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Political Science Immigrant Incorporation in Canada
by
Irene Bloemraad, Mireille Paquet

Introduction

Scholars of immigration want to understand why people move across international borders, and what the consequences of migration are for the individuals involved, and the people and societies they enter and leave behind. Canada is a long-standing country of immigration, from the earliest British and French colonial settlers to contemporary migrants who hail from around the world. Today, about one in five Canadian residents was born outside the country and, in proportion to its population, more new permanent migrants arrive each year than in any other highly developed nation. The politics and social dynamics of this migration and settlement are shaped by Canada’s institutions: from federalism and the courts to its school systems and labor market regulations. These dynamics are also shaped by the country’s history of race and ethnic relations, which includes the political mobilization and government response to First Nations peoples and the country’s Francophone minority, which is largely but not exclusively concentrated in Quebec. Theoretically, the scholarship on immigration in Canada sometimes draws on ideas and research conducted in other countries, especially the United States, but scholars of Canadian immigration also provide important models for researchers and policymakers in other countries. The specificity of a Canadian approach is especially evident in federal/ provincial partnerships and the points system used to select migrants, in the country’s refugee determination system, and in its policy of multiculturalism.

General Overviews and Textbooks

An excellent starting point to understanding immigration in Canada is the overview by Li 2003 and Reitz 2004, both of which combine attention to history, current policy, and the socio economic integration of immigrants. For those wanting more detail on law and policy, Becklumb 2008, an overview of the Canadian immigration program, is a good primer. Li 2003 provides not only a descriptive overview of the topic but also an argument about how issues of race imbue Canadian immigration, historically and in the present. This is a theme developed further in Satzewich and Liodakis 2010, a textbook now in a second edition. Canadian scholars have been at the forefront of studying and debating issues of diversity and social cohesion, themes showcased in the volume edited by Banting, et al. 2007. In comparison, Canadian research on transnationalism has lagged that of scholars in the United States, but see the recent volume by Simmons 2010 on immigration and transnationalism in the Canadian context.

  • Banting, Keith, Thomas J. Courchene, and Leslie S. Seidle, eds. 2007. Belonging? Diversity, recognition and shared citizenship in Canada. Collection of papers originally presented at a conference held 13–15 October 2005, Montebello, Quebec. Montreal and Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press.

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    This collection of essays by leading scholars focuses on the dynamics of social cohesion given the diversity of Canadian society, including political recognition of immigrant populations, First Nations, and the country’s long-standing Francophone communities.

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  • Becklumb, Penny. 2008. Background: Canada’s Immigration Program. Ottawa, ON: Library of Parliament.

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    This is a general overview of Canada’s immigration and integration policies that includes a discussion of legal framework, categories of immigrants, temporary immigration, judicial review, removal, integration and settlement initiatives, and the role of the provinces.

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  • Li, Peter S. 2003. Destination Canada: Immigration debates and issues. Toronto: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    This accessible overview introduces many issues central to public debates over immigration in Canada, from the social construction of who, exactly, is an immigrant, to the economic dimensions of immigration and integration in a context of population renewal. Li provides informative figures and tables, and also argues for the importance of race in understanding immigration in Canada.

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  • Reitz, Jeffrey G. 2004. Canada: Immigration and nation-building in the transition to a knowledge economy. In Controlling immigration: A global perspective. 2d ed. Edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Philip L. Martin, James F. Hollifield, and Takeyuki Tsuda, 97–133. Stanford CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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    Part of a volume comparing immigration and integration policies across a dozen countries, this chapter provides an excellent overview of the Canadian case, including attention to how institutions––from educational systems to labor markets––combine with Canada’s peculiar mix of multiculturalism and bilingualism to affect migration and integration.

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  • Satzewich, Vic, and Nikolaos Liodakis. 2010. ‘Race’ and ethnicity in Canada: A critical introduction. 2d ed. Don Mills, ON: Oxford Univ. Press Canada.

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    This book presents an accessible overview of theoretical debates on race and ethnicity, and applies them to Canadian history and the contemporary context, including chapters on immigration, multiculturalism, and transnational identities in a globalized context.

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  • Simmons, Alan B. 2010. Immigration and Canada: Global and transnational perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholar’s Press.

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    Situated within a global approach to international migration, this book provides a critical perspective to immigration in Canada, spanning topics from the historical roots of Canadian migration to contemporary debates over refugees, temporary workers, undocumented migration and migrant trafficking.

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Data Sources

Canadian governments and nongovernmental organizations have an active and well-developed presence on the World Wide Web, allowing students and researchers direct access to resources on Canadian immigration. Many key legal and policy documents are available online, as we outline in the section on Law and Policies. Various government ministries, at the national and provincial levels, also disseminate reports and provide public access to statistical data. In the section Resources and Statistical Data, we highlight some key governmental internet sites, and also list some important civil society and academic web portals that collect and share information on immigration in Canada.

Law and Policies

The dynamics of immigrant incorporation in Canada are influenced by entry policies and integration policies. Entry policies are the rules set up to determine who can migrate to Canada and under what terms. In Canada, the Constitution (Constitution Act 1867) assigns jurisdiction over entry to both the federal government and provinces, with ultimate control resting at the national level. Canada’s main migration legislation is the federal Immigration and Refugee Protection Act of 2001. However, over the last two decades, federal law has been complemented by inter-governmental agreements, such as the Gagnon-Tremblay-McDougall Accord of 1991, which allow provinces to develop policies to select a number of migrants according to economic criteria. Integration policies, in contrast, focus on what happens to people once they live in Canada. The range of programs and initiatives directed to integration range from citizenship law (Citizenship Act of 1985) and federal multiculturalism policy (Trudeau 1971, Canadian Multiculturalism Act of 1988) at the national level to provincial and municipal efforts to provide job training and language instruction in one of Canada’s two official languages. Many integration efforts involve partnerships between government, which provides funding, and nonprofit community-based organizations, which deliver services and disseminate information. The main federal partner in many of these efforts is the Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration Canada (Department of Citizenship and Immigration Act 1994). Finally, the contemporary governance of immigration and incorporation is also largely influenced by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms of 1982, which entrenched citizen’s rights and freedoms into the Constitution as well as recognized Canada’s multicultural character.

Resources and Statistical Data

Data and resources about immigration and integration in Canada are available from a wide variety of government institutions, nonprofit organizations, and research networks. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) is the primary federal agency in charge of immigration and citizenship processing and policy, while Statistics Canada is the primary federal statistical agency. Both make reports and statistical information about immigrants freely available on their websites. Various provincial governments, including Quebec and British Columbia, also provide web-based information about migration to their provinces and the immigrant population already living there (see Welcome BC and Ministère de l’Immigration et des Communautés culturelles du Québec). Nongovernmental organizations can also be a valuable source of information, including umbrella groups that bring together immigrant-serving organizations, such as the Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI) and the Affiliation of Multicultural Societies and Serving Agencies of BC (AMSSA). Among academics, the Metropolis network is noteworthy as a clearing house for research reports, many of which are directed not just to scholars but also to government and community-based organizations.

Journals

A wide range of journals, both Canadian and international, publish research on migration and immigrant integration in Canada. These include general journals with an audience in a particular academic discipline. For example, those interested in law and politics should consult political science and policy study journals, or law reviews. Scholars interested in population movements and migration should consult demography and geography journals. Studies on integration are commonly found in sociology, economics, ethnic studies, and anthropology journals. In addition, there are a number of specialized journals that publish exclusively on topics related to migration and integration. Some journals, such as Citizenship Studies, International Migration Review, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, and Ethnic and Racial Studies are published outside Canada, while others are published in Canada with significant, though not exclusive, Canadian content. Academic peer-reviewed specialty journals published in Canada include Canadian Ethnic Studies, Journal of International Migration and Integration, and Refuge. The federal government also works with academic researchers to produce a number of specialized non-peer-reviewed magazines, including Canadian Diversity, Our Diverse Cities and Canadian Issues (see the link to government-sponsored publications in Metropolis). These magazines offer short overview pieces rather than longer research papers, and they often focus on a particular theme, such as temporary foreign workers or Francophone migration to Canada. Additional suggestions of specialized journals can be found on the University of California Berkeley Interdisciplinary Immigration listing of immigration-related academic journals.

Historical Treatments of Immigration in Canada

There are relatively few books that take on the entire sweep of Canadian immigration history. Among those that do, Knowles 1992, a slim volume, and Whitaker 1991, a synthesis, offer the most concise treatments, which necessarily trade depth for breadth. Whitaker’s treatment links immigration to nation-building, while the more detailed work of Avery 1995 focuses on the relationship between immigration and economic considerations, including the role of employers, labor groups, and bureaucrats. In contrast, the comprehensive treatment of immigration law offered by Kelley and Trebilcock 1998 puts more emphasis on politics and public opinion to explain the evolution of Canadian policy.

  • Avery, Donald. 1995. Reluctant host: Canada’s response to immigrant workers, 1896–1994. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.

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    This comprehensive history of the evolution of Canada’s immigration policy largely focuses on how policy evolved in relation to the country’s economy, but also considers politics (including mobilization by labor groups) and the role of bureaucrats.

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  • Kelley, Ninette, and M. J. Trebilcock. 1998. The making of the mosaic: A history of Canadian immigration policy. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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    This book provides a great resource for those wanting a detailed historical overview of the major moments in Canada’s immigration policy, starting in the pre-Confederation period to the 1990s, and it offers an analysis of the relationship between policymaking and the evolution of public opinion.

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  • Knowles, Valerie. 1992. Strangers at our gates: Canadian immigration and immigration policy, 1540–1990. Toronto: Dundurn Press.

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    A short descriptive overview of immigration policy and immigrant settlement patterns, written by former freelance journalist. Useful as an introductory reading.

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  • Whitaker, Reginald. 1991. Canadian immigration policy since confederation. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Historical Association.

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    This concise synthesis of the country’s immigration policy from Confederation to the 1990s demonstrates the inter-relationship between immigration and nation-building. The author includes a list of further reading for those wanting to learn more.

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Recruiting Farmers, Excluding Jews and Non-Europeans, Before 1945

The texts that provide a global overview of Canadian immigration policy, in the prior section, highlight how politicians and bureaucrats in the 19th century and early 20th century sought migrants to populate rural areas and work as farmers, a theme that Troper 2003 also takes up. Troper 2003 points out, however, that some migrants moved to cities, creating consternation among government officials. The other texts in this section highlight the efforts of officials, long-standing Canadian residents, and various interests groups to exclude certain groups of migrants, including Abella and Troper 1982, a study of European Jews fleeing persecution; Johnston 1989, an analysis of South Asian migrants seeking to move within the British Commonwealth; and the works Roy 1989 and Ryder 1991 on East Asians, who were especially likely to reside in British Columbia. In some cases, when exclusion did not work, Canadian officials resorted to deportation, as carefully documented by Roberts 1988. The volume by Epp, et al. 2004 delves into exclusion, deportation, and incorporation with particular attention to the experiences of immigrant women. Many of these texts highlight the power of government bureaucrats and the minister in charge with immigration, as well as the jurisdictional battles between the federal government and provincial governments such as British Columbia. In this time period, lacking a Charter of Rights and Freedoms, groups targeted for exclusion or deportation had limited legal options to fight back.

  • Abella, Irving, and Harold Troper. 1982. None is too many: Canada and the Jews of Europe 1933–1948. Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys.

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    This acclaimed study documents the systematic exclusion of Jews as immigrants and refugees in Canada during the years 1933–1948 and offers a sobering counterpoint to celebratory accounts of Canada’s open immigration policy.

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  • Epp, Marlene, Franca Iacovetta, and Frances Swyripa, eds. 2004. Sisters or strangers? Immigrant, ethnic, and racialized women in Canadian history. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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    This collection of essays focuses on the intersection of race and gender in Canadian history with themes related to nation-building, justice, class, representation, and memory. The chapters move from colonial times to 1980, and delve into the experiences of women from many different national origins.

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  • Johnston, Hugh. 1989. The voyage of Komagata Maru: The Sikh challenge to Canada’s colour bar. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

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    This historical account of the failed attempt by Sikhs to immigrate to Canada in 1914 provides a useful resource on this historical event, as well as an interesting analysis of the tension between Canada’s immigration policy and the later period of British colonialism.

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  • Roberts, Barbara. 1988. Whence they came: Deportation from Canada 1900–1935. Ottawa, ON: Univ. of Canada Press.

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    This history of deportation in Canada from 1900 to 1935 shines a spotlight on the power of the Canadian government bureaucracy, especially its freedom to determine and implement immigration policies largely without oversight. It pays particular attention to the deportation of people for ideological grounds, chiefly over accusation of Communist sympathies.

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  • Roy, Patricia E. 1989. A white man’s province: British Columbia politicians and Chinese and Japanese immigrants, 1858–1914. Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia Press.

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    This study examines the reasons behind policies that eventually prohibited the immigration of the Chinese and Japanese to Canada, emphasizing the political manipulation of elites and white residents’ fear of economic competition.

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  • Ryder, Bruce. 1991. Racism and the Constitution: The constitutional fate of British Columbia anti-Asian immigration legislation, 1884–1909. Osgoode Hall Law Journal 29.3: 619–676.

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    This article studies the ideological, political, and institutional factors that shaped the federal decisions about whether to permit or challenge British Columbia’s statutes discriminating against Asians at the turn of the 20th century.

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  • Troper, Harold M. 2003. To farms or cities: A historical tension between Canada and its Immigrants. In Host societies and the reception of immigrants. Edited by Jeffrey G. Reitz. La Jolla, CA: Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, Univ. of California.

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    This chapter outlines how Canadian governments sought farmers in the 19th and early 20th centuries to populate rural areas, but then were confronted by immigrants living in urban areas when not all remained in the “hinterlands.”

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Postwar Transformations, 1945–1990

The end of World War II brought new waves of immigrants to Canada and also significant changes to immigration policy as the country moved to a color-blind immigration policy in the 1960s. Green 1976 offers an account of this from through an economic lens, while Hawkins 1988 and Triadafilopoulos 2010 focus more on internal bureaucratic and political practices. Satzewich 1989 also covers the liberalization of Canadian immigration policy, but takes a critical stance to the notion that Canadian policy eliminated racism from its practices and questions a portion of Hawkins 1988 reading of the development of Canadian immigration operations abroad. Dirks 1995, Simmons and Keohane 1992, and Veugelers 2000 take up the story of legislative change through the 1980s and into the 1990s. The post–World War II scholarship continues to debate whether economic interests are important (see Green 1976) or not (see Veugelers 2000 and Dirks 1995) in explaining policy outcomes. Moreover, scholarship still debates the degree to which civil society actors and politics (Hawkins 1988; Simmons and Keohane 1992) as well as international norms (Triadafilopoulos 2010) play a role in driving policy change. The power of Canadian bureaucrats remains a strong theme in the scholarship, and across the readings below.

  • Dirks, Gerald E. 1995. Controversy and complexity. Canadian immigration policy during the 1980s. Montreal and Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press.

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    Primarily focused on politics and public administration, this book provides an overview of the evolution of Canadian immigration policy in the 1980s. Especially useful to understand the working of the consultation processes used to determine immigration targets in Canada.

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  • Green, Alan. 1976. Immigration and the postwar Canadian economy. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada.

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    Using an economic lens to understand different moments of the country’s immigration policy between 1945 and 1975, the book describes the gradual liberalization of policy and the constant planning efforts of the federal government.

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  • Hawkins, Freda. 1988. Canada and immigration: Public policy and public concern. 2d ed. Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press.

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    This rich, detailed account of the development of Canada’s immigration policy from 1945 to 1986 examines the evolution of the country’s law and public administration, also taking into account the role of the voluntary sector and provinces. This book is particularly useful for those wanting in-depth “behind the scenes” information on policy evolution.

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  • Satzewich, V. 1989. Racism and Canadian immigration policy: The government’s view of Caribbean migration, 1962–1966. Canadian Ethnic Studies 21.1: 77–97.

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    This article questions the common assumption that Canada’s immigration policy became deracialized from 1962. It examines official government discourses, the policy about opening immigration office in the Caribbean, as well as efforts to recruit domestic workers from the area. The author concludes that the control of immigration remained structured by racism even after the modification of the official policy.

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  • Simmons, A., and K. Keohane. 1992. Canadian immigration policy: State strategies and the quest for legitimacy. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 29.4.

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    This article analyzes immigration policymaking using participant observation and interviews with those active in debates around the refugee claimant backlogs at the end of the 1980s and the consultation process around immigration targets in the beginning of the 1990s. The authors conclude there were limited opportunities for true consultation between civil society and federal bureaucrats and policymakers.

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  • Triadafilopoulos, T. 2010. Global norms, domestic institutions and the transformation of immigration policy in Canada and the U.S. Review of International Studies 36:169–194

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    This article compares how Canadian and US policy evolved away from racial and ethnic discrimination after World War II. The author highlights each country’s distinct adaptations to the changing normative context, which rendered certain criteria for exclusion unacceptable. In the Canadian case, the high level of executive and bureaucratic autonomy was critical in implementing comprehensive policy change.

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  • Veugelers, John W. P. 2000. State-society relations in the making of Canadian immigration policy during the Mulroney era. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 37.1: 97–110.

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    Using the changes in immigration levels ushered in under the 1980s Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mulroney as a case study, this article examines the impact of economic elites and organized labor on the content of immigration policy. The author concludes that instead of economic actors affecting policy, federal bureaucrats and politicians modified business leaders’ and unions’ perception of their self-interests.

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Contemporary Law and Policy on Immigration and Integration

Canada’s federal structure, in which power is shared by national, provincial, and municipal governments, means that debates and policymaking over immigration and integration occur across multiple government jurisdictions. The federal government has sovereignty over citizenship, primary (though shared) jurisdiction over entry, and much more limited powers over integration and diversity policies. Subnational governments, especially provinces, affect integration through their control of school systems, housing policy, health care, social programs, and local labor markets, even if immigrants are not always taken into account when such policies are formulated and implemented. Sometimes different levels of government work together on immigration and integration, as with joint agreements over provincially nominated immigrant visas, but at other times governments can be in conflict around the allocation of resources or the appropriate diversity policy. In this section we highlight key texts that examine issues of entry and integration at the federal, provincial, and municipal levels of government.

Federal Law and Policy on Entry

Scholars vigorously debate the contours and future of contemporary Canadian immigration policy, from labor market integration and social inclusion to the decentralization of immigration policy (see Beach, et al. 2003). Abu-Laban and Gabriel 2002 contends that neoliberal economic orientations are driving policy implementation and change, an orientation arguably present in the recent moves to increase temporary migration (see Reitz 2010). Others such as Crépeaux and Nakache 2006 and Macklin 2005 highlight securitization and exclusionary measured aimed at asylum-seekers and irregular migrants. While the courts increasingly play a role in immigration law (see Dauvergne 2005), others document the continued importance of economic considerations (Harrison 1996) and bureaucrats’ administrative discretion (Bouchard and Carroll 2002). Much of the debate about federal policy on entry focuses on explaining why we see particular policy outcomes, and who has the most power in shaping these policies.

  • Abu-Laban, Yasmeen, and Christina Gabriel. 2002. Selling diversity: Immigration, multiculturalism, employment equity, and globalization. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press.

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    Using critical political economy as a lens, this book examines the influences of globalization and neoliberalism on immigration policy in Canada, with particular attention to dynamics of gender, race/ethnicity and class.

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  • Beach, Charles M., Alan G. Green, and Jeffrey G. Reitz, eds. 2003. Canadian immigration policy for the 21st century. Kingston, ON: John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy, published in collaboration with McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press.

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    This collection of multidisciplinary essays reflects on the evolution of the country’s immigration policy since 9/11. Topics covered include labor market needs and immigration, decentralization of immigration and the social inclusion of immigrants.

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  • Bouchard, Genevieve, and Barbara Wake Carroll. 2002. Policy-making and administrative discretion: The case of immigration in Canada. Canadian Public Administration 45.2: 239–257.

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    This article explores the role of civil servants’ personal judgment in the selection process of newcomers, using interviews conducted with Canadian and Quebecois immigration agents. It includes an excellent discussion of administrative discretion in the implementation of immigration policy in Canada.

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  • Crépeaux, François, and Delphine Nakache. 2006. Controlling irregular migration in Canada. Reconciling security concerns with human rights protection. IRPP Choices 12.1.

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    This accessible and useful piece surveys existing international human rights protections for immigrants and evaluates how Canada measures up. The authors contend that while Canada has a good record compared to many other countries, the Canadian government has moved to take away foreigners’ rights, especially for potential asylum-seekers, and increasingly to privilege security issues over human rights.

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  • Dauvergne, Catherine. 2005. Humanitarianism, identity, and nation: Migration laws of Australia and Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press.

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    This comparative study of Australia and Canada is rooted in critical legal theory, examining the tension between liberalism and humanitarianism in immigration policy, and the relationship between national identities and law. The book is especially attentive to the role of the courts.

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  • Harrison, Trevor. 1996. Class, citizenship and global migration: The case of the Canadian business immigration program, 1978–1992. Canadian Public Policy 22.1: 7–23.

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    This case study of the development of the Canadian Business Immigration Program situates the program within the longstanding economic orientation of the country’s immigration policy.

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  • Macklin, Audrey. 2005. Disappearing refugees: Reflections on the Canada-U.S. Safe Third Country Agreement. Columbia Human Rights Law Review 36:365–426.

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    This article examines the Canada-U.S. Safe Third Country Agreement, which requires asylum-seekers to lodge a refugee claim in their first country of arrival. Macklin argues that the agreement will increase undocumented migration in North America, and that it represents a turn to increasingly equate asylum with unauthorized (and unwanted) migration.

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  • Reitz, Jeffrey G. 2010. Selecting immigrants for the short term: Is it smart in the long run?. Policy Options (July–August): 12–16.

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    This short piece outlines recent changes in Canada immigration policy that facilitates the migration of temporary workers. Drawing on the example of Australia and the United States, Reitz argues that such reforms will likely fail to achieve their stated goals and that the move to temporary migration threatens Canada’s long-standing successful immigration program.

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Federal Law and Policy on Integration and Citizenship

Integration and membership can be understood in a legal sense—focused on the official statuses those living in Canada can hold—and it can be conceived as a societal membership or social citizenship, regardless of legal status. Clearly, legal status is one element influencing migrants’ ability to integrate or achieve inclusion in their adopted country. Many in Canada view the challenges of unauthorized or undocumented migration as more of an issue for other countries, but Goldring, et al. 2009 makes the case that Canadian policy places some migrants in Canada in precarious legal situations. The most secure legal status is Canadian citizenship, a surprisingly recent category for residents of Canada (Galloway 2000). Broader notions of membership and inclusion, beyond legal status, are also changing in Canada, according to Abu-Laban 1998 and Labelle and Salée 1999. They contend that understandings of inclusion are being reformulated and increasingly understood as resting primarily on economic contribution and notions of individual responsibility rather than collective engagement and social welfare. The recent volume Biles, et al. 2008 expands the discussion of integration even further, providing a useful and broad overview of recent scholarship.

  • Abu Laban, Yasmeen. 1998. Welcome/STAY OUT: The contradictions of Canadian Integration and Immigration policies at the end of the millennium. Canadian Ethnic Studies 30.3: 191–211.

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    Focusing on the first mandate of the federal Liberal government of Jean Chretien (1993–1997), this article traces the shifting discourses on immigrant integration in Canada and their link to selective immigration policies.

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  • Biles, John, Meyer Burstein, and James Frideres, eds. 2008. Immigration and integration in Canada in the twenty-first century. Montreal and Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press.

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    This collection provides a thorough and context-sensitive overview of Canadian policies of immigrant integration in Canada, including integration into economic, cultural, social, and political spheres of life. Of particular interest are chapters on integration policies in the provinces and on the representation of immigrants in the media.

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  • Galloway, Donald. 2000. The dilemmas of Canadian citizenship law. In From migrants to citizens: Membership in a changing world. Edited by T. Alexander Aleinikoff and Douglas Klusmeyer, 82–118. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

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    This chapter combines a general, descriptive overview of the Canadian Citizenship Act with a historical analysis of the values and goals underlying the law from its creation in 1947 to debates over its reform in the late 1990s.

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  • Goldring, Luin, Carolina Berinstein, and Judith K. Bernhard. 2009. Institutionalizing precarious migratory status in Canada. Citizenship Studies 13.3: 239–265.

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    Breaking away from the binary categories of legality and illegality, this article examines pathways by which individuals can lose legal immigration status in Canada. Using the concept of precarious legal status, it explores some of the consequences of precarious legal status for individual and families.

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  • Labelle, Micheline, and Daniel Salée. 1999. La citoyenneté en question: l’État canadien face à l’immigration et à la diversité nationale et culturelle. Sociologie et sociétés 31.2: 125–144.

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    The article examines the evolution of citizenship discourses used by the national government in the 1990s. It traces a movement from multiculturalism to a notion of individual responsibility in citizenship.

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Provincial Policy on Entry and Integration

The Canadian constitution has always assigned a role in immigration and integration to the provinces, though the activism of provincial governments has varied significantly over the last 150 years (see Vineberg 1987). The contemporary period has seen a significant increase in provincial activity, spanning the development of multiculturalism (Garcea 2006) and integration policies (Biles 2008) to partial control over the selection of new migrants (Lewis 2010 and Leo and August 2009). These trends raise new questions about the varying roles of national, provincial, and municipals governments in settlement and integration (see Brown and Astravas 2009), as well as questions about the future dynamics of federal-provincial cooperation in this area.

  • Biles, John. 2008. Integration policies in English speaking Canada. In Immigration and integration in Canada in the twenty-first century. Edited by John Biles, Meyer Burstein, and James Friederes, 139–186. Montreal and Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press.

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    This chapter presents a comprehensive review of contemporary federal and provincial programs for immigrants’ integration. It demonstrates the need for––and challenges created by—collaboration between sectors and governments in the efficient implementation of integration policies in Canada.

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  • Brown, Malcom, and Rutha Astravas. 2009. The governance of immigration in Canada: The evolution of federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal roles. In The migration policy puzzle: Sharing responsibilities for managing immigration and integration. Edited by Alexandros Zavos, 48–60. Athens, Greece: Hellenic Migration Policy Institute.

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    This chapter provides a brief overview of recent actions taken by the three levels of government in the field of immigration and integration and discusses different types of intergovernmental agreements in the Canadian federation.

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  • Garcea, Joseph. 2006. Provincial multiculturalism policies in Canada, 1974–2004: A content analysis. Canadian Ethnic Studies 38.3: 1–20.

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    This comparative analysis of provincial multiculturalism policies provides an interesting account of the factors leading to the implementation of such policies over time and in the context of an official, national policy of multiculturalism policy.

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  • Leo, Christopher, and Martine August. 2009. The multilevel governance of immigration and settlement: Making deep federalism work. Revue canadienne de science politique 42.02: 491–510.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0008423909090337Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This case study of Manitoba’s innovative immigration program and delivery of settlement services discusses the role of cities within the dynamics of intergovernmental relations.

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  • Lewis, Nathaniel. 2010. A decade later: Assessing successes and challenges in Manitoba’s Provincial Immigrant Nominee Program. Canadian Public Policy 36.2: 241–264.

    DOI: 10.3138/cpp.36.2.241Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article evaluates the impact of the Manitoba’s Provincial Nominee Program (MPNP), a policy that allows the province to select directly a number of applicants for immigration. It traces the rationale for the program, the first in Canada, and discusses consequences, including the geographic distribution of immigrants and the overrepresentation of certain groups.

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  • Vineberg, R. A. 1987. Federal-provincial relations in Canadian immigration. Administration publique du Canada 30.2: 299–317.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1754-7121.1987.tb00085.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Written before most contemporary provincial-federal immigration agreements were signed, this article provides a useful historical view of the evolution of federal-provincial cooperation starting from Confederation. The author describes the historical shifts between periods of high provincial involvement and those of federal dominance in this policy field.

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Municipal Policy on Integration

Relative to the federal and provincial governments, cities have little legislative power over migration and settlement, but they often end up administering and dealing most with the day-to-day challenges of immigrant integration. Scholars have only recently begun to survey and analyze policy variation across cities, from Good 2009, a study of the management of ethnocultural relations, to the work of Frisken and Wallace 2003 on administration and service delivery in the areas of public health and social services. Much of the research focuses on the three largest metropolitan areas in Canada, which receive by far the most migrants: Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal (see Fong 2006; Frisken and Wallace 2003; and Good 2009), although increasingly attention is turning to other cities as well (see Metropolis Project 2004 and Poirier 2006).

  • Metropolis Project. 2004. Special issue. Edited by Caroline Andrew. Our Diverse Cities 1.

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    This special edition of the Metropolis-sponsored journal focuses exclusively on Canadian cities and how they react to the challenges posed by immigration. The journal includes interviews with several policy actors involved in municipal administration.

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  • Fong, Eric, ed. 2006. Inside the mosaic. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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    Using Toronto as a focus, this volume focuses on immigrant integration processes from a variety of angles, including residential segregation, the role of social networks in economic integration, and balancing population growth with environmental concerns.

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  • Frisken, Frances, and Maria Wallace. 2003. Governing the multicultural city-region. Canadian Public Administration 46.2: 153–177.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1754-7121.2003.tb00910.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article surveys the responses of different municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area to challenges presented by the presence of large immigrant populations. The authors highlight the variation in municipal governments’ public administration’s capacity to handle immigrant service delivery, especially in public health and social services, and they discuss possible determinants for variation in policy responsiveness.

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  • Good, Kristin. 2009. Municipalities and multiculturalism: The politics of immigration in Toronto and Vancouver. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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    This award-winning book offers a detailed and careful analysis of the role of municipalities in immigrant integration and the management of ethno-cultural relations. Good draws on over one hundred interviews with leaders in eight municipalities to explore the political, institutional, sociological, and demographic determinants of policy variations.

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  • Poirier, Christian. 2006. Ethnocultural diversity, democracy, and intergovernmental relations in Canadian cities. In Canada: The state of the federation. Municipal-federal-provincial relations in Canada. Edited by Robert Young and Christian Leuprecht, 201–219. Montreal and Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press.

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    This chapter compares municipal policies around ethnocultural diversity management in Montreal and Ottawa, underscoring the particular situation of cities in Canadian federalism.

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The Process of Integration into Canadian Society

Official integration policy and law are only two factors that shape the actual process of immigrant integration. Indeed, as seen in the works listed in the General Models section, scholars have highlighted many factors influencing integration, from the characteristics of immigrants and their communities, to the broader structures of labor markets, the welfare state, and ethnoracial hierarchies. Even the definition of integration is open to debate: integration in what areas of life, compared to whom and to what degree? Defining integration becomes not only a social scientific exercise, but sometimes a normative one too. For example, if immigrants who speak the same language live in particular area, is this an indicator of failed integration or could it be a matter of choice, one that could facilitate families’ incorporation into Canadian society? Few researchers attempt to study the dozen of possible outcomes scholars use to evaluate integration. Instead, most tend to examine discrete topics, such as Socioeconomic Integration, Integration into Electoral Politics, Contentious Politics, Civic Engagement and Social Capital, Social, Cultural, and Religious Integration, and the interaction between migration and ethno-racial dynamics, as in the section on Race and Racism in Canada.

General Models

The development of models to explain immigrant integration in Canada has long been influenced by scholarship in the United States. A common theme is whether Canada is largely similar to the United States, especially in its history (Palmer 1976), or whether it is different, especially in current incorporation patterns (Bloemraad 2006; Boyd 2002; Reitz 1998). While academics studying Canada have employed American ideas related to the power elite (Porter 1968 and Breton 1998), Anglo-conformity (Palmer 1976), and straight-line or segmented assimilation (Boyd 2002, Renaud, et al. 2001), often the application of such ideas or models has taken a particularly Canadian flavor, with special attention to how the institutions of ethnic communities and Canadian society shape outcomes. The institutional focus is a long-standing theme in Canadian scholarship. Breton 1964 introduced the idea of “institutionally complete” ethnic communities based on his research in Montreal. More recently, research by Reitz 1998 attributes cross-national differences in immigrants’ economic incorporation to institutional differences in labor markets while the model of political incorporation developed by Bloemraad 2006 focuses on the dynamics that link government policy to immigrant community institutions.

  • Breton, Raymond. 1964. Institutional completeness of ethnic communities and the personal relations of immigrants. American Journal of Sociology 70.2: 193–205.

    DOI: 10.1086/223793Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This classical article develops the idea of “institutional completeness,” arguing that ethnicity remains more salient for members of ethnic group with many well-developed community organizations, even if individuals do not personally participate in those organizations.

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  • Breton, Raymond. 1998. Ethnicity and race in social organization: Recent developments in Canadian society. In The vertical mosaic revisited. Edited by Rick Helmes-Hayes and James Curtis, 60–113. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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    Breton revisits Porter’s arguments about a Canadian vertical mosaic significantly stratified by ethnicity, race, and religion. He discusses notable changes—and some continuity—in hierarchies specific to Aboriginals, Quebecois, and Canadians of immigrant origins, tying changes to new migration, more open institutional structures, and transformation in Canada’s national conception. Race, however, remains a troubling source of inequality.

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  • Bloemraad, Irene. 2006. Becoming a citizen: Incorporating immigrants and refugees in the United States and Canada. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    Bloemraad elaborates a model of “structured mobilization” to explain greater political incorporation among immigrants in Canada as compared to the United States. She argues that Canadian multiculturalism and integration policies provide immigrants with substantial instrumental and symbolic resources which communities use to facilitate integration.

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  • Boyd, Monica. 2002. Educational attainments of immigrant offspring: Success or segmented assimilation? International Migration Review 36.4: 1037–1060.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2002.tb00117.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Boyd takes the model of “segmented assimilation,” used to explain the socioeconomic outcomes of second-generation immigrants in the United States, and tests it in the Canadian context. She finds that the children of visible minority immigrants tend to have better educational attainment than majority Canadians, casting doubt on the application of this model for Canada.

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  • Palmer, Howard. 1976. Mosaic versus melting pot? Immigration and ethnicity in Canada and the US. International Journal 31.3: 488–528.

    DOI: 10.2307/40201356Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Palmer takes up three integration models debated in the United States: Anglo-conformity, the melting pot, and cultural pluralism (or the cultural mosaic). Surveying Canadian history, he concludes that the two countries are more similar than different. We find striking parallels of historic discrimination and exclusion and similar moves toward greater pluralism in the 1960s and 1970s.

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  • Porter, John A. 1968. The vertical mosaic: An analysis of social class and power in Canada. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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    A classic in Canadian sociology, Porter argues that Canadian society is characterized by a social hierarchy led by a specific group of bureaucratic, economic and politics elites. This power elite tend to be Anglo Protestant, although it also includes some French Catholics. Aboriginals sit at the bottom of the hierarchy, while Canadians of immigrant-origins sit between the two poles, depending on ethnicity, race, religion, and class.

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  • Reitz, Jeffrey G. 1998. Warmth of the welcome: The social causes of economic success for immigrants in different nations and cities. Boulder, CO: Westview.

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    Reitz develops a model of economic incorporation that underscores the importance of social institutions and the comparative educational advantage of immigrant populations compared to the majority, native-born population. He highlights, in particular, the role of labor markets, unions, and social welfare policies in producing different patterns of immigrant integration in Canada, Australia, and the United States.

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  • Renaud, Jean, et al. 2001. Ils sont maintenant d’ici! Les dix premières années au Québec des immigrants admis en 1989. Sainte-Foy, Quebec: Les Publications du Québec.

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    This report, from a ten-year longitudinal study of immigrant integration in Quebec, covers many outcomes, from housing and employment to language, citizenship, and transnational ties. The authors emphasize that integration is a long-term temporal process of incorporation.

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Socioeconomic Integration

A cornerstone of Canadian immigration policy is linking migration to economic growth. Veugelers and Klassen 1994 argues that this economic link became even more prominent after 1976, as can be seen in correlations between unemployment and government-set immigration levels. It is thus not surprising that one of the least controversial indicators of immigrant integration in Canada is socioeconomic outcomes, including immigrants’ employment, income, occupation, and educational attainment. The presumption of many academics and policymakers is that immigrants with skills and experience comparable to that of native-born Canadians should experience similar economic and educational outcomes. This is even truer of the second generation—the Canadian-born children of immigrants—who researchers presume should enjoy outcomes on par with third and later generation Canadians. Academic scholars and government analysts thus debate why immigrants’ socioeconomic integration seems to lag behind the native-born (see Pendakur 2000 and Piché, et al. 2002), especially in the first generation, and why immigrants’ labor market outcomes have been declining over the past several decades (see Picot 2008). Explanations range from economic ones related to skill gaps and changing labor markets (Picot 2008) to arguments over racial and national-origin discrimination (Pendakur 2000 and Piché, et al. 2002). Discrimination, according to Satzewich 1991 has long historical roots and is related to government policies and global economic conditions, an argument also advanced by Stasiulis and Bakan 2003 through a feminist lens.

  • Pendakur, Ravi. 2000. Immigrants and the labour force: Policy, regulation and impact. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press, 2000.

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    This volume surveys Canada’s immigration policy and immigrant integration outcomes from the lens of labor force participation. Covering the period from 1961 to the 1990s, Pendakur puts particular emphasis on the lack of recognition of immigrants’ prior experience and education, and evidence of ethno-racial discrimination, to explain gaps in labor market outcomes.

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  • Piché, Victor, Jean Renaud, Lucie Gingras, and David Shapiro. 2002. Economic integration of new immigrants in the Montreal labor market: A longitudinal approach. Population 57:57–82.

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    Using a longitudinal sample of immigrants in Quebec, the authors examine economic outcomes, concluding that differences among immigrants, and between migrants and native-born Quebecers, stem in part from differences in education and job qualifications, but also probably from labor market discrimination.

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  • Picot, Garnett. 2008. Immigrant economic and social outcomes in Canada: Research and data development at statistic Canada. Ottawa, ON: Statistic Canada.

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    This report surveys sixty-four research articles published by Statistics Canada and other government departments. It focuses primarily on the declining economic outcomes of immigrants. Three explanations are highlighted: changing migration streams with related changes in migrants’ language and school quality, declining returns to foreign work experience, and deterioration of economic outcomes for all new labor market entrants.

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  • Satzewich, Victor. 1991. Racism and the incorporation of foreign labour: Farm labour migration to Canada since 1945. London: Routledge.

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    This book underscores that economic considerations were not just a part of Canada’s permanent migration policy but also central to government policy around temporary migration. Since the groups who could migrate as permanent and temporary migrants differed, Satzewich also makes an argument about the racialization of Caribbean migrant farm labor.

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  • Stasiulis, Daiva, and Abigail B. Bakan. 2003. Negotiating citizenship: Migrant women in Canada and the global system. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

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    This book uses the case of women who migrate through the domestic workers’ program to interrogate the link between global inequality, gendered work, and changing employment patterns in Canada. In doing so, it argues that women’s local experiences of work and second-class citizenship are linked to broad economic restructuring.

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  • Veugelers, John W. P., and Thomas R. Klassen. 1994. Continuity and change in Canada’s unemployment-immigration linkage (1946–1993). Canadian Journal of Sociology 19.3: 351–369.

    DOI: 10.2307/3340722Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article evaluates the link between unemployment levels in Canada and the number of immigrants permitted to enter the country. The authors argue that after the Immigration Act of 1976, migration was even more linked to employment levels, suggesting significant economic motivations and control by the Canadian state. The link decreased between 1989 and 1993.

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Integration into Electoral Politics

Immigrant political integration refers to the process by which immigrants and their descendants become part of mainstream political debates, practices, and decision-making. One important arena for this political integration is the formal electoral system, which includes voting activities, party politics, representation, and policymaking. In some cases, such as Bilodeau, et al. 2010; Chui, et al. 1991; and Elkins 1980, scholars study whether immigrant-origin residents become indistinguishable from native-born Canadians in their political behaviors and attitudes. In other cases, like Megyery 1991, scholars presume that those of immigrant-origins might unique interests that they seek to express in the political system. Researchers examine different indicators of political integration, including voting and related electoral behaviors (see Black 1987; Chui, et al. 1991, and Megyery 1991), political attitudes and loyalties (see Elkins 1980, Bilodeau, et al. 2010), election to political office (Andrew, et al. 2008 and Bird 2005) and whether immigrants join groups or work with others around political or civic issues (see Black 1987).

  • Andrew, Caroline, John Biles, Myer Siemiatycki, and Erin Tolley. 2008. Electing a diverse Canada: The representation of immigrants, minorities and women. Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press.

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    This edited volume is the first comprehensive analysis of the diversity Canada’s elected representatives. Each chapter compares the demographic characteristics of elected representatives in eleven municipalities who hold office at the city, provincial, and federal levels to the general population in that area. It documents significant underrepresentation by Aboriginals, immigrants, minorities, women, youth, and those with modest levels of education.

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  • Bilodeau, Antoine, Stephen White, and Neil Nevitte. 2010. The development of dual loyalties: Immigrants’ integration to Canadian regional dynamics. Canadian Journal of Political Science 43.3: 515–544.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0008423910000600Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Regionalism is a key feature of Canadian politics. This article examines whether immigrants integrate to the prevailing practices and attitudes of native-born Canadians in the provinces of Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia. The authors conclude that immigrants tend to a much stronger federal orientation, especially in Quebec, where the gap between immigrants’ and native-born political norms is the largest.

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  • Bird, Karen. 2005. The political representation of visible minorities in electoral democracies: A comparison of France, Denmark, and Canada. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 11.4: 425–465.

    DOI: 10.1080/13537110500379211Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article examines political representation among visible ethnic minorities in Canada, Denmark, and France. Bird argues that variations in representation occur due to different citizenship regimes, interest constellations, and the institutions of electoral competition. An implication is that national contexts, rather than immigrants’ characteristics, are a key force behind political incorporation.

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  • Black, Jerome H. 1987. The practice of politics in two settings: Political transferability among recent immigrants to Canada. Canadian Journal of Political Science 20.4: 731–754.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0008423900050393Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Black has written extensively on immigrant political incorporation in Canada. This article is an early but still highly relevant study of whether migrants—even if they come from nondemocratic countries—can transfer their skills and knowledge to facilitate participation in Canadian politics. He finds that they can.

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  • Chui, Tina W. L., James E. Curtis, and Ronald D. Lambert. 1991. Immigrant background and political participation: Examining generational patterns. Canadian Journal of Sociology 16:375–396.

    DOI: 10.2307/3340960Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using the 1984 Canadian National Election Study, this article is one of the first to examine whether immigrants and subsequent generations differ in their political engagement compared to native-born Canadians of many generations. The authors conclude that there are almost no immigrant/native-born differences and, if anything, second-generation Canadians are the most participatory compared to all others.

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  • Elkins, D. J. 1980. The horizontal mosaic: Immigrants and migrants in the provincial political cultures. In Small worlds: Provinces and parties in Canadian political life. Edited by D. J. Elkins and R. Simeon. Toronto: Methuen.

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    The first empirical study of whether immigrants integrate into the regional norms of Canadian politics. Using data from the 1960s and 1970s, Elkins concludes that they do, but in a more muted fashion than their Canadian-born counterparts, suggesting that migration might undermine regional political differences.

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  • Megyery, Kathy, ed. 1991. Ethno-cultural groups and visible minorities in Canadian politics: The question of access. Vol. 7 of the Research Studies, Royal Commission on Electoral Reform and Party Financing. Toronto: Dundurn Press.

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    This volume of commissioned papers examines the degree to which the political system welcomes and integrates those of immigrant-origins. Topics covered include: the representation of visible minorities and ethnic groups in the House of Commons and in Montreal’s city council, the role of Canadian political parties in fostering or hindering newcomers’ participation, and ethnic minorities’ activism in Canada.

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Contentious Politics, Civic Engagement, and Social Capital

Beyond integration into the formal electoral system, scholars also study how immigrants become part of civil society, the sphere of activity that sits between the for-profit market and the government-run public sector. Civic integration includes civic engagement, such as joining community-based organizations and volunteering. This dimension of incorporation, as Bloemraad 2005 demonstrates, can be fostered by state support. Civic integration is also linked to social capital, the ties that people have with others, such as friendship networks and informal relations between neighbors. Some scholars, such as Gidengil and Stolle 2009, debate whether the substance or the amount of social capital is the critical determinant of participation, whereas others, such as Nakhaie 2008 propose that participation increases social capital. These two types of civic building blocks––organizations and interpersonal ties––can sometimes be mobilized for contentious politics such as protests and demonstrations outside the formal political system. However, as Bilodeau 2008 demonstrates, participation in this type of activity is affected not only by conditions in Canada, but also by immigrants’ pre-migration experiences of repression. Interestingly, the Canadian literature offers more limited accounts of protest or contentious actions by immigrants, especially when compared with the European and American literature. That does not mean that immigration is not a cause for Canadian activists; Basok 2009 shows it is. Rather, it is possible that the regular political system has incorporated many immigrants’ demands. Indeed, this relatively positive picture of the state of immigrants’ civic incorporation is supported by the conclusion in Kazemipur 2009 that diversity has not undermined social cohesion in Canada, unlike what might be happening in other countries. Reitz, et al. 2009 (cited under Social, Cultural, and Religious Integration) also find some positive evidence on social cohesion in Canada, but they temper their conclusions by underscoring important differences in the experiences of visible minority and nonvisible minority immigrants and their descendants.

  • Basok, T. 2009. Counter-hegemonic human rights discourses and migrant rights activism in the US and Canada. International Journal of Comparative Sociology 50.2: 183–205.

    DOI: 10.1177/0020715208100970Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examining the discourse of pro-immigration activists in Canada and the United States, including unions, Basok demonstrates that, despite differences in the target of claims (migrant workers in Canada and undocumented workers in the United States), activists in both countries employ principles of general human rights, as well as discourse on the right to cross borders, in the construction of their demands.

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  • Bilodeau, Antoine. 2008. Immigrants’ voices through protest politics in Canada and Australia: assessing the impact of pre-migration political repression. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 34.6: 975–1002.

    DOI: 10.1080/13691830802211281Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    With Canada and Australia as case studies, this article examines the impact of premigration experiences on the involvement of immigrants in political protest. Using data from the World Value Survey and the Australia Election Studies, Bilodeau demonstrates that the experience of political repression––and its severity––has enduring and negative effects on the propensity to express discontent through protests.

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  • Bloemraad, I. 2005. The limits of de Tocqueville: How government facilitates organisational capacity in newcomer communities. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31.5: 865–887.

    DOI: 10.1080/13691830500177578Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article assesses the impact of settlement and multicultural policies on the development of community organizations by immigrants and refugees. Comparing Canada with the United States by focusing on two groups––Portuguese migrants and Vietnamese refugees––the author highlights that government support enhances the development of a strong and diverse range of organizations and thus can foster incorporation.

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  • Jeffrey, G. R, R. Breton, K. K. Dion, and K. L. Dion. 2009. Multiculturalism and social cohesion: Potentials and challenges of diversity. New York: Springer Publishing.

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    This book uses data from the Ethnic Diversity Survey to examine social cohesion in Canada. Essays demonstrate that incorporation occurs and that, with time, sense of belonging increases and ethnic identification decreases. However, the authors highlight that visible minorities face economic inequalities and discrimination which impede incorporation processes.

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  • Kazemipur, A. 2009. Social capital and diversity: Some lessons from Canada. Oxford and Bern: Peter Lang.

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    This book assesses the effect of diversity on social capital using a variety of survey data. The author examines the regional and municipal disparities in social capital, as well as the impact of diversity on trust taking into account immigrant culture, immigrant generation, economic factors, and religion. In general, Kazemipur finds that Canada fares well in comparison with other countries.

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  • Gidengil, E., and D. Stolle. 2009. The role of social networks in immigrant women’s political incorporation. International Migration Review 43.4: 727–763.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2009.00783.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article analyzes the impact of social networks on women’s political participation, including voting and unconventional political activities (protesting, boycotting, and signing petitions). Using phone interviews and focus groups in Toronto and Montreal, Gidengil and Stolle demonstrate that the resources embedded in the social networks––which provide, for example, information for newcomers––are important determinants of participation.

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  • Nakhaie, Reza M. 2008. Social capital and political participation of Canadians. Canadian Journal of Political Science 41.4: 835–860.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0008423908081055Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using data on social engagement, this article explores the determinants of political participation of immigrants and highlights the central role of social capital. The author demonstrates that associational involvement, social networks, volunteering, and trust impact participation. The analysis makes the case for providing opportunities for participation and involvement in order to promote incorporation.

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Social, Cultural, and Religious Integration

Scholars and the public are less unified in way they view and measure successful social, cultural, or religious integration. As Berry 2001 notes, some may expect assimilation—the erasure of all differences—while others might prefer separatism—the retention of all distinctions. Berry’s overview of the psychological literature privileges an integration strategy, which he links to both individual actions and social policies. These two foci—the actions of immigrants in their own integration, and the influence of social institutions—are found in much of the research in this area. Fourot 2009 and Wayland 1997, who study controversies over religious accommodations, argue that institutions, political cultures, and norms of behavior are critical in shaping outcomes. Studies of intermarriage, which can be seen as an indicator of integration, tend to focus on immigrants’ individual characteristics, such as in the Clark 2006 study, though Lee and Boyd 2006 also consider group-level demographic influences. Scholars also debate what sorts of differences matter in shaping integration outcomes. Model and Lin 2002 provide evidence that non-Christian minorities face inequalities in Canada, while the study by Reitz, et al. 2009 suggests that race determines outcomes more than religion.

  • Berry, John W. 2001. A psychology of immigration. Journal of Social Issues 57.3: 615–631.

    DOI: 10.1111/0022-4537.00231Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article outlines two domains of research useful to understanding immigrant integration: acculturation theories from cross-cultural psychology and intergroup relations theory from social psychology. Berry argues for the importance of an integration strategy within a context of multiculturalism, where immigrants both adapt to the host culture and retain some of their original cultural identity and practices.

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  • Clark, Warren. 2006. Interreligious unions in Canada. Canadian Social Trends 82 (Winter): 17–27.

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    This research report from Statistics Canada uses the Ethnic Diversity Survey to provide a demographic overview of marriages and common-law relationships between people of different religious faiths in Canada, and provides some information about who is a part of such relationships.

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  • Fourot, Aude-Claire. 2009. Gestions du nouveau pluralisme religieux dans les villes canadiennes: Établissement de mosquées et mécanismes de personnalisation des canaux de médiation à Montréal et à Laval. Canadian Journal of Political Science 42.3: 637–655.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0008423909990096Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article compares the establishment of Muslim places of worship in Montreal and Laval. Fourot argues that institutional differences and variation in the relationship between elected and administrative officials lead to personal or bureaucratic mediation. These differences then produce either a political or administrative process of institutionalizing relations between cities and religious minorities.

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  • Lee, Sharon M., and Monica Boyd. 2006. Marrying out: Comparing the marital and social integration of Asians in the US and Canada. Social Science Research 37.1: 311–329.

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    This article uses marriage between people of different ethnic groups (exogamy) as an indicator of integration. Lee and Boyd find similar exogamy patterns in Canada and the United States, which vary among people by age, gender, education, and immigrant generation. There is a less exogamy in Canada because of differences in the history, composition, and distribution of Asian-origin populations.

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  • Model, Suzanne, and L. Lin. 2002. The cost of not being Christian: Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in Britain and Canada. International Migration Review 36:1061–1092.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2002.tb00118.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article hypothesizes that non-Christian immigrants will find a more favorable context of reception in Canada than in Britain, largely due to stronger antidiscrimination policy and weaker religious hierarchies. They find, however, that non-Christians face economic inequalities in both countries, leading them to conclude that actual discrimination is similar in the two countries.

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  • Reitz, Jeffrey G., Rupa Banerjee, Mai Phan, and Jordan Thompson. 2009. Race, religion, and the social integration of new immigrant minorities in Canada. International Migration Review 43:695–726.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2009.00782.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Measuring integration through survey questions on life satisfaction, emotive ties to Canada, and participation in the wider community, the authors conclude that the social integration of minorities in Canada is determined more by racial minority status than religious affiliation or degree of religiosity.

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  • Wayland, Sarah. 1997. Religious expression in public schools: Kirpans in Canada, headscarves in France. Ethnic and Racial Studies 20:545–561.

    DOI: 10.1080/01419870.1997.9993974Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comparing the acceptance of kirpans in Canadian public schools with moves to ban headscarves in French schools, Wayland examines the differing responses of Canadian and French officials to immigrant-origin religious minorities. She attributes differential responses to variation in national models governing the reception of immigrants, and differences in the institutional regimes that process human rights claims.

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Race and Racism in Canada

Given the long history of slavery and legally sanctioned racial inequality in Canada’s neighbor to the south, the United States, some Canadians perceive that “race” is an American concept relevant mostly in the US context. For example, the United States has had a “race” question on its decennial census for two centuries, while the modern Canadian census only instituted such a question in 1996. Increasingly, however, academics study the effect of visible minority status on immigrant integration and outcomes among later generations, and they are revisiting Canadian history to better elucidate how race influenced court decisions (see Blackhouse 1999), municipal urban planning (see Anderson 1994), provincial legislation (see McLaren 1990) and, of course, immigration policy (see Abu-Laban 1998 and Li 2001). In the contemporary period, sociologist Peter Li interrogates how government, media and academic discourse normalizes racial structures in Li 2001, while Madibbo 2006 provides a concrete case of a group that does not fit preconceived categories—black Francophones—and how this affects allocation of public resources. Satzewich 1998, while a bit older now, remains an excellent collection of articles that examine how race matters in Canada, across a range of institutions.

  • Abu-Laban, Yasmeen. 1998. Keeping’ em out: Gender, race and class biases in Canadian immigration policy. In Painting the maple: Essays on race, gender, and the construction of Canada. Edited by Veronica Strong-Boag, Sherrill Grace, Avigail Eisenberg, and Joan Anderson, 69–82. Vancouver: UBC Press.

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    This chapter revisits Canada’s immigration policy with the lenses of feminist and substantive citizenship literature. The author demonstrates the evolving yet constant exclusionary nature of Canada’s immigration policy. Moreover, Abu-Laban argues that there are interrelations between the exclusive nature of Canadian immigration regime and inequities of race, gender, and class in Canadian society.

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  • Anderson, Kay J. 1994. The idea of Chinatown: The power of place and institutional practice in the making of a racial category. In Immigration in Canada: Historical perspectives. Edited by Gerald Tulchinsky. Toronto: Copp Clark Longman.

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    This chapter examines the construction of racial categories and the state’s role in this process by focusing on the case the development of Vancouver’s Chinatown. The author argues that local authorities encouraged the delimitation of a Chinese space as part of an effort of cultural domination.

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  • Blackhouse, Constance. 1999. Colour-coded: A legal history of racism in Canada, 1900–1950. Vancouver: UBC Press.

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    Account of the role of the law and courts in the construction of race in Canada. Case studies include the definition of “Indian” as a legal category and racial segregation in Nova Scotia.

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  • Li, Peter S. 2001. The racial subtext in Canada’s immigration discourse. Journal of International Migration and Integration 2.1: 77–97.

    DOI: 10.1007/s12134-001-1020-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Article analyzing the pervasive presence of a racial structure in official discourses about immigration in Canada as well as in the media and academic work. Li argues that these discourses normalize such differentiation, underscoring how ideas and representations carry important repercussions.

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  • Madibbo, Amal I. 2006. Minority within a minority: Black Francophone immigrants and the dynamics of power and resistance. New York: Routledge.

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    This book provides an account of the resistance strategies of black Francophone Africans and Haitians within the Francophone minority of the province of Ontario. The author examines this minority-within-a-minority by studying the allocation of government resources.

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  • McLaren, Angus. 1990. Our own master race: Eugenics in Canada, 1885–1945. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.

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    This book provides a history of the eugenics movement in Canada from the late 19th to early 20th century. It traces the careers of main actors in the movement and shows how eugenics ideas penetrated some provincial legislation, thus demonstrating that eugenics was a more common value in Canada than generally believed.

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  • Satzewich, Vic, ed. 1998. Racism and social inequality in Canada: Concepts, controversies and strategies of resistance. Toronto: Thompson Educational Pub.

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    This edited volume provides a great introduction to the study of race and racialization as they are experienced in Canadian society. Chapters explore the interaction of race and immigration policy, economy, education, justice, class, and party politics.

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Transnationalism

The concept of transnationalism refers to the existence of continued ties between migrants in a host country and their sending communities. In contrast to a traditional integration approach, which largely presumes that with time, immigrants become more and more settled into Canadian society and less tied to their homelands, scholars of transnationalism study the degree to which connections persist over time and space. These connections can be familial (Bernhard, et al. 2009), economic (Ley and Kobayashi 2005, Wong 2004) or political (Landolt and Goldring 2010). As Wong 2004 points out, scholarship on transnationalism initially lagged in the Canadian context, but the important volume by Satzewich and Wong 2006 brought these debates to the forefront. In the Canadian context, in particular, academics and policymakers have questioned whether East Asian migrants’ transnationalism might be problematic for settlement and citizenship. The work by Ley and Kobayashi 2005 and Waters 2003 both argue that such a zero-sum view––which presumes that transnationalism hinders settlement––is an inaccurate way to understanding the connections and attitudes that migrants have been “here” and “there.”

  • Bernhard, Judith K., Patricia Landolt, and Luin Goldring. 2009. Transnationalizing families: Canadian immigration policy and the spatial fragmentation of care-giving among Latin American newcomers. International Migration 47:3–31.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2008.00479.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article uses forty in-depth interviews with Latin American women living in Toronto to examine how migrants manage family relations across borders when families are divided between countries. The authors focus in particular on how the women make sense of motherhood when separated from children.

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  • Landolt, Patricia, and Luin Goldring. 2010. Political cultures and transnational social fields: Chileans, Colombians and Canadian activists in Toronto. Global Networks 10.4: 443–446.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0374.2010.00290.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors argue that the strength and stability of transnational political fields that link Canada and countries of origin depend on the degree of convergence in the activist dialogues articulated by leaders in the two places.

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  • Ley, David, and Audrey Kobayashi. 2005. Back to Hong Kong: Return migration or transnational sojourn? Global Networks 5:111–127.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0374.2005.00110.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article considers Hong Kong migrants to Canada who subsequently return to their place of origin. The authors argue that taking a transnational lens makes the idea of permanent “return” problematic since these individual might well remigrate to Canada for their children’s education or for quality of life concerns at retirement age.

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  • Satzewich, Vic, and Lloyd Wong, eds. 2006. Transnational identities and practices in Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press 2006.

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    This excellent collection of texts focuses on transnational practices and identities of immigrant and ethnic communities in Canada. It includes historical and contemporary case studies and analysis of Canadian-specific processes in comparative perspective. One of the first to bring together studies of transnationalism in Canada.

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  • Waters, Johanna. 2003. Flexible citizens? Transnationalism and citizenship amongst economic immigrants in Vancouver. Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien 47:219–234.

    DOI: 10.1111/1541-0064.00019Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article examines the extent to which Chinese migrants to Vancouver engage in migration only to acquire Canadian citizenship in an instrumental manner. The author concludes that while families do engage in a planned strategy of bringing kids to Canada for education while parents continue business in Asia, the migrants undergo a process of settlement and acculturation in Canada.

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  • Wong, Lloyd L. 2004. Taiwanese immigrant entrepreneurs in Canada and transnational social space. International Migration 42:113–152.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-7985.2004.00283.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Taking Taiwanese migration to Canada as a lens, the author examines how transnational spaces are influenced by the global marketplace for migrants and the specific business migration programs in Australia, United States, and Canada. Wong suggests that while Canadian multiculturalism policy facilitates transnationalism, Canadian citizenship policy discourages transnational practices.

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Debates over Pluralism in Canada

A defining feature of Canadian political history is the long series of conflicts and compromises made between English and French-speaking Canadians. This history and its present-day dynamics have had a significant effect on immigrant integration, the accommodation of cultural pluralism, and questions of national identity in Canada. Canadian national identity has also been shaped by drawing parallels and, especially, distinctions with Great Britain and the United States. It is in this context that we must understand the evolution of Canadian multiculturalism, a policy and ideology of pluralism and group relations. The province of Quebec, where the majority of Canadian Francophones live, and where the majority of the population is French-speaking, has adopted its own policy of interculturalism, which also seeks to accommodate pluralism within a particular national vision. These policies not only affect immigrants, but shape the very definitions of what Canadian and Quebecois society will be in the future as immigrants and their descendants are absorbed into daily life and national institutions. This final section highlights key texts, first on Multiculturalism, then on Quebec and Interculturalism.

Multiculturalism

One of the defining features of Canada’s policy toward immigrant integration and cultural diversity is its policy of multiculturalism. Few policies have been as controversial, both within Canada and in variations adopted by other countries around the world. Multiculturalism was first announced as government policy in 1971 during a speech by Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau in the House of Commons (see Trudeau 1971 cited under Law and Policies). During its first two decades, multiculturalism was criticized and defended by a host of academic, political, and civil society actors, debates that are expertly reviewed by Abu-Laban and Stasiulis 1992 and Roberts and Clifton 1990. Beyond policy, multiculturalism can also be understood as a philosophy, but one interpreted in radically different ways. Will Kymlicka is among the most prominent advocates of multiculturalism, basing his support on a liberal theory of justice and equality (see Kymlicka 1998). In contrast, Day 2000 uses Foucault and post-structuralist analysis to criticize multiculturalism as an instance of governmentality and control. From a slightly different perspective, Mackey 1999 finds a lack of substantive multiculturalism, and instead an instrumental appropriation of minorities’ cultures. In contrast, Breton 1986 argues that symbolic politics are consequential and have changed Canadian identity, setting into motion a reordering of group hierarchies and relations in Canada. Such a sociological lens is also found in the analysis Roberts and Clifton 1990, while Winter 2007 broadens the discussion to consider how comparisons—between Canada and the United States, and between the federal government and Quebec—played into multicultural policy and discourse. One targeted study of multiculturalism’s effect on immigrant integration concludes that the policy encourages political commitment to Canada (see Harles 1997).

  • Abu-Laban, Yasmeen, and Daiva Stasiulis. 1992. Ethnic pluralism under siege: Popular and partisan opposition to multiculturalism. Canadian Public Policy 18.4: 365–386.

    DOI: 10.2307/3551654Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reviews criticisms of federal multiculturalism in the 1980s and early 1990s. It enumerates the critiques emanating from different sources, including academics, political parties, ethnic communities, and other interest groups. The authors offer a useful analysis of these critiques by linking them to Canada’s constitutional crisis in this time period, the changing ethnic makeup of the country and fears of economic decline.

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  • Breton, Raymond. 1986. Multiculturalism and Canadian nation-building. In The politics of gender, ethnicity and language in Canada. Edited by Alan Cairns and Cynthia Williams, 27–63. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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    This essay on the development of multiculturalism in Canada argues that multicultural policy is part of an effort to reconstruct the country’s symbolic system—historically focused on English and French group relations—to reflect the evolution and diversification of the Canadian population. Breton concentrates on the interaction of institutions and groups’ symbolic interests to explain the rising salience of ethnicity in Canadian society.

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  • Day, Richard J. F. 2000. Multiculturalism and the history of Canadian diversity. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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    This book traces the emergence of Canadian multiculturalism as a policy by situating this evolution within the broader history of diversity policy in the country. Day reviews Canada’s colonial history as well as debates around multiculturalism during the Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism to show continuity in the Canadian state’s efforts to manage diversity as mode of social control.

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  • Harles, J. C. 1997. Integration before assimilation: Immigration, multiculturalism and the Canadian polity. Canadian Journal of Political Science 30.4: 711–736.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0008423900016498Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article uses a qualitative case study of Lao immigrants in Canada to explore the impact of the country’s preference for a model of integration over assimilation. The author concludes that as a strategy of inclusion, multiculturalism does not undermine the cohesion of the political community since newcomers demonstrate high levels of political commitment.

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  • Kymlicka, Will. 1998. Finding our way: Rethinking ethnocultural relations in Canada. Toronto: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    This book brings together a review of the philosophical and normative argument for multiculturalism with an examination of multicultural policy and practices in Canada. The book offers an excellent introduction to Kymlicka’s work on the subject and an important discussion of the way Canadian multiculturalism also affects non-immigrants groups––specifically linguistic national minorities and First Nations.

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  • Mackey, Eva. 1999. The house of difference: Cultural politics and national identities in Canada. London: Routledge.

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    This anthropological study traces and critiques the construction of Canada’s national identity. The author argues, contrary to the official mythology of tolerance, that there are significant limits to the pluralization of Canada’s dominant culture and that minorities’ cultures and practices are largely appropriated in instrumental ways to further a dominant Anglo-Canada identity. The book is noteworthy for its rich fieldwork and interesting case-study of Canada’s centennial celebration.

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  • Roberts, Lance W., and Rodney A. Clifton. 1990. Multiculturalism in Canada: A sociological perspective. In Race and ethnic relations in Canada. Edited by Peter S. Li, 120–147. Toronto: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    This useful chapter, unlike many policy analyses, combines a sociological exploration of multiculturalism with an account of the official policy’s development. Of interest is the authors’ typology of multiculturalism––based on the interaction of cultural constraints and sociostructural constraints––and their argument for the need to distinguish between the sociological fact of multiculturalism and the policy commitment for multiculturalism.

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  • Winter, Elke. 2007. Neither ‘America’ nor ‘Québec’: Constructing the Canadian multicultural nation. Nations and Nationalism 13.3: 481–503

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8129.2007.00295.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article examines the myths and images mobilized in the construction of Canadian identity. It includes an excellent discussion of the role of Canada/US comparisons in the definition of the Canadian nation, as well as interesting account of the representation of Quebec as the bearer of a form of “ethnic” nationalism, compared to English Canada’s multiculturalism.

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Quebec and Interculturalism

While the federal government and many Anglophone provinces have adopted multiculturalism as a policy and ideology to manage cultural diversity, the province of Quebec has advanced a policy of interculturalism. As Juteau 2002 outlines, the centrality of the French language to Quebec nationalism and sense of social solidarity makes interculturalism somewhat different from the federal version, a distinction further heightened by the perception among many in Quebec that the federal policy attacks Quebec’s distinct society and seeks to undermine Quebecois nationalism (see Bourque and Duchastel 2000). Interculturalism consequently rests on the idea that there is a particular common public culture, in French, to which immigrants need to adapt, while Quebec society must also make some accommodations for immigrants. The idea of a common public culture has generated heated academic debate as it raises questions of individual versus collective rights (see Bourque and Duchastel 2000), the nature of membership in Quebec society (see Gervais, et al. 2008) and the degree to which immigrants must conform to the host culture. In the discussion by Gagnon and Iacovino 2004, the authors conclude that the Quebec model provides a more balanced form of cultural pluralism than multiculturalism, while Salée 2007 takes a critical view, seeing interculturalism as a policy that perpetuates the social dominance of majority Quebecers. The article Helly, et al. 2000 looks at how immigration and ethnic organizations have responded to Quebec diversity management, providing an important discussion of the interrelationship between governmental and nongovernmental actors. More recently, the idea of “reasonable accommodation” of immigrants’ cultural and religious practices set off a contentious public debate in which the nature of Quebec’s inclusion regime was under scrutiny, as discussed by Rocher and Labelle 2010 who also underline the fuzziness of the definition of interculturalism in academic and political discourses.

  • Bourque, Gilles, and Jules Duchastel. 2000. Multiculturalisme, pluralisme et communauté politique: Le Canada et le Québec. In Mondialisation, citoyenneté et multiculturalisme. Edited by Mikhaël Elbaz and Denise Helly, 147–169. Paris: Harmattan and Sainte-Foy, QC, Presses de l’Université Laval.

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    This chapter proposes a contentious lens to understanding the relation between federal policy on multiculturalism and Quebec’s nationalism. It includes an excellent overview of the tension between individual and collective rights within debates opposing Quebec and Canada’s contemporary nation-building efforts.

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  • Gagnon, Alain-G., and Raffaele Iacovino. 2004. Interculturalism: Expanding the boundaries of citizenship. In Quebec: State and society. 3d ed. Edited by Alain-G. Gagnon. Peterborough. ON: Broadview Press.

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    This chapter compares Canada’s multicultural policy to Quebec’s intercultural policy. The authors argue that the federal policy is largely a tool of nation-building rather than ideological commitment to multiculturalism, but that the Quebec model represents a more balanced form of cultural pluralism. An excellent introduction to the central ideas and concepts of this debate.

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  • Gervais, Stephan, Dimitrios Karmis, and Diane Lamoureux, eds. 2008. Du tricot serré au métissé serré? La culture publique commune au Québec. Quebec: Presse de l’Université Laval.

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    This collection of essays debates the concept and the evolution of the idea of a common public culture in Quebec. An excellent variety of texts engage the debates over citizenship, belonging, participation, recognition, and pluralism in contemporary Quebec.

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  • Helly, Denise, Marc Lavallée, and Marie McAndrew. 2000. Citoyenneté et redéfinition des politiques publiques de gestion de la diversité: La position des organismes non gouvernementaux québécois. Recherches sociographiques 41.2: 271–298.

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    This article examines how nongovernmental organizations in Quebec reacted to changes in the provincial stance toward diversity management from a model of bridging cultures to one of pluralist integration and citizenship. The article presents an interesting discussion of the relationship between government and nongovernmental organizations within diversity management.

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  • Juteau, Danielle. 2002. The citizen makes an entrée: Redefining the national community in Quebec. Citizenship Studies 6.4: 441–458.

    DOI: 10.1080/1362102022000041268aSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article traces the emergence of a discourse about a “Quebecois” citizenship in the late 1990s based on the importance of the French language, as the common good, and republican ideals. The author argues that this discourse represented an effort by the Quebec government to promote a more inclusive conception of the community that is less centered on Quebec’s history.

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  • Rocher, François, and Micheline Labelle. 2010. L’interculturalisme comme modèle d’aménagement de la diversité: Compréhension et incompréhension dans l’espace public québécois. In La Diversité québécoise en débat: Bouchard, Taylor et les autres. Edited by Bernard Gagnon, 179–203. Montréal: Québec Amérique.

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    A comprehensive analysis produced in the wake of the debate over pluralism and reasonable accommodation in Quebec between 2006 and 2008. This chapter traces in detail the origin and the evolution of the notion of interculturalism in the province’s official discourses and its relation to Canada’s multicultural policy.

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  • Salée, Daniel. 2007. The Quebec state and the management of ethnocultural diversity: Perspectives on an ambiguous record. In Belonging? Diversity, recognition and shared citizenship in Canada. Collection of papers originally presented at a conference held 13–15 October 2005, Montebello, Quebec. Edited by Keith Banting, Thomas J. Courchene et Leslie Seidle, 105–142. Montreal: IRPP.

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    This chapter analyses Quebec’s diversity management policies with a critical focus on the inadequacies between official policies and outcomes, particularly in terms of social justice. In addition to an excellent review of the province’s policies, the author presents an argument about the role of multicultural policies in the preservation of social dominance by those of European descent.

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LAST MODIFIED: 11/29/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199756223-0027

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