In This Article The Arab-Israel Conflict

  • Introduction
  • General Overviews
  • Introductory Texts
  • Reference Works
  • Atlases
  • Anthologies
  • Memoirs
  • Journals
  • Ottoman Palestine
  • Rise of Zionism
  • British Mandate of Palestine
  • 1948–1949 War and Aftermath
  • 1967 War and Aftermath
  • Oslo Peace Process to Present
  • Intra-Palestinian Politics
  • International Dimensions

Political Science The Arab-Israel Conflict
by
Alan Dowty
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 May 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756223-0124

Introduction

The sheer volume of literature on the Arab-Israel conflict is enormous. Most of these writings are, however, contentious, if not polemical; scholarly research occupies only a small niche in the edifice. But even this scholarly literature is vast, and it tends to be identified, for the most part, with one side or the other. This does not mean that research conducted by “involved” parties can be reflexively set aside. Such research can be valuable, sometimes precisely because of this involvement—but the reader needs to be aware of the scholar’s relationship to the subject of his research. The ideal of a truly disinterested, unaffiliated, “objective” adjudicator of Arab-Israel issues is not irrelevant, but it is an ideal that is met, if at all, only by a small proportion of the prominent scholars who have contributed the most important works in the field. Without the “involved” scholars, there would be little for a bibliographer to report. A second issue is an imbalance arising from the greater number of scholarly works on the conflict coming from Israeli and Jewish academic researchers compared to the number written by Palestinian or Arab scholars (at least regarding books in English). In part this imbalance has lessened in recent years with more Palestinian academic works, and from the appearance of “post-Zionist” or “revisionist” Israeli or Jewish scholars who have published studies highly—even devastatingly—critical of the standard Israeli narrative. (“Revisionism” in this context should be distinguished from Revisionist Zionism, which is in fact at the other end of the spectrum.) Post-Zionists tend to fall into two schools: positivists, who simply use primary sources and declassified documents to debunk founding myths that have seldom been challenged; and “post-modernists” or “deconstructionists,” who see academic research as a manifestation of a power relationship and identify the Palestinians as the oppressed party. The conclusions of the second group, in particular, are often quite supportive of the conclusions of Palestinian and Arab scholars who work from the same premise. Apart from these differing approaches, scholarship on the conflict also corresponds in large part to the historical stages of its evolution: the Ottoman period, both before and after the beginning of Zionist settlement in 1882; the British Mandate between the two world wars; the interstate conflict phase from Israel’s creation in 1948 to the 1967 war; the reemergence of the Palestinians in the 1970s and 1980s; and the rise and fall of the Oslo peace process since the early 1990s.

General Overviews

Scholarly overviews of the Arab-Israel conflict are often written as histories, since much of the debate concerns historical issues. Tessler 2009 and Morris 2001 are the leading comprehensive histories, with broad rather than partisan perspectives. Tessler 2009, written by a scholar at home in both Arab and Israeli sources, does this through a nuanced presentation of both narratives. Morris 2001, by an Israeli historian identified in the past with “post-Zionist” critics of standard Israeli historiography, takes a more empirical approach by mining the sources and letting the chips fall where they may. Shlaim 2000 represents a more clear-cut post-Zionism, interpreting Israel’s historical policies in a highly critical framework. Khouri 1985 presents the classic scholarly Palestinian reading of the conflict, while Barari 2009 provides as counterpoint a useful critique of Arab scholarship on Israel. Boyle 2003 and O’Brien 1991 focus on the legal and moral dimensions of the conflict, presenting reasoned cases for the Palestinian perspective (Boyle 2003) and for Israeli arguments (O’Brien 1991).

  • Barari, Hassan A. Israelism: Arab Scholarship on Israel, a Critical Assessment. Reading, UK: Ithaca, 2009.

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    An Arab scholar’s critique of academic research on Israel in the Arab world, which he describes as “Israelism”—a label suggested by Edward Said’s description of Western scholarship on the Middle East as “Orientalism.”

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    • Boyle, Francis Anthony. Palestine, Palestinians, and International Law. Atlanta: Clarity, 2003.

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      Assessment of the legal dimensions of the conflict, highly sympathetic to Palestinian arguments.

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      • Khouri, Fred J. The Arab-Israel Dilemma. 3d ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1985.

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        Though somewhat out of date, Khouri’s work still stands out as a serious academic study of the conflict from an Arab perspective. Unflattering portrayals of both sides, though harsher on Israel’s leaders.

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        • Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001. New York: Vintage, 2001.

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          This extensive account adheres closely to primary and secondary sources in an inductive approach to accuracy and objectivity. Also useful as a basic reference.

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          • O’Brien, William V. Law and Morality in Israel’s War with the PLO. New York and London: Routledge, 1991.

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            Though written a decade earlier, this work deals with many of the same questions as Boyle 2003, but reaches conclusions much more favorable to Israel.

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            • Shlaim, Avi. The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World. London: Penguin, 2000.

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              Shlaim’s Israeli origins lead this to be classified as “post-Zionist” history; in any event, it is a carefully researched critique of Israel’s approach over the entire course of the conflict.

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              • Tessler, Mark. A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. 2d ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009.

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                Comprehensive and detailed, this history gives a sympathetic hearing to the claims and counterclaims of both sides. Its voluminous and thorough coverage make it useful as a basic reference on all stages of the conflict.

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                Introductory Texts

                The books in this category are more concise than general overviews, contain more illustrations and maps, and are written explicitly as introductory works. Most are also organized as histories covering the conflict from its origins to the time of publication. Dowty 2012 provides a concise chronological and analytical account, designed for the classroom, that emphasizes the opposed perspectives and the basic issues of the conflict. Bickerton and Klausner 2009 is a basic history that incorporates considerable detail into a condensed format, with many features useful in the classroom. Lesch 2007 is a balanced and more comprehensive history with particular strength on the diplomatic level. Smith 2009 has been a leading textbook on the conflict since the first edition in 1988, and it provides a thorough historical account. Caplan 2010 is also largely chronological, but with added historiographic discussion, while Gelvin 2007 is more interpretive, with extended discussion of the two opposed nationalist movements at the core of the conflict.

                • Bickerton, Ian J., and Carla L. Klausner. A History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2009.

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                  Balanced historical account well-equipped with primary documents, illustrations, photographs, maps, chronologies, and a glossary.

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                  • Caplan, Neil. The Israel-Palestine Conflict: Contested Histories. Chichester, UK, and Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

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                    In addition to a balanced and analytic history, includes an informed discussion of interpretive schools of thought.

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                    • Dowty, Alan. Israel/Palestine. 3d ed. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2012.

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                      Broad historical treatment contrasting the opposed narratives and providing a road map through conflicting claims, but leaving final evaluations to the reader.

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                      • Gelvin, James L. The Israel-Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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                        Covers the history of the conflict thematically by focusing on nationalism and on the two opposed nationalist movements.

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                        • Lesch, David W. The Arab-Israeli Conflict: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

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                          Straightforward historical treatment with strong emphasis on the international context; includes primary documents and other aids.

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                          • Smith, Charles D. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A History with Documents. 7th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.

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                            Broad historical coverage and generous provision of historical documents; more sympathetic to the Palestinian perspective.

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                            Reference Works

                            The broad scholarly and popular interest in the Arab-Israel conflict is reflected in an abundance of reference works, many of which manage to transcend its deep divisions. The more useful of these follow either an encyclopedic format, with contributed articles from recognized scholars, or a dictionary format, with shorter entries by the author or authors. Among those that focus entirely on the conflict, Tucker and Roberts 2008 provides the most extensive encyclopedic coverage, though many of the entries from the earlier Reich 1996 will still be of interest to most scholars and students. Two dictionaries also focused on Arab-Israel issues, Faure 2005 and Kumaraswamy 2006, have appeared in recent years and provide quick and reliable information on a more specific level. Reference works on Zionism and Israel tend to dominate among scholarly encyclopedias and dictionaries focused on parties to the conflict. Wigoder 1994, though obviously not covering recent years, provides definitive statements by top scholars writing from a Zionist or Israeli perspective. Medoff and Waxman 2008 and Reich and Goldberg 2008 are both (like Kumaraswamy 2006) dictionaries in the Scarecrow Press format, with an emphasis on concise definitions (of Zionist and Israeli topics, respectively) in a compact single volume. The Palestinian perspective is well represented by Mattar 2000, in an encyclopedic format that includes contributions from Israeli scholars.

                            • Faure, Claude. Dictionary of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Culture, History, and Politics. 2 vols. Detroit: Macmillan, 2005.

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                              Translation of a work published in French, in 2002, by a French governmental specialist on the conflict. Updated to 2005 with 1,140 definitions, each volume also includes timelines, glossary, and bibliography.

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                              • Kumaraswamy, P. R. Historical Dictionary of the Arab-Israel Conflict. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2006.

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                                Like Faure 2005, this work provides neutral and balanced definitions of basic elements of the conflict written by an outside observer, in this case in an admirably brief format. Includes a useful chronology and an extensive bibliography.

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                                • Mattar, Philip, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2000.

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                                  A good counterpart to the abundant reference material on Israel and Zionism. Mattar, associated with the Institute for Palestine Studies, draws on contributions of forty-eight Palestinian, American, and Israeli scholars to produce a highly usable compendium.

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                                  • Medoff, Rafael, and Chaim I. Waxman. Historical Dictionary of Zionism. 2d ed. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2008.

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                                    Like Kumaraswamy 2006, this is part of Scarecrow Press’s series of compact dictionaries on historic religions and movements, in this case covering the broad history of Zionism with over two hundred entries.

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                                    • Reich, Bernard, ed. An Historical Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.

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                                      Though now somewhat dated, this volume of contributions by noted scholars set the standard for encyclopedic coverage of the conflict prior to the appearance of Tucker and Roberts 2008.

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                                      • Reich, Bernard, and David Goldberg. Historical Dictionary of Israel. 2d ed. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2008.

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                                        Another compact Scarecrow dictionary, this time from their Middle East series, and focused on historical personalities, institutions, events, concepts, and documents related to the state of Israel.

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                                        • Tucker, Spencer, and Priscilla Mary Roberts, eds. The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History. 4 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2008.

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                                          The most comprehensive reference work on the conflict itself, with over 750 contributed articles in the first three volumes and 168 documents in volume 4. Especially strong on military topics.

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                                          • Wigoder, Geoffrey, ed. New Encyclopedia of Zionism and Israel. 2d ed. 2 vols. Cranbury, NJ, and London: Associated University Presses, 1994.

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                                            This is the second edition of a classic work published in 1971, edited this time by a noted scholar who also edited Encyclopedia Judaica. Leading scholars contributed authoritative articles, most of them still relevant and significant.

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                                            Atlases

                                            The geographical dimensions of the Arab-Israeli conflict are central, and many of the standard sources provide excellent maps to accompany the text. But at the same time there are relatively few reference works, or atlases, devoted entirely to maps. Gilbert 2012 is the best-known atlas of the conflict, now in its tenth edition and providing the most complete geographical coverage of all aspects. Smith 2008 covers the entire Middle East, but the Arab-Israeli conflict is a central focus and the atlas features colorful graphs and illustrations, as well as an analytic text, along with maps. Khalidi 1992 provides a geographical aspect of the Palestinian narrative in a detailed survey of the Palestinian villages, occupied by Israel during the 1948–1949 war, that no longer exist. The Palestine Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs, on its website, offers two sets of historical maps also reflecting the Palestinian perspective: Palestine Maps and Jerusalem Maps (see also Data Sources).

                                            • Gilbert, Martin. The Routledge Atlas of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. 10th ed. London and New York: Routledge, 2012.

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                                              With 227 maps, provides a wealth of information and covers topics not touched upon elsewhere. Captions on the maps, and sometimes the choice of topic, are generally supportive of the Israeli perspective.

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                                              • Khalidi, Walid. All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1992.

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                                                In format, a reference work covering the more than four hundred Palestinian villages from which the residents either fled or were expelled in 1948–1949. Includes history and current condition of each village, many with photographs.

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                                                • Palestine Maps and Jerusalem Maps. Palestine Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs.

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                                                  Two sets of maps, covering from the beginning of the conflict to 2007, available in gif and pdf formats, reflecting Palestinian concerns.

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                                                  • Smith, Dan. The State of the Middle East: An Atlas of Conflict and Resolution. 2d ed. London: Earthscan, 2008.

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                                                    Covers history, conflicts, and socioeconomic indicators of the region; concise for the amount of information offered. Narrative text can be judgmental but plays no favorites.

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                                                    Anthologies

                                                    Among the documentary collections that cover the conflict as a whole, Bassiouni and Ben Ami 2009 is a collaboration between a prominent legal scholar of Egyptian background and a former Israeli minister of foreign affairs turned academic. Laqueur and Rubin 2008 is the most recent edition of a longstanding anthology of key documents, while the earlier Moore 1975 brings together both readings and documents with an emphasis on legal questions. Public documents related to Israel’s foreign relations are published in English in Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1976. Kaplan and Penslar 2011 provides a history of Zionism and Israel to 1948 through interpretive presentations of key documents. This is complemented by a similar anthology of Israeli history since then in Rabinovich and Reinharz 2008. The most complete collection of documents from the Palestinian side is Abd al-Hadi 2007, though this source is difficult to find. Oral histories have been used to fill in Palestinian documentation; Lynd, et al. 1994 is a prime example.

                                                    • Abd al-Hadi, Mahdi, ed. Documents on Palestine. Jerusalem: Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs, 2007.

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                                                      Contains eight volumes. Covers the history of the conflict from 1900 to 2007, arranged chronologically, with greater representation of recent years.

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                                                      • Bassiouni, M. Cherif, and Shlomo Ben Ami. A Guide to Documents on the Arab-Palestinian/Israeli Conflict, 1897–2008. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 2009.

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                                                        Six hundred and ninety documents covering the history of the conflict are introduced and summarized, with guidance on locating the complete original documents; strong emphasis on legal issues.

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                                                        • Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Israel’s Foreign Relations: Selected Documents. Jerusalem: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1976.

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                                                          Continued in twelve volumes. Contains statements, speeches, agreements, resolutions, and other public documents of both Israeli and non-Israeli origin from 1948 to 1992.

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                                                          • Kaplan, Eran, and Derek J. Penslar, eds. The Origins of Israel, 1882–1948: A Documentary History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2011.

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                                                            Includes sixty-two primary sources on all aspects of Israeli history; each section is introduced by an essay putting the documents into context.

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                                                            • Laqueur, Walter, and Barry Rubin, eds. The Israel-Arab Reader: A Documentary History of the Middle East Conflict. 7th ed. New York: Penguin, 2008.

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                                                              Documents from entire course of the conflict and from both sides, some abridged, with heavier representation of more recent years.

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                                                              • Lynd, Staughton, Sam Bahour, and Alice Lynd, eds. Homeland: Oral Histories of Palestine and Palestinians. New York: Olive Branch, 1994.

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                                                                Based on interviews of Palestinians carried out in the United States, Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza in 1991–1992, covering personal experiences from 1948 to then.

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                                                                • Moore, John Norton, ed. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975.

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                                                                  The first two volumes, published in 1975, contain articles, mostly by legal scholars but not limited to narrow legal questions, representing varied views. Volume 3, also published in 1975, contains documents to that date, while volume 4, published in 1991, adds documents from 1975 to 1988.

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                                                                  • Rabinovich, Itamar, and Jehuda Reinharz, eds. Israel in the Middle East: Documents and Readings on Society, Politics, and Foreign Relations, Pre-1948 to the Present. 2d ed. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2008.

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                                                                    Apart from official documents, also contains analyses contemporary to events described; includes domestic issues but emphasis is on foreign relations.

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                                                                    Data Sources

                                                                    Much information on Arab-Israel issues is now available more quickly and in greater detail, thanks to the explosion of Internet resources. But useful sites can be difficult to locate due to the huge volume of tendentious material that has proliferated. The sources listed here provide authoritative statements of positions from official sources, as well as data and analysis from academic or semiacademic bodies that may or may not be identified with one of the parties.

                                                                    Israeli

                                                                    The Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs website is well organized to provide information on most aspects of Israeli history, politics, society, and culture, as well as foreign relations, and it also provides useful links to other official websites. Research institutes at universities, selected for their relevance to Arab-Israel issues and the online availability of quality publications, represent a spectrum of orientations toward the conflict, from the more hawkish approach at the Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, through the mainstream outlook at the Institute for National Security Studies, to the more dovish tendency of the Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace. The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, also a university affiliate (Tel Aviv), is the domain of professional Middle East scholars, only some of whom focus on the Arab-Israel conflict. The Israeli Democracy Institute’s Peace Index is an independent body focused primarily on domestic Israeli issues; it is of interest here primarily because it houses one of the few quality longitudinal data sets on Israeli opinions about Arab-Israel issues.

                                                                    Palestinian

                                                                    The website of the Palestinian National Authority is the closest equivalent to an authoritative government website on the Palestinian side. The Institute for Palestine Studies is, by a wide margin, the most authoritative source for academic and scholarly material from the Palestinian perspective (especially the Journal of Palestine Studies, which is cited under Journals). The Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs, in Jerusalem, provides a closer view of some issues, including an excellent set of maps. The Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research, which is based in the West Bank, has reliable survey data extending back about twenty years, as does the Jerusalem Media and Communications Centre.

                                                                    Others

                                                                    While most Arab-Israel research institutes are clearly identified with one side or the other, the Israel/Palestine Center for Research and Information stands alone as a joint undertaking. Much of its program focuses on education and advocacy, but it also carries out policy-oriented research on conflict resolution. The United Nations Relief and Works Agency website is the most authoritative source for current statistics on the Palestinian refugees of 1948–1949. A number of think tanks in Washington deal with Arab-Israel issues, but the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, founded in 1985, has come to play a particularly prominent role. The MidEastWeb is one of many organizations attempting to promote dialogue, in this case on a worldwide basis, and its website is particularly useful as a source of material not preselected to represent one side only. The Middle East Research and Information Project and the Foundation for Middle East Peace are both representative of largely North American constituencies with a definite view of the conflict but a professional approach to making related research available.

                                                                    • Foundation for Middle East Peace.

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                                                                      Washington-based organization promoting peace via two states, while reflecting pro-Palestinian perspectives of governmental and nongovernmental specialists on the Middle East. Noted for its ongoing “Report on Israeli Settlement in the Occupied Territories.”

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                                                                      • Israel/Palestine Center for Research and Information.

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                                                                        Unique joint Israeli-Palestinian institution in Jerusalem whose research unit produces studies of policy options for resolution of the conflict.

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                                                                        • Middle East Research and Information Project.

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                                                                          Independent research institution of mostly American academics generally sympathetic to the Arab/Palestinian position. Publishes a leading issue-oriented journal, Middle East Report, and provides other source material on its website.

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                                                                          • MidEastWeb.

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                                                                            Founded by activists engaged in dialogue, and based in Israel but with worldwide participation. Website provides extensive data, sources, background material, maps, and other useful information.

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                                                                            • United Nations Relief and Works Agency.

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                                                                              UN agency responsible for support of Palestinian refugees in the West Bank and Gaza, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan; main source of data on refugees.

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                                                                              • Washington Institute for Near East Policy.

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                                                                                Policy-oriented think tank in Washington, with ties to both the pro-Israel community and the foreign policy and defense establishment. Noted experts on research staff produce much significant scholarship on Arab-Israel issues as well as other Middle East concerns.

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                                                                                Memoirs

                                                                                The personal records left by Zionist and Israeli figures are extensive. The dominant founding figure, David Ben-Gurion, presents an unusual problem: although a prolific writer, his personal accounts in English are scattered in a number of publications rather than in a single comprehensive memoir. Ben-Gurion 1971, covering 1948–1969, interprets the most important early statehood period, though more as a history than as a memoir. Other key figures in Israel’s history have written more conventional memoirs: Eban 1977, Meir 1975, and Rabin 1979 (this last memoir written, however, before Rabin’s important second period as prime minister). One key Palestinian account is Furlonge 1969, which is actually the reminiscences of Musa Alami, one of the leading figures in the Mandate period. Nusseibeh 2007 presents the recollections of a leading Palestinian intellectual and moderate in more recent years. The importance of Edward Said as a molder of Palestinian thinking makes his memoir (Said 1999) of particular interest, even though it focuses primarily on his childhood and is more personal than political.

                                                                                • Ben-Gurion, David. Israel: A Personal History. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1971.

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                                                                                  Although dealing with only one period of his eventful career, and doing so rather formally, this account of the early statehood period conveys a sense of Ben-Gurion’s thinking.

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                                                                                  • Eban, Abba. Abba Eban: An Autobiography. New York: Random House, 1977.

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                                                                                    Noted for his eloquence and verbal style as Israel’s spokesman in the early years of the state, Eban predictably produced an eloquent and stylish account of his career.

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                                                                                    • Furlonge, Geoffrey Warren. Palestine Is My Country: The Story of Musa Alami. New York: Praeger, 1969.

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                                                                                      Based on tape recordings made by Alami in 1966, focusing on his earlier career; published as a paraphrased text with some direct quotations.

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                                                                                      • Meir, Golda. My Life. New York: Putnam, 1975.

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                                                                                        Israel’s fourth prime minister tells her own story in her accustomed blunt and forceful style.

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                                                                                        • Nusseibeh, Sari, with Anthony David. Once Upon a Country: A Palestinian Life. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007.

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                                                                                          Panoramic portrait of the Palestinian experience as seen by a leading academic and public figure often involved in dialogue and activism.

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                                                                                          • Rabin, Yitzhak. The Rabin Memoirs. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979.

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                                                                                            Though it does not cover the last fifteen years of his public career, Rabin’s account gives an authentic sense of how Israel’s history was seen by members of the first homegrown generation.

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                                                                                            • Said, Edward W. Out of Place: A Memoir. New York: Knopf, 1999.

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                                                                                              Said is often regarded as the most influential proponent of the Palestinian position; his many writings include this account of his childhood and early career.

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                                                                                              Journals

                                                                                              Periodical literature on the Arab-Israel conflict is especially voluminous, involving, by the broadest definition, hundreds of publications. But the number of refereed academic journals is much more limited. There is no scholarly periodical devoted solely to the conflict and not identified with either side. There are a number of English-language peer-reviewed academic journals devoted to various aspects of Israel studies, published in Israel and elsewhere. Israel Studies is sponsored by Israel studies centers at Ben-Gurion University (Israel) and Brandeis University (US), in affiliation with the Association for Israel Studies. The Journal of Israeli History is sponsored by the Chaim Weizmann Institute for the Study of Zionism and Israel at Tel Aviv University (Israel). Israel Studies Review is the journal of the Association for Israel Studies, the international interdisciplinary association dedicated to the study of modern Israel. Israel Affairs is based in London and published by Routledge Press. The Palestinian perspective is strongly represented by the Journal of Palestine Studies, published by the University of California Press for the Institute for Palestine Studies. Academic journals of Middle East studies, of which there are a considerable number, vary in the attention paid to Arab-Israel/Palestinian affairs. Arab Studies Quarterly was founded by two Palestinian academics, one of whom—Edward Said—initiated the critique of “Orientalism” in Western study of the Middle East; it often focuses on Palestinian issues. Middle East Journal, a US publication with a strong input from foreign policy professionals, also covers the Arab-Israel arena in some depth. The British journal Middle Eastern Studies has a longstanding tradition of providing a platform for Arab-Israel research.

                                                                                              • Arab Studies Quarterly. 1979–.

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                                                                                                Founded to counter the “Orientalist” discourse in Middle East studies, with much attention to Palestinian and Arab-Israeli issues.

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                                                                                                • Israel Affairs. 1994–.

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                                                                                                  Quarterly academic publication, with greater emphasis on policy and current issues. Carries many articles on the Arab-Israel conflict, often representing a strong critique of “post-Zionist” writings.

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                                                                                                  • Israel Studies. 1996–.

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                                                                                                    Published three times a year, this academic journal is interdisciplinary with a strong emphasis on history, covering both the domestic and the international dimensions of Israeli politics, society, and culture.

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                                                                                                    • Israel Studies Review.

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                                                                                                      Formerly Israel Studies Forum, this academic journal appears twice a year; it is noted for its representation of diverse and sometimes clashing trends in the field.

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                                                                                                      • Journal of Israeli History. 1980–.

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                                                                                                        Published twice a year, with a strong academic focus on history of Zionism and Israel. Formerly titled Studies in Zionism.

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                                                                                                        • Journal of Palestine Studies. 1972–.

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                                                                                                          Sponsored by the Institute for Palestine Studies; published quarterly with peer-reviewed articles on Palestinian, and thus Arab-Israel, issues. Especially useful for documents and source material, detailed chronologies, and comprehensive bibliographies of periodical literature that appear in each issue.

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                                                                                                          • Middle East Journal. 1947–.

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                                                                                                            Organ of the Middle East Institute in Washington, DC, a nexus of academic, professional, and governmental specialists on the Middle East. The focus on policy-relevant issues makes the Arab-Israel conflict a prominent concern.

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                                                                                                            • Middle Eastern Studies. 1964–.

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                                                                                                              One of oldest academic journals in the field, this British-based publication appears six times a year and hosts more varied viewpoints on Arab-Israel issues than many other journals in the field.

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                                                                                                              Historical Background

                                                                                                              Both Arab and Jewish/Israeli strands of the conflict connect to long-standing historical legacies that are themselves subjects of vast literatures. As background to the study of more recent events, the works mentioned here are among the most useful points of departure.

                                                                                                              Arab

                                                                                                              The standard histories of Arab civilization, both written by scholars of Lebanese Christian background, are Hitti 2002 (first published in 1937) and Hourani 1991. Hitti’s is a classic work, reflecting the methodology and style of an earlier era, while Hourani’s later study is more academic and less dramatic. Rogan 2009 adds to this a history focused on the last five centuries and emphasizing, in a post-9/11 environment, relations with the West. Lewis 2002 is also a standard reference of long standing, providing a brief overview of the place of Arabs in world history. Antonius 1938 is the classic account of the rise of Arab nationalism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, while Azouri 1905 is usually cited as the first full-fledged statement of that nationalist movement.

                                                                                                              • Antonius, George. The Arab Awakening: The Story of the Arab National Movement. London: H. Hamilton, 1938.

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                                                                                                                The classic story of the rise of Arab nationalism from its 19th-century origins; closely intertwined with Palestinian history, it is told by a supportive Palestinian observer.

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                                                                                                                • Azouri, Negib. Le reveil de la nation arabe dans l’Asie Turque. Paris: Plon-Nourrit, 1905.

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                                                                                                                  First manifesto of the emerging Arab nationalist movement challenging Turkish rule; writing from France, Azouri was a Lebanese who had worked under Ottoman rule in Palestine. No English translation available.

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                                                                                                                  • Hitti, Philip K. History of the Arabs from the Earliest Times to the Present. 10th ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

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                                                                                                                    Sweeping and sometimes celebratory vista of Arab history, including pre-Islamic, with a wealth of color and detail. First published in 1937; this is a reprint of the tenth edition of 1970, the last revision by the author.

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                                                                                                                    • Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 1991.

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                                                                                                                      Hourani begins with the rise of Islam in the 7th century and also provides a sweeping panorama, with a special focus on social, cultural, and intellectual developments.

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                                                                                                                      • Lewis, Bernard. The Arabs in History. 6th ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                        First published in 1950, this brief book is more an extended essay than a conventional history, covering the rise of Arab civilization and its interaction with the West.

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                                                                                                                        • Rogan, Eugene. The Arabs: A History. New York: Basic Books, 2009.

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                                                                                                                          Covers from the Ottoman conquests in the early 16th century, with an emphasis on external interventions in the core Middle East and their impact on Arab perspectives.

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                                                                                                                          Jewish

                                                                                                                          Dubnow 1967 was written by a Russian Jewish historian writing in the early 20th century, a pioneer in development of secular and scholarly Jewish history. His work was taken a step further by Baron 1937, written by an immigrant to the United States, who upon his death in 1989 was still working on an expanded version—eighteen volumes of which had appeared—of the three-volume work cited here. Ettinger 1976 is part of an authoritative collaborative effort by leading scholars at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Roth 1970 was written by a British scholar whose one-volume history was a landmark for decades; more recently, Sachar 2005 has become a widely cited reference covering the recent period.

                                                                                                                          • Baron, Salo Wittmayer. A Social and Religious History of the Jews. 3 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1937.

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                                                                                                                            Baron criticized the “lachrymose” conception of Jewish history, and sought to integrate the religious dimension into the overall picture of Jewish life, while also putting Jewish history into the broader non-Jewish context.

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                                                                                                                            • Dubnow, Shimon. History of the Jews. South Brunswick, NJ: T. Yoseloff, 1967.

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                                                                                                                              Continued in five volumes. Dubnow is usually considered the first “scientific” scholar of Jewish history, taking a secular approach though still positing a unique spiritual and intellectual Jewish role in history. This work, translated from Russian, was first published in German in 1925–1929.

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                                                                                                                              • Ettinger, Shmuel. “The Modern Period.” In A History of the Jewish People. Edited by Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson, 727–1096. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                Six leading historians, at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, have each contributed a book-length section, covering their own period of expertise, to this massive tome. Ettinger begins in the 17th century and ends with the consolidation of the state of Israel.

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                                                                                                                                • Roth, Cecil. A History of the Jews: From Earliest Times through the Six Day War. New York: Schocken, 1970.

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                                                                                                                                  Broad and authoritative narrative, from a leading scholar of Jewish history, that has stood the test of time.

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                                                                                                                                  • Sachar, Howard M. A History of the Jews in the Modern World. New York: Knopf, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                    Covers from the 17th century to the present, but not including Israel. Based on prodigious research, yet written in an accessible style for the general reader.

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                                                                                                                                    Histories of Core Parties

                                                                                                                                    Palestinians and Israelis generally each produce most of their own histories, and thus this literature is closely tied to general scholarly debate over the basic issues of the conflict. Many of these histories, particularly on the Palestinian side, are not available in English translation (see Doumani 1992, cited under Ottoman Palestine).

                                                                                                                                    Palestinian

                                                                                                                                    Kayyali 1978 and Hadawi 1991, both of which were originally published earlier, reflect the Arab nationalist perspective of Palestinian literature of the time. Khalidi 2006 is a more scholarly analysis of a later phase of Palestinian politics, while Khalidi 1987 represents one of the major works of another Palestinian academic who has documented much of the Palestinian experience. Kimmerling and Migdal 2003 is an outside look at Palestinian history, from academics (one from Israel, one from the United States) known for their detachment from partisan leanings. Krämer 2008 is a balanced overview that counters previous inattention to internal developments in Ottoman Palestine before and during the rise of Zionism.

                                                                                                                                    • Hadawi, Sami. Bitter Harvest: A Modern History of Palestine. 4th ed. New York: Olive Branch, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                      First edition appeared in 1967 soon after Hadawi became director of the new Institute of Palestine Studies in Beirut. Became a standard Palestinian narrative, though, like Kayyali 1978, says very little about Palestinian history before the British Mandate.

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                                                                                                                                      • Kayyali, Abd al-Wahhab. Palestine: A Modern History. London: Croom Helm, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                        Published earlier in Arabic; in line with prevailing interpretations of the time, the Ottoman period is denigrated and Palestinian history is seen primarily in relation to European intrusion.

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                                                                                                                                        • Khalidi, Rashid. The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood. Boston: Beacon, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                          Representing a later wave of Palestinian scholarship, makes good use of primary sources to depict a history in which Palestinians are actors and not just objects; judgments may cut either way, though Israeli occupation remains the core of the problem.

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                                                                                                                                          • Khalidi, Walid, ed. From Haven to Conquest: Readings in Zionism and the Palestine Problem until 1948. 2d ed. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                            First published in 1971, this collection of eighty readings, many of them primary sources, constitutes a powerful statement of the Palestinian case. Nearly all are from non-Arab sources, many from Zionist writings.

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                                                                                                                                            • Kimmerling, Baruch, and Joel Migdal. The Palestinian People: A History. Updated ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                              An outside look at the emergence of Palestinian identity, reaching well back in history (to 1834), with a sympathetic though not uncritical look at Palestinian politics more recently.

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                                                                                                                                              • Krämer, Gudrun. A History of Palestine: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                Translation of the German edition published in 2002. Based on research in multiple languages, provides the context in which Jewish settlement took place; thinner coverage of the earlier Ottoman era.

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                                                                                                                                                Israeli

                                                                                                                                                The literature on the history of Zionism and Israel is voluminous. The multivolume Cohen, et al. 1987 offers a wealth of reproduced works and documents from the rise of Zionism to the 1948 creation of Israel. The most prominent histories of Israel tend to come from sympathetic non-Israelis, despite the quantity of work by Israelis. Gilbert 2008 is the work of a prominent British historian who brings a broad frame of reference to bear. Sachar 2007 brings together previous work by a noted American scholar of Jewish and Israeli history. Shindler 2008 embodies a more analytic approach from a representative of a newer generation of British scholars. Penslar 2007 offers a broad comparative analysis of Israel that addresses some of the key issues regarding its uniqueness or similarity to other histories. Hazony 2000 presents a view of Zionist history as seen by Revisionist Zionists, the more militant wing of the movement, and as initially set forth in the early 20th century by Vladimir (Ze’ev) Jabotinsky. Finally, Elon 1971 is a classic work, by a leading Israeli intellectual figure, that highlights the shift of generations in Israel and foreshadows the later appearance of “post-Zionist” criticism.

                                                                                                                                                • Cohen, Michael J., Isaiah Friedman, and Aaron S. Klieman, eds. The Rise of Israel: A Documentary Record from the Nineteenth Century to 1948. 39 vols. New York and London: Garland, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                  Reproduces in facsimile format over nineteen hundred documents from the rise of Zionism in the late 19th century to the creation of the state of Israel.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Elon, Amos. The Israelis: Founders and Sons. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.

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                                                                                                                                                    Highly literate and candid overview of Israel’s history, focusing on the gap between the ideals of the first settlers and the realities of the post-1967 period. Elon’s book helps to understand the rise of the right that took place soon after its publication.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Gilbert, Martin. Israel: A History. Rev. ed. New York: Harper Perennial, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                      The prominent British historian’s work is comprehensive and favorable, enlivened by his easy familiarity with a variety of primary sources.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Hazony, Yoram. The Jewish State: The Struggle for Israel’s Soul. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                        Reinterpretation of Zionist and early Israeli history in a Revisionist Zionist framework of integral nationalism and primacy of the state.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Penslar, Derek J. Israel in History: The Jewish State in Comparative Perspective. London and New York: Routledge, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                          More a series of essays than a history, but uses comparison to analyze some of weightier questions in Israel’s history: its relation to the Jewish past, Zionism as nationalism, and Israel as a colonialist society in the eyes of critics.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Sachar, Howard M. A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time. 3d ed. New York: Knopf, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                            Superseding two earlier volumes on different periods, this massive history embodies the secular liberal perspective of American academia.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Shindler, Colin. A History of Modern Israel. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                              Focuses on politics and ideology, with themes and chronology intertwined in an analytic framework designed to explain the place of a Jewish state in Jewish history.

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                                                                                                                                                              Ottoman Palestine

                                                                                                                                                              The image of Palestine before Zionism as a stagnant backwater or tabula rasa on which newcomers could write at will has for some time been replaced by works that document the dynamic complexity of the Ottoman period. Divine 1994 and Scholch 1993 underline in different ways the changes that were taking place in the mid-19th century as the Ottoman Empire tried to implement a program of radical reform (the Tanzimat). Palestinian historians have looked for the roots of Palestinian identity in the Arab community of Ottoman Palestine, with Doumani 1992 as a landmark, and Muslih 1988 and Khalidi 1997 focusing on the impact of Arab nationalism and Palestinian identity in the last years of the Ottoman era. Saposnik 2008 undertakes a similar analysis on the Jewish side, dealing with the relatively neglected cultural dimension in the development of a new society. Shafir 1989 examines the role of economic relationships between Jews and Arabs in shaping the conflict between them, and Mandel 1976 provides the definitive account of the Arab response to Zionism on the diplomatic and political level during the same period.

                                                                                                                                                              • Divine, Donna Robinson. Politics and Society in Ottoman Palestine: The Arab Struggle for Survival and Power. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                Shows the dramatic changes that took place in 19th-century Ottoman Palestine through efforts to rationalize and modernize state and society.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Doumani, Beshara B. “Rediscovering Ottoman Palestine: Writing Palestinians into History.” Journal of Palestine Studies 21.2 (1992): 5–28.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/2537216E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Discussion of the changing treatment of the Ottoman period in Palestinian historiography and also by Israeli historians; useful critique of Palestinian historical works available only in Arabic.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Khalidi, Rashid. Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Delineates the emergence of a distinctly Palestinian nationalism in the last decade of the Ottoman period; especially valuable for a survey of the regional Arab press during this period, showing great awareness of and opposition to Zionism.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Mandel, Neville J. The Arabs and Zionism before World War I. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Based on extensive research in diplomatic and other archives, this authoritative account shows that Turkish and Arab opposition to Zionism accompanied the movement from its first moments, and that the environment of the early conflict was extraordinarily complex.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Muslih, Muhammad. The Origins of Palestinian Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Disproves claims that no Palestinian identity existed during Ottoman years, but also puts it into perspective: Arab nationalism reached Palestine in the last Ottoman years and was of limited scope.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Saposnik, Arieh Bruce. Becoming Hebrew: The Creation of a Jewish National Culture in Ottoman Palestine. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331219.001.0001E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Focuses on the final decade before World War I, surveying the cultural development of the Jewish community in Palestine and demonstrating the importance of this period for the eventual shaping of Jewish and Israeli society.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Schölch, Alexander. Palestine in Transformation, 1856–1882: Studies in Social, Economic and Political Development. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Originally published in German in 1986; documents rapid population growth and economic development tied to European penetration and Ottoman reforms.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Shafir, Gershon. Land, Labor, and the Origins of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, 1882–1914. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Shafir focuses on the economic underpinnings of early Zionism, identifying control of land and labor as critical elements shaping the emerging conflict; one of the seminal “post-Zionist” critiques of Zionism and Israel.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Rise of Zionism

                                                                                                                                                                              The emergence of the Zionist movement has fascinated historians as an example of an idea imposing itself on reality rather than following from it as an ex post facto rationalization. One of the clearest expositions of the intellectual origins of the movement is Avineri 1981, which carefully puts the founding ideas in the context of the times. The meshing of ideology with reality, with all of its organizational untidiness, is thoroughly covered in Vital 1975, Vital 1982, and Vital 1987, three volumes that together constitute a painstakingly thorough and reliable account of Zionism in its first four decades (1881–1919). Based on multilingual archival research, it covers both the organizational minutiae and the ideological turbulence of Zionism in its formative phase. Dowty 2004 is a translation of and commentary on the first serious analysis, from within the Zionist movement, of the impending clash with the indigenous Arab population. Two important primary sources critical to an understanding of this history are Herzl 1997, a reprint of the 1896 pamphlet that catalyzed the founding of the World Zionist Organization, and Herzl 1960, the first complete and unabridged publication in any language of Theodor Herzl’s personal diaries kept during his decade of struggle promoting the new movement. Finally, Reinharz and Shapira 1995 brings together thirty-one articles by leading scholars covering all aspects of Zionism through the creation of the state.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Avineri, Shlomo. The Making of Modern Zionism: The Intellectual Origins of the Jewish State. New York: Basic Books, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                In seventeen sharply defined profiles of key Zionist thinkers—half of them before Herzl—Avineri traces the emergence of central strands of thought, many of them highly influenced by intellectual currents of broader society, and dispels the notion that Zionism was nothing more than a reaction to anti-Semitism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Dowty, Alan. “‘A Question That Outweighs All Others’: Yitzhak Epstein and Zionist Recognition of the Arab Issue.” Israel Studies 6.1 (Spring 2004): 34–54.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Translation of Epstein’s 1907 article, the first to assert that Arab opposition to Zionism would constitute the movement’s greatest challenge, with introductory commentary and notes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Herzl, Theodor. The Complete Diaries of Theodor Herzl. 5 vols. Edited by Raphael Patai. Translated by Harry Zohn. New York and London: Herzl Press and Thomas Yoseloff, 1960.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Covering the last decade of his life, 1895–1904, Herzl’s diaries include not just personal reflections but also correspondence and other documents.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Herzl, Theodor. The Jews’ State: A Critical English Translation. Translated and introduced by Henk Overberg. Northvale, NJ, and Jerusalem: Jason Aronson, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Published as Der Judenstaat in 1896, Herzl’s little pamphlet galvanized the Zionist movement. For Herzl (unlike many other Zionists), finding an answer to anti-Semitism was the main raison d’etre of Zionism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Reinharz, Jehuda, and Anita Shapira, eds. Essential Papers on Zionism. New York: New York University Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        The editors, leading scholars in the field, selected thirty-one published articles, most of them since 1980, to cover all aspects of Zionism from its origins to the emergence of Israel.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Vital, David. The Origins of Zionism. Oxford: Clarendon, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          The first volume of Vital’s history covers its origins in the early 1880s through the emergence of Theodor Herzl as the dominant figure in 1897.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Vital, David. Zionism: The Formative Years. Oxford: Clarendon, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Vital’s second volume deals with the 1897–1907 decade, during which Herzlian political Zionism evolved into “practical” Zionism focused on expansion of settlements.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Vital, David. Zionism: The Crucial Phase. Oxford: Clarendon, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              The third and final volume in Vital’s trilogy documents the turbulent 1908–1919 period, culminating in the Balfour Declaration and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              British Mandate of Palestine

                                                                                                                                                                                              The inauguration of British administration of Palestine after World War I brought with it greater documentation, and thus more material for analysis; the triangular structure of British, Arabs, and Jews also provided a more complicated subject of analysis. Segev 2000, by an Israeli writer often critical of the standard narrative, is a readable if judgmental overview of the entire period. The British role as the Mandatory government is covered for the period up to 1929 by Wasserstein 1991, which explores how key decisions in the first decade helped shape the emerging conflict. This is complemented by El-Eini 2006, covering the period from 1929 to the end of the Mandate in an exhaustive survey focused on the impact of British planning on most areas of Palestinian life. One of the most controversial specific issues of the Mandate was the sale of Arab lands to Jewish buyers; Stein 1984 provides a data-based study that explores this process. The development of the infrastructure of a state in the Jewish community is explained in Horowitz and Lissak 1978. The development of Palestinian Arab nationalism under the Mandate is covered in scholarly depth by an Israeli historian, in Porath 1974. A somewhat broader look at Palestinian politics during this period is Lesch 1979, which like Porath 1974 remains an authoritative source despite the passage of time. Caplan 1983 captures the futility of Arab-Jewish negotiation during the Mandate.

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Caplan, Neil. Futile Diplomacy. Vol. 1, Early Arab-Zionist Negotiation Attempts, 1913–1931. London: Frank Cass, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Though hampered by the lack of Arab primary sources, Caplan presents a fair-minded picture of Arab-Zionist diplomacy based on archival documents (many reprinted in his text). A second volume covers the rest of the Mandate period, while two more volumes continue the story to 1956.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • El-Eini, Roza I. M. Mandated Landscape: British Imperial Rule in Palestine, 1929–1948. London and New York: Routledge, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Richly detailed and documented study based on archival research, emphasizing the impact—not always negative—of the British on town planning, agriculture, forestry, land, and other aspects of the Palestinian “landscape.” Includes discussion of how partition plans fit into this framework.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Horowitz, Dan, and Moshe Lissak. Origins of the Israeli Polity: Palestine under the Mandate. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sophisticated political and sociological analysis of the development of the institutions that laid the basis for the emergence of the state and society of Israel at the end of the Mandate period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lesch, Ann Mosely. Arab Politics in Palestine, 1917–1939: The Frustration of a Nationalist Movement. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Using British, Israeli, and Palestinian records, Lesch focuses on the broad national Palestinian movement, showing how its aspirations were fundamentally irreconcilable with Zionist aims and were frustrated by larger historical forces beyond its control.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Porath, Yehoshua. The Emergence of the Palestinian Arab National Movement: 1918–1929. London: Frank Cass, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Translation from Hebrew edition of 1971; based on archival research in five languages, this thorough account by an Israeli scholar takes the story to 1939 and shows the various phases of Palestinian nationalism culminating in pan-Arabism at the end of the period. A second volume, The Palestinian Arab National Movement, 1929–1939: From Riots to Rebellion (1977), carries the analysis to 1939 and the emergence of pan-Arabism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Segev, Tom. One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs under the British Mandate. New York: Metropolitan, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Though often sweeping in its judgments, Segev’s account captures much of the human side of the complex interactions among British, Arabs, and Jews under the Mandate.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Stein, Kenneth W. The Land Question in Palestine, 1917–1939. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Based on examination of the land sales records, Stein explains Jewish success in purchasing land as a function of their influence with the British and the willingness of many Arab landowners—including prominent leaders—to sell their land.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wasserstein, Bernard. The British in Palestine: The Mandatory Government and the Arab-Jewish Conflict, 1917–1929. 2d ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Based on primary sources and interviews, covers the interaction of British, Arab, and Jewish officials in the Mandate. Underlines the tension between British officials in Palestine and the government in London, as well as the failure to develop common institutions bridging the Arab-Jewish divide.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              1948–1949 War and Aftermath

                                                                                                                                                                                                              The 1948–1949 war—known in Israel as the War of Independence but regarded as an-Nakba (the disaster) by Palestinians—is inevitably a major point of contention in the clashing historical interpretations of the two sides. One work generally recognized for its objectivity is Morris 2008, by one of the founding figures of the Israeli revisionist or post-Zionist critique of the standard narrative. Morris’s work has continued to hew to his positivist approach of letting the documents speak for themselves, even though he has parted ways with the post-Zionists in other respects. On the Palestinian side there is no comparable study, but Khalidi 1992 (cited under Atlases) provides detailed documentation of the Palestinian villages, occupied by Israeli forces during the war, that no longer exist. Pappé 1992 is a post-Zionist history, extending to the postwar years, that portrays the Israeli government as unwilling to make meaningful concessions in order to reach agreement on peace treaties. In response to the revisionist view, Heller 2000 is an analysis of the same period that reconstructs internal Israeli decision-making in order to show its complexity and pragmatism. Stein 2009 is a history of Israel’s two decades from 1948 to 1967, which, like the author’s history of the earlier period, provides coverage of domestic as well as foreign topics and maintains an impartial approach. The most fiercely disputed historical issue of the conflict is the argument over responsibility for the flight of Palestinian refugees in 1948–1949, and Morris 2004 is a revision of the author’s 1988 village-by-village study that made his reputation and remains the central point of reference in scholarly debate. The centrality of Morris’s work in this debate is illustrated by critiques of it from both sides: Khalidi 2005 from a Palestinian perspective, and Karsh 2005 with a pro-Israeli critique. Rabinovich 1991 needs to be seen against a backdrop of revisionist claims that Israel missed opportunities to conclude a peace treaty in the early statehood years; while accepting some of their claims, the author questions the ability of Arab regimes of the time to implement such a treaty.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Heller, Joseph. The Birth of Israel, 1945–1949: Ben-Gurion and His Critics. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Heller emphasizes the complexities of Israeli policymaking during this period, taking issue with revisionist portraits of monolithic hardline policies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Karsh, Efraim. “Resurrecting the Myth: Benny Morris, the Zionist Movement, and the ‘Transfer’ Idea.” Israel Affairs 11.3 (July 2005): 469–490.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/13537120500122503E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Karsh contests Morris’s conclusion that the concept of “transfer” of Arabs from Palestine was widely advocated by Zionist leaders and played a role in the exodus of 1948–1949.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Khalidi, Walid. “Why Did the Palestinians Leave, Revisited.” Journal of Palestine Studies 34.2 (Winter 2005): 42–54.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1525/jps.2005.34.2.042E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Originally published in 1959 in a Lebanese journal, and reprinted here in order to contest Morris’s conclusion that some Arab villages and towns were abandoned in 1948 on the orders of Arab commanders and officials.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Morris, Benny. The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Same village-by-village account as in Morris’s landmark 1988 study, and like it makes use of newly declassified documents. More emphasis on “transfer” as an element in Jewish thought. The picture painted by Morris is attacked from both sides, which may be testimony to balance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Morris, Benny. 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Grounded in voluminous primary as well as secondary sources, this is a detailed and thorough account that destroys myths on both sides—though the emphasis on “jihadi” motives on the Arab side has been challenged by some.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Pappé, Ilan. The Making of the Arab-Israel Conflict, 1947–1951. London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Based on primary and secondary sources in three languages; Pappe argues that the fate of the Palestinians was determined by Jewish success in state-building and international diplomacy before the war, and describes Israel as uncompromising.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rabinovich, Itamar. The Road Not Taken: Early Arab-Israeli Negotiations. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            One of Israel’s leading scholars of Arab history, Rabinovich paints a nuanced picture of early rounds of mostly secret, and unsuccessful, talks with Arab regimes, based of necessity mainly on Israeli primary sources.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Stein, Leslie. The Making of Modern Israel, 1948–1967. Cambridge, UK, and Malden, MA: Polity, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Conveys the severe strains of Israel’s early statehood years, with particular attention to domestic issues, and failures as well as successes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1967 War and Aftermath

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The 1967 war set in motion changes that culminated in the “re-Palestinization” of the conflict two decades later, with the first intifada and the Oslo peace process, and the literature on this period attempts to comprehend these changes. Oren 2002, though written by an Israeli with government connections (recently as Israeli ambassador to the United States), has emerged as the most prominent book on the war itself; it basically confirms the dominant view that this dramatic turning point came about unintentionally. On the Arab side, the most authoritative narrative remains that of Mahmoud Riad, Egyptian foreign minister at the time, who published his personal account in Riad 1981. An “inside” account of the rise of the PLO in the occupied territories after 1967 is provided in Sahliyeh 1988. Allon 1976 is the authoritative version of the “Allon Plan” that unofficially guided much Israeli policy toward the West Bank in the decade after the war. Gordon 2008 presents a critical Israeli overview of Israel’s occupation of the West Bank and Gaza, documenting the changes in Israel’s methods of control over time in light of modern political theory. Legal issues connected to Israel’s occupation policies are explored in Kretzmer 2002, dealing with the central role of the Israeli Supreme Court in adjudicating these issues. The argument that the West Bank is not occupied (Jordanian) territory, in international law, is most clearly stated in Blum 1968. Finally, the role of religious fundamentalism in establishing Jewish settlements in the occupied territories is the subject of Feige 2009, a sociological and anthropological analysis based on extensive fieldwork among this population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Allon, Yigal. “Israel: The Case for Defensible Borders.” Foreign Affairs 55.1 (October 1976): 38–53.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/20039626E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Allon, as Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, proposed returning the populated areas of the West Bank to Jordan while maintaining an Israeli presence on the Jordan River. While never formally adopted, the plan reflected Israeli governmental thinking in this period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Blum, Yehuda. “The Missing Reversioner: Reflections on the Status of Judea and Samaria.” Israel Law Review 3.2 (April 1968): 279–301.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Blum, an Israeli professor of international law, presents the position that sovereignty over the West Bank is in suspense since Jordanian annexation of that territory was never generally recognized.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Feige, Michael. Settling in the Hearts: Jewish Fundamentalism in the Occupied Territories. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Arresting portrait of religiously motivated settlers on the West Bank, based on two decades of contact. Feige concludes that settlers have not successfully instilled their ideology among the general Israeli population.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gordon, Neve. Israel’s Occupation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520255302.001.0001E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Focuses on Israel’s administration of the West Bank and Gaza over time, mostly from Israeli sources but also examining the impact on Palestinian society. The Oslo process is seen as another form of domination.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kretzmer, David. The Occupation of Justice: The Supreme Court of Israel and the Occupied Territories. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not just about the court, but all legal issues of the occupation, including the applicability of the Geneva Convention. Though the Supreme Court has intervened in many cases, Kretzmer criticizes its narrow formalism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Oren, Michael B. Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Massively documented with research in six languages, including Arabic and Russian, this is, to date, the most thorough and most carefully argued account of the war.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Riad, Mahmoud. The Struggle for Peace in the Middle East. New York: Quartet, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Riad was Egypt’s foreign minister during the 1967 crisis; later he became secretary-general of the Arab League. His account covers the years 1967–1979, but it is his version of 1967 events that is of particular interest.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sahliyeh, Emile. In Search of Leadership: West Bank Politics since 1967. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Based in part on firsthand observation and interviews, Sahliyeh explains the decline of the traditional urban elite and the rise of the PLO during the two decades after 1967. He also provides background for understanding later events, such as the intifada and the rise of Islamists.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Oslo Peace Process to Present

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The period of the Oslo peace process, beginning in 1993, includes both the high point in efforts to resolve the Arab-Israel conflict and the dramatic collapse of this process, as well as renewed intifada in the first decade of the 20th century. The high point of Oslo is still told best by key participants. Abbas 1995 is a firsthand account of secret contacts and negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis, from earlier efforts to (primarily) Oslo. Beilin 1999 presents Oslo as seen by an Israeli participant sometimes described as the architect of the process, though he suggests the Israel may not have been ready for peace. Both of these accounts reflect the optimism of the period; later analyses focus on explaining the demise of Oslo. Enderlin 2003 is closer to a primary source than to an academic study; the book recounts the Oslo negotiations in detail, including verbatim conversations, providing the first complete account and demonstrating rigidity and miscalculations on all sides. Hanieh 2001, the account of a Palestinian participant in the ill-fated 2000 Camp David talks, provides a firsthand report highly critical of Israel and the United States. This was also the period during which suicide terrorist attacks introduced a new dimension to Middle East violence; the most notable research on this topic is Pape 2003. Rabinovich 2011 combines firsthand experience with academic credentials; though covering the period since 1948, the focus is on the post-1991 period. Meital 2006 is a study by an Israeli academic analyst that takes a critical look at Israeli and US policy in the Oslo collapse. A carefully balanced analysis of the same issue is given in Wittes 2005, a collection of three contributions by leading US, Palestinian, and Israeli scholars. The importance of data in explaining both past failures and future prospects is underlined in Shamir and Shikaki 2010, the work of Israeli and Palestinian survey researchers who have conducted joint public opinion polls since 2000. Their conclusions include one of the few notes of optimism in this literature: despite recent negative events, a majority on both sides still hold compatible views on the elements of a final settlement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Abbas, Mahmoud. Through Secret Channels. Reading, UK: Garnet, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Abbas was a key negotiator for Palestinians and had been involved in earlier secret contacts with Israelis, also covered in his book; in 2005 he succeeded Yasir Arafat as president of the Palestinian National Authority. His account includes documents and transcripts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Beilin, Yossi. Touching Peace: From the Oslo Accord to a Final Agreement. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Beilin, as deputy foreign minister of Israel, is credited as one of the initiators of the Oslo process and later of the lesser-known Stockholm talks of 1994–1995, included in this account. Beilin discusses many of the other problems (religion, Arab minority, Diaspora relations) that an Israel at peace would face.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Enderlin, Charles. Shattered Dreams: The Failure of the Peace Process in the Middle East, 1995–2002. Translated by Susan Fairfield. New York: Other Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Translated from French edition 2002; Enderlin was Middle East bureau chief for a French television network and writes as a close observer with impressive access to the thoughts and words of the participants.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hanieh, Akram. “The Camp David Papers.” Journal of Palestine Studies 30.2 (Winter 2001): 75–97.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1525/jps.2001.30.2.75E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hanieh, editor of a Palestinian newspaper, was on the Palestinian negotiating team at the Camp David summit and published his observations soon thereafter, reporting that the two sides were far apart on a number of issues and not just on Jerusalem.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Meital, Yoram. Peace in Tatters: Israel, Palestine, and the Middle East. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Documented critique of Israeli—and US—role in the collapse of Oslo by Israeli scholar; less critical of Palestinian negotiators.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Pape, Robert A. “The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism.” American Political Science Review 97.3 (August 2003): 343–361.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Study of the 188 suicide terrorist attacks from 1980 to 2001, many in the Middle East. Concludes that suicide terrorism follows a strategic logic and that it has increased as terrorists have learned that it pays.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rabinovich, Itamar. The Lingering Conflict: Israel, the Arabs, and the Middle East, 1948–2011. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rabinovich is an Israeli scholar-diplomat, having served as ambassador to the United States and chief Israeli negotiator with Syria. He offers an insider account of the Oslo peace process, with a fairly pessimistic prognosis for future regional stability.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Shamir, Jacob, and Khalil Shikaki. Palestinian and Israeli Public Opinion: The Public Imperative in the Second Intifada. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Based on joint surveys conducted since 2000, survey researchers from the two sides present conclusions that provide some grounds for optimism but also underscore the limiting factor of domestic opinion in the “two-level game” of negotiations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wittes, Tamara Cofman, ed. How Israelis and Palestinians Negotiate: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Oslo Peace Process. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Contributions by three scholars with differing perspectives: William Quandt, a leading US scholar of Middle East; Omar Dajani, a Palestinian legal expert; and Aharon Klieman, an Israeli political scientist. Shows flaws on all sides and reinforces the importance of taking opposed narratives into account.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Israeli Domestic Dimension

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Analysis of the internal dynamics of parties to a conflict is essential to an understanding of that conflict, and the academic research on Israeli society and politics is voluminous. A good up-to-date starting point is Freedman 2009, a carefully planned anthology that puts together contributions from leading scholars on their respective areas of expertise. Dowty 2001 is a broad overview of the development of Israeli politics, emphasizing its roots in Jewish history and its relationship to the major divisions in Israeli society. A good closer look at these divisions as they played out in an earlier period is Aronoff 1989, while Brecher 1972 is a classic and exhaustive study of how foreign policy was made in Israel in the pre-1977 period. Sheffer 1996 uses the life and extensive personal papers of Moshe Sharett, Israel’s second prime minister, to cast a new light on the early statehood period. The forces that sparked fundamental changes in the post-1977 period are dealt with in Ravitsky 1996, which analyzes the rise of religious radicalism, and in Shindler 1995, an overview of revisionist Zionism and the rise of the political right. Perhaps the most strategically significant internal development in Israel over the years lay in the realm of nuclear weapons technology; Cohen 1998 is a pathbreaking work that demonstrated the relevance of traditional scholarship to even—or especially—the most sensitive issue.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Aronoff, Myron J. Israeli Visions and Divisions: Cultural Change and Political Conflict. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Analysis of Israeli politics by a leading political anthropologist.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Brecher, Michael. The Foreign Policy System of Israel: Setting, Images, Process. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Employing a sophisticated theoretical framework and voluminous data from documents and interviews, Brecher presents an encyclopedic picture of how foreign policy was made in Israel’s first two decades.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Cohen, Avner. Israel and the Bomb. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Using publically available documents and interviews, Cohen assembles a convincing picture of the decisions and outline—though not the details—of Israeli’s nuclear weapons program from its origins in the 1950s to the agreement with the United States on maintaining an ambiguous posture, at the end of the 1960s.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dowty, Alan. The Jewish State: A Century Later. Updated ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Analytic overview of Israeli politics and society, reaching back to its pre-Zionist roots, exploring major divisions, and including the occupied territories.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Freedman, Robert O. Contemporary Israel: Domestic Politics, Foreign Policy, and Security Challenges. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Essays by fourteen US and Israeli specialists on the various dimensions of Israeli domestic and foreign affairs, comprising together a coherent current portrait.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ravitsky, Aviezer. Messianism, Zionism, and Jewish Religious Radicalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Guide to the various ways in which religious orthodoxy responded to Zionism, including the strand of fundamentalism identified with religious nationalism and the settlement movement in the occupied territories.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sheffer, Gabriel. Moshe Sharett: Biography of a Political Moderate. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198279945.001.0001E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In the early statehood period, Sharett represented the main alternative to the dominant approach of David Ben-Gurion. In this massive biography, Sheffer resurrects Sharett as a historical figure and reopens debate over some of the fateful decisions made in that period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Shindler, Colin. Israel, Likud and the Zionist Dream: Power, Politics and Ideology from Begin to Netanyahu. London: I. B. Tauris, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Critical history of Revisionist Zionism in its many variants, and of the Israeli political party Likud that grew out of this tradition. Background to the “upheaval” of 1977 when Likud came to power for the first time.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Palestinians in Israel

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Israel’s Palestinian-Arab minority (about 20 percent) represents a particularly important dimension of its internal politics that has received considerable scholarly attention, primarily by Jewish scholars but increasingly from the Palestinian-Arab community itself. Peleg and Waxman 2011 is an up-to-date overview that looks dispassionately at both sides of the divide. Haklai 2011 is a theoretically informed analysis of the political mobilization of Palestinians. The critical issue of how security concerns intersect with majority-minority relations is the focus of Frisch 2011. Still the major contribution from a Palestinian perspective is Ghanem 2001, which is a systematic analysis of the political movements among Israeli Palestinians since 1948.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Frisch, Hillel. Israel’s Security and Its Arab Citizens. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511820649E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Deals with the problematic question of how the hostile regional environment affects the security concerns of the Israeli public and their relationship to Palestinian Arabs in Israel; by an Israeli scholar who is at home in the Arabic sources.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ghanem, As’ad. The Palestinian-Arab Minority in Israel, 1948–2000: A Political Study. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Traces the development of factions within the Arab minority over time, underlining the growth of a national Palestinian identity, downplaying the prospects of Islamism, and ending with call for a binational state including Israel and the occupied territories.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Haklai, Oded. Palestinian Ethnonationalism in Israel. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Applying theories of state-society relations, Haklai traces and elucidates the rise of Palestinian nationalism in Israel’s Arab minority, linking it to broader changes in Israeli society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Peleg, Ilan, and Dov Waxman. Israel’s Palestinians: The Conflict Within. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511852022E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sensitive treatment of all points of view, based on extensive documentation and good use of comparative study.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Intra-Palestinian Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Research into the domestic Palestinian dimension of the conflict is made more complex by the absence of formal government institutions, the rivalry among competing movements, and (in an earlier period) the central role of various Arab regimes. The focus here is primarily on Palestinians in the recent phase of the conflict. Sayigh 1997 is an encyclopedic account of Palestinian national movements from the creation of Israel to 1993; written by a Palestinian scholar with wide access to PLO and other sources, it is stronger on developments outside Palestine than those in the occupied territories. Shikaki 2004 completes this picture with an arresting portrait of the emerging divisions within the Palestinian territories at the end of the Arafat period. Jamal 2005 complements this with an analytic overview of the internal dynamics of Palestinian politics since the Six-Day War that also incorporates the rise of Hamas at the end of the century. The role of civil society in Palestinian politics is explored by Jamal 2007, which questions the assumed correlation with the growth of democracy. Ghanem 2010 continues the story with a comprehensive treatment of the fragmentation of Palestinian politics since the death of Yasir Arafat in 2004. Turning to Israeli perspectives, Harkabi 1972 is a landmark attempt by an Israeli Arabist and former intelligence chief, who later became a leading dove, to catalog Arab writings on the conflict; written when it was primarily a state-to-state confrontation, it covers other Arab as well as Palestinian publications. The rise of Hamas after the turn of the century has also been the subject of research efforts from varied perspectives. Mishal and Sela 2006 is also the work of Israeli Arabists, who in this case refute the monolithic view of Hamas as a rigidly ideological movement. An insider perspective is provided by Tamimi 2009, written by the founder of the Institute of Islamic Political Thought in London, whose access to sources and leaders is the basis for a richly documented and sympathetic account.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ghanem, As’ad. Palestinian Politics after Arafat: A Failed National Movement. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Written by an Israeli Palestinian scholar at home with Hebrew as well as Arabic sources. Explains the fragmentation of Palestinian politics, with a severe critique of Arafat.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Harkabi, Yehoshafat. Arab Attitudes to Israel. New York: Hart, 1972.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thorough survey of Arab literature on the conflict through the 1960s, organized thematically. Covers publications by other Arab authors as well as Palestinians.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Jamal, Amal. The Palestinian National Movement: Politics of Contention, 1967–2005. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Jamal, a Palestinian academic at an Israeli university, uses Palestinian sources and interviews to outline the interplay between PLO outsiders, PLO insiders, and emerging Islamists in the development—and fragmentation—of the national movement.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Jamal, Amaney A. Barriers to Democracy: The Other Side of Social Capital in Palestine and the Arab World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sophisticated theoretical study that tests the impact of civic associations in Palestine, with comparison to Morocco, Egypt, and Jordan. Such associations, Jamal concludes, can also serve authoritarian rule.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mishal, Shaul, and Avraham Sela. The Palestinian Hamas: Vision, Violence, and Coexistence. 2d ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Two leading Israeli scholars of Arab studies, in an analytic study well documented from Arabic and Hebrew sources, underline the pragmatic and nonideological side of Hamas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sayigh, Yazid. Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993. Oxford: Clarendon, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Richly documented and detailed account; uses armed struggle as a focus and delineates the gap between rhetoric and the reality that developed. Includes a sharp critique of the PLO’s patriarchal structure.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Shikaki, Khalil. “The Future of Palestine.” Foreign Affairs 83.6 (November–December 2004): 45–60.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/20034136E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Shikaki, the leading scholar of Palestinian public opinion, analyzes the generational gap and other internal splits in the West Bank and Gaza—including trends that led later to the split between the two territories.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Tamimi, Azzam. Hamas: Unwritten Chapters. New and updated ed. London: Hurst, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        With unusual access to Hamas sources and leaders, Tamimi writes an inside account of Hamas’s history up to its takeover of Gaza in 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        International Dimensions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The international context of the Arab-Israel conflict includes both regional relations, especially between Israel and neighboring Arab states, and global dimensions involving the role of superpowers in the conflict. Miller 1986 emphasizes the complexity of Arab states’ policies toward the conflict, with constant interplay between nationalist ideology and particular state interests. Notable works on bilateral relations include Rabinovich 1998, a firsthand account and analysis of Israel-Syrian talks by the chief Israeli negotiator; and Shlaim 1988, a revisionist reinterpretation of the relations of Israel and Jordan during the critical period of Israel’s emergence. Rubinstein 1977 is an analytic study of the role of the Soviet Union at its peak, in the decade following the 1967 war. But most scholarly work on the broader international context tends to focus on the role of the United States. Khalidi 2005 is a critical overview of Western involvement in the Middle East historically that underlines the negative consequences of interventions, including support of Israel. Ben-Zvi 1993 provides an analytic overview of the “special relationship” between the United States and Israel that challenges simplistic conceptions on both sides of the debate over these ties. Quandt 2001 is a thorough and often critical overview of US policy toward the conflict over seven presidential administrations since 1967, written by a seasoned academic observer who has also worked on these issues under two of these presidents. Ross 2005 is the voluminous, often day-by-day, recounting of Arab-Israel diplomacy, from an American perspective, as seen by the chief US negotiator during the Oslo peace process.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ben-Zvi, Avraham. The United States and Israel: The Limits of the Special Relationship. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Uses case studies of efforts in US policy to coerce Israel, in the period since 1953, identifying the complex factors that determine successes and failures in these efforts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Khalidi, Rashid. Resurrecting Empire: Western Footprints and America’s Perilous Path in the Middle East. Boston: Beacon, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Broad historical overview putting the West’s involvement in the Middle East in the context of colonialism, with emphasis on the strength of indigenous forces that explain the limited success of outside parties.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Miller, Aaron David. The Arab States and the Palestine Question: Between Ideology and Self-Interest. New York: Praeger, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Focusing on Jordan, Syria, and Egypt, Miller captures the conflicting components of Arab policies on Palestinian issues during the period in which Palestinian movements were asserting their autonomy. Published by Praeger for the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Quandt, William B. Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict since 1967. Rev. ed. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Essentially the third edition of a work that began as an analysis of the 1967–1977 decade, now covering to the end of the Clinton Administration. Makes a strong case for the importance of the US role in Arab-Israeli diplomacy, whether by commission or omission. Copublished by the University of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rabinovich, Itamar. The Brink of Peace: The Israeli-Syrian Negotiations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rabinovich was chief Israeli negotiator in talks with Syria, and is also a prominent scholar of Arab studies. His account is both personal and analytic, with remarkable detachment, and is a key document in understanding the failure to reach agreement.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ross, Dennis. The Missing Peace: The Inside Story of the Fight for Middle East Peace. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The meticulous detail—based on a personal diary?—of this extended narrative makes it an essential primary source for the 1988–2000 period. Ross is identified with the view of the United States as facilitator, rather than arbiter, of Arab-Israel talks.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Rubinstein, Alvin Z. Red Star on the Nile: The Soviet-Egyptian Influence Relationship since the June War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Rubinstein, a leading scholar in Soviet studies, uses the Soviet-Egyptian alliance as a case study of patron-client relations in all their nuances. Heavily documented from contemporary press sources.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Shlaim, Avi. Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement and the Partition of Palestine. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Based on UK, US, and Israeli archival research, Shlaim presents the case that Israel and Jordan’s King Abdullah acted on the basis of a tacit understanding to partition Palestine, and prevent the creation of a Palestinian state, in the 1947–1949 period.

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