelijk gedurende de jaren 1720–1733. Part 1, Achtergronden en algemene aspecten. Groningen, The Netherlands: Wolters-Noordhoff, 1980.

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    The public debt incurred by the war severely limited Dutch options after the peace, thus ending the great power status of the Dutch Republic.

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  • Coombs, Douglas. The Conduct of the Dutch: British Opinion and the Dutch Alliance during the War of the Spanish Succession. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1958.

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    An indispensable survey of the Anglo-Dutch alliance and the ensuing tensions between the two allies during the war. See especially chapters 8, 9, 10, and 11, which discuss the Tory victory and the campaign against the allies. Mobilization of public opinion against the Dutch and the war weariness of the populace played an important role in the ministry’s vindication of the peace. Sophisticated study of Tory mobilization of public opinion.

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  • de Jongste, Jan A. F., and Augustus J. Veenendaal Jr. Anthonie Heinsius and the Dutch Republic, 1688–1720: Politics, War, and Finance. The Hague: Institute of Netherlands History, 2002.

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    Invaluable conference volume on the intersection of politics and war that stresses the importance of funding and cooperation between the allies. This collection includes Veenendaal’s assessment of Heinsius.

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  • Geyl, Pieter. “Nederland’s staatkunde in de Spaanse Successie-Oorlog.” In Kernproblemen van onze geschiedenis. By Pieter Geyl, 188–220. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Oosthoek, 1937.

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    Sees the treaty as a humiliation and mortification for the Dutch.

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  • Graswinkel, D. P. M. “Adolf Hendrik van Rechteren, heer van Almelo: Staatsman en diplomat, 1656–1731.” Overijsselse portretten (1958): 95–121.

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    Underscores the important role and influence of van Rechteren in European international relations. He served not only as a deputy in the States General but also as Dutch representative to several German courts. A confidant of Anthonie Heinsius, he was one of the Dutch plenipotentiaries at Utrecht and later negotiated the 1715 Dutch barrier treaty.

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  • Onnekink, David M. L. “Een generale, geode en duyrsaame vreede: Het Utrechtse vredescongres (1713) vanuit Staats perspectief.” In Tussen Munster en Aken: De Nederlandse Republiek als grote mogendheid, 1648–1748. Edited by Simon Groenveld, Maurits A. Ebben, and R. P. Fagel, 49–66. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Shaker, 2005.

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    Concise discussion of the Dutch view of the negotiations.

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  • Stork-Penning, Johanna G. “The Ordeal of the States: Some Remarks on Dutch Politics.” Acta Historiae Neerlandica 2 (1967): 107–141.

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    Underscores the Dutch search for security and the French attempts to break up the alliance. Invaluable for providing the Dutch view of the war and the peace. For additional information, see Preliminaries.

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Primary Documents

Veenendaal 1976–2001 includes edited and annotated letters of the influential Anthonie Heinsius, an indispensable source for understanding the Dutch position during the war. Van Rappard 1978 contains the edited correspondence of two of Heinsius’s allies within the Dutch government. Also valuable are the collections of letters, especially those of the statesman Jacob Jan Hamel-Bruynincx and those of the statesman Jacob Jan Hamel-Bruynincx, both in Antal and de Pater 1934. Knuttel 1978 lists contemporary pamphlets with brief descriptions. The anonymous author of Nouveaux entretiens de Marphorio et de Pasquin discusses the treaty with notable hostility to the French.

Controversies

Although the treaties signed at Utrecht were controversial, a number of issues proved particularly contentious and have triggered historical debate. The Anglo-French Commercial Treaty was never ratified for many reasons, including significant commercial opposition, party politics, the British government’s stance, and the French retreat. The Asiento treaty for rights to the slave trade with Spanish America is widely discussed because of its entanglement in that trade, the numerous problems in implementation, the ill will it generated, and the lack of commercial gain. Barrier treaties, whether as a check on an overweening power or as a vehicle for commercial exploitation of various territories, played a key role in the diplomacy of the day. Britain’s abandonment of one of its allies, the Catalans, provoked debate in Parliament. The subsequent siege of Barcelona and the suppression of local liberties fueled Catalan separatism. The debate over the potential destruction of Dunkirk, which was dubbed the “Algiers of the North” because of its status as one of the major ports in France and as a launching point for both privateers and Jacobites, generated a significant pamphlet literature. The cession of Gibraltar and Minorca paved the way for British naval dominance in the western Mediterranean. The loss of these lands occasioned debate in Spain, as did the cession of the Italian lands. Arguably, the settlement in Italy proved the most unstable. The Utrecht settlement, unlike that of Ryswick in 1697, focused on colonial issues that were especially divisive, particularly the question of fishing rights off Newfoundland. Legally, one of the most problematic issues raised by the settlement, the Renunciations, which were designed to ensure that Spain and France were never united by a personal union, remained contested from then until the 19th century.

Anglo-French Commercial Treaty

Schorer 1900 sets the treaty within the larger question of English-French trade relations and analyzes the opposition to the treaty in Parliament. Harkness 1924 represents the traditional view that mobilization of economic interests led to its defeat in Parliament. Coleman 1976 posits an Anglocentric view and argues that it was anachronistic to regard the treaty in the light of free trade theory. Schaeper 1985 presents the new view that the government encouraged opposition to the treaty.

  • Coleman, D. C. “Politics and Economics in the Age of Anne: The Case of the Anglo-French Trade Treaty of 1713.” In Trade, Government, and Economy in Pre-industrial England: Essays Presented to F. J. Fisher. Edited by D. C. Coleman and Arthur H. John, 187–211. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1976.

    DOI: 10.2307/2506113Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Interesting, well-presented arguments that rebut traditional views. Argues that the debate revolved around the fetish of the time, to capture a bigger share of “a fixed pie.” Accessible to graduate students.

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  • Harkness, D. A. E. “The Opposition to the 8th and 9th Articles of the Commercial Treaty of Utrecht.” Scottish Historical Review 21 (April 1924): 219–226.

    DOI: 10.1080/09638180220125571Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses commercial opposition to according France most favored nation treatment from a surprisingly large group. Language a bit dated but interesting material.

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  • Schaeper, Thomas. “French and English Trade after the Treaty of Utrecht: The Mission of Anisson and Fénellon in London, 1713–1714.” British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 9 (1985): 1–18.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1754-0208.1986.tb00117.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Sees the government’s actions as maneuvers to extract more concessions from the French at the same time that the French were turning against the treaty. Clearly written. Accessible to students. Nuanced argument grounded in research in the archives.

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  • Schorer, Hans. “Der englisch-französische Handelsvertrage vom Jahre 1713.” Historische Jahrbuch 21 (1900): 357–385.

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    Continued on pp. 715–742. Excellent summation but fairly technical.

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Asiento

The Asiento granted Britain the monopoly to trade slaves with the Spanish American colonies. Scelle 1906 remains the standard work from a legal perspective. McLachlan 1974 is also useful as an overview of the trade between Britain and Spain and has the virtue of integrating 20th-century research. Batt 1904 discusses the impact of the trade on the South Sea Company, while Donnan 1930 underscores the economic and diplomatic difficulties of the trade. Donoso Anés 2002 and Donoso Anés 2007 analyze the system of accounting used by the company. Both Aiton 1928 and Brown 1926 concentrate on the abuses and the corruption in the trade and are fairly technical. Crespo Solana 2011 takes a more theoretical perspective in its discussion of the contradiction between ideology and practice.

  • Aiton, Arthur S. “The Asiento Treaty as Reflected in the Papers of Lord Shelburne.” Hispanic American Historical Review 8 (May 1928): 167–177.

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    Uses the papers of Peter Burrel, the secretary and subgovernor of the South Sea Company, to argue that abuses of the South Sea Company worsened relations between the two countries and that the Spanish had legitimate complaints that lasted until the revocation of the Asiento in 1739.

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  • Batt, Charles Strawder. Zur Geschichte der englischen Südse-Handelsgesellschaft, 1711–1719. Jena, Germany: Anton Kämpfe, 1904.

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    Analyzes the impact of the Utrecht settlement on the South Sea Company. Based entirely on English sources.

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  • Brown, Vera Lee. “The South Sea Company and Contraband Trade.” American Historical Review 31 (July 1926): 662–678.

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    The Spanish representative at the Congress of Soissons of 1728 was able to suborn two highly placed officials of the company who provided irrefutable evidence of the illicit proceedings of the company, including contraband, bribery, fraud, and private illegal trading. The evidence eventually helped lead to war. Fairly technical argument.

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  • Crespo Solana, Ana. “A Change of Ideology in Imperial Spain? Spanish Commercial Policy with America and the Change of Dynasty, 1648–1740.” In Ideology and Foreign Policy in Early Modern Europe, 1650–1750. Edited by David Onnekink and Gijs Rommelse, 215–242. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2011.

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    Examination of the practical implications of the Spanish commercial monopoly.

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  • Donnan, Elizabeth. “The Early Days of the South Sea Company, 1711–1718.” Journal of Economic and Business History 2 (May 1930): 419–450.

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    Underscores problems that plagued the trade gained by the Asiento concession at Utrecht and the South Sea Company’s losses.

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  • Donoso Anés, Rafael. “Accounting and Slavery: The Accounts of the English South Sea Company, 1713–1722.” European Accounting Review 11 (2002): 441–452.

    DOI: 10.1080/09638180220125571Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the accounting system of the South Sea Company and its role in the resolution of conflicts.

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  • Donoso Anés, Rafael. “Un análisis sucinto del Asiento de esclavos con Inglaterra y el papel desempeñado por la contabilidad en su desarrollo.” Anuaro de Estudios Americanos 64 (2007): 105–144.

    DOI: 10.3989/aeamer.2007.v64.i2.83Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A specialist in historical accounting at the University of Seville analyzes the accounts submitted to Spain by the English company. Based on archives.

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  • McLachlan, Jean O. Trade and Peace with Old Spain, 1667–1750: A Study of Commerce on Anglo-Spanish Diplomacy in the First Half of the Eighteenth Century. New York: Octagon, 1974.

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    Meticulous study, based on an extensive use of British and Spanish archives, that emphasizes the importance of commercial considerations in diplomatic policy and the international friction that the Asiento caused. Still, the shareholders did not profit, and the trade with the Iberian Peninsula was more important than the trade with the Spanish colonies.

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  • Scelle, Georges. La traité négrière aux Indes de Castille: Contrats et traités d’Asiento. 2 vols. Paris: J.-B. Sirey, 1906.

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    A renowned professor of public international law has written the classic and authoritative work.

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Barrier

Hahlweg 1959 offers an interesting overview in the author’s analysis of the role of the barrier in early modern European diplomacy. Geikie and Montgomery 1968 remains the standard on the Dutch barrier, while Veenendaal 1945 explores the dimensions of the Anglo-Dutch condominium in the Low Countries based on a mastery of the sources. Opsommer 2013, by the archivist at Ieper, has reproduced a number of significant documents and images with a short but incisive commentary. For additional information, see Papacy, Preliminaries, Great Britain: Publicists, Portugal, Savoy, and United Provinces.

  • Geikie, Roderick, and Isabel A. Montgomery. The Dutch Barrier, 1705–1719. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1968.

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    The standard and classic work on the Dutch barrier covers the negotiations and ensuing treaties in detail. Based on British and Dutch archival and printed sources. Invaluable. Originally published in 1930.

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  • Hahlweg, Werner. “Barriere-Gleichgewicht-Sicherheit: Eine Studie über die Gleichgewichtspolitik und die Strukturwandlung des Staatensystems in Europe, 1646–1715.” Historische Zeitschrift 187 (February 1959): 54–89.

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    Overall role of barriers in the balance of power policies of the international system.

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  • Opsommer, Rik. Ieper en de Frans-Belgische grens (17de-18de eeuw): 300 jaar vredesverdragen van Utrecht en Rastatt. Ieper, Belgium: Stadsarchief, 2013.

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    An impressive collection of images and invaluable maps on this important city.

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  • Veenendaal, Augustus Johannes. Het Engels-Nederlands condominium in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden: Tijdens de Spaanse-Successieoorlog, 1706–1716. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Kemink, 1945.

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    An invaluable and impressive study of the English-Dutch condominium in the southern Netherlands during and after the war. Author underscores the inefficiency of this type of rule and British blunders.

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Catalans

Voltes Bou 1953 and Voltes Bou 1963 discuss the reign of the Habsburg claimant in Catalonia until Charles’s withdrawal in 1713. Both are based on archival sources. The definitive work on Catalonia’s continued struggle is Albareda i Salvadó and Esculies 2008, and that on the final assault on 11 September is Albareda i Salvadó and Garcia i Espuche 2005. Albertí 1964 focuses more on the military aspect of the siege, but it includes a useful discussion of the implications of Utrecht. Durán Cañameras 1964, written by a political activist, lawyer, and historian, provides a useful summary. Albareda i Salvadó 2002, written by a Catalan, analyzes Philip’s refusal to recognize Catalan constitutions and his incorporation of Catalonia into the crown of Castile. In a beautifully produced book, Alcoberro 2013 has gathered together a number of unusual contemporary illustrations. Alcoberro 2002 discusses the importance of the Spanish exiles at the Vienna court, and Alcoberro 2011 examines the fate of the Catalan exiles settled in the Banat of Temesvár. Fallenbüchl 1979 discusses the Spaniards settled in Hungary.

Dunkirk

Millon 1967 presents a general history of Dunkirk in which the author sees the destruction as a tragedy. Cabantous 1983 is a general survey that brings together a series of articles highlighting the critical geographic location of Dunkirk and its role in European conflicts. Written by a rear admiral, Lepotier 1975 sees the destruction as the supreme humiliation of Louis’s reign. Malo 1925 is grounded in the marine archives but underscores the “sacrifice” of Dunkirk to the allies and the English determination to “ruin” Dunkirk, whose privateers did more damage to English trade than those from any other port. Moore 1950 is more evenhanded and traces the issue of Dunkirk up to 1783, when the provision for its destruction was finally abrogated. The author discusses the propaganda and partisanship surrounding Dunkirk. Hyland 1999 analyzes the centrality of Dunkirk in the peace negotiations and how the issue continued to bedevil Anglo-French relations.

Gibraltar

Many books are available on the still hotly contested issue of Gibraltar, but few trace it back in any meaningful way to its transference at Utrecht. Written by a British journalist and historian, Hills 1974 presents a well-researched scholarly account that is overwhelming for the general reader in the amount of details provided. Plá 1955 gives a short overview of the history of Gibraltar based on a sound use of printed sources. In presenting the Spanish view, the author sees the seizure of Gibraltar as arbitrary and capricious, thus underscoring Spain’s determination to recover it. Jackson 1987, written by a former British governor, is a comprehensive history based on secondary literature only. Unfortunately, it contains mistakes. Not surprisingly, the author advocates self-determination rather than Spanish control. Conn 1942 narrows in on the 18th century and provides a balanced narrative based on French and English archives. Constantine 2009 emphasizes the importance of the British presence since 1704 in forming the identity of Gibraltar and of the repopulation of the island with Roman Catholics and Jews after the conquest. For additional information, see Spain: Court and Government.

Minorca

The most in-depth study of the topic is Mata 1980. Based on extensive archival research, it emphasizes the international position of this island that aligned with the Habsburg claimant. By contrast, Gregory 1990 is based entirely on thorough research in manuscripts in Britain and secondary sources (but not Catalan, the language of the island). The book is Anglocentric partly because of the sources but still persuasive. Minorca proved to be “in peace an expensive luxury, in war a liability” (Gregory 1990, p. 9). For additional information, see Spain: Court and Government.

North America

Miquelon 2010 underscores the importance of colonial claims at the peace. Rich 1954 focuses on the importance of trade issues in the war, specifically the Hudson’s Bay Company, while Bracq 1903 and Thompson 1961 concentrate on the Newfoundland issue as it pertained to fishing rights.

  • Bracq, Jean-Charlemagne. “The French Side of the Newfoundland Difficulty.” North American Review 176 (April 1903): 582–592.

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    French shore concessions marked a continuation of old privileges, which were renewed in subsequent treaties, including that of 1783. Calls for arbitration in 1903. Accessible. Includes debate about what is a fish; for example, a lobster is commonly understood as such.

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  • Miquelon, Dale. “Ambiguous Concession: What Diplomatic Archives Reveal about Article 15 of the Treaty of Utrecht and France’s North American Policy.” William and Mary Quarterly 67 (July 2010): 459–486.

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    French conviction that inland trade had to be shared with the Iroquois and the English.

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  • Rich, E. E. “The Hudson’s Bay Company and the Treaty of Utrecht.” Cambridge Historical Journal 11 (1954): 183–203.

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    Analyzes Utrecht as it dealt with overseas possessions and overseas trade. Underscores the importance of the war for trade and colonies and contrasts such concerns at Utrecht with the lack of them at Ryswick. Treaty not successful in resolving issues such as the boundary with Canada.

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  • Thompson, Frederic F. The French Shore Problem in Newfoundland: An Imperial Study. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1961.

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    Analyzes the importance of the French treaty rights for fishing and drying of fish and their impact on relations with Canada and Britain.

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Renunciations

The allies insisted on the renunciations to ensure that the two crowns of Spain and France were never united, especially in view of the high mortality within the French royal family and given that only the two-year-old future Louis XV stood between Philip V and the throne of France. Courcy 1889 discusses the background to and the renunciation of the French princes to the respective Kingdoms of France and Spain and reprints the important wills and treaty provisions. Giraud 1997 is a reprint of the 1847 edition, written by a jurist at the request of Louis Philip d’Orléans, whose son had claims by marriage to the Spanish throne. Charles Giraud argues that, according to French dynastic law, the renunciations had no validity, a position a French secretary of state took at the time. The thirteen documents included in the original edition were not reproduced in the reprint. Sixte de Bourbon 1914 provides an in-depth analysis of Philip V’s renunciation of the throne of France, which the allies insisted he sign during the negotiations at Utrecht. The author analyzes the legality of such a renunciation in examining the writing of earlier jurists, the testament of Charles II, and Philip V’s right to the thrones of both Spain and France. More than one hundred pages of primary documents are appended. Part 2 focuses on the war and the peace conferences. For additional information, see France: Court and Government and Spain: Court and Government.

Sardinia/Sicily

Smith 1968 is a very good general survey of Sicily, which initially went to Victor Amadeus until he was forced to exchange it for Sardinia, then held by the emperor. Loddo Canepa 1974–1975 is an excellent survey of Sardinia. Fieldhouse 1935 underscores Henry St. John’s concerns about Sicily and its impact on British-Savoyard relations. Carutti 1885 focuses on the Spanish view of Savoyard claims and on the importance of Pietro Mellarède, an authority on international law, at Utrecht. For additional information, see Austria, Savoy, and Spain: Court and Government.

  • Carutti, Domenico, ed. “Relazione sulla corte d’Ingilterra del consigliere di stato Pietro Mellarède, plenipotenziario di Savoia al Congresso di Utrecht.” Miscellanea di storia italiana 24 (1885): 221–240.

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    Letter of the Savoyard plenipotentiary Mellarède about the British court in January 1713 and the sentiments of the king and queen of Spain regarding Savoy’s claims based on a conversation with the Spanish ambassador, Monteléon, in London. For additional information, see Great Britain: Court and Government, Savoy, and Spain: Court and Government.

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  • Fieldhouse, H. N. “St. John and Savoy in the War of the Spanish Succession.” English Historical Review 50 (1935): 278–291.

    DOI: 10.1093/ehr/L.CXCVIII.278Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Notes the consistency of St. John in defending British interests in the Mediterranean. Focuses on the aggrandizement of Savoy and St. John ensuring that neither Naples nor Sicily fell to either Spain or France. Reprints extracts from correspondence of Raby to St. John and St. John to the early of Peterborough and Orrery in 1711. For additional information, see Tory Party and Statesmen.

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  • Loddo Canepa, Francesco. La Sardegna dal 1478 al 1793. 2 vols. Sasari, Italy: Galizzi, 1974–1975.

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    Volume 1 covers 1478–1720, but only one chapter covers the period 1700–1720. Volume 2 covers the period 1720–1793, but again only one chapter on Victor Amadeus II, 1720–1730. No bibliography but notes. Very readable survey.

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  • Smith, Denis Mack. A History of Sicily. 2 vols. London: Chatto and Windus, 1968.

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    Very good general survey. Has chapters on the implications and aftermaths of various foreign governments, and especially notes Victor Amadeus’s stress on efficiency. Part 5, chapter 2, focuses on the 1709–1710 negotiations. Part 6, chapter 1, is on Utrecht and chapter 5 on Rastatt and Baden.

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Artistic Representations

The treaties of Utrecht, Rastatt, and Baden have lived on in the musical, literary, and visual arts of many countries, notably Great Britain. Not all the representations were celebratory. Many were highly critical. Some of the compositions have deservedly been regarded as great baroque music, but most of the songs were set to easily recognizable tunes in doggerel verse. Poetry was only marginally distinguishable from broadsides and conveyed a distinct point of view. The visual representations also reflected the controversial nature of the peace and were either celebratory or derogatory. It was an age that celebrated important events with displays of fireworks that, though by nature transitory, were commemorated in prints. Medals proved a more durable medium.

Music

The peace was celebrated most famously by George Frideric Handel in London in his Utrecht Te Deum (Handel 1713b) and Jubilate (Handel 1713a) and less so by William Croft in his “With Noise of Cannon” (Croft 2002) and Johann Sigismund Kusser in Dublin in his “Serenata Theatrale a 5: For the Celebration of the Treaty of Utrecht” (Kusser 1712). In France, Bourgeois 1720, a ballet, and Campra 1713 and Destouches 1714, both operas, were composed to honor the king for the peace. Many popular ballads and songs also immortalized the peace. The most famous denigration, attributed to Arthur Mainwaring, was “A New Song: Being a Second Part to the Same Tune of Lillibullero, etc.” (Mainwaring 1713). Whigs also attacked the Tory peace in the 1712 songs “Nothing but the Truth: A Ballad to the Tune of ‘A Beggar of All Trades Is the Best’” and the “French Preliminaries: A New Ballad to the Old Tune of ‘Packingstons Pound.’” The Camerata Trajectina 2013 illustrates the Dutch perspective by singing popular ditties. Carreras y Bulbena 1902 reproduces Carlist songs of Spain.

Poems

The bitterness of the partisanship led to the publication of a number of poems. Some praised Queen Anne and, by extension, the peace, such as Parnell 1713, Pope 1720, Tate 1713, Trapp 1713, and Ward 1712, and the Stuart partisans, such as Sinclair 1713 and Higgons 1713. Others condemned, such as Tickell 1713 and the anonymous “Nothing but the Truth.”

Prints and Paintings

The fireworks designed to celebrate the peace are depicted in various prints, such as Grou 1713 for the Paris display; Nicolazo 1713 for Chartres; Thornhill 1713 and Lens II 1713 for London; and Picart, et al. 1713 for The Hague; see also Feu d’artifice. The well-known engraver Bernard Picart also produced a gouache on vellum with contemporary iconography for a manuscript in 1715 (see Picart 1715). Some, however, deprecated the peace. Two anonymous prints, De overzeese Wetsteen der Vredelievende Hoofdent t’Utregt aangeland. / La Pierre d’Outremer, Aiguisant les Cerveaux Pacifique, arrivés à Utrecht and Satire on Lord Bolingbroke, satirize the peace. The famous etcher and publisher Romeyn de Hooghe condemns the conclusion of the separate peace between France and Britain in Hooghe 1712. The peace of Rastatt is commemorated by the successful contemporary painter Matteis in an allegory of painting and of peace (Matteis c. 1714–1718).

Medals

Many of the books on metals are extremely rare, but information can be found in museum catalogues, such as Grueber 1881. Hawkins 1885 accurately describes the context and the medals and references other, often elusive works. Hawkins 1885 includes medals that both celebrate and satirize the peace and those coined in Great Britain and on the European Continent, as does British Museum 1911. There are more illustrations in British Museum 1911, but more extensive descriptions are found in Hawkins 1885. Croker 1713 is an engraving of one of the most famous medals that celebrated the peace. The Commemoration of Death of Matthew Prior medal from 1721 honors Matthew Prior, one of the British negotiators. The German Satiric Medal on Utrecht from 1714 deprecates the peace and underscores that it would not last in a rather graphic way.

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