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International Relations World War II Diplomacy and Political Relations
by
Gerhard L. Weinberg

Introduction

As World War II recedes into the past, interest in it does not diminish. New publications about it appear steadily, and the public in many countries is clearly receptive. The television channels are so filled with programs dealing with the war that the History Channel is often referred to as the “Hitler Channel.” Three factors appear to be responsible. First, World War II was the largest war in world history, involving almost every country on earth and causing enormous loss of life—over fifty million dead—and unprecedented physical destruction. Second, the sheer drama of enormous victories for one side in the initial stages was followed by the crushing defeat of those who had initiated hostilities with such apparent success. Third, the element that continues to attract attention is the novelty of aspects of the conflict. The vast effort by the Germans to kill as many Jews as they could, now called the Holocaust, and the enormous expansion of bombing from its initiation in World War I are the subjects of controversy and publications. A further element in stimulating the continuing interest in the conflict has been the release—at times in dribbles, at times in torrents—of previously secret or unknown records and accounts of the belligerents. The world in the decades since the war is to a very large extent the product of the war and can be understood only by careful examination of its course and outcome. Debates about the war’s origins, the roles of both major and minor participants, the choices of key leaders, and the course and significance of specific campaigns and weapons have continued since 1945 and are unlikely to end any time soon. In the opening paragraph of The Peloponnesian War, Thucydides wrote, “Indeed this was the greatest movement yet known in history, not only of the Hellenes, but of a large part of the barbarian world—I had almost said of mankind.” The description also fits what has come to be called World War II. In view of the enormity of the war and the vastness of the literature on it, Oxford Bibliographies has divided the wider subject into two parts: the diplomatic and political issues, on the one hand, and the military operations, on the other. Because the broader issues of strategy and alliance politics frequently intersected with military decisions and operations, a certain amount of overlap is unavoidable, but the emphasis here will be on the diplomatic and broader strategic aspects.

Reference Works and Bibliographies

For all aspects of the war, see Dear and Foot 1995. The best bibliographic coverage of new books and articles is the Jahresbibliographie, an annual bibliography available in numerous languages. Ziegler 1971 is an English-language bibliography. The World War II Studies Association has published some further bibliographies in its newsletter, but a major compilation such as that in Ziegler 1971 is badly needed. The main journals in the field—Journal of Military History, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, and Revue d’histoire de la deuxième Guerre Mondiale—carry bibliographic listings and some reviews of new publications on the war.

  • Dear, I. C. B, and M. R. D. Foot, eds. The Oxford Companion to the Second World War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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    This book of over 1,300 pages includes entries by specialists on a wide variety of topics and has maps and short bibliographic listings.

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  • Jahresbibliographie.

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    An annual bibliography issued by the Bibliothek für Zeitgeschichte (Library for Contemporary History) in Stuttgart and published by Bernard and Graef. The volumes include publications in numerous languages, and each volume also carries several bibliographical articles. The library has published its whole catalogue.

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  • Ziegler, Janet. World War II: Books in English, 1945–65. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, 1971.

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    A bibliography in English that has been supplemented by two publications by Arthur L. Funk: The Second World War: A Bibliography; A Select List of Publications Appearing since 1968 (Gainesville, FL: American Committee on the History of the Second World War, 1972) covering 1966 to 1975, and The Second World War: A Select Bibliography of Books in English Published since 1975 (Claremont, CA: Regina, 1985) covering 1975 to 1985.

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How War Came

Most people held strongly to the view that one world war was more than enough for the century. Although the decades after 1918 saw local conflicts, such as those between Italy and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and between Japan and China, a general conflagration grew out of Germany’s invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939. Although new studies of the origins of World War I appear regularly, few general surveys of the diplomatic background of World War II have appeared. A group of scholars from around the world collaborated on an excellent survey of the roles and policies of both participants and neutrals that has appeared only in German (Altrichter and Becker 1989). Pike 1991 is an edited version of published proceedings of a conference on the opening of World War II. Maiolo 2010 emphasizes the role of the arms race in driving the world into another war. Watt 1989 focuses on the years immediately preceding the war. Only Weinberg 2005 covers the whole period from 1933 to 1939 with a global perspective.

  • Altrichter, Helmut, and Josef Becker, eds. Kriegsausbruch 1939: Beteiligte, Betroffene, Neutrale. Munich: Beck, 1989.

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    Experts from numerous countries cover Germany, Poland, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, Italy, Spain, the Baltic States, Switzerland, the United States, and Japan in separate chapters. The notes to each chapter provide helpful bibliographic references in several languages.

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  • Maiolo, Joseph. Cry Havoc: How the Arms Race Drove the World to War, 1931–1941. New York: Basic Books, 2010.

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    This work analyzes the way decisions about rearmament in the years after World War I led to a reduction in the military, partly because of economic reasons, that then provided pressure to enter another war. The author, however, fails to recognize the centrality of Adolf Hitler’s role in pushing for rearmament to initiate a series of wars without being pushed by the nonexistent rearmament of other countries. The book uses numerous published works but has some serious errors, such as claiming that Hitler did not expect the July 1934 Nazi coup in Vienna (p. 71) when he had alerted the German military commander in Munich to it beforehand.

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  • Pike, David Wingeate, ed. The Opening of the Second World War: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on International Relations, held at the American University of Paris, September 26–30, 1989. New York: Lang, 1991.

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    Proceedings of a 1989 conference in Paris with texts of the papers and commentary by specialists in the field.

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  • Watt, Donald C. How War Came: The Immediate Origins of the Second World War, 1938–1939. New York: Pantheon, 1989.

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    This careful analysis is limited both in time and geography. It is, however, very well written and suitable for graduate and undergraduate students as an introduction to the subject.

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  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. Hitler’s Foreign Policy 1933–1939: The Road to World War II. New York: Enigma, 2005.

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    This volume combines two earlier books covering the years from 1933 to 1936 and 1937 to 1939 and includes revisions and corrections. There are detailed notes, comments on archives, and a bibliography as well as new introductions addressing issues raised in other publications.

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General Overviews

Most general surveys of the war include at least a brief reference to diplomatic relations and issues. They tend to refer to the major conferences among the Allies, to tensions between them, and to the relations—or lack thereof—among Germany, Italy, and Japan. A few provide a somewhat more detailed coverage of these and other issues, such as the relationship of neutrals to the conflict, the roles of Germany’s European satellites, and the surrenders of the Axis powers. The examples listed here (Calvocoressi and Wint 1972, Feis 1967, Snell 1965, Weinberg 2005, and Willmott 2008) cover these issues, but each also has a unique focus.

  • Calvocoressi, Peter, and Guy Wint. Total War: The Story of World War II. New York: Pantheon, 1972.

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    This comprehensive account includes coverage of military operations as well as diplomacy. It separates coverage of the European and Pacific theaters into separate volumes. The text is clear and makes good reading.

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  • Feis, Herbert. Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin: The War They Waged and the Peace They Sought. 2d ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967.

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    Although relatively soon after the war, the author was allowed special access to US State Department records, possibly because he had served in the State Department during the war. It remains a carefully written account with many important insights.

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  • Snell, John L. Illusion and Necessity: The Diplomacy of Global War, 1939–1945. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965.

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    This brief but exceptionally thoughtful book can serve as an excellent introduction to the major issues of diplomacy of both sides in the conflict. It is well suited for classroom use but should be supplemented by later publications.

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  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. 2d ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

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    The only general survey that covers diplomacy as well as major operations, the home fronts, weapons systems, intelligence, and the Holocaust. Widely used as an undergraduate textbook, it also cites much archival material and has a detailed bibliographic essay.

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  • Willmott, H. P. The Great Crusade: A New Complete History of the Second World War. Rev. ed. Washington, DC: Potomac, 2008.

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    This survey concentrates on military operations with good maps but no footnotes. Some useful appendixes and a topical, rather than alphabetical, bibliography will be helpful to students. Originally published in 1989.

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Diplomatic Document Series of Governments

The diplomatic documents of the United States for the World War II years have been published only in English (US Department of State 1932–1945), and a set of index volumes for those years is available (US Department of State 1980). The German diplomatic documents up to December 1941 have been published in English (US Department of State 1949–1954) but only in German for the following years (Auswärtiges Amt 1969–1978). The British, French, and Italian series end with the beginning of the war, whereas the Australian and Canadian series include the war years (Neale, et al. 1976–1979, Canada Department of External Affairs 1972–1974). The Soviet Union published some special collections cited under Documents on Specific Subjects, but the main series for the war years has appeared only in Russian. The collection on the main trial at Nuremberg (International Military Tribunal 1947–1949) and US Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack 1946 includes substantial diplomatic materials.

  • Auswärtiges Amt. Akten zur deutschen auswärtigen Politik, 1918–1945. Serie E, 1941–1945. 5 vols. Göttingen, West Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1969–1978.

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    This series continues the project with German editors who used the preliminary work for these volumes by the American, British, and French editors of series D (see also US Department of State 1949–1954).

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  • Canada Department of External Affairs. Documents on Canadian External Relations. Vols. 6–11. Edited by R. A. Mackay. Ottawa, ON: Queen’s Printer, 1972–1974.

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    As with Documents on Australian Foreign Policy (Neale, et al. 1976–1979), this set is helpful for its look at the country’s relationship with Britain and the United States.

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  • International Military Tribunal. Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal. 42 vols. Nuremberg, Germany: International Military Tribunal, 1947–1949.

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    The 1971 AMS reprint with an introduction by Gerhard L. Weinberg includes an annotated bibliography.

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  • Neale, R. G., H. Kenway, H. J. W. Stokes, P. G. Edwards, W. J. Hudson, and Wendy Way, eds. Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937–49. Vols. 2–8. Canberra: Australian Government, 1976–1979.

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    This set is important for its documents on the dominion’s relationship with Britain and the United States. See also Canada Department of External Affairs 1972–1974.

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  • US Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers. 84 vols. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1932–1945.

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    A comprehensive set with a number of supplementary volumes on specific topics and conferences. The archival source of each document is indicated. The volumes have been reprinted by Kraus (see US Department of State 1980).

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  • US Department of State. Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918–1945: From the Archives of the German Foreign Ministry. Series D, 1937–1945. 13 vols. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1949–1954.

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    This document collection is a joint venture of American, British, and French editors. There is introductory material in each volume, and the microfilm location of the original is provided for each document. The volumes consist of German foreign ministry documents and a small number of military documents in English. A German edition is also available. The plan to continue series D from 12 December 1941 to 1945 was abandoned; however, an index has been published: Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918–1945. Series D, 1937–1941, Vol. 14, Index (Arlington, VA: Open-Door Press, 1976).

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  • US Department of State. Cumulated Index to the Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1939–1945. Introduction by Frederick Aandhahl. 2 vols. Millwood, NY: Kraus, 1980.

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    Fredrick Aandhahl provides a very helpful introduction in the first of these volumes that explains both the history of the series and the special problems of the volumes on the wartime years.

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  • US Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack. Pearl Harbor Attack: Hearings before the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Seventy-ninth Congress, First Session. 39 pts. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1946.

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    A 1973 AMS reprint has an introduction by Gerhard L. Weinberg that includes an annotated bibliography.

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Documents on Specific Subjects

In view of the enormous interest in the war, it should not be surprising that numerous collections of diplomatic and related documents have been published—in some instances by governments and in others by private scholars (see Special Collections). The US government has published a massive collection of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s papers relating to diplomacy (Nixon and Schewe 1969–1983) and a set of the intercepted Japanese documents (US Department of Defense 1978). The Soviet government has issued collections on Joseph Stalin’s correspondence with Winston Churchill, Clement Richard Attlee, and Roosevelt (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR 1957) and the wartime conferences of the Allies (Fischer 1985).

  • Fischer, Alexander, ed. Teheran, Jalta, Potsdam die sowjetischen Protokolle von den Kriegskonferenzen der “Großen Drei.” 3d ed. Cologne: Verlag Wissenschaft und Politik, 1985.

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    This is a carefully edited translation into German of the publications on the main wartime conferences published in Russian by the Soviet government in 1961. An English version is also available (Robert Beitzell, ed., Teheran, Yalta, Potsdam: The Soviet Protocols Hattiesburg, MS: Academic International, 1970). Additional documents are included in the Soviet publications on the wartime conferences issued in 1978 and 1979, but these have not been translated. Full citations to these are in Glantz 2005 (cited under The United States: The Soviet Union).

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  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR. Correspondence between the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. and the Presidents of the U.S.A. and the Prime Ministers of Great Britain during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945. 2 vols. Moscow: Foreign Languages Pub. House, 1957.

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    The first volume, which covers the United States, should be checked against Butler 2005 (cited under Special Collections). The second volume, which covers Great Britain, should be checked against Gilbert 1993–2000 (cited under Special Collections).

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  • Nixon, Edgar N., and Donald B. Schewe, eds. Franklin D. Roosevelt and Foreign Affairs. 17 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969–1983.

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    Compiled at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, this set includes letters to the president, the texts of press conferences, and a variety of other types of documents relating to international affairs.

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  • US Department of Defense. The “Magic” Background of Pearl Harbor. 5 vols. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1978.

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    Translated intercepts of Japanese messages. The book Paul Kesaris, ed., A Subject and Name Index to the Magic Documents: Summaries and Transcripts of the Top-Secret Diplomatic Communications of Japan, 1938–1945 (Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1982), with an index compiled by David Wallace, can be used with this set.

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Special Collections

The collections issued by governments (see Documents on Specific Subjects) are supplemented by volumes edited by scholars. These include Roosevelt’s personal correspondence (Roosevelt 1950), two collections of the Roosevelt-Churchill correspondence (Loewenheim, et al. 1975; Kimball 1984), a full collection of the Roosevelt-Stalin correspondence (Butler 2005), the war papers of Churchill (Gilbert 1993–2000), the German accounts of Adolf Hitler’s meetings with foreign leaders (Hillgruber 1967), an important collection of French documents on the first months of the war (Bédarida 1979), and the records of the meetings of Japan’s top leadership as that country prepared to attack the United States, Britain, and the Netherlands (Ike 1967). Almost all of these scholarly editions contain editorial notes and other related information that make them especially helpful.

  • Bédarida, François, ed. La stratégie secrète de la drôle de guerre: Le conseil suprême interallié, septembre 1939 avril 1940. Paris: Éditions du CNRS, 1979.

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    Annotated minutes of the meetings of British and French representatives on both diplomatic and military issues during the phony war.

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  • Butler, Susan, ed. My Dear Mr. Stalin: The Complete Correspondence of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph V. Stalin. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005.

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    Very important additional material on both texts and circumstances supplementing the Soviet collection of the Roosevelt-Stalin correspondence (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR 1957, cited under Documents on Specific Subjects).

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  • Gilbert, Martin, ed. The Churchill War Papers. 3 vols. London: Heinemann, 1993–2000.

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    This collection for the years from 1939 to 1941 includes diplomatic, military, and other documents. The set is especially important for its inclusion of Churchill’s correspondence with foreign leaders in addition to that with Roosevelt and Stalin.

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  • Hillgruber, Andreas, ed. Staatsmänner und Diplomaten bei Hitler: Vertrauliche Aufzeichnungen über Unterredungen mit Vertretern des Auslandes, 1939–1941. Frankfurt: Bernard and Graefe, 1967.

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    Continued in the second volume, Zweiter Teil: 1942–1944 (1970). These two volumes are especially important for Germany’s relations with its allies, satellites, and collaborators as well as with neutrals during World War II. There is a helpful introduction, and the texts are carefully annotated.

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  • Ike, Nobutaka, ed. and trans. Japan’s Decision for War: Records of the 1941 Policy Conferences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1967.

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    The editor provides detailed introductory information.

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  • Kimball, Warren F., ed. Churchill and Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence. 3 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.

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    A collection that is as complete as possible with extensive annotations, maps, and a digest of all of the messages in the first volume.

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  • Loewenheim, Francis L., Harold D. Langley, and Manfred Jonas, eds. Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence. New York: Saturday Review, 1975.

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    A very carefully edited and extensively annotated collection with maps and a bibliography, but it is not as complete as Kimball 1984.

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  • Roosevelt, Elliott, ed. F.D.R.: His Personal Letters, 1928–1945. Vol. 2, 1938–1945. New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, 1950.

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    This is a full collection without the incoming mail but with explanatory information inserted at appropriate points. Volume 1, Early Years (New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, 1947), has a brief foreword by Eleanor Roosevelt.

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Official Histories

Several participants in the war have issued histories of the conflict under official auspices, and most of these either include international relations in some of the survey volumes or include them in special sets or books on specific theaters of war where relations with other countries were critically important. All of these aspects are seen in portions of the very extensive American books prepared for the Office of the Chief of Military History (now the US Army Center of Military History) and the British official histories prepared under the auspices of the Cabinet Office. For the US histories, see Leighton and Coakley 1955, Matloff and Snell 1953, Vigneras 1957, Vail Motter 1952, Romanus and Sunderland 1953, and Notter 1950. For the British histories, see Woodward 1970–1976 and Butler, et al. 1956–1976. The series published by the Federal Republic of Germany’s Military History Research Office is available in both German and English (Federal Republic of Germany 1979–2008). The Soviet set published in 1960 was translated and published by the Ministry for National Defense of the East German government (Institute for Marxism-Leninism 1962–1968). Neither the Italian nor the Japanese histories have been translated.

  • Butler, J. R. M., N. H. Gibbs, J. M. A. Gwyer, John Ehrman, and Michael Howard. History of the Second World War: Grand Strategy. 6 vols. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1956–1976.

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    Although concentrating on rearmament, military plans, and operations, the volumes also cover alliance issues. No archival citations. The first volume was published last.

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  • Federal Republic of Germany, Militärgeschichtliches Forschungsamt. Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg. 13 vols. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1979–2008.

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    This important set is being published in translation as Germany and the Second World War (Oxford: Clarendon, 1990–). The chapters are prepared by specialists, fully annotated to sources, and accompanied by excellent maps. They cover diplomatic issues, especially with Germany’s allies and satellites, as well as strategy, operations, occupation policy, and the German home front. Some volumes on the eastern front have been attacked in Germany as being too honest. The Militärgeschichtliches Forschungsamt also publishes numerous monographs and conference volumes on World War II.

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  • Institute for Marxism-Leninism of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Geschichte des grossen vaterländischen Krieges der Sowjetunion. 6 vols. Berlin: Deutscher Militärverlag, 1962–1968.

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    A complete, very slightly edited German translation of the 1960 Soviet official set with some source citations and many maps in separate binders. Military and diplomatic issues as seen from the official Soviet side at the time of publication. A one-volume English language summary of the second (1970) version is available: The Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union, 1941–1945: A General Outline (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1974) with no source notes, but maps are included. See also an annotated German translation of the 1959 version of a survey of the war by Boris Semjonowitsch Telpuchowski, a key figure in preparing the Soviet official history, Andreas Hillgruber and Hans-Adolf Jacobsen, eds., Die sowjetische Geschichte des Großen Vaterländischen Krieges 1941–1945 (Frankfurt: Bernard and Graefe, 1961).

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  • Leighton, Richard M., and Robert W. Coakley. Global Logistics and Strategy, 1940–1941. Vol. 5, United States Army in World War II: The War Department. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, 1955.

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    Very important for the problems in the competition for weapons and resources between the building up of America’s military and the deliveries to France and Britain and later to the Soviet Union.

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  • Matloff, Maurice, and Edwin M. Snell. Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare 1941–1942. Vol. 3, United States Army in World War II: The War Department. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, 1953.

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    Continued in Maurice Matloff’s Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare 1943–1944, Vol. 6, United States Army in World War II: The War Department (1959). Although very carefully done with source notes as with all US official histories, these volumes were prepared and published before the information on the breaking of German codes was revealed. Hence like all volumes in the so-called “Green Series” (Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunal under Control Council No. 10 [Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1940–1953]) published before the late 1970s, these need to be supplemented by scholarly works drawing on such subsequent information.

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  • Notter, Harley A. Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation: 1939–1945. Department of State Publication 3580, General Foreign Policy Series 15. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1950.

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    A carefully detailed account with a substantial set of appended documents prepared at the request of President Harry S. Truman. Based practically entirely on internal State Department documents; these documents are not provided with archival citations. Notter’s State Department files have been published in microfiche with two index volumes by University Publications of America.

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  • Romanus, Charles E., and Riley Sunderland. Stillwell’s Mission to China. Vol. 1, United States Army in World War II: The China-Burma-India Theater. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1953.

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    See also Volume 2, Stillwell’s Command Problems (1956), and Volume 3, Time Runs Out in CBI (1959). Critical for relations with the British, British Indian, and Chinese governments.

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  • Vail Motter, T. H. The Persian Corridor and Aid to Russia. Vol. 7, Pt. 1, United States Army in World War II: Middle East Theater. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1952.

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    Important for the issues in US relations with the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and the local authorities.

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  • Vigneras, Marcel. Rearming the French. United States Army in World War II Special Studies. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1957.

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    Covers issues in North Africa, Italy, northern Europe, the Free French navy, and plans for a French force to participate in Operation Coronet (the planned 1946 invasion of the Japanese home island of Honshu).

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  • Woodward, E. Llewellyn. British Foreign Policy in the Second World War. 5 vols. History of the Second World War. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1970–1976.

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    This very detailed work includes archival citations. It was originally prepared for official use between 1942 and 1950.

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Wartime Conferences

Although a committee of officials from Germany, Italy, and Japan occasionally met in Berlin in the years that the three powers were allies, the leaders of the three countries never held any meetings. The most useful collection of documents on the diplomatic contacts they did have is the collection on Adolf Hitler’s meetings with foreign leaders, Hillgruber 1967 (cited under Special Collections). The leaders of the United States and Great Britain met repeatedly, and they also twice met with Joseph Stalin. Excellent monographs on these meetings are available, including Wilson 1991, Bercuson and Herwig 2005, Eubank 1985, Sainsbury 1985, Clemens 1970, Plokhy 2010, Mee 1975, and Gormly 1990. In addition, McNeill 1953 covers the broad range of alliance diplomacy, Tuttle 1983 traces the role of a key figure, and Smith 1996 engages the widely ignored aspect of relations among the Allies in the field of intelligence.

Peace Moves

Very little has been written about the real and imagined efforts to arrive at some sort of peace during World War II. Fleischhauer 1986 and Martin 1974, written by two German scholars, assess and survey this issue, and Legro 1995 is a study of one special aspect. Several authors have covered the contacts between the German resistance to Adolf Hitler and American intelligence (Hassell and MacRae 2006, Heideking and Mauch 1995, and Klemperer 1992). Weinberg 1996 reviews the literature on the possibility of a separate peace between Germany and the Soviet Union.

  • Fleischhauer, Ingeborg. Die Chance des Sonderfriedens: Deutsch-sowjetische Geheimgespräche 1941–1945. Berlin: Siedler, 1986.

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    Based heavily on documents and interviews in Sweden, where the contacts took place, the book illuminates Soviet interest and German disinterest in a possible separate peace, primarily in 1943.

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  • Hassell, Agostino von, and Sigrid MacRae. Alliance of Enemies: The Untold Story of the Secret American and German Collaboration to End World War II. New York: Dunne, 2006.

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    Material on wartime contacts primarily in neutral countries.

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  • Heideking, Jürgen, and Christof Mauch, eds. American Intelligence and the German Resistance to Hitler: A Documentary History. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995.

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    Documents on the subject, some of which had been declassified quite recently.

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  • Klemperer, Klemens von. German Resistance against Hitler: The Search for Allies Abroad, 1938–1945. Oxford: Clarendon, 1992.

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    The culmination of many years of careful work, this book brings vast detail. However, it fails to engage the critical issue of why no effort was made to overthrow the regime during the ten years between when Hitler became chancellor and the public proclamation of the unconditional surrender policy. All such attempts took place after January 1943.

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  • Legro, Jeffrey W. Cooperation Under Fire: Anglo-German Restraint during World War II. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.

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    Engages restraints in the conduct of military operations with some reference to diplomacy.

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  • Martin, Bernd. Friedensinitiativen und Machtpolitik im Zweiten Weltkrieg 1939–1942. Düsseldorf: Droste, 1974.

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    Some interesting material on the first years of the war but with many errors.

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  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. “Zur Frage eines Sonderfriedens im Osten.” In Gezeitenwechsel im Zweiten Weltkrieg? Die Schlachten von Char’kov und Kursk im Frühjahr und Sommer 1943 in Operativer Anlage, Verlauf und Politischer Bedeutung. Edited by Roland G. Foerster, 173–183. Hamburg, Germany: Mittler, 1996.

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    A survey of the available evidence on German-Soviet peace feelers.

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The Allies

In addition to the broader issues of diplomatic relations and alliance politics, the foreign policies of individual participants in the war as well as their relations with specific allies and neutrals have been examined. Several books have covered specific topics about the relations among the Allies; Bungert 1997 and Tyrell 1987 are significant examples. The roles played by neutral countries are discussed under The Neutrals.

  • Bungert, Heike. Das Nationalkomitee und der Westen: Die Reaktion der Westalliierten auf das NKFD und die Freien Deutschen Bewegungen 1943–1948. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1997.

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    A careful tracing of the issues surrounding the 1943 creation by the Soviet Union of special organizations among German prisoners of war held in that country and among German refugees in some additional countries.

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  • Tyrell, Albrecht. Grossbritannien und die Deutschlandplanung der Alliierten 1941–1945. Frankfurt: Metzner, 1987.

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    A review of the development and arguments over plans for occupied postwar Germany among the Allies. Should be read in conjunction with Lothar Kettenacker, Krieg zur Friedenssicherung: Die Deutschlandplanung der britischen Regierung während des Zweiten Weltkrieges (Göttingen, West Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1989).

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Poland

Although the first country attacked militarily by Germany, Poland was among the last to regain its independence because of its location between Germany and the Soviet Union. The efforts of its government in exile to reassert the state’s independence were thwarted for decades, but in addition to the discussions about this issue between its allies, real and nominal, the Polish authorities themselves did what they could to assert the state’s interests as they saw them. These efforts are described in Cienciala 1968, Terry 1983, and Prażmovska 1995. The relationship of the United States with Poland is reviewed in Lukas 1978, and important documents from the archive of the Polish government in exile are available in General Sikorski Historical Institute 1951–1967.

Great Britain

This section covers Great Britain’s relations with France, The Soviet Union, The United States, The Middle East, and The Vatican.

France

France and Great Britain, the two allies who started together in the war, separated dramatically in 1940. Their relationship both before and after the decision of the French government to sign an armistice with Germany was exceedingly complicated and included both actual fighting and secret contacts. Gates 1981, Smith 2009, and Thomas 1979 cover some of these events, but a truly comprehensive study of the whole complicated story remains to be written. Now that the French as well as the British archives for this are accessible, such a work will hopefully appear. See also Hytier 1958 (cited under Vichy France).

The Soviet Union

The German invasion of the Soviet Union made Great Britain and the Soviet Union allies for the rest of the war, but there were many problems. These are illustrated in Gorodetsky 1984, a review of the British ambassador at the beginning of the new alliance, and Ross 1984, a collection of materials on the relationship for the whole period. A fine companion to Herring 1973 (cited under The United States: The Soviet Union), on American aid to the Soviet Union, is the study of British aid, Beaumont 1980. Carlton 1999 and Folly 2000 concentrate on Winston Churchill’s personal role.

The United States

Although all books dealing with the Allied side of the war necessarily cover US-British relations to some extent, a few works also engage important specific issues and personalities. Of these, Danchev 1986 and Reynolds 1983 are especially significant. Lend-lease to Britain is covered in Dobson 1986. A fine survey of the later war years is Hathaway 1981.

The Middle East

In view of the importance of British interests in the Middle East, Britain’s special role in the newly formed state of Iraq (Silverfarb 1986) and in the Palestine Mandate (Zweig 1986) deserves attention.

The Vatican

London and the Vatican had official diplomatic relations during World War II, and Chadwick 1986 offers considerable insight into the relations between the Vatican and the Fascist government and how the British government used its envoy to the Vatican to help the Allied cause.

  • Chadwick, Owen. Britain and the Vatican during the Second World War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

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    Because the Vatican archives for the war years remain closed, this book provides material from the British archives that is especially important for the later war years.

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Soviet Foreign Policy

Most of the literature on Soviet foreign policy during World War II covers the relationship among the three major Allies. Very few analyses focus attention on the issues of the time from the Soviet perspective. However, Haslam 1992 and Lenssen 1972 cover the situation in East Asia, whereas Mastny 1979 and Raack 1995 emphasize the expansionist policies of Joseph Stalin. The biography of Stalin by General Dmitri Volkogonov (Volkogonov 1991) includes coverage of the Soviet leader’s foreign policies. A much-discussed event in wartime diplomacy, the Churchill-Stalin agreement on influence percentages, is illuminated in Resis 1981. Extensively annotated documents from Stalin’s archive are included in Rzheshevsky 1996.

The United States

In addition to the documents, official histories, and works about the summit meetings, an enormous amount of literature is available on the foreign relations of the United States in World War II. A sample is included here of those focused on American-Soviet relations (The Soviet Union) and on broader issues of diplomacy and strategy during the war (Diplomacy, Strategy, and Other Issues).

The Soviet Union

The studies of US relations with the Soviet Union during the war, Bennett 1990, Dawson 1959, Glantz 2005, Herring 1973, Mayers 1995, Nelson 1976, and Weeks 2004 are samples of a massive literature.

  • Bennett, Edward M. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Search for Victory: American-Soviet Relations 1939–1945. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1990.

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    A careful survey based on extensive work in American archives.

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  • Dawson, Raymond. The Decision to Aid Russia, 1941: Foreign Policy and Domestic Politics. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1959.

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    Although an early work, it engages the internal American situation very well.

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  • Glantz, Mary E. FDR and the Soviet Union: The President’s Battles over Foreign Policy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005.

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    A very thorough analysis of the differences between the president and much of the American domestic and diplomatic bureaucracies over policy toward the Soviet Union. The author does not give enough attention to the way Soviet conduct (as compared with their earlier treatment of German diplomats) contributed to the negative attitudes of American civilian and military diplomats. The book has an excellent bibliography that includes extensive Soviet and post-Soviet publications in Russian.

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  • Herring, George C., Jr. Aid to Russia 1941–1946: Strategy, Diplomacy, the Origins of the Cold War. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973.

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    This excellent study is well written but is necessarily based only on archives and publications in English. See also Weeks 2004.

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  • Mayers, David. The Ambassadors and America’s Soviet Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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    Includes the wartime ambassadors in a rather opinionated survey based on English-language archives, interviews, and publications.

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  • Nelson, Daniel J. Wartime Origins of the Berlin Dilemma. University: University of Alabama Press, 1976.

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    Helpful for the origins of an issue that would be critical in the postwar years. Closely relevant is the article by William M. Franklin, “Zonal Boundaries and Access to Berlin,” World Politics 16.1 (1963): 1–31.

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  • Weeks, Albert L. Russia’s Life-Saver: Lend-Lease Aid to the U.S.S.R. in World War II. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2004.

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    The most detailed account with statistics and an examination of Soviet and post-Soviet publications on the subject in Russian.

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Diplomacy, Strategy, and Other Issues

Because of the enormous number of books dealing with the foreign relations of the United States during World War II, only a small selection is listed here. The titles of Divine 1967, Kimball 1996, Langer and Gleason 1952, O’Connor 1971, Rosen 2006, Stoler 2000, and Stoler 1977 each clearly indicate the specific subject matter.

  • Divine, Robert A. Second Chance: The Triumph of Internationalism in America during World War II. New York: Atheneum, 1967.

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    Describes the way a previously isolationist population came to shift toward a willingness to participate in international organizations and play an active, even interventionist, role in world affairs.

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  • Kimball, Warren F. Forged in War: Roosevelt, Churchill, and the Second World War. New York: Morrow, 1996.

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    Shows how in spite of significant differences and arguments over military strategy, postwar plans, and the issue of colonialism, the two leaders and their countries created a real working relationship.

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  • Langer, William L., and S. Everett Gleason. The World Crisis and American Foreign Policy. Vol. 2, The Undeclared War, 1940–1941. New York: Harper, 1952.

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    An early but still helpful review of how the United States increasingly was affected by the war and took steps to cope with the challenges that German and Japanese expansion posed.

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  • O’Connor, Raymond G. Diplomacy for Victory: FDR and Unconditional Surrender. New York: Norton, 1971.

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    A careful analysis of how the unconditional surrender formula included both its origins and its application.

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  • Rosen, Robert N. Saving the Jews: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Holocaust. New York: Thunder’s Mouth, 2006.

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    A thoughtful rejoinder to some of the efforts to make the American president an accomplice of the Nazis.

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  • Stoler, Mark A. The Politics of the Second Front: American Military Planning and Diplomacy in Coalition Warfare, 1941–1943. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1977.

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    An analysis of how American military unpreparedness and slow rearmament affected a critical issue in inter-Allied diplomacy and military planning.

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  • Stoler, Mark A. Allies and Adversaries: The Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Grand Alliance, and US Strategy in World War II. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

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    A detailed analysis of how the country’s military leaders both debated and helped formulate American diplomatic and military strategy.

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China

The literature in Western languages on Chinese foreign policy during World War II is quite slim. The listed biographies (out of dozens) of the Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek (Fenby 2003 and Taylor 2009) necessarily include some coverage of foreign relations along with other topics. Some specific issues are covered in Heiferman 2011, Liu 1996, Näth 1976, Plating 2011, and Schaller 2002.

Free French

Other than accounts of the endless difficulties that Charles de Gaulle arranged to have with Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt, very little literature is available on the foreign policy views and relations of the Free French during the war. Obviously the English edition of de Gaulle 1955, his war memoirs, is a good place to start. In addition, a few studies of specific aspects and periods are available, including DePorte 1968, Funk 1959, Grams 1994, Huguier 2010, Lacouture 1993, and Paxton and Wahl 1994.

  • de Gaulle, Charles. War Memoirs. Vol. 1, The Call to Honor 1940–1942. Translated by Jonathan Griffin. New York: Viking, 1955.

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    The first of three volumes. The second volume, Unity, consists of documents; the third is titled Salvation. Also available is a book that contains the three volumes of the original de Gaulle memoirs without the documents: Charles de Gaulle, The Complete War Memoirs of Charles de Gaulle (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964).

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  • DePorte, A. W. De Gaulle’s Foreign Policy, 1944–1946. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968.

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    An excellent survey for the end of the war and the immediate postwar years.

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  • Funk, Arthur L. Charles de Gaulle: The Crucial Years, 1943–1944. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1959.

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    The author had some early access to State Department records and was able to interview a substantial number of American and French officials who were involved at the time. See also Funk’s The Politics of TORCH: The Allied Landings and the Algiers Putsch, 1942 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1974).

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  • Grams, Erika S. “Charles de Gaulle and Harry Truman: The Effects of Personality on Diplomacy during the Stuttgart and Val d’Aosta Incidents in Spring 1945.” MA thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1994.

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    Examines two bitter disputes between the Free French and the American government.

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  • Huguier, Michel. De Gaulle, Roosevelt, et l’Indo-Chine de 1940 à 1945. Paris: Harmattan, 2010.

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    Based entirely on published works but one of the few works dealing with this subject.

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  • Lacouture, Jean. De Gaulle: The Rebel, 1890–1944. Translated by Patrick O’Brien. New York: Norton, 1993.

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    Still a very readable and helpful introduction to the leader of the Free French. Originally published in 1984.

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  • Paxton, Robert O., and Nicholas Wahl, eds. De Gaulle and the United States, 1930–70: A Centennial Reappraisal. Oxford: Berg, 1994.

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    The four papers in chapter 1 and the two papers in chapter 2 cover the war years.

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The Axis Powers

Although a massive amount of literature on Nazi Germany is available and a substantial amount on Fascist Italy and Japan during 1931 to 1945, very little covers their relationship with each other. This is also true of their relations with the countries that fought—or pretended to fight—alongside them. The collection edited by Andreas Hillgruber (Hillgruber 1967, cited under Special Collections) remains one of the very few that covers such matters systematically. A small number of works are listed in the following subsections for each of the countries that fought together for all or part of the war. Hauner 1981 is one of the very few books that covers how the Axis powers dealt with a specific issue.

  • Hauner, Milan. India in Axis Strategy: Germany, Japan, and Indian Nationalists in the Second World War. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1981.

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    Important for German-Japanese relations, the interests of Germany in India and Afghanistan, and the Indian nationalist movement of Subhas Chandra Bose that collaborated with the Axis powers.

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Germany

This section covers Germany’s relations with Italy, Japan, and the Satellites, Neutrals, and Other Areas.

Italy

The early study Deakin 1966 remains a fine, if bulky, survey of Germany’s relationship with and impact on Italy. Special problems are covered in Knox 2000 and Latour 1962. However, there is a major gap in the literature; a new study may be forthcoming based on the now-accessible German and Italian records.

Japan

In spite of the importance of the alliance between Germany and Japan in the history of World War II and the essential role of the German promise to join Japan in war against the United States in Tokyo’s decision to do so, the literature on German-Japanese relations during the war is sparse. Presseisen 1958 and Sommer 1962 cover the years before 1941, and Martin 1969 and Meskill 1966 devote their studies to the years from 1941 to 1945.

Satellites, Neutrals, and Other Areas

During the war Germany was joined by a number of countries and self-appointed anti-British leaders who saw in an expected German victory benefits for themselves and the movements and countries they led. On Romania, Hillgruber 1954 and Marguerat 1977 remain critical sources. On movements and countries in the Middle East, see el-Dessouki 1963, Hirszowicz 1966, and Krecker 1964. Leitz 2000 covers Germany’s relations with European neutrals, and Förster 1975 does a fine job of showing how the German defeat at Stalingrad affected several of the country’s allies. Ziemke 1959 brings important details on German plans and actions toward all of the Scandinavian countries.

  • el-Dessouki, Mohammed-Kamal. Hitler und der Nahe Osten. Berlin: Ernst-Reuter-Gesellschaft, 1963.

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    Covers all aspects of German relations with the Middle East (including Turkey) and North Africa.

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  • Förster, Jürgen. Stalingrad: Risse im Bündnis 1942/43. Freiburg, West Germany: Rombach, 1975.

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    Traces the way Germany’s satellites reacted to the Axis defeat at Stalingrad and the steps taken by Germany to counter the new policies considered or adopted by them.

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  • Hillgruber, Andreas. Hitler, König Carol und Marschall Antonescu: Die deutsch-rumänischen Beziehungen, 1938–1944. Wiesbaden, West Germany: Steiner, 1954.

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    This careful survey of German-Romanian relations remains the best introduction to the subject.

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  • Hirszowicz, Lukasz. The Third Reich and the Arab East. London: Routledge, 1966.

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    Originally published in 1963 in Polish, this book is a fine introduction to the subject. The author had access to records then in East German custody.

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  • Krecker, Lothar. Deutschland und die Türkei im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Frankfurt: Klostermann, 1964.

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    This early survey concerning Germany and Turkey is based on the German foreign ministry archives and the literature in German and English.

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  • Leitz, Christian. Nazi Germany and Neutral Europe during the Second World War. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2000.

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    The coverage of this well-written book includes Switzerland, Sweden, Turkey, Spain, and Portugal. It should be consulted together with Wylie 2001 (cited under The Neutrals).

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  • Mallmann, Klaus-Michael, and Martin Cüppers. Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine. Translated by Krista Smith. New York: Enigma, 2010.

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    This translation of the 2006 German edition (Darmstadt, Germany: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft) covers German policy toward the Arab world in general and thus engages many issues beyond the one implied by the title of the English edition.

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  • Marguerat, Philippe. Le IIIe Reich et le pétrole roumain, 1938–1940. Leiden, The Netherlands: Sijthoff, 1977.

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    Critical for a most important element in Germany’s relations with Romania before and during the war.

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  • Ziemke, Earl F. The German Northern Theater of Operations, 1940–1945. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1959.

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    This book, issued under the auspices of the US Department of the Army, remains important not only for German military operations in Norway and Finland but also for plans for the invasion of Sweden and related diplomatic issues.

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Italy

The literature on Italian foreign policy and relations during World War II concentrates on the decisions involved in entering the war in 1940 and leaving it—or trying to leave it—in 1943. Knox 1982 and Siebert 1962 concentrate on the former, whereas Agarossi 2000 and Schröder 1969 cover the latter. Alfieri 1948 and Toscano 1970 cover specific issues in Italy’s relations with Germany, the Soviet Union, and other countries during the war years. Burgwyn 2005 is essential for Italy’s relations with the puppet state of Croatia. The diary and papers of Galeazzo Ciano (Ciano 2002), who was Benito Mussolini’s foreign minister during the critical years, provide a most important source for all aspects of Italian foreign relations in the years before the war and during the great conflict.

  • Agarossi, Elena. A Nation Collapses: The Italian Surrender of 1943. Translated by Harvey Fergusson II. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

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    A readable and thoughtful analysis of the background and consequences of Italy’s surrender.

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  • Alfieri, Dino. Deux dictateurs face à face: Rome–Berlin 1939–1943. Geneva, Switzerland: Cheval Ailé, 1948.

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    This is a combination of memoir and account by a former diplomat and propaganda minister close to Galeazzo Ciano.

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  • Burgwyn, H. James. Empire on the Adriatic: Mussolini’s Conquest of Yugoslavia, 1941–1943. New York: Enigma, 2005.

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    An important analysis of Italian policy toward Yugoslavia and especially the puppet state of Croatia during the war along with a view of Italian occupation policy.

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  • Ciano, Galeazzo. Diary, 1937–1943. Translated by Robert J. Miller and Stanislao G. Pugliese. New York: Enigma, 2002.

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    This is the complete English-language edition of a very important document that had previously appeared in incomplete editions. The preface is by the editor of the Italian edition, Renzo de Felice. The diary of Mussolini’s foreign minister and son-in-law is supplemented by Malcolm Muggeridge, ed., Ciano’s Diplomatic Papers, translated by Stuart Hood (London: Odhams, 1948), and chapter 2, “The Ciano Papers: Rose Garden,” in Howard McGaw Smyth, Secrets of the Fascist Era: How Uncle Sam Obtained Some of the Top-Level Documents of Mussolini’s Period (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1975).

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  • Knox, MacGregor. Mussolini Unleashed 1939–1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy’s Last War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

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    Analyzes, on the basis of thorough research of the period of Italian neutrality, the decision to enter the war and the background and repercussions of the attack on Greece. See also Siebert 1962.

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  • Schröder, Josef. Italiens Kriegsaustritt 1943: Die deutschen Gegenmaßnahmen im Italienischen Raum; Fall “Alarich” und “Achse.” Göttingen, West Germany: Musterschmidt-Verlag, 1969.

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    A very detailed study of the Italian surrender, the German anticipation of that possibility, and the German reaction to it.

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  • Siebert, Ferdinand. Italiens Weg in den Zweiten Weltkrieg. Frankfurt: Athenäum, 1962.

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    This work provides background and additional details to the issues reviewed in Knox 1982.

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  • Toscano, Mario. Designs in Diplomacy: Pages from European Diplomatic History in the Twentieth Century. Translated and edited by George A. Carbone. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1970.

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    Scholarly articles; all but the first deal with Italian relations with the Soviet Union, France, Germany, and countries in the Balkans during World War II.

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Japan

Very little serious literature is available on Japan’s foreign policy in the years after its attacks on the United States, Britain, and the Netherlands. Most books, such as Butow 1961, examine the background of Japan’s decision to attack. Ienaga 1978 barely touches on foreign policy issues in the one serious account from the Japanese side. Bix 2000, a biography of Emperor Hirohito, provides a small amount of information on foreign policy decisions, as does the very detailed Krebs 1984. Information on the emperor’s attitude toward foreign affairs before the 1945 surrender is treated best by Frank 1999. In the absence of other helpful works, two diaries that include references to diplomatic issues are Lietzmann and Wenneker 1982–1984 and Kido 1984.

Romania

Information on Romania’s foreign relations during World War II is included in the general accounts of World War II (see General Overviews) and in the entries under Germany and The Axis Powers: Italy. The general history of Romania, Hitchens 1994, offers a good introduction to the subject, whereas Deletant 2006, a study of Romania as Germany’s ally in the war, sheds light on that subject and the country’s dictator from 1940 to 1944, Ion Antonescu. However, none explains Antonescu’s insistence on war with the United States.

  • Deletant, Dennis. Hitler’s Forgotten Ally: Ion Antonescu and His Regime, Romania 1940–1944. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

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    A balanced study of a figure still very controversial. Explores not only the internal regime of Antonescu but also his foreign policy. Antonescu joined Germany in the war and in the mass killing of Jews and Gypsies but then turned away from such policies when the war went badly for the Axis, causing especially large numbers of Romanian casualties. Correctly stresses the personal tie that developed between Antonescu and Adolf Hitler.

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  • Hitchens, Keith. Rumania, 1866–1947. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994.

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    Chapters 10 and 11 provide an excellent survey of foreign policy during the war years from 1919 to 1940. The bibliographic essay is especially useful for its discussion of Rumanian publications.

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Hungary

Hungarian foreign policy during the war is included to some extent in the sections on Germany and The Axis Powers: Italy. Much of the literature engages Hungary’s entrance into the conflict in 1941 and its efforts to find a way out in 1943 and 1944. Dreisziger 1983 deals with all of them, as do the papers of Admiral Miklós Horthy (Szinai and Szücs 1965; see also Fenyo 1972) and the surveys Juhász 1979 and Macartney 1956–1957. Cornelius 2011 is the best introduction to the subject. So far, no study has been made on the insistence of the Hungarian government on going to war with the United States in spite of the effort of the latter to have the declaration of war withdrawn.

Bulgaria

The literature on Bulgarian foreign relations during the war in Western languages is quite limited. Hoppe 1979 remains one of the few that covers essentially all of the relevant aspects of Bulgaria’s relations with Germany as well as other countries. For the complicated Bulgarian relations with Britain, see Rachev 1981.

  • Hoppe, Hans-Joachim. Bulgarien—Hitlers eigenwilliger Verbündeter: Eine Fallstudie zur nationalsozialistischen Südosteuropapolitik. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1979.

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    A very carefully researched survey that covers the 1930s as well as the war years and deals with essentially all aspects of Bulgarian foreign relations, including the decision to declare war on the United States. A full bibliography.

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  • Rachev, Stoyan. Anglo-Bulgarian Relations during the Second World War (1939–1944). Translated by Stefan Kostov. Sofia, Bulgaria: Sofia, 1981.

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    A survey of the topic that is useful although published under Communist auspices.

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Finland

Finland was first the victim of a Soviet invasion and subsequently joined Germany in an attack on the Soviet Union. It was also the only Axis power that was allowed to escape unconditional surrender and complete occupation and was instead accorded an armistice. Only a small selection of the substantial literature can be included here. There are two books containing Finnish diplomatic documents issued by the Finnish government (Finland Ulkoasiainministeriö 1941 and Procopé 1941). Berry 1987 engages the special role that Finland played in US foreign policy. The excellent balanced survey Vehviläinen 2002 covers the entire war and the immediate postwar period. Krosby 1968, Lunde 2011, and Ueberschär 1978 focus on the complicated problems in Finland’s relations with Germany and the Soviet Union. The biography of Carl Gustaf Emil von Mannerheim, Warner 1967, offers a view of the central figure in Finland’s modern history. Silvennoinen 2010 uncovers secret connections between the Finnish and the German secret police.

  • Berry, R. Michael. American Foreign Policy and the Finnish Exception: Ideological Preferences and Wartime Realities. Helsinki: Societas Historica Finlandiae, 1987.

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    Covers the special situation that contributed to Finland’s exit from the war in spite of its alliance with Germany. The author used both Finnish and American archives.

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  • Finland Ulkoasiainministeriö. Blauweiss-Buch der Finnischen Regierung. Helsinki: Oy Suomen Kirja, 1941.

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    Finnish documents on the background of the Soviet invasion in 1939.

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  • Krosby, H. Peter. Finland, Germany, and the Soviet Union, 1940–1941: The Petsamo Dispute. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968.

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    This well-written analysis of the issues around Finland’s access to the Arctic Ocean and control of the nickel mines will be helpful for anyone seriously interested in the complicated situation of Finland before, during, and after the war. Based on sources in Finnish as well as other languages.

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  • Lunde, Henrik O. Finland’s War of Choice: The Troubled German-Finnish Coalition in World War II. Havertown, PA: Casemate, 2011.

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    Although concentrating on military operations, this book also examines the diplomatic choices of the Finnish government. A fine introduction to a portion of World War II that is generally ignored.

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  • Procopé, Hjalmar J. F. Finland Reveals Her Secret Documents on Soviet Policy, March 1940–June 1941. New York: Wilfred Funk, 1941.

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    Material released to justify Finland joining Germany in the attack on the Soviet Union.

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  • Silvennoinen, Oula. Geheime Waffenbrüderschaft die sicherheitspolizeiliche Zusammenarbeit zwischen Deutschland und Finnland 1933–1944. Translated by Klaus Reichel and Kaija Reichel. Darmstadt, Germany: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2010.

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    This German edition of a 2008 Finnish publication that led to a considerable uproar there reveals the extent to which Finnish and German secret police cooperated and also describes the role of the German Einsatzkommando Finnland, the special murder squad attached to the German and Finnish forces operating in northern Finland during the war with the Soviet Union.

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  • Ueberschär, Gerd R. Hitler und Finnland 1939–1941: Die Deutsch-Finnischen Beziehungen während des Hitler-Stalin Paktes. Wiesbaden, West Germany: Steiner, 1978.

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    A very detailed study of German-Finnish relations as background for Finland joining Germany in 1941. No sources in Finnish but a comprehensive bibliography in German, English, and French.

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  • Vehviläinen, Olli. Finland in the Second World War: Between Germany and Russia. Translated by Gerard McAlester. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave, 2002.

    DOI: 10.1057/9781403919748Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Based on careful work in Finnish, Russian, and Swedish archives as well as the relevant literature, this is a short, very well written, and fairly balanced account. It engages the major issues and can be profitably read by undergraduates as well as specialists.

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  • Warner, Oliver. Marshal Mannerheim and the Finns. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1967.

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    An adoring biography without notes but access to members of Mannerheim’s family. Covers diplomacy along with political and military events.

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Slovakia

The literature on the puppet state of Slovakia established under German auspices in March 1939 tends to concentrate on its internal affairs. General histories of the state do include a review of its foreign relations, primarily with Germany. Lettrich 1955 provides more information than Mannová 2000, although published much earlier. Tönsmeyer 2003 details the impact of German advisers, diplomats, and other officials in the internal affairs of Slovakia and the reaction to them of the local officials and the people.

Croatia

The puppet state of Croatia that was created by Germany and Italy after they crushed Yugoslavia in World War II was of course dependent on them but had its own aims in internal and foreign policy. The internal policy—primarily the murder of as many Eastern Orthodox Christians, Jews, and Gypsies as possible—very much affected its close relations with the Vatican, a subject covered in Bulajić 1993 and Dedijer 1992. Relations with Italy are dealt with in Burgwyn 2005 (cited under The Axis Powers: Italy). Relations with Germany are the subject of Schiller 2010, whereas Hory and Broszat 1964 and Ramet 2007, surveys of Croatia’s history, include helpful reviews on the state’s foreign relations.

Vichy France

Because the armed forces of the Vichy government fought only against the British, Americans, and Free French but never against the Germans, Italians, or Japanese, it seems appropriate to list that regime under the Axis powers. Many of the works listed under Great Britain, The Allies: The United States, Germany, and The Axis Powers: Italy cover the relationship of those countries with the Vichy regime. Unfortunately no study covers Vichy-Japanese relations on the basis of the American-translated intercepts of messages from the Japanese diplomats accredited to the Vichy. The early book Hytier 1958 remains a fine introduction to the subject for students and specialists alike. Paxton 1972 covers the history of Vichy as a whole, and Böhme 1966 is a study of the armistice that created the new unit that provides necessary background. Rousso 1980 details the final stage of the Vichy regime’s relations with Germany while German forces were still in Vichy France.

The Neutrals

Wylie 2001 is the one book that covers those countries that either joined one side later in the war or were neutral until attacked. Vatican relations with Britain and Croatia are listed under those countries (see Great Britain: The Vatican and Croatia).

  • Wylie, Neville, ed. European Neutrals and Non-Belligerents during the Second World War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511523793Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Coverage by an international group of experts from each European country, including those that either gave up neutrality or were invaded. This is the best place to begin reading about the Scandinavian states, the Low Countries, the countries of the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, and the Balkans.

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Spain

Because of its strategic location, possession of strategic raw materials, and ties to the Axis powers resulting in the Axis support of Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War, an extensive amount of literature about Spain in World War II is available. Feis 1948 is a fine insider’s account, whereas Burdick 1968, Detwiler 1962, Goda 1998, Payne 2008, and Ruhl 1975 cover specific important issues. The survey Pike 2008 covers the field.

Sweden

Swedish iron and ball bearings were of critical importance to the German war effort; hence, its efforts to remain neutral included substantial and steady concessions to Germany, including the transit of German soldiers and many supplies. Sweden also provided help to Finland during the winter of 1939–1940, helped some Jews escape the Holocaust, and provided a central location for the espionage operations and diplomatic contacts of both sides. Carlgren 1977 and Gilmour 2010 cover the entire field, whereas Roth 2009 examines the German diplomatic and other presence in Sweden. Wittmann 1978 surveys Sweden’s economic relations with Germany during the entire Nazi period. Lutzhöft 1981 reviews the military diplomatic problems in German-Swedish relations. Leitz 2000 (cited under Satellites, Neutrals, and Other Areas) should also be consulted.

  • Carlgren, W. M. Swedish Foreign Policy during the Second World War. Translated by Arthur Spencer. New York: St. Martin’s, 1977.

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    This book originally appeared in Sweden in 1973. The author was in charge of the archives of the Swedish foreign ministry and bases his account primarily on those sources, but only the original Swedish edition contains reference notes. The discussion of sources and the literature is included in the English edition. The text is not surprisingly somewhat defensive.

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  • Gilmour, John. Sweden, the Swastika, and Stalin: The Swedish Experience in the Second World War. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010.

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    A well-written survey but without notes, this book can serve as a good introduction to the issues and problems of Swedish foreign policy.

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  • Lutzhöft, Hans-Jürgen. Deutsche Militärpolitik und schwedische Neutralität 1939–1942. Neumünster, West Germany: Wachholtz, 1981.

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    A carefully done analysis of the transit of German soldiers and prisoners of war across Sweden and the issue of German air force overflights as these played a key role in Sweden’s relations with Germany.

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  • Roth, Daniel B. Hitlers Brückenkopf in Schweden: Die deutsche Gesandtschaft in Stockholm 1933–1945. Berlin: Lit Verlag, 2009.

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    Based on material in German and Swedish archives, this account of German diplomats, spies, the military, and other officials and representatives in Sweden makes for very interesting reading.

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  • Wittmann, Klaus. Schwedens Wirtschaftsbeziehungen zum Dritten Reich 1933–1945. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1978.

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    This book is critical reading for its discussion of the issue of steel supplies for Germany, the transit of German soldiers and goods across Sweden, the supply of stones for Nazi construction projects, and Allied efforts to restrain Swedish shipments to Germany.

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Switzerland

The literature on Switzerland in World War II received an enormous push from the publicity and disputes about Swiss cooperation with Germany, especially in the despoiling of Jewish victims of the Holocaust, in the 1990s. The best survey since that uproar is Kreis 2000. Bower 1997, Bourgeois 1998, Garbely 2003, Marguerat 1991, Reginbogen 2006, Schmelzer 2003, and Wylie 2003 are helpful, but the Independent Commission of Experts Switzerland 2002 report is required reading for anyone interested in Swiss policy during the war. Leitz 2000 (cited under Satellites, Neutrals, and Other Areas) also sheds light on Swiss foreign relations during the war.

  • Bourgeois, Daniel. Business helvétique et Troisième Reich: Milieux d’affaires, politique étrangère, antisémitisme. Lausanne, Switzerland: Editions Page Deux, 1998.

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    This is a helpful survey of all aspects. A German edition is also available: Das Geschäft mit Hitlerdeutschland: Schweizer Wirtschaft und drittes Reich (Zurich, Switzerland: Rotpunktverl, 1999).

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  • Bower, Tom. Nazi Gold: The Full Story of the Fifty-Year Swiss-Nazi Conspiracy to Steal Billions from Europe’s Jews and Holocaust Survivors. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.

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    A very detailed indictment that covers more issues than the ones listed in the title; based on Swiss, American, and British archives and with very extensive notes.

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  • Garbely, Frank. Evitas Geheimnis: Die Europareise der Evita. Zürich, Switzerland: Rotpunktverlag, 2003.

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    Although focusing on a postwar event, this book contains extensive information on late wartime planning for the transfer of assets through Switzerland to Argentina and the flight of Nazis on that route.

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  • Independent Commission of Experts Switzerland, Second World War. Switzerland, National Socialism, and the Second World War: Final Report. Zurich, Switzerland: Pendo, 2002.

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    This summary of numerous published reports covers many specific issues, including turning away Jewish refugees, accepting Nazis fleeing justice, Swiss banks stealing assets of murdered Jews, the Swiss government lending Germany money to buy war materials and finance espionage inside Switzerland, converting stolen gold to foreign exchange for Germany to critical materials from other neutrals, the utilization of slave labor by Swiss firms in Germany, and the transport of troops and material across the country to fight the Allies. The commission had special access to archives in government and bank records in Switzerland, even as banks were busy destroying relevant records.

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  • Kreis, Georg, ed. Switzerland and the Second World War. London: Cass, 2000.

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    This is an especially helpful book, because it contains information from specialists on many issues, including refugee policy, gold and fund transfers, military preparations, and air force incidents. Because of its wide coverage and the ability to take advantage of revelations in the preceding decade, this is an excellent place for students and scholars to begin their examination of the wider subject.

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  • Marguerat, Philippe. La Suisse face au IIIe Reich: Réduit national et dissuasion économique, 1940–1945. Lausanne, Switzerland: Editions Vingt-quatre Heures, 1991.

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    No notes are provided in this book, but it is one of the few that engages the military aspects.

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  • Reginbogen, Herbert R. Der Vergleich: Die Politik der Schweiz zur Zeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs im internationalen Umfeld. Stäfa, Switzerland: Gut, 2006.

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    This spirited defense of any and all Swiss actions and policies during the war might be read alongside the report Independent Commission of Experts Switzerland 2002.

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  • Schmelzer, Janis. Devisen für den Endsieg: Görings “Geschäftsgruppe Devisen,” die Schweiz und die deutsche Wirtschaft. Stuttgart: Schmetterling Verlag, 2003.

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    An analysis of the role of a special segment of Hermann Göring’s Four-Year Plan Office that had a monopoly on foreign exchange transactions, based on material in the special archive of captured German records in Moscow as well as those in Germany, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein.

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  • Wylie, Neville. Britain, Switzerland, and the Second World War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206903.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book, although rather kind toward the Swiss, explains why Great Britain’s relations with Switzerland remained decent during World War II in spite of serious differences.

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Portugal

Although long allied with Britain, Portugal did not enter World War II on the Allied side as it had done in World War I. Weber 2011 explains in detail how Portugal became the route to enter and leave German-controlled Europe during the war. The Portuguese diplomatic documents for the war years have been published in a big set (Portugal Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1961–1992). Vintras 1974 and Weiss 1980 cover the question of the utilization of bases in the Azores by the Allies in the Battle of the Atlantic. The books listed under Spain also contain information on Portugal, especially the military planning of both sides as it related to possible operations involving the two countries and their island possessions in the Atlantic.

Turkey

The two critical issues concerning Turkey in World War II—aside from whether the Germans would invade it—were the supply of chrome and other critical raw materials to Germany and whether the country would enter the war on the side of the Allies, which it finally did in February 1945. Until a book based on access to the Turkish archives is published, Önder 1977 remains the best account. Krecker 1964 (cited under Satellites, Neutrals, and Other Areas) is an early survey concerning Germany and Turkey; Deringil 1989 brings additional material from Turkish newspapers and other publications, whereas Tamkin 2009 analyzes the interaction of Britain, the Soviet Union, and Turkey in the war years. Weber 1979 has too many preposterous errors to be of much use.

  • Deringil, Selim. Turkish Foreign Policy during the Second World War: An “Active” Neutrality. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

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    A general defense of Turkish policy but with information from published sources in Turkish and access to the unpublished memoirs of the Turkish foreign minister Numan Menemencioglu, a key figure in the events.

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  • Önder, Zehra. Die türkische Aussenpolitik im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1977.

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    A detailed and thoughtful survey that provides the best introduction to the varied issues affecting Turkey’s diplomacy during the war.

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  • Tamkin, Nicholas. Britain, Turkey, and the Soviet Union, 1940–45: Strategy, Diplomacy, and Intelligence in the Eastern Mediterranean. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

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    A thoughtful review of very complicated issues. One of the very few works that has substantial information on how the British either utilized or failed to utilize the results of intercepting and decoding diplomatic and military messages.

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  • Weber, Frank G. The Evasive Neutral: Germany, Britain, and the Quest for a Turkish Alliance in the Second World War. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1979.

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    Unfortunately this book ignores much of the published and archival material available at the time and is filled with preposterous errors.

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South America

Almost all Central and South American countries joined the Allies or had war declared on them by Germany. Frank 1979 engages broader issues, and McCann 1973 discusses the alliance between Brazil and the United States. Because it remained neutral until the last months of the war, Argentina is the subject of more extensive literature.

Argentina

A massive amount of literature on Argentina during the war is available, but most of it has scant information on diplomacy. Pelosi 2003 does deal with the country’s relations with France, whereas Cisneros and Escudé 1999 reviews all diplomatic relations. Francis 1977, Newton 1992, and Ruiz Moreno 1997 cover specific issues. Sanchís Muñoz 1992 is the best general survey. Garbely 2003 (cited under Switzerland) is also significant for Argentina.

  • Cisneros, Andrés, and Carlos Escudé, eds. Las relaciones exteriores de la Argentina consolidada, 1881–1943. Vol. 9, Las relaciones exteriores, 1930–1943. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Nuevohacer, 1999.

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    See also Volume 13, Las relaciones políticas, 1943–1946. These are the relevant volumes in a set that examines Argentina’s foreign relations and quotes many documents; this is not a documentary edition.

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  • Francis, Michael J. The Limits of Hegemony: United States Relations with Argentina and Chile during World War II. Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press, 1977.

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    This is a good place to start any review of Argentina and its relations with the United States.

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  • Newton, Ronald C. The “Nazi Menace” in Argentina, 1931–1947. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992.

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    A very detailed and documented examination of the German community in Argentina and, in Part 2, the wartime relationship between Argentina and Germany. Contains much information on espionage, including special topics, such as the more than one thousand German sailors from the scuttled German warship Graf Spee.

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  • Pelosi, Hebe Carmen. Vichy no fue Francia: Las relaciones franco-argentinas (1939–1946). Buenos Aires, Argentina: Nuevohacer, 2003.

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    This book covers how Argentina dealt with the existence of two French governments—the Vichy and the Free French—after 1940.

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  • Ruiz Moreno, Isidoro J. La Neutralidad Argentina en la Segunda Guerra. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Emecé, 1997.

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    This study of neutrality policy includes lengthy quotations from the files of an aide to President Ramón Castillo.

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  • Sanchís Muñoz, José R. La Argentina y la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Grupo Editor Latinoamericano, 1992.

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    This book covers economic and foreign policy issues. No notes are included, but a very detailed bibliography is provided.

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Special Cases

Because of their importance at the time and the interest in them in the postwar years, it seems appropriate to provide special sections on Ireland and The Vatican during World War II. Although under Japanese control, Thailand supposedly had a separate government with its own foreign policy and therefore is also covered here.

Ireland

The literature on Ireland’s neutrality in World War II concentrates heavily on German espionage in that country, the relationship of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) with Germany, the troubled relationship with Britain and the United States, and the assistance provided surreptitiously by Ireland to the Allies. Duggan 1985, Dwyer 2009, Carter 1977, and Keogh and O’Driscoll 2004 are helpful on specific aspects of the controversies over these matters, whereas Fisk 1983 remains the best general introduction and survey.

  • Carter, Carolle J. The Shamrock and the Swastika: German Espionage in Ireland in World War II. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books, 1977.

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    Wonderful reading on the foibles of German spies who would have been rejected as not adequate for the Keystone Cops, the German relations with the IRA, and the Irish government’s efforts to cope with the issues.

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  • Duggan, John P. Neutral Ireland and the Third Reich. Dublin, Ireland: Gill and Macmillan, 1985.

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    This study of the issues is very well written and will be useful for students and specialists. It is heavily based on German records, especially those of the German legation in Dublin.

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  • Dwyer, T. Ryle. Behind the Green Curtain: Ireland’s Phoney Neutrality during World War II. Dublin, Ireland: Gill and Macmillan, 2009.

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    A detailed defense of Irish policy with extensive information on Irish assistance to the Allies. Many specific examples and stories.

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  • Fisk, Robert. In Time of War: Ireland, Ulster, and the Price of Neutrality, 1939–1945. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.

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    A survey of all aspects of the situation in both the Irish Free State and Ulster. Covers the diplomatic and military aspects as well as internal affairs.

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  • Keogh, Dermot, and Mervyn O’Driscoll, eds. Ireland in World War II: Diplomacy and Survival. Douglas Village, Ireland: Mercier, 2004.

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    This collection of papers by specialists at a 2001 conference includes articles on aspects of diplomacy, finances, the military situation, and other issues.

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Thailand

Although Thailand was nominally independent, its government had been brought effectively under Japanese control so that it really had no independent foreign policy after December 1941. There were, however, those in the country who did not agree with what had been decided and cooperated in various ways with Allied intelligence organizations. Reynolds 2005 examines and documents these matters.

The Vatican

A substantial literature is available on the Vatican and especially on Pope Pius XII. The twelve volumes of Vatican documents published by a team (Blet, et al. 1965–1981) are summarized in English in Blet 1999. The role of the Vatican in the soundings between German opponents of Adolf Hitler and the British are covered in the general history of World War II, Weinberg 2005 (cited under General Overviews). Other aspects of Vatican-British relations are in Chadwick 1986 (cited under Great Britain: The Vatican). The close relationship of the Vatican to the murderous regime in the puppet state of Croatia is covered under Croatia. For information on the relations between the United States and the Vatican, the collection published by Franklin D. Roosevelt’s special emissary (Taylor 1947) is important.

  • Blet, Pierre. Pius XII and the Second World War: According to the Archives of the Vatican. Translated by Lawrence J. Johnson. New York: Paulist Press, 1999.

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    The author of this summary was one of the editorial team that published the Blet, et al. 1965–1981 collection and provides a substantial introduction.

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  • Blet, Pierre, Angelo Martini, and Burhart Schneider, eds. Actes et Documents du Saint-Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre mondiale. 12 vols. Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1965–1981.

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    This is the officially released collection for the years in which the archives remain closed. Blet 1999 is an English-language summary.

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  • Taylor, Myron C., ed. Wartime Correspondence between President Roosevelt and Pope Pius XII. New York: Macmillan, 1947.

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    As personal representative of the president of the United States to the Vatican, Taylor played an important personal role in relations between the United States and the Vatican.

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LAST MODIFIED: 05/23/2012

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199743292-0113

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