Political Science US Military Bases Abroad
by
Alexander Cooley
  • LAST REVIEWED: 04 May 2015
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 November 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756223-0034

Introduction

Since World II, the United States has maintained a network of hundreds of military bases, installations, and facilities across the globe. Some bases in Germany, Japan, and Korea are large cities that host tens of thousands of troops and their families, while others are as small as a communications station in a remote part of a host country. The basing network is central to US power projection and military capabilities, and while some scholars have regarded the network as indispensable to America’s establishment of the global “liberal order,” others refer to it as America’s “empire of bases.” Analytically, the topic of foreign overseas military bases interfaces with several subfields in political science and the broader social sciences. International security scholars and grand strategists look at the strategic roles of bases, as well as their overall functions within US global strategy. Disputes about bases, cost-sharing formulas, and access rights have frequently risen to the top of the security agenda between the United States and its NATO and East Asian allies, while negotiations over basing rights also interface with the study of foreign policy, diplomacy, and international bargaining. International law scholars have analyzed the unusual legal regimes and status of forces agreements that govern the US presence abroad, including the often politically sensitive issue of which side exercises jurisdiction over foreign military personnel in the host country who are involved in accidents or are accused of committing crimes. More recently, comparativists have begun examining the social and political impact of bases on host countries, while a broad range of social scientists has researched domestic opposition to the US military presence and the emergence of anti-base protest and citizens’ movements.

General Overviews and Surveys

A number of multi-country surveys and overviews of the US basing network have appeared, though each emphasizes a different facet of the topic. Harkavy 1989 surveys bases and access agreements and their Cold War role, while Sandars 2000 provides a good set of political histories of US facilities around the world. Duke 1989 offers a comprehensive inventory of US facilities in Europe and their history. Calder 2007 provides an analytically useful investigation of the variety of bilateral relations that can inform the “base politics” between the United States and overseas hosts, while Cooley 2008 and Smith 2006 focus more on the domestic politics, especially democratization processes, that inform the US base issue in southern Europe and East Asia. Baker 2004 provides a social history of key overseas US deployments, including Germany and Japan.

  • Baker, Anni P. American Soldiers Overseas: The Global Military Presence. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.

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    Survey of the US base deployments provides background material and insights into social interactions between soldiers and host countries. Detailed on the US presence in the former West Germany.

    Baker, Anni P. American Soldiers Overseas: The Global Military Presence. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.

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    • Calder, Kent. Embattled Garrisons: Base Politics and American Globalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.

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      Charts the origins and evolution of the US basing system and advances a typology of four different types of bilateral relations or “base politics” between the sending and host country: fiat, bazaar, compensation, and affective relations. Particularly strong on the Japanese and Korean cases, analyzing the thorny issue of “host-nation support” or cost-sharing for the US basing presence.

      Calder, Kent. Embattled Garrisons: Base Politics and American Globalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.

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      • Cooley, Alexander. Base Politics: Democratic Change and the US Military Overseas. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008.

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        Focuses on the varying domestic political reactions to US bases, particularly during turbulent democratic transitions in host countries. The case chapters are paired comparisons between East Asian and southern European base hosts, including a chapter on the triangular politics in the island hosts of the Azores and Okinawa, with a final chapter on the political dynamics of the new US bases in Central Asia and the Black Sea.

        Cooley, Alexander. Base Politics: Democratic Change and the US Military Overseas. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008.

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        • Duke, Simon. United States Forces and Military Installations in Europe. Stockholm: SIPRI and Oxford University Press, 1989.

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          The definitive source on US military facilities in Europe. For each European country, Duke catalogues each installation and also provides the broad political history of the US presence. Clearly drafted, original maps.

          Duke, Simon. United States Forces and Military Installations in Europe. Stockholm: SIPRI and Oxford University Press, 1989.

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          • Harkavy, Robert. Bases Abroad: The Global Foreign Military Presence. New York: SIPRI and Oxford University Press, 1989.

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            The follow-up to Harkavy’s 1982 volume Great Power Competition for Overseas Bases (New York: Pergamon), this volume provides the definitive inventory of US (and Soviet) installations abroad and discusses their functions and Cold War strategic rationale. Also contains an invaluable chapter that shows the close connection between US security assistance programs and the granting of basing rights.

            Harkavy, Robert. Bases Abroad: The Global Foreign Military Presence. New York: SIPRI and Oxford University Press, 1989.

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            • Sandars, Christopher T. America’s Overseas Garrisons: The Leasehold Empire. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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              A broad but often nuanced political history of the evolution of the US basing system across the globe, which emphasizes the various bargains that the United States has reached with hosts to station its forces. Mostly drawing on secondary sources and leaders’ memoirs, Sandars’s survey is strongest in discussing the Mediterranean cases (Spain, Greece, Portugal, Italy, and Turkey).

              Sandars, Christopher T. America’s Overseas Garrisons: The Leasehold Empire. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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              • Smith, Sheila A. Shifting Terrain: the Domestic Politics of the U.S. Military Presence in Asia. East-West Center Special Reports 8. Honolulu, HI: East-West Center, 2006.

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                A first-rate project, comprising several essays and case studies, that examines the mounting domestic political pressures confronting the US military presence across Asia. Smith’s volume draws on wealth of domestic interviews, useful data, and the involvement of respected scholars with detailed knowledge of the Japan, Korean, and Philippine cases. The project’s introduction is available online.

                Smith, Sheila A. Shifting Terrain: the Domestic Politics of the U.S. Military Presence in Asia. East-West Center Special Reports 8. Honolulu, HI: East-West Center, 2006.

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                Reference Resources

                A number of publications serve as good initial reference resources for obtaining information on specific facilities. Cragg 2001 and Evinger 1998 provide detailed listings and inventories of US bases in the United States and abroad, as well as information regarding the commands they are housed under and the facilities that they provide. Intended as resource for active-duty military personnel, these guides are useful first-cut references for researchers. Online resources increasingly offer up-to-date and accessible information. The Globalsecurity.org website provides helpful information about individual bases and their activities, as well as some photographs and charts. Individual bases abroad often maintain their own websites, such as Transit Center at Manas, Kyrgyzstan, which contain useful background information, directories, and even research resources, though these sites may not be accessible from outside the United States. For researchers interested in more quantitative research, Kane 2006, courtesy of the Heritage Institute, has compiled the complete set of official Pentagon figures of overseas troops by country during 1950–2005. Finally, many facilities (though not all) can be viewed close up through the popular application Google Earth. For scholars interested in the political histories of bases and US policymakers’ attitudes, The Declassified Documents Reference System and the National Security Archive offer a wealth of declassified documents, memos, and reports. Note that some material, especially that relating to discussions about nuclear weapons and nuclear policy, remains redacted.

                Governing Legal Agreements and Documents

                Not all basing agreements are formalized through security treaties or concluded at the diplomatic level. Some are technical agreements, others exchanges of diplomatic notes and, still others, remain classified. The texts of official treaties and formal defense accords, each numbered and catalogued, can be found in the Treaties and International Agreements Series. Specific bilateral agreements such as security treaties and Status of Forces agreements can also be found compiled on certain US military command sites, such as US Forces Korea, or on defense-related information sites posted by host governments, such as Japan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which provides a comprehensive list of base-related agreements and protocols.

                US Government Publications

                A number of government resources and reports that deal with base-related issues are readily available, most online. Excellent historical sources can be found in Nash 1957, an inventory of US overseas bases prepared for the White House and now declassified. Current official inventories with descriptive information about base size and values are provided in the annual Base Structure Report, such as BRS 2008, while the Defense Almanac also catalogues a variety of base-related statistics. The quadrennial National Security Strategies of the National Security Council, such as NSS 2002, often refer to bases and their importance to specific theaters of conflict or strategic interest. Finally, the logic behind the Department of Defense’s base restructuring plan of 2002–2003 is laid out in Overseas Basing Commission 2005, while Congressional Budget Office 2004 provides insights into methods of accounting for base-related costs and expenses. Finally, the regularly published Allied Contribution to the Common Defense provides detailed information on cost-sharing and levels of “home-nation support” paid by US allies such as Japan, Korea, and the Gulf States to help maintain the US security presence in their countries.

                Journals

                There are no journals dedicated to the study of US overseas bases and political relations with base hosts. However, base-related articles and political histories can be found in the archives of a number of journals (searchable through a general collection such as JSTOR or Proquest), including International Security, Cooperation and Conflict, and Asian Survey. The Journal of Cold War Studies has featured some excellent recent articles on US relations with overseas basing hosts. Student-run international legal journals publish the occasional article about base-related legal matters and status of forces issues.

                Functions and Strategic Roles

                These sources offer more specialized overviews of aspects of the US basing network, such as nuclear arms installations and intelligence stations. These sources all focus on the strategic purpose and functions of these installations, though some include political histories as well. Blaker 1990 examines the logic of the global basing network from an organizational perspective, and Harkavy 1993 demonstrates how technological change can lead to strategic obsolescence of certain bases. In terms of specific uses of bases, Arkin and Fieldhouse 1985 provides a detailed account of the location of nuclear weapons during the Cold War, while Bamford 1982 provides a guide to National Security Agency facilities, many of them abroad. Roland 1973, Blechman and Weinland 1977, and Desch 1989 survey strategic rationales for maintaining overseas bases in the Cold War era “global periphery,” while Campbell and Ward 2003 offers a critical analysis of the US Department of Defense’s base restructuring plan of 2003. Finally, Johnson 2004 offers the most critical account of the political functions of the current US basing system, comparing it to that of an empire.

                • Arkin, William M., and Richard W. Fieldhouse. Nuclear Battlefields: Global Links in the Arms Race. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1985.

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                  An indispensable guide to the US global nuclear arms infrastructure, filled with detailed maps and informative tables. The book’s five appendices catalogue the known facilities, locations, and purposes of each of the United Nations Security Council’s five nuclear powers.

                  Arkin, William M., and Richard W. Fieldhouse. Nuclear Battlefields: Global Links in the Arms Race. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1985.

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                  • Bamford, James. The Puzzle Palace: Inside the National Security Agency, America’s Most Secret Intelligence Organization. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982.

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                    This valuable guide to the history and activities of the secretive National Security Agency is filled with unique descriptions of numerous overseas US communications and spy stations, including those in Turkey, the United Kingdom, and Australia.

                    Bamford, James. The Puzzle Palace: Inside the National Security Agency, America’s Most Secret Intelligence Organization. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982.

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                    • Blaker, James. United States Overseas Basing: Anatomy of the Dilemma. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1990.

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                      An examination of the global basing network through an organizational perspective. Provides an informative account of the various functional and regional, and their challenges, that comprise the basing network.

                      Blaker, James. United States Overseas Basing: Anatomy of the Dilemma. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1990.

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                      • Blechman, Barry M., and Robert G. Weinland. “Why Coaling Stations Are Necessary in the Nuclear Age.” International Security 2.1 (1977): 88–99.

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                        Analyzes the various contemporary functions of naval bases (shore facilities) and compares and contrasts US and Soviet basing needs and postures in the Mediterranean.

                        Blechman, Barry M., and Robert G. Weinland. “Why Coaling Stations Are Necessary in the Nuclear Age.” International Security 2.1 (1977): 88–99.

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                        • Campbell, Kurt, and Celeste Ward. “New Battle Stations?” Foreign Affairs 82.5 (2003): 95–103.

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                          A commentary that describes the Pentagon’s proposed Defense Posture Review, a plan to reconfigure the Cold War basing paradigm into a global network of smaller, more flexible facilities. Contains good discussion of the potential political problems that such a restructuring might engender with traditional US allies.

                          Campbell, Kurt, and Celeste Ward. “New Battle Stations?” Foreign Affairs 82.5 (2003): 95–103.

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                          • Desch, Michael C. “The Keys That Lock Up the World: Identifying American Interests in the Periphery.” International Security 14.1 (1989): 86–121.

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                            Argues that the United States needs to develop a grand strategy for identifying and pursuing its interests in the “Third World.” Develops the concept of “extrinsically important areas”—peripheral areas that have no immediate intrinsic value to the homeland but may be strategically vital—and argues for maintaining an extensive basing network to secure these areas.

                            Desch, Michael C. “The Keys That Lock Up the World: Identifying American Interests in the Periphery.” International Security 14.1 (1989): 86–121.

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                            • Harkavy, Robert. “The Changing Strategic and Technological Bases.” In United States Military Forces in Europe: The Early Years. Edited by Simon Duke and Wolfgang Krieger, 43–64. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993.

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                              Examines the impact of technological innovation, particularly in aviation and ballistic missiles, on US forward basing needs in the early Cold War years.

                              Harkavy, Robert. “The Changing Strategic and Technological Bases.” In United States Military Forces in Europe: The Early Years. Edited by Simon Duke and Wolfgang Krieger, 43–64. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993.

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                              • Johnson, Chalmers. The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy and the End of the Republic. New York: Metropolitan, 2004.

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                                Surveys the post–Cold War expansion of US bases and its connection to increasing US militarism. Argues that the Department of Defense, especially the regional commands, exercises disproportionately large influence on US foreign policy decisions and priorities. The second of Johnson’s trilogy, and follow-up to Blowback (Johnson 2000), cited under Social Aspects and Public Opinion).

                                Johnson, Chalmers. The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy and the End of the Republic. New York: Metropolitan, 2004.

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                                • Roland, Paul. American Military Commitments Abroad. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1973.

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                                  A former Senate legal counsel surveys US military commitments and deployments abroad and critically assesses their mounting costs to the US Treasury. Also points to the changing balance of power between the US State Department and Department of Defense in the formulation of US foreign policy.

                                  Roland, Paul. American Military Commitments Abroad. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1973.

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                                  International Law and Legal Issues

                                  The international legal questions that surround the peacetime stationing of US forces abroad have been an enduring topic of research and analysis by political scientists and legal scholars. Questions of sovereignty, controlling authority, ownership of land and assets, and responsibility all have been central issues in the study of bases. Woodliffe 1992 provides a near-definitive guide to this range of issues, while critical scholars such as Cassesse 1989 explore the contested legal issues surrounding jurisdiction over base-related matters, in this case the contested use of the Sigonella base in Sicily during the Achille Lauro affair. The so-called Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) that governs, among other issues, the jurisdictional procedures for soldiers accused of committing crimes abroad is often the most politically controversial and legally interesting of these agreements, as detailed in Rouse 1957, Baxter 1958, Stambuk 1963, and Delbrück 1993. Nuanced discussions of the political and legal controversies surrounding recent SOFAs are found in Jung and Hwang 2003, for Korea, and Mason 2008, for Iraq. Egan 2006 provides a comparative analysis of contemporary trends in SOFA content and negotiations.

                                  • Baxter, R. R. “Criminal Jurisdiction in the NATO Status of Forces Agreement.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 7.1 (1958): 72–81.

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                                    One of the first primers on the NATO SOFA’s system of “concurrent jurisdiction,” through which the sending and host country share jurisdiction based on a number of procedures and distinctions.

                                    Baxter, R. R. “Criminal Jurisdiction in the NATO Status of Forces Agreement.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 7.1 (1958): 72–81.

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                                    • Cassesse, Antonio. Terrorism, Politics and the Law: The Achille Lauro Affair. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989.

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                                      This book offers a unique but critical analysis of the international legal issues involved in the Achille Lauro affair of October 1985, when a Palestinian Liberation Organization group hijacked the Italian cruise ship off the coast of Egypt. A plane carrying the hijackers was forced by the United States to land on the US/NATO base in Sicily, precipitating a tense standoff between US forces and Italian security services and a legal dispute over which country exercised jurisdiction on the base.

                                      Cassesse, Antonio. Terrorism, Politics and the Law: The Achille Lauro Affair. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989.

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                                      • Delbrück, Jost. “International Law and Military Forces Abroad: U.S. Military Presence in Europe, 1945–1965.” In U.S. Military Forces in Europe: The Early Years, 1945–1970. Edited by Simon W. Duke and Wolfgang Krieger, 83–115. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993.

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                                        A meticulous overview of the evolution of the legal status of US troops in Europe, from their extraterritorial status during World War II, to the adoption and implementation of the NATO SOFA.

                                        Delbrück, Jost. “International Law and Military Forces Abroad: U.S. Military Presence in Europe, 1945–1965.” In U.S. Military Forces in Europe: The Early Years, 1945–1970. Edited by Simon W. Duke and Wolfgang Krieger, 83–115. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993.

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                                        • Egan, John W. “The Future of Criminal Jurisdiction over the Deployed American Soldier: Four Major Trends in Bilateral U.S. Status of Forces Agreements.” Emory International Law Review 20 (2006): 291–344.

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                                          In the wake of the Abu Ghraib prison abuse scandal in Iraq, the author takes up the issue of criminal jurisdiction of US troops overseas. He traces the origins of the SOFA, examines details of their renegotiation in the cases of the Philippines, Korea, and Japan, and observes that the new SOFAs that the United States is concluding are increasingly taking the form of the NATO SOFA.

                                          Egan, John W. “The Future of Criminal Jurisdiction over the Deployed American Soldier: Four Major Trends in Bilateral U.S. Status of Forces Agreements.” Emory International Law Review 20 (2006): 291–344.

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                                          • Jung, Youngjin, and Jun-Shik Hwang. “Where Does Inequality Come From? An Analysis of the Korea-United States Status of Forces Agreement.” American University International Law Review 18.5 (2003): 1103–1144.

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                                            A comprehensive legal analysis of the “Highway 66” incident of 2002, when a US armored vehicle returning from a training mission ran over and killed two Korean schoolgirls. The incident prompted broad outrage and mobilized a broad campaign against US forces and the governing “unfair SOFA.”

                                            Jung, Youngjin, and Jun-Shik Hwang. “Where Does Inequality Come From? An Analysis of the Korea-United States Status of Forces Agreement.” American University International Law Review 18.5 (2003): 1103–1144.

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                                            • Mason, Chuck. “Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA): What Is It and How Might One Be Utilized in Iraq.” Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2008.

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                                              Another SOFA primer that includes details of legal procedures governing recent US overseas deployments, including Afghanistan. The author focuses on issues of pressing importance to a future US-Iraq SOFA, including criminal jurisdiction procedures and military operations guidelines.

                                              Mason, Chuck. “Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA): What Is It and How Might One Be Utilized in Iraq.” Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2008.

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                                              • Rouse, Joseph H. “The Exercise of Criminal Jurisdiction under the NATO Status of Forces Agreement.” American Journal of International Law 51.1 (1957): 46–62.

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                                                The article is particularly helpful in clarifying the issues of concurrent jurisdiction, the exercise of primary jurisdiction, and the practice and norm of a host country waiving its right of primary jurisdiction. Researchers will also find in the background section a useful comparison of the varying criminal jurisdiction regimes adopted by the United States across its overseas bases during the 1940s and 1950s.

                                                Rouse, Joseph H. “The Exercise of Criminal Jurisdiction under the NATO Status of Forces Agreement.” American Journal of International Law 51.1 (1957): 46–62.

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                                                • Stambuk, George. American Military Forces Abroad: Their Impact on the Western State System. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1963.

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                                                  A fascinating overview of the legal issues involved in the stationing of US forces, as well as some of the political and social tensions that they engender.

                                                  Stambuk, George. American Military Forces Abroad: Their Impact on the Western State System. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1963.

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                                                  • Woodliffe, John. The Peacetime Use of Foreign Military Installations under Modern International Law. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1992.

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                                                    Unmatched in its detailed analysis of the legal issues and complexities involved in the stationing of foreign forces, particularly in questions over sovereignty and jurisdiction. Though most of the case material deals with US troops, there is a good deal of helpful comparative material drawn from Britain and French basing accords.

                                                    Woodliffe, John. The Peacetime Use of Foreign Military Installations under Modern International Law. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1992.

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                                                    Negotiations

                                                    Basing negotiations are a distinct subset of the literature. Negotiations over basing and access rights have also provided instructive historical case studies for international negotiation theorists, such as Druckman 1986 and Habeeb 1988. Trink 2008 applies the widely used “two-level” game analysis developed by Robert Putnam to US negotiations over missile defense installations in eastern Europe. The issue of quid pro quo and host country demands for “rent” in basing negotiations is taken up by Clarke and O’Connor 1993, in the late Cold War, and by Cooley and Spruyt 2009 as part of a general account of how states bargain over sovereign rights. McDonald and Bendahmane 1990 gather a group of US base officials to describe their personal experiences and challenges in various base negotiations. Both Bengzon 1997 and Wakaizumi 2002 provide insiders’ accounts of difficult negotiations with the United States over basing agreements in Philippines and Okinawa, respectively. Whitham 2009, an analysis of US negotiations with the United Kingdom over a remote facility in Wales, examines important historical trends in both countries that influenced bargaining tactics and goals.

                                                    • Bengzon, Alfredo. A Matter of Honor: The Story of the 1990–91 RP-US Bases Treaty. Manila, The Philippines: Anvil, 1997.

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                                                      Bengzon was the chief negotiator for the Philippines in the now famous 1990–1991 negotiations. He offers a compelling chronicle of negotiations and the political pressures that were brought to bear on the process.

                                                      Bengzon, Alfredo. A Matter of Honor: The Story of the 1990–91 RP-US Bases Treaty. Manila, The Philippines: Anvil, 1997.

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                                                      • Clarke, Duncan L., and Daniel O’Connor. “U.S. Base Rights Payments after the Cold War.” Orbis 37.3 (1993): 441–457.

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                                                        A singularly valuable source that specifically deals with the issue of base rights payments for facilities and their significant rise during the 1980s.

                                                        Clarke, Duncan L., and Daniel O’Connor. “U.S. Base Rights Payments after the Cold War.” Orbis 37.3 (1993): 441–457.

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                                                        • Cooley, Alexander, and Hendrik Spruyt. Contracting States: Sovereign Transfers in International Relations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

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                                                          Applies “incomplete contracting theory” to the study of negotiations over sovereign issue and territories. The chapter on US overseas bases examines how bargaining leverage over sovereign issues gradually shifted to the host country in the cases of both the Philippines and Portugal. Also a discussion of the evolution of British and French decolonization accords that initially granted basing rights to the former metropoles.

                                                          Cooley, Alexander, and Hendrik Spruyt. Contracting States: Sovereign Transfers in International Relations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

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                                                          • Druckman, Daniel. “Stages, Turning Points, and Crisis: Negotiating Military Base Rights, Spain and the United States.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 30.2 (1986): 327–360.

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                                                            Remains the most-cited work on US basing negotiations, its case material drawn from the 1975 US-Spain basing rights negotiations, and presents a primer on how to identify “turning points” and resolve impasses in international negotiations.

                                                            Druckman, Daniel. “Stages, Turning Points, and Crisis: Negotiating Military Base Rights, Spain and the United States.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 30.2 (1986): 327–360.

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                                                            • Habeeb, William Mark. Power and Tactics in International Negotiations: How Weak Nations Bargain with Small Nations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988.

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                                                              A classic work in international negotiation theory that highlights the tactics that weaker countries can employ to gain sufficient “issue power balance” that will neutralize or even override overall power asymmetries. Two of the three cases cover base-related negotiations: US-Spain base negotiations (1951–1976) and Panama Canal treaty negotiations (1964–1973).

                                                              Habeeb, William Mark. Power and Tactics in International Negotiations: How Weak Nations Bargain with Small Nations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988.

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                                                              • McDonald, John W., Jr., and Diane B. Bendahmane. U.S. Bases Overseas: Negotiations with Spain, Greece, and the Philippines. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1990.

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                                                                A collection of short memos, most written by US base negotiators recounting their experiences and some strategies in the contentious base negotiations of the 1970s and 1980s in the Philippines, Spain, and Greece. Indispensable for scholars interested in US bargaining strategies and positions in base rights negotiations.

                                                                McDonald, John W., Jr., and Diane B. Bendahmane. U.S. Bases Overseas: Negotiations with Spain, Greece, and the Philippines. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1990.

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                                                                • Trink, Michal. “Two-Level Games and Base Politics: Understanding the Formulation of Czech and Polish Foreign Policy Reponses to U.S. Military Base Deployment Proposals.” Prague: Association for International Affairs, 2008.

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                                                                  Trink’s paper applies the logic of two-level games to US negotiations with Poland and the Czech Republic to deploy the controversial Missile Defense Shield.

                                                                  Trink, Michal. “Two-Level Games and Base Politics: Understanding the Formulation of Czech and Polish Foreign Policy Reponses to U.S. Military Base Deployment Proposals.” Prague: Association for International Affairs, 2008.

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                                                                  • Wakaizumi, Kei. The Best Course Available: A Personal Account of the Secret U.S.-Japan Okinawa Reversion Negotiations. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2002.

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                                                                    A compelling insider’s account of US-Japan negotiations to return the island base host of Okinawa back to Japanese rule in 1972. The publication of the book stirred great controversy, as it alleges a secret deal that allowed the United States to transit nuclear weapons on Okinawa, something that was vigorously denied at the time by the government of Japan.

                                                                    Wakaizumi, Kei. The Best Course Available: A Personal Account of the Secret U.S.-Japan Okinawa Reversion Negotiations. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2002.

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                                                                    • Whitham, Charlie. “Bargaining Over Brawdy: Negotiating the American Military Presence in Wales, 1971.” In Military Bases: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Challenges. Edited by Luís Rodrigues and Sergiy Globov, 40–55. Amsterdam: IOS, 2009.

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                                                                      Whitham’s analysis is one of the few available sources on the tense and protracted negotiations between the US and UK governments over the status and supporting arrangements of USNF Brawdy, an important undersea listening station located in a remote coastal location in Wales.

                                                                      Whitham, Charlie. “Bargaining Over Brawdy: Negotiating the American Military Presence in Wales, 1971.” In Military Bases: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Challenges. Edited by Luís Rodrigues and Sergiy Globov, 40–55. Amsterdam: IOS, 2009.

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                                                                      Social Aspects and Public Opinion

                                                                      The social impact of US bases abroad has spawned a growing literature across the disciplines of political science and sociology. Scholars focus on different aspects of relations between bases and local communities, including the cultural impact of bases (Ingimundarson 2004), the local fallout of base-related construction and urban planning (Gillem 2007), crimes and accidents (Gerson and Birchard 1991 and Johnson 2000), and the economies, legal and illegal, that develop around US bases. Prostitution and the sexual labor that services base personnel is now an important research topic in its own right (Enloe 1989, Moon 1997, Sturdevant and Stoltzfus 1993). Important public opinion information and analysis is offered by Kim 2004 for Korea and by Eldridge 1997 for the Japanese cases.

                                                                      • Eldridge, Robert D. “The 1996 Okinawa Referendum on U.S. Base Reductions: One Question, Several Answers.” Asian Survey 37.10 (1997): 879–904.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1525/as.1997.37.10.01p02845Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        A meticulous examination of the 1996 referendum, organized by the Okinawa prefecture in the wake of a rape of a twelve-year-old Okinawa schoolgirl by three US service personnel, about the future of US bases. Eldridge interprets the referendum’s low turnout as an indication that several constituencies within the island support, albeit tacitly, the continued stationing of US forces.

                                                                        Eldridge, Robert D. “The 1996 Okinawa Referendum on U.S. Base Reductions: One Question, Several Answers.” Asian Survey 37.10 (1997): 879–904.

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                                                                        • Enloe, Cynthia. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

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                                                                          A classic in international-relations feminist scholarship that takes issue with traditional theories of international security and examines the hidden role of women on military bases, as well as the sex industry built up around overseas bases.

                                                                          Enloe, Cynthia. Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

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                                                                          • Gerson, Joseph, and Bruce Birchard, eds. The Sun Never Sets: Confronting the Network of Foreign U.S. Military Bases. Boston: South End, 1991.

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                                                                            A widely cited collection of critical essays about the negative social and political impact of US bases abroad. One of the first books to employ the “empire” analogy for US forces abroad, the case studies cover a range of countries and topics.

                                                                            Gerson, Joseph, and Bruce Birchard, eds. The Sun Never Sets: Confronting the Network of Foreign U.S. Military Bases. Boston: South End, 1991.

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                                                                            • Gillem, Mark L. America Town: Building the Outposts of Empire. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

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                                                                              A remarkable work by a scholar of urban planning that argues that a major source of social tension surrounding US bases abroad is the US military’s inefficient use of land and poor planning within crowded hosting locales. Detailed cases of Italy, Korea, and Okinawa illustrate this book’s original and important argument about the geopolitical consequences of base-related sprawl.

                                                                              Gillem, Mark L. America Town: Building the Outposts of Empire. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

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                                                                              • Ingimundarson, Valur. “Immunizing Against the American Other: Racism, Nationalism and Gender in U.S.-Icelandic Military Relations During the Cold War.” Journal of Cold War Studies 6.4 (2004): 65–88.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1162/1520397042350892Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                A stunning and compelling exposé of the racial politics that informed the deployment of US forces in Iceland during the Cold War. Examines US and Icelandic government disagreements over the stationing of African American soldiers at the Keflavik base, as well as over base-leave policies and US forces’ ability to mingle with the local population.

                                                                                Ingimundarson, Valur. “Immunizing Against the American Other: Racism, Nationalism and Gender in U.S.-Icelandic Military Relations During the Cold War.” Journal of Cold War Studies 6.4 (2004): 65–88.

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                                                                                • Johnson, Chalmers. Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire. New York: Metropolitan, 2000.

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                                                                                  The classic first book of the author’s trilogy (also Sorrows of Empire and Nemesis) that explores how US presence abroad and interventionist foreign policies trigger backlashes abroad. The book is particularly strong in its discussion of various East Asian cases, including Korea and Okinawa, Japan.

                                                                                  Johnson, Chalmers. Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire. New York: Metropolitan, 2000.

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                                                                                  • Kim, Jinwung. “Ambivalent Allies: Recent South Korean Perceptions of the United States Forces Korea (USFK).” Asian Affairs, an American Review 30.4 (2004): 268–285.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.3200/AAFS.30.4.268-285Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    A comprehensive source for survey data and analysis of South Korean society’s attitude toward various base-related issues, including the US-Korea SOFA and the relocation of the Yongsan facility.

                                                                                    Kim, Jinwung. “Ambivalent Allies: Recent South Korean Perceptions of the United States Forces Korea (USFK).” Asian Affairs, an American Review 30.4 (2004): 268–285.

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                                                                                    • Moon, Katherine H. S. Sex among Allies. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                      A compelling, often-cited work in both feminist international relations scholarship and in work on the dynamics of the US-Korean alliance itself, which charts the evolution of Korean prostitution and camptowns through the 1960s and 1970s. It also documents the interaction between formal US-Korean security agreements and their effects on Korean sex workers and these marginal communities.

                                                                                      Moon, Katherine H. S. Sex among Allies. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                      • Sturdevant, Saundra Pollock, and Brenda Stoltzfus, eds. Let the Good Times Roll: Prostitution and the U.S. Military in Asia. New York: New Press, 1993.

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                                                                                        A collection of commentaries on the operation of the sex industry that services US base communities in the Philippines, Korea, and Okinawa. The many interviews and personal accounts of “comfort women” make this volume particularly insightful and revealing.

                                                                                        Sturdevant, Saundra Pollock, and Brenda Stoltzfus, eds. Let the Good Times Roll: Prostitution and the U.S. Military in Asia. New York: New Press, 1993.

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                                                                                        Opposition Movements

                                                                                        The US basing presence has engendered the mobilization of oppositional protest and social movements. Social scientists studying the dynamics of social movements have drawn on such cases to illustrate and refine theories of social mobilization and domestic political movements (Packard 1966, Joffe 1987), the formation of local identities in mobilization against the US (McCaffrey 2002, Spencer 2003, Moon 2011), and transnational activism and the formation of a global anti-base network (Lutz 2009, No Bases, Yeo 2009).

                                                                                        • Joffe, Josef. “Peace and Populism: Why the European Anti-Nuclear Movement Failed.” International Security 11.4 (1987): 3–40.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/2538836Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          A comparative survey of the antinuclear and peace movements and protests across western Europe. The author argues that these movements’ relative success, or lack of it, can be explained as a function of their ability to fold themselves into an existing political party, its agenda, and its organizational capacity.

                                                                                          Joffe, Josef. “Peace and Populism: Why the European Anti-Nuclear Movement Failed.” International Security 11.4 (1987): 3–40.

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                                                                                          • Lutz, Catherine, ed. The Bases of Empire: The Global Struggle against U.S. Military Posts. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                            A high-quality collection of essays documenting the recent emergence of anti-base protest movements around the world. The essays by Gerson and Enloe provide analytical contributions, while the case studies of Iraq, Turkey, and Puerto Rico in the volume are important studies in their own right.

                                                                                            Lutz, Catherine, ed. The Bases of Empire: The Global Struggle against U.S. Military Posts. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                            • McCaffrey, Katherine T. Military Power and Popular Protest: The U.S. Navy in Vieques, Puerto Rico. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                              A comprehensive account of the history of the US Navy on the Puerto Rican island and the emergence of an indigenous political protest movement, originally started by local fisherman in the 1970s, which culminated in mass protests in 1999 and the US Navy’s withdrawing from its facilities in 2003.

                                                                                              McCaffrey, Katherine T. Military Power and Popular Protest: The U.S. Navy in Vieques, Puerto Rico. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                              • Moon, Katherine. Protesting America: Democracy and the U.S.-Korea Alliance. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                Moon’s second book is a meticulously documented account of the emergence and political importance of South Korean protest movements against the US military presence. Contrary to the prevailing view that such movements are simply a function of Korean innate “anti-Americanism,” the author shows how the democratization and decentralization of the Korean political system created the political space for the emergence and effectiveness of these social movements.

                                                                                                Moon, Katherine. Protesting America: Democracy and the U.S.-Korea Alliance. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                • No Bases International Network for the Abolition of Foreign Military Bases.

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                                                                                                  An international umbrella NGO that networks individual anti-base campaigns. The group organizes conferences and facilitates the exchange among movements on topics such as legal issues and the environmental impact of bases.

                                                                                                  No Bases International Network for the Abolition of Foreign Military Bases.

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                                                                                                  • Packard, George R. III. Protest in Tokyo: The Security Treaty Crisis of 1960. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1966.

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                                                                                                    A classic account of the debate over the ratification of the 1960 US-Japan Security Treaty. The topic consumed Japanese politicians and society, as protests turned violent and fighting broke out on the floor of the Japanese Diet.

                                                                                                    Packard, George R. III. Protest in Tokyo: The Security Treaty Crisis of 1960. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1966.

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                                                                                                    • Spencer, Caroline. “Meeting of the Dugongs and the Cooking Pots: Anti-military Base Citizens’ Groups on Okinawa.” Japanese Studies 23.2 (2003): 126–140.

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                                                                                                      An invaluable look at how several initially small-scale protest movements on Okinawa, each mobilizing different aspects of the US-military presence, came to network and form a broad anti-base coalition.

                                                                                                      Spencer, Caroline. “Meeting of the Dugongs and the Cooking Pots: Anti-military Base Citizens’ Groups on Okinawa.” Japanese Studies 23.2 (2003): 126–140.

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                                                                                                      • Yeo, Andrew. “Not in Anyone’s Backyard: The Emergence and Identity of a Transnational Anti-Base Network.” International Studies Quarterly 53.3 (2009): 571–594.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2478.2009.00547.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        An account of how a contemporary global anti-bases movement, embodied by the No Bases activist community, was forged following the US invasion of Iraq and networked from individual anti-US-base single-country movements.

                                                                                                        Yeo, Andrew. “Not in Anyone’s Backyard: The Emergence and Identity of a Transnational Anti-Base Network.” International Studies Quarterly 53.3 (2009): 571–594.

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                                                                                                        Political Histories by Country and Region

                                                                                                        The following are sources that deal with the history and politics of US bases in specific countries or regions. The list is by no means exhaustive, but these works have been selected because they are important sources for researchers interested in understanding the major political issues surrounding US installations in each particular setting.

                                                                                                        Australia and New Zealand

                                                                                                        US facilities in Australia have generally played a role in intelligence gathering, surveillance, and monitoring. So-called joint facilities, such as the Joint Defense Space Research Facility at Pine Gap, have long been the objects of domestic speculation, and their operations remain clouded in secrecy. These installations were subjected to increasing scrutiny in the 1970s and 1980s, with Ball 1980 and Ball 1987 framing the issue of the installations in terms of sovereignty and domestic accountability. The political history of US relations with New Zealand is dominated by the ANZUS crisis of 1985, examined in Pugh 1989, when the government of New Zealand refused to allow port visits by US ships that would not officially deny that they were carrying nuclear weapons.

                                                                                                        • Ball, Desmond. A Suitable Piece of Real Estate: American Installations in Australia. Sydney: Hale & Iremonger, 1980.

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                                                                                                          A landmark survey of US installations in Australia that critically examines their legal standing and these agreements’ implications for Australia’s sovereign authority and democratic oversight.

                                                                                                          Ball, Desmond. A Suitable Piece of Real Estate: American Installations in Australia. Sydney: Hale & Iremonger, 1980.

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                                                                                                          • Ball, Desmond. A Base for Debate: The US Satellite Station at Nurrungar. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1987.

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                                                                                                            Focuses specifically on the role of the Nurrangar facility in southern Australia, which served as an early warning detector for Soviet nuclear launches. Ball again addresses the themes of the sovereignty and control of US installations in Australia, arguing that the presence of the facility is not consistent with Australian nuclear doctrine and that Nurrangar makes Australia a Soviet nuclear target.

                                                                                                            Ball, Desmond. A Base for Debate: The US Satellite Station at Nurrungar. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1987.

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                                                                                                            • Pugh, Mark. The ANZUS Crisis, Nuclear Visiting and Deterrence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511598753Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              An account of the New Zealand government’s decision in 1985 to ban port visits by US Navy vessels that would not deny that they were in possession of nuclear weapons, thereby challenging the long-held US policy of neither confirming nor denying their presence. The decision led the United States to effectively drop its defense commitment to New Zealand under the ANZUS Treaty.

                                                                                                              Pugh, Mark. The ANZUS Crisis, Nuclear Visiting and Deterrence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                              Central Asia

                                                                                                              In the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks of 2001, the United States negotiated an array of access and transit rights with Central Asian governments to support its military campaign in Afghanistan. The two most prominent of these new bases were the Karshi-Khanabad facility (K2) in southern Uzbekistan and the Manas-Ganci airbase near Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan. Both facilities have come under intense political scrutiny, as the United States was evicted from K2 following the deterioration of US-Uzbek relations in 2005 (see Cooley 2005), while the base in Kyrgyzstan has periodically come under scrutiny for its purpose and business dealings following sudden changes in the Kyrgyz government (Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs 2010).

                                                                                                              Denmark and Greenland

                                                                                                              US basing relations with Denmark have been centered on the island of Greenland, where the base issue also informs Greenland-Denmark relations and questions of decentralization and autonomy. Archer 1988 explores the history of these triangular relations, while Archer 2003 examines the internal and external politics surrounding the deployment of the proposed US missile shield.

                                                                                                              • Archer, Clive. “The United States Defence Areas in Greenland.” Cooperation and Conflict 23.2 (1988): 123–144.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1177/001083678802300202Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                A uniquely informative survey of the history and functions of US installations in Greenland. Includes a useful overview of the political debates both within Denmark, and between Denmark and Greenland, surrounding base-related issues.

                                                                                                                Archer, Clive. “The United States Defence Areas in Greenland.” Cooperation and Conflict 23.2 (1988): 123–144.

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                                                                                                                • Archer, Clive. “Greenland, US Bases and Missile Defence: New Two-Level Negotiations?” Cooperation and Conflict 38.2 (2003): 125–147.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0010836703038002003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  An application of Robert Putnam’s “two-level games” bargaining analysis to US-Danish negotiations over the stationing of a US missile defense radar in Greenland.

                                                                                                                  Archer, Clive. “Greenland, US Bases and Missile Defence: New Two-Level Negotiations?” Cooperation and Conflict 38.2 (2003): 125–147.

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                                                                                                                  Diego Garcia

                                                                                                                  The island of Diego Garcia, part of the British Ocean territory, hosts some of the most important military installations of the US military in the Indian Ocean. (Erickson, et al. 2010). Strategically positioned, Diego Garcia has always been valued by the US planners, but it is also criticized as a facility built on the forcible displacement of its inhabitants, the Chagosians, in 1965, following a deal struck between the United Kingdom and Mauritius for granting the latter’s independence. London leased the island to the United States for military purposes, and the United States has vehemently held on to the island facilities ever since (Vine 2009).

                                                                                                                  • Erickson, Andrew, Walter C. Ladwig III, and Justin Mikolay. “Diego Garcia and the United States’ Emerging Indian Ocean Strategy.” Asian Security 6.3 (2010): 214–237.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/14799855.2010.507408Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    The authors detail the strategic role of Diego Garcia and its relevance to the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, and other major strategic areas of concern. Detailed maps and list of operational functions make this article an important guide to the operations conducted out of the Indian Ocean hub.

                                                                                                                    Erickson, Andrew, Walter C. Ladwig III, and Justin Mikolay. “Diego Garcia and the United States’ Emerging Indian Ocean Strategy.” Asian Security 6.3 (2010): 214–237.

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                                                                                                                    • Vine, David. Island of Shame: The Secret History of the U.S. Base on Diego Garcia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                      An instant classic, Vine explores the evolution of the US presence on the Indian Ocean island and charts the plight of its Chagosian inhabitants, who were forcibly evicted after the island was given by the British to the US military.

                                                                                                                      Vine, David. Island of Shame: The Secret History of the U.S. Base on Diego Garcia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                      Ecuador

                                                                                                                      The base at Manta was the United States’ only formal forward operating base in Latin America between 2000 and 2010. The base and its role became the object of increasing scrutiny (Flynn 2006), and in 2007 the Ecuadorean government indicated that it would not renew the lease set to expire in 2010.

                                                                                                                      • Flynn, Michael. “What’s the Deal at Manta?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61.1 (2006): 23–29.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2968/061001008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        An examination of the mission of the US forward operating location at Manta, Ecuador and local politics surrounding it. The base was vacated by US forces in 2010 after Quito refused to extend the original ten-year lease.

                                                                                                                        Flynn, Michael. “What’s the Deal at Manta?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 61.1 (2006): 23–29.

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                                                                                                                        Europe

                                                                                                                        The vast network of US, joint, and NATO-designated installations in Europe is comprehensively catalogued in Duke 1989. The political relations informing US relations with Europe and base-related issues are explored in Lundestad 2003 and, for the period up to 1970, in the collection of essays in Duke and Krieger 1993. For political issues pertaining specifically to southern Europe, Grimmett 1986 is a valuable source. More recent basing issues are explored by the authors in Rodrigues and Glebov 2009, while the “Marty Report” (European Parliament 2007) presents findings about European countries’ complicity in allowing unauthorized CIA flights and renditions in the “war on terror.”

                                                                                                                        • Duke, Simon. United States Forces and Military Installations in Europe. Stockholm: SIPRI and Oxford University Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                          The definitive source on US military facilities in Europe. For each European country, Duke catalogues each installation and also provides the broad political history of the US presence. Clearly drafted, original maps.

                                                                                                                          Duke, Simon. United States Forces and Military Installations in Europe. Stockholm: SIPRI and Oxford University Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                          • Duke, Simon, and Wolfgang Krieger, eds. U.S. Military Forces in Europe: The Early Years, 1945–1970. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993.

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                                                                                                                            A high-quality collection of essays that focus specifically on the early Cold War period of US installations in Europe. The case chapters offer detailed overviews that are unavailable elsewhere.

                                                                                                                            Duke, Simon, and Wolfgang Krieger, eds. U.S. Military Forces in Europe: The Early Years, 1945–1970. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993.

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                                                                                                                            • European Parliament. Report on the Alleged Use of European Countries by the CIA for the Transportation and Illegal Detention of Prisoners. Brussels, January 31, 2007.

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                                                                                                                              This European Parliament report, authored by Dick Marty, created an international stir by alleging that several European countries had been complicit in allowing bases and facilities on their territories to be used in support of the CIA’s program of extraordinary renditions.

                                                                                                                              European Parliament. Report on the Alleged Use of European Countries by the CIA for the Transportation and Illegal Detention of Prisoners. Brussels, January 31, 2007.

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                                                                                                                              • Grimmett, Richard. U.S. Military Installations in NATO’s Southern Region. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                A short but invaluable overview (with maps) of the major issues surrounding US bases in the Mediterranean hosts.

                                                                                                                                Grimmett, Richard. U.S. Military Installations in NATO’s Southern Region. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                • Lundestad, Geir. The United States and Western Europe Since 1945: From “Empire” to Transatlantic Drift. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                  The book version of the author’s often-cited “empire by invitation” article. Analysis of the role of US forces in Europe is interspersed throughout, with a solid chapter on the political disagreements caused within NATO by the United States’ use of its bases for “out-of-area” missions.

                                                                                                                                  Lundestad, Geir. The United States and Western Europe Since 1945: From “Empire” to Transatlantic Drift. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                  • Rodrigues, Luís, and Sergiy Glebov, eds. Military Bases: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Challenges. Amsterdam: IOS, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                    A volume with a variety of original essays detailing the political and social impact of US bases in Europe. Contributions that detail US basing history in lesser-known cases such as the Holy Loch (Scotland) and Brawdy (Wales) make this an important collection, as does the volume’s final comparative section on post-Soviet Russian bases in Eurasia.

                                                                                                                                    Rodrigues, Luís, and Sergiy Glebov, eds. Military Bases: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Challenges. Amsterdam: IOS, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                    Germany

                                                                                                                                    Germany hosted hundreds of thousands of US troops during the Cold War, with many of these bases becoming US military towns. But despite the uniquely large US footprint in West Germany, or perhaps because of it, there is a shortage of general sources analyzing the politics of the US presence. Nelson 1987 provides a basic historical overview, while Hohn 2002 analyzes the cultural impact of US military communities on German society. Zimmerman 2002 and Treverton 1978 explore the political economy of US-German negotiations over offset payments, an often overlooked but critical dimension of the relationship.

                                                                                                                                    • Hohn, Maria. GIs and Frauleins: The German-American Encounter in 1950s West Germany. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                      A fascinating account of the cultural influences, especially US consumerism, gender roles, and cultural icons, brought by American soldiers in West Germany in the 1950s. Based on research in German military communities, Hohn explores US modernizing cultural influences, recounts the conservative backlash launched by religious communities, and documents the local racial hostility shown to African American soldiers during the late 1950s.

                                                                                                                                      Hohn, Maria. GIs and Frauleins: The German-American Encounter in 1950s West Germany. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                      • Nelson, Daniel J. A History of U.S. Military Forces in Germany. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                        In one of the few overviews of the evolution of the enormous presence of US forces in Germany, Nelson charts the development of West Germany’s security dependency on the United States. But the lack of material on nuclear weapons detracts from the book’s comprehensiveness.

                                                                                                                                        Nelson, Daniel J. A History of U.S. Military Forces in Germany. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                        • Treverton, Gregory F. The Dollar Drain and American Forces in Germany: Managing the Political Economics of Alliance. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                          An examination of the 1966 “offset crisis,” when the United States threatened to withdraw troops from West Germany unless the host country contributed more in “host nation support” for their stationing.

                                                                                                                                          Treverton, Gregory F. The Dollar Drain and American Forces in Germany: Managing the Political Economics of Alliance. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                          • Zimmermann, Hubert. Money and Security: Troops, Monetary Policy and West Germany’s Relations with the United States and Britain 1950–1971. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                            A broader overview of the hidden economic agendas, especially the question of West German offset payments, that informed US and British bargaining with West Germany on basing and security issues.

                                                                                                                                            Zimmermann, Hubert. Money and Security: Troops, Monetary Policy and West Germany’s Relations with the United States and Britain 1950–1971. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                            Greece

                                                                                                                                            US bases in Greece, like those in Spain and Turkey, were the objects of intense domestic political contention and Cold War politics. Political opponents also criticized the presence of the bases for informing alleged US support for the Greek military government during 1967–1974. Stefanidis 1992 offers the definitive account of the establishment of the US bases and their legal foundations, while Veremis and Valinakis 1989 examines more recent issues and compares them to the similar case of Spain.

                                                                                                                                            • Stefanidis, Ioannis. Asymetri Etairi. Athens, Greece: Pataki, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                              The definitive account of the establishment of US bases in Greece, their governing agreements, and questions of sovereignty and control during the 1950s.

                                                                                                                                              Stefanidis, Ioannis. Asymetri Etairi. Athens, Greece: Pataki, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                              • Veremes, Thanos, and Tannois Valinakis. U.S. Bases in the Mediterranean: The Cases of Greece and Spain. Athens: Hellenic Foundation for Defense and Foreign Policy, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                Analyzes the major sources of contention in US-Greece basing relations, especially the issues of sovereignty and quid pro quo, and their relation to Greek domestic political developments.

                                                                                                                                                Veremes, Thanos, and Tannois Valinakis. U.S. Bases in the Mediterranean: The Cases of Greece and Spain. Athens: Hellenic Foundation for Defense and Foreign Policy, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                Italy

                                                                                                                                                Of the Mediterranean base hosts, Italy provided the most politically supportive of environments for the stationing of US forces during the cold war. Monteleone 2007 attributes these good relations to the presence of a clearly articulated security community between the United States and Italy. Another key factor seems to have been the polarized Italian politics and the presence of a viable Italian Communist Party, as security issues such as US bases and NATO became embroiled in domestic politics and there was little political room to criticize the US presence within the Christian Democrats and, later, Socialists. Brogi 2002 and Nuti 1993 shed light on these emerging political dynamics in the early Cold War period, while Nuti 2004 offers a fascinating domestic-politics account of why Italy agreed to station the controversial intermediate nuclear ballistic missiles during the early 1980s.

                                                                                                                                                • Brogi, Alessandro. A Question of Self-Esteem: The United States and the Cold War Choices in France and Italy, 1944–1958. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                  An extension of Geir Lundestad’s “empire by invitation” thesis that explores how Italian politicians used security cooperation with the United States, including basing issues, for their domestic political gain.

                                                                                                                                                  Brogi, Alessandro. A Question of Self-Esteem: The United States and the Cold War Choices in France and Italy, 1944–1958. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Monteleone, Carla. “The Evolution of a Pluralistic Security Community: Impact and Perspectives of the Presence of American Bases in Italy.” Journal of Transatlantic Studies 5.1 (2007): 43–85.

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                                                                                                                                                    An application of the “security communities” analytical paradigm to explaining the close and cooperative nature of US-Italian relations over basing issues.

                                                                                                                                                    Monteleone, Carla. “The Evolution of a Pluralistic Security Community: Impact and Perspectives of the Presence of American Bases in Italy.” Journal of Transatlantic Studies 5.1 (2007): 43–85.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Nuti, Leopoldo. “U.S. Forces in Italy, 1945–1963.” In U.S. Military Forces in Europe: The Early Years, 1945–1970. Edited by Simon Duke and Wolfgang Krieger, 249–272. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                      Offers a wealth of insights into the comparatively secret and lopsided agreements that established the extensive US basing network in Italy.

                                                                                                                                                      Nuti, Leopoldo. “U.S. Forces in Italy, 1945–1963.” In U.S. Military Forces in Europe: The Early Years, 1945–1970. Edited by Simon Duke and Wolfgang Krieger, 249–272. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Nuti, Leopoldo. “Italy and the Battle of the Euromissiles: The Deployment of the US BGM-109G ‘Gryphon,’ 1979–1983.” In The Last Decade of the Cold War: From Conflict Escalation to Conflict Transformation. Edited by Olav Njølstad, 332–359. New York: Frank Cass, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                        Offers a domestic-politics explanation for the Socialist Party leader Bettino Craxi’s decision to strongly support the deployment of the controversial US intermediate missiles in Italy and to marginalize the Italian Communist Party.

                                                                                                                                                        Nuti, Leopoldo. “Italy and the Battle of the Euromissiles: The Deployment of the US BGM-109G ‘Gryphon,’ 1979–1983.” In The Last Decade of the Cold War: From Conflict Escalation to Conflict Transformation. Edited by Olav Njølstad, 332–359. New York: Frank Cass, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                        Okinawa, Japan

                                                                                                                                                        The island prefecture of Okinawa has always played a disproportionately large and domestically controversial role in hosting US military facilities in Japan since the end of World War II. Okinawa was originally administered by the US military (Yoshida 2001), a precondition to the signing of the 1951 US-Japan Peace Treaty (Eldridge 2001). Funabashi 1999 and Greene 1975 locate the bases issue within the wider agenda of US-Japan security relations and growing disagreements. Eldridge 1997 and Johnson 1999 offer contrasting analyses of the domestic political and social attitudes toward the bases within Okinawa, while Hook and Siddle 2003 and Spencer 2003 examine the formation of Okinawan identity as a function of increasing protest against the US military presence. Okamura 1998 offers an invaluable analysis of the tone and focus of Japanese media coverage of the Okinawan “rape crisis” of 1995.

                                                                                                                                                        • Eldridge, Robert D. “The 1996 Okinawa Referendum on U.S. Base Reductions: One Question, Several Answers.” Asian Survey 37.10 (1997): 879–904.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1525/as.1997.37.10.01p02845Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          About the future of US bases, a meticulous examination of the 1996 referendum, organized by the Okinawa prefecture in the wake of a rape of a twelve-year-old Okinawan schoolgirl by three US service personnel. Eldridge interprets the referendum’s low turnout as an indication that several constituencies within the island support, albeit tacitly, the continued stationing of US forces.

                                                                                                                                                          Eldridge, Robert D. “The 1996 Okinawa Referendum on U.S. Base Reductions: One Question, Several Answers.” Asian Survey 37.10 (1997): 879–904.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Eldridge, Robert D. The Origins of the Bilateral Okinawa Problem: Okinawa in Postwar U.S.-Japan Relations, 1945–1952. New York: Garland, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                            The most comprehensive English-language source available on how Okinawa was ceded to the US military under Article III of the 1951 US-Japan Peace Treaty. Eldridge’s account stresses that the Japanese government was not indifferent to the sovereign status of Okinawa and offered several formulas in an attempt to compromise with US negotiators. He also exposes divisions between the US State Department and US Department of Defense over the islands’ status and explains the origins of the islands’ “residual sovereignty” status prior to reversion in 1972.

                                                                                                                                                            Eldridge, Robert D. The Origins of the Bilateral Okinawa Problem: Okinawa in Postwar U.S.-Japan Relations, 1945–1952. New York: Garland, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Funabashi, Yoichi. Alliance Adrift. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                              Perhaps the definitive account of US-Japanese relationship and emerging strains in the security agenda. Includes accounts of Tokyo-Okinawa tensions following the 1995 rape incident as well as insights into Japanese debates about the overall role of US bases in Japan’s security architecture.

                                                                                                                                                              Funabashi, Yoichi. Alliance Adrift. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Greene, Fred. Stresses in U.S.-Japanese Security Relations. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                Greene’s work contains much material about the legal, social, and political problems associated with US bases in Japan, and the politicization of the bases debate within Japan, during the 1960s and early 1970s.

                                                                                                                                                                Greene, Fred. Stresses in U.S.-Japanese Security Relations. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Hook, Glenn D., and Richard Siddle, eds. Japan and Okinawa: Structure and Subjectivity. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.4324/9780203222690Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  An excellent collection of essays that focus on various aspects of Okinawa’s relations with Tokyo, the United States, and the world, in both the economic and security realms. The essay by Masaaki Gabe, Okinawa’s leading scholar on US bases and security issues, on Okinawa’s foreign policy marginalization by Tokyo and Christopher Aldous’s examination of the 1970 reversion riots on the island are among the volume’s highlights.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hook, Glenn D., and Richard Siddle, eds. Japan and Okinawa: Structure and Subjectivity. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Johnson, Chalmers, ed. Okinawa: Cold War Island. Cardiff, CA: Japan Policy Research Institute, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                    A collection of critical essays by Japanese and American scholars that explore the various social and political problems caused by the US military presence. Of particular interest may be the two essays contributed by Masahide Ota, the former governor of Okinawa, who took an active anti-base stance following the 1995 rape of an Okinawan schoolgirl by US military personnel.

                                                                                                                                                                    Johnson, Chalmers, ed. Okinawa: Cold War Island. Cardiff, CA: Japan Policy Research Institute, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Okamura, Reimei. “US-Japan Relations and the Media in the Information Age: Coverage of the American Bases Issue in Okinawa.” Japanese Journal of American Studies 9 (1998): 5–27.

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                                                                                                                                                                      An examination of the role of the media in bringing base-related issues to the US-Japan agenda. The author argues that the Okinawan press was “instrumental in escalating the [1995 rape] incident.” The article reveals the importance of the local media in presenting base-related stories but also the real schisms between Okinawan media and society and the rest of Japan.

                                                                                                                                                                      Okamura, Reimei. “US-Japan Relations and the Media in the Information Age: Coverage of the American Bases Issue in Okinawa.” Japanese Journal of American Studies 9 (1998): 5–27.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Spencer, Caroline. “Meeting of the Dugongs and the Cooking Pots: Anti-military Base Citizens’ Groups on Okinawa.” Japanese Studies 23.2 (2003): 126–140.

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                                                                                                                                                                        An invaluable look at how several initially small-scale protest movements on Okinawa, each mobilizing different aspects of the US-military presence, came to network and form a broad anti-base coalition.

                                                                                                                                                                        Spencer, Caroline. “Meeting of the Dugongs and the Cooking Pots: Anti-military Base Citizens’ Groups on Okinawa.” Japanese Studies 23.2 (2003): 126–140.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Yoshida, Kensei. Democracy Betrayed: Okinawa under U.S. Occupation. Bellingham: Center for East Asian Studies, Western Washington University, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                          The leading English language account of US military rule over Okinawa, examining administrative policies—including the expropriation of Okinawan land from more than 50,000 private owners for the construction of military bases—and the ensuing backlash and protest movements US rule engendered.

                                                                                                                                                                          Yoshida, Kensei. Democracy Betrayed: Okinawa under U.S. Occupation. Bellingham: Center for East Asian Studies, Western Washington University, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Panama

                                                                                                                                                                          The US presence in Panama has long been associated with Panamanian struggles for sovereignty and independence, as well as the politically thorny Panama Canal issue. Conniff 2001 offers a helpful guide through the different stages of the US military presence and the types of social and political issues that it engendered in the Central American nation.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Conniff, Michael. Panama and the United States: The Forced Alliance. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                            A detailed account of differing US and Panamanian perspectives on the alliance, particularly on the Panama Canal Zone and its legal status.

                                                                                                                                                                            Conniff, Michael. Panama and the United States: The Forced Alliance. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Philippines

                                                                                                                                                                            The case of US bases in the Philippines is perhaps the best and most documented and most scrutinized of US overseas base hosts during the Cold War. The Philippines were a US territory following the Spanish-American War of 1898, but US rule was interrupted by the Japanese occupation during World War II. The United States granted the Philippines independence in 1947 but retained the right to use a vast array of military facilities, the most famous of which were the Clark Air Base and Subic Bay Naval Station. The heavily pro-US terms of these original agreements soon engendered a wave of nationalism in the Philippines and a renegotiation of legal terms in the 1960s (Cullather 1994). For some US commentators, the Philippines were the setting for a close “special relationship” (Berry 1989), though many Filipino scholars view the relationship as more coercive and neo-imperial in nature (Paez 1985). US commentators also examined how the United States, in an effort to retain access to its bases, supported and aided the authoritarian regime of Ferdinand Marcos (Bonner 1987). The eviction of US forces from the Philippines in 1991 (Castro-Guevara 1997), after the Manila Senate’s failure to ratify an extension agreement, was a landmark event in US-Philippine relations and in the history of US overseas bases more broadly.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Berry, William E. U.S. Bases in the Philippines: The Evolution of the Special Relationship. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Berry is an Air Force officer whose work, based on his dissertation, is the leading American analysis and most in-depth account available of the basing relationship, its points of conflict, and the evolution of its governing agreements.

                                                                                                                                                                              Berry, William E. U.S. Bases in the Philippines: The Evolution of the Special Relationship. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Bonner, Raymond. Waltzing with the Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of US Foreign Policy. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                A critical and at times sensationalist account of how the United States tolerated the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos after his declaration of martial law in order to maintain access to its bases. Despite some of its analytical shortcomings, the book offers a wealth of insights and documentation about US perceptions of the political climate, including an entire chapter devoted to the bases issue.

                                                                                                                                                                                Bonner, Raymond. Waltzing with the Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of US Foreign Policy. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Castro-Guevara, Marita, ed. The Bases Talks Reader: Key Documents of the 1990–91 Philippine-American Cooperation Talks. Manila, The Philippines: Anvil, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  A comprehensive collection of memos, documents, and minutes of the 1990–1991 negotiations.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Castro-Guevara, Marita, ed. The Bases Talks Reader: Key Documents of the 1990–91 Philippine-American Cooperation Talks. Manila, The Philippines: Anvil, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Cullather, Nick. Illusions of Influence: The Political Economy of United States-Philippine Relations, 1942–1960. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    A revisionist account of how Philippine governments managed to press the United States for almost continuous changes and revisions to the basing accords, as well as for economic concessions relating to the bases.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Cullather, Nick. Illusions of Influence: The Political Economy of United States-Philippine Relations, 1942–1960. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Paez, Patricia Ann. The Bases Factor: Realpolitik of RP-US Relations. Manila, The Philippines: Dispatch, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Written from the perspective of a Philippine nationalist, this book offers a useful contrast to Berry 1989, stressing the issues of Philippine sovereignty, dependency, and neocolonialism that are implicated in the US basing presence.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Paez, Patricia Ann. The Bases Factor: Realpolitik of RP-US Relations. Manila, The Philippines: Dispatch, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Azores, Portugal

                                                                                                                                                                                      The island chain of the Azores lies in mid-Atlantic, a full 1,000 miles off the coast of mainland Portugal. The United States has retained military facilities in the Azores since the end of World War II, when it forced an invitation from Portuguese dictator Antonio Salazar and the United Kingdom and used facilities to mount anti-German submarine campaigns (Herz 2004). During the Cold War, the islands soon became an invaluable transatlantic hub for airlift and for anti-submarine operations. In the early 1960s, the Salazar government successfully used the US presence as a bargaining chip to force the new Kennedy administration to stop openly supporting anti-Portuguese decolonization movements in Africa (Rodrigues 2004). An important social dimension is that hundreds of thousands of Azoreans have migrated to the United States, thus creating unusually strong bonds, for a European country, between the United States and the islands (Monje 1992). Following the revolution in Portugal in 1974, some speculated that the pro-US and staunchly conservative islands would secede rather than tolerate a pro-Communist government in Lisbon (Szulc 1975).

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Herz, Norman. Operation Alacrity: The Azores and the War in the Atlantic. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        The definitive account of how the United States maneuvered at the end of World War II to establish its bases on the Azores. Unsurpassed in its presentation of archival sources and discussion of individual facilities and islands.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Herz, Norman. Operation Alacrity: The Azores and the War in the Atlantic. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Monje, Scott C. “The Azores in the Atlantic World: Geostrategic Aspects.” Camões Center Quarterly 3.3–4 (1992): 2–12.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          An overview of the history and purpose of the bases within the overall context of US-Portuguese relations, Azorean migration, and the islands’ Atlantic identity formation.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Monje, Scott C. “The Azores in the Atlantic World: Geostrategic Aspects.” Camões Center Quarterly 3.3–4 (1992): 2–12.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rodrigues, Luís Nuno. About Face: The United States and Portuguese Colonialism in 1961. Electronic Journal of Portuguese History 2.1 (2004): 1–10.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            An abbreviated version of the author’s dissertation (also a book in Portuguese) which examines how the Kennedy administration was forced to back down from its initial position of supporting anti-Portuguese colonial liberation movements in Africa, after Lisbon threatened to terminate access to American basing facilities in the Azores.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Rodrigues, Luís Nuno. About Face: The United States and Portuguese Colonialism in 1961. Electronic Journal of Portuguese History 2.1 (2004): 1–10.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Szulc, Tad. “Lisbon and Washington: Behind the Portuguese Revolution.” Foreign Policy 21 (1975): 3–62.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/1148052Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              An account of US reactions, focusing on the role of Henry Kissinger, to the 1974 Portuguese revolution. One of the first published sources to raise the possibility that the United States might assist the Azoreans to secede from mainland Portugal in order to maintain basing rights, in the event that the new Communist government did not honor its NATO commitments.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Szulc, Tad. “Lisbon and Washington: Behind the Portuguese Revolution.” Foreign Policy 21 (1975): 3–62.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              South Korea

                                                                                                                                                                                              The US military presence in Korea can be traced to the end of World War II and was bolstered during the Korean War and its aftermath. For thirty years after the war, the United States maintained a robust troop presence and commitment to defending the South from attack by the North, integrating Southern forces into its command structures and operations (Bok 1987). The social role of the bases steadily changed as Korean society went from impoverished in the aftermath of the war to a new economic powerhouse in the 1980s, turning the bases from sources of economic activity (including prostitution and smuggling) for local populations to socioeconomically marginalized zones in the modern Korean state (Moon 1997). At the same time, the succession of ruthless South Korean authoritarian rulers during these decades also sowed seeds of discontent among Korean opposing these decades also sowed seeds of discontent among Korean opposition politicians and civil society with the US presence (Oberdorfer 1997 and Kim 2004). The opposition exploded during the 1990s and 2000s as anti-base protest movements escalated their campaigns and networked with other actors in Korean civil society (Moon 2011).

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bok, Lee S. The Impact of U.S. Forces in Korea. Washington DC: National Defense University Press, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                An overview of the history of US forces in Korea from the end of World War II to the waves of withdrawals through the Carter era. Also has a section that analyzes the economic and social impact of bases on Korean communities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Bok, Lee S. The Impact of U.S. Forces in Korea. Washington DC: National Defense University Press, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kim, Jinwung. “Ambivalent Allies: Recent South Korean Perceptions of the United States Forces Korea (USFK).” Asian Affairs, an American Review 30.4 (2004): 268–285.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.3200/AAFS.30.4.268-285Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  A comprehensive source for survey data and analysis of South Korean society’s attitude toward various base-related issues, including the US-Korea SOFA and the relocation of the Yongsan facility.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kim, Jinwung. “Ambivalent Allies: Recent South Korean Perceptions of the United States Forces Korea (USFK).” Asian Affairs, an American Review 30.4 (2004): 268–285.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Moon, Katherine H. S. Sex among Allies. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    A compelling, often-cited work in both feminist IR scholarship and in works on the dynamics of the US-Korean alliance itself that charts the evolution of Korean prostitution and camptowns through the 1960s and 1970s. It also documents the interaction between formal US-Korean security agreements and their effects on Korean sex workers and these marginal communities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Moon, Katherine H. S. Sex among Allies. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Moon, Katherine. Protesting America: Democracy and the U.S.-Korea Alliance. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Moon’s second book is a meticulously documented account of the emergence and political importance of South Korean protest movements against the US military presence. Contrary to the prevailing view that such movements are simply a function of Korean innate “anti-Americanism,” the author shows how the democratization and decentralization of the Korean political system crated the political space for the emergence and effectiveness of these social movements.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Moon, Katherine. Protesting America: Democracy and the U.S.-Korea Alliance. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Oberdorfer, Don. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        A general account of the history of South Korea and US relations. Its case material on the “Kwangju massacre” of 1981, where Korean forces were allegedly released from the joint command by US officials and then proceeded to kill hundreds of student protestors, is one of the most balanced treatments available on the subject.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Oberdorfer, Don. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                        The US basing presence has been a highly politicized and contentious issue, often associated with Spain’s transition from authoritarianism to democracy. The Madrid Pacts of 1953 established the US presence. At that time, Spain remained a pariah in the West, isolated by western European countries and excluded from NATO (Whitaker 1962). Though US officials always denied that the basing accords signified an endorsement of the Franco government, Madrid presented the treaty as Spain’s reintegration in the West, and political opponents saw the agreement as providing critical US support and legitimacy (Viñas 1981). After the pacted transition to democracy and the final Franco-era accord of 1976 (Druckman 1986), the US presence became an important issue for the Socialist Party in its political campaigns of the early 1980s. However, following the renegotiation of 1986–1988 (Viñas 2003a, Viñas 2003b), the basing issue lost its domestic saliency (Cooley and Hopkin 2010). Even when Spain, following Zapatero’s surprise election in 2004, decided controversially to withdraw its troops from Iraq while allowing US basing rights for the same campaign, the question of US bases had lost its domestic political resonance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Cooley, Alexander, and Jonathan Hopkin. “Base Closings: The Rise and Decline of the US Military Bases Issue in Spain, 1975–2005.” International Political Science Review 31.4 (2010): 494–513.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1177/0192512110372975Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explains periods of politicization of the US bases as a function of Spain’s democratic party system formation and consolidation. Offers an explanation for why the new Socialist government did not revoke US basing rights for the US military campaign in Iraq in 2004, even as it withdrew Spanish troops from the Iraqi theater.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cooley, Alexander, and Jonathan Hopkin. “Base Closings: The Rise and Decline of the US Military Bases Issue in Spain, 1975–2005.” International Political Science Review 31.4 (2010): 494–513.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Druckman, Daniel. “Stages, Turning Points, and Crisis: Negotiating Military Base Rights, Spain and the United States.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 30.2 (1986): 327–360.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0022002786030002006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Remains the most cited work on US basing negotiations, its case material drawn from the 1975 US-Spain basing rights negotiations, and presents a primer on how to identify “turning points” and resolve impasses in international negotiations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Druckman, Daniel. “Stages, Turning Points, and Crisis: Negotiating Military Base Rights, Spain and the United States.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 30.2 (1986): 327–360.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Viñas, Angel. Los pactos secretos de Franco con los Estados Unidos. Barcelona: Grijalbo, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              The most significant single study of US bases abroad by a European scholar, Viñas’s account shocked the Spanish public by revealing the terms of the secret accords signed between the United States and the Franco government. After its publication, Viñas became an adviser to the PSOE on security issues and was closely involved in the 1980s basing negotiations with the United States, including the contentious talks of 1986–1988.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Viñas, Angel. Los pactos secretos de Franco con los Estados Unidos. Barcelona: Grijalbo, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Viñas, Angel. En las garras del aguila: Los pactos con Estados Unidos, de Francisco Franco a Felipe Gonzalez (1945–1995). Barcelona: Critica, 2003a.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                An update to Los pactos secretos that details the negotiations of the 1980s and argues that the 1988 accord satisfactorily addressed the deficiencies of previous accords, particularly regarding the defense of Spanish sovereignty.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Viñas, Angel. En las garras del aguila: Los pactos con Estados Unidos, de Francisco Franco a Felipe Gonzalez (1945–1995). Barcelona: Critica, 2003a.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Viñas, Angel. “Negotiating the U.S.-Spanish Agreements, 1953–1988: A Spanish Perspective.” Jean Monnet/Robert Schuman Paper Series 3.7. Miami, FL: Miami European Union Center, University of Miami, 2003b. Brussels.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  For an English-language audience, this paper is an abbreviated version of En las garras del aguila.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Viñas, Angel. “Negotiating the U.S.-Spanish Agreements, 1953–1988: A Spanish Perspective.” Jean Monnet/Robert Schuman Paper Series 3.7. Miami, FL: Miami European Union Center, University of Miami, 2003b. Brussels.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Whitaker, Arthur P. Spain and the Defense of the West: Ally and Liability. New York: Praeger, 1962.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An early account of the ethical dilemma confronting US policymakers when dealing with the Franco regime, outlining the tradeoff between maintaining access to a critical network of US bases and appearing to tolerate the political excesses of the Spanish dictator. Helpful material on the original Madrid Pacts of 1953 and their political significance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Whitaker, Arthur P. Spain and the Defense of the West: Ally and Liability. New York: Praeger, 1962.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Thailand

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    US security relations with Thailand are informed by political challenges of having to deal with an authoritarian government that touts its anti-Communist credentials. Fineman 1997 charts the development of security relations and the establishment of US bases. These facilities became of critical importance during the Vietnam War, when US bases in Thailand launched the majority of air missions (Randolph 1986). Following withdrawal from Vietnam, a US proposal to maintain a residual basing presence was opposed during the Thai presidential campaign of 1976, forcing the United States to vacate its facilities soon after.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fineman, Daniel. A Special Relationship: The United States and Military Government in Thailand, 1947–1958. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Offers the most detailed account of the establishment of US bases in Thailand in the 1950s and US security assistance to the regime.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Fineman, Daniel. A Special Relationship: The United States and Military Government in Thailand, 1947–1958. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Randolph, R. Sean. The United States and Thailand: Alliance Dynamics, 1950–1985. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Provides a detailed account of US bases in Thailand for the Vietnam War as well as the political reasons behind the Thai government’s expulsion of a planned residual US presence after the war’s end.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Randolph, R. Sean. The United States and Thailand: Alliance Dynamics, 1950–1985. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Turkey

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        US bases in Turkey have been regularly fraught with controversy and implicated in domestic and external politics. Dozens of installations were established in the 1950s (Bilge 1993) as Turkey became a frontline ally in the containment of the Soviet Union. At the same time, economic and military assistance that accompanied basing rights saw the United States turn the Menderes regime into a US client, thereby fueling Turkish nationalism and intense opposition on the left during intermittent periods of democratization in the 1960s and 1970s (Wolf 1969, Harris 1972). Turkey even temporarily suspended the operations of US bases following the US embargo in response to Turkey’s military action in Cyprus in 1974. In the late 1970s and 1980s Turkey adopted a hard-bargaining approach to the bases and increasing demands for quid pro quo (Stearns 1992). The 1990s once again saw the bases implicated in domestic political controversy when they were used to patrol the Iraq Kurdish area’s no-fly zone. In February 2003, the Turkish parliament controversially, and unexpectedly, voted down a proposal to allow US forces to stage from Turkish bases for the Iraq war (Kesgin and Kaarbo 2010), thereby throwing US-Turkish relations into crisis and forcing the United States into alternative war planning for Iraq.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bilge, Criss Nur. “U.S. Forces in Turkey.” In U.S. Military Forces in Europe: The Early Years, 1945–1970. Edited by Simon Duke and Wolfgang Krieger, 331–350. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Offers the authoritative overview of the political tensions that arose as a result of the US presence in Turkey. Offers especially helpful insights into the Jupiter Missile affair of the late 1950s and early 1960s.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Bilge, Criss Nur. “U.S. Forces in Turkey.” In U.S. Military Forces in Europe: The Early Years, 1945–1970. Edited by Simon Duke and Wolfgang Krieger, 331–350. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Harris, George S. Troubled Alliance: Turkish-American Problems in Historical Perspective, 1945–1971. Washington, DC: ACE-Hoover Policy Studies, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A still indispensable source on US support for the client regime of Adnan Menderes in the 1950s and the social and political tensions that came to dominate US-Turkish relations in the 1960s.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Harris, George S. Troubled Alliance: Turkish-American Problems in Historical Perspective, 1945–1971. Washington, DC: ACE-Hoover Policy Studies, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kesgin, Barry, and Juliet Kaarbo. “When and How Parliaments Influence Foreign Policy: The Case of Turkey’s Iraq Decision.” International Studies Perspective 11.1 (2010): 19–36.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-3585.2009.00390.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An examination of the critical role played by parliament and party politics in the Turkish parliament’s vote in February 2003 not to authorize the use of Turkish bases for the US war in Iraq.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kesgin, Barry, and Juliet Kaarbo. “When and How Parliaments Influence Foreign Policy: The Case of Turkey’s Iraq Decision.” International Studies Perspective 11.1 (2010): 19–36.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Stearns, Monteagle. Entangled Allies: U.S. Policy Toward Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Written by a former US ambassador to Greece, this volume offers many firsthand insights into the difficult basing negotiations that the United States undertook with Turkey and Greece in the 1980s.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Stearns, Monteagle. Entangled Allies: U.S. Policy Toward Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wolf, Charlotte. Garrison Community: A Study of an Overseas American Military Colony. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1969.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A fascinating, if obscure, account of the tensions, intercultural misunderstandings, and social problems caused and experienced by US forces in Turkey during the politically turbulent 1960s.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wolf, Charlotte. Garrison Community: A Study of an Overseas American Military Colony. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1969.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  United Kingdom

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The United Kingdom has remained the United States’ firmest and most trusted ally. US planners have maintained an extensive range of air bases and communications and intelligence installations, though the UK case is unique in that most of these basing arrangements are governed by informal agreements and norms, rather than formal legal agreements (Duke 1987). Politically, the status of US bases in Scotland (Dobson 2009) and Wales (Whitham 2009) became implicated in local UK politics and home country nationalism. At the same time, the close integration of operations has led some scholars to question whether planning truly is joint and whether the United Kingdom has been able to exercise sovereign decision making over US military facilities on UK soil (Young 2007).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Dobson, Alan. “Operation Lamachus: The Holy Loch US Nuclear Base and the Dangers of Local Radiation Pollution.” In Military Bases: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Challenges. Edited by Luís Rodrigues and Sergiy Globov, 29–39. Amsterdam: IOS, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Examination of the Holy Loch base, where US Polaris nuclear submarines were stationed, and the environmental impact and local politics that radiation pollution engendered. Critical of how UK authorities responded to local concerns.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dobson, Alan. “Operation Lamachus: The Holy Loch US Nuclear Base and the Dangers of Local Radiation Pollution.” In Military Bases: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Challenges. Edited by Luís Rodrigues and Sergiy Globov, 29–39. Amsterdam: IOS, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Duke, Simon. US Defence Bases in the United Kingdom: A Matter for Joint Decision? Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A keen and critical analysis of the underlying agreements and decision-making procedures that govern US forces stationed in the United Kingdom. Duke’s argument that many of these arrangements are still cloaked in secrecy and that their mostly informal nature erodes the sovereign authority of the UK government is forcefully argued.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Duke, Simon. US Defence Bases in the United Kingdom: A Matter for Joint Decision? Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Whitham, Charlie. “Bargaining Over Brawdy: Negotiating the American Military Presence in Wales, 1971.” In Military Bases: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Challenges. Edited by Luís Rodrigues and Sergiy Globov, 40–55. Amsterdam: IOS, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Whitham’s analysis is one of the few available sources on the tense and protracted negotiations between the US and UK governments over the status and supporting arrangements of USNF Brawdy, an important undersea listening station located in a remote coastal location in Wales.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Whitham, Charlie. “Bargaining Over Brawdy: Negotiating the American Military Presence in Wales, 1971.” In Military Bases: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Challenges. Edited by Luís Rodrigues and Sergiy Globov, 40–55. Amsterdam: IOS, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Young, Ken. “No Blank Cheque: Anglo-American (Mis)understandings and the Use of English Airbases.” Journal of Military History 71.4 (2007): 1133–1167.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Young examines the evolution of decision-making procedures over the use of US bombers on British soil for a nuclear strike against the Soviet Union in the early Cold War period. The author argues that no formal joint procedures were in place at the time of the 1948 Berlin Crisis and that the even later-established “joint consultation” procedures would have been insufficient to override American operational needs in the event of a war.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Young, Ken. “No Blank Cheque: Anglo-American (Mis)understandings and the Use of English Airbases.” Journal of Military History 71.4 (2007): 1133–1167.

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