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Sociology Immigration
by
Irene Bloemraad, Edwin Lin

Introduction

The field of immigration research is broadly interested in understanding why people migrate across international borders, and what the consequences of migration are for the individuals involved, as well as the people and societies they enter and leave behind. In some countries, more than one in five residents were not born in the country where they live, while the economies of other countries are heavily dependent on the money that migrants send back. Migration thus affects a wide range of societies around the globe and can affect almost all aspects of human life. Sociologists consequently seek to explain population movements and state policies of migration control, debate theories of integration across a range of human activities, and consider the consequences of migration for development, national identities, and conceptions of membership in a world increasingly characterized by human relationships that span the borders of contemporary nation-states. Sociologists who work on migration do so in conversation with scholars drawn from many disciplines, including anthropology, demography, economics, ethnic studies, geography, history, legal studies, and political science. Given that the sociological field of migration studies is fundamentally interdisciplinary, any bibliography must be multidisciplinary, and it will invariably provide only a very small snapshot of the whole. The snapshot below, to remain manageable, is restricted to English-language publications, and it provides greater coverage of the US case than of other countries or regions of the world.

General Overviews and Textbooks

Immigration can be studied from multiple perspectives, from law and political science to sociology and anthropology. Brettell and Hollifield 2007 provides a nice introduction to how the field of immigration is approached by different disciplines. Kivisto and Faist 2010 is a good follow-up volume, providing a more in-depth discussion of migration-related theorizing from a sociological perspective. Combining theory and descriptive information, general readers wanting an overview of migration on a global scale should consult Castles and Miller 2009. Massey, et al. 1998 is a denser discussion of migration theories and data for more advanced students, with particular attention to economic, social, and cultural forces behind migration. Cornelius, et al. 2004 focuses instead on government policy and contains detailed country profiles. For those interested in immigration and integration in the United States, Portes and Rumbaut 2006 offers an accessible overview that can be read as a whole, whereas the collection Waters and Ueda 2007 is a reference handbook readers can consult for specific topics.

  • Brettell, Caroline, and James Hollifield. 2007. Migration theory: Talking across disciplines. 2d ed. New York: Routledge.

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    This book offers a nice introduction to immigration studies by bringing together nine experts on migration from different disciplinary backgrounds. Each expert discusses how migration is conceived and theorized in his or her field.

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  • Castles, Stephen, and Mark J. Miller. 2009. The age of migration: International population movements in the modern world. 4th ed. New York: Guilford.

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    Part textbook, part academic argument, this book provides both a descriptive and an explanatory overview of immigration. The style is accessible and there is a companion website that provides additional, current information on migration.

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  • Cornelius, W., T. Tsuda, J. Hollifield, and P. Martin, eds. 2004. Controlling immigration: Global perspectives. 2d ed. Stanford CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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    This book offers a useful and broad comparative look at immigration policies in nine industrialized democracies. Beyond description, the chapters examine whether countries are converging in their migration policies, and whether there is a gap between policy intentions and actual migration dynamics.

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  • Kivisto, Peter J., and Thomas Faist. 2010. Beyond a border: The causes and consequences of contemporary immigration. Sociology for a New Century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.

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    Taking a critical look at immigration literature, this book surveys the state of knowledge on diverse topics within migration studies, including migration flows, theories of assimilation and transnationalism, and debates around multiculturalism and citizenship. The authors discuss the shortcomings of existing models and suggest areas for future research.

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  • Massey, Douglas S., Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino, and J. Edward Taylor. 1998. Worlds in motion: Understanding international migration at the end of the millennium. International Studies in Demography. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    Beginning with an assessment and synthesis of migration theories, this book provides a descriptive overview of migration patterns around the world, placing special emphasis on how theories apply (or do not apply) to different world regions.

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  • Portes, Alejandro, and Rubén G. Rumbaut. 2006. Immigrant America: A portrait. 3d ed. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    This accessible book provides a broad perspective on the migration and, especially, integration experiences of immigrants and their children in the United States. Chapters cover such diverse topics as religion, education, incarceration, economic integration, acculturation, political participation, language acquisition, and mental health challenges.

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  • Waters, Mary C., and Reed Ueda, eds. 2007. The new Americans: A guide to immigration since 1965. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard Univ. Press.

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    This comprehensive volume brings together succinct overviews by leading scholars on a wide array of topics on immigration in the United States: from ethnicity, assimilation, and policy to refugees, transnationalism, and gender. The volume also provides a short overview of thirty-one immigrant groups from different regions/countries around the world.

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Data Sources

It used to be hard to assemble and compare migration data across countries; data were collected in diverse ways by different governments, not always made publicly available, and rarely put together in comparable ways. However, the past decade has seen an exploding number of resources. For broad comparisons on migration statistics (flows and stocks) across countries, the Migration Policy Institute Data Hub is a good first stop; more detailed data are available from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Most countries have a primary agency responsible for collecting migration data; in the United States, this is done by the Office of Immigration Statistics within the US Citizenship and Immigration Services. The MPI (Migration Policy Institute) Data Hub also provides accessible profiles of various immigrant groups in the United States. Beyond population flows and migration policies, the Migrant Integration Policy Index assembles comparative data on policies that affect immigrant integration. The UC Berkeley Population Center has created an extensive list of data sets that include migration-related variables, from health studies to surveys of political behavior; it is useful for researchers who want to do their own statistical analysis of existing data.

Journals

A wide range of journals publish research on migration, integration, and related themes such as transnationalism and diaspora studies. Many of these journals are primarily focused on migration from an interdisciplinary perspective, such as leading journals such as International Migration Review, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Journal of International Migration and Integration, International Migration, and Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies. Another well known and well respected interdisciplinary journal, Ethnic and Racial Studies, publishes many articles on migration, but also on the broader topics of race, ethnicity, and diversity. Top disciplinary journals such as Demography and Journal of American Ethnic History contain migration-related articles of interest to a broader audience. Immigration-related articles can also be found in other important disciplinary journals in sociology, political science, anthropology, ethnic studies, economics, and geography, while various countries publish specialized journals focused on migration in their nations. Additional suggestions for journals that publish on immigrants and migration can be found online.

Migration Theories

Many theories of migration center on economic considerations. These often take either a standard economic approach or a critical Marxist or world-systems view to explain the intersection of migration and economics. Hatton and Williamson 1998 offers a sophisticated argument based on standard economic theory, which centers on demographics and wages. This perspective is critiqued in the classic work Piore 1979, which centers its analysis on capitalist production. Sassen 1998 builds on some of Piore’s insights, but provides a more contemporary, globalized vision of the capitalist forces driving migration, one that is sensitive to gender dynamics. Moving beyond economic approaches, Massey, et al. 1993 underscores the centrality of social networks and cultures of migration in perpetuating migratory streams after the initial economic conditions that can spur migration. Zolberg 1999, in contrast, criticizes much of this literature on economic, social, and cultural causes of migration because it undertheorizes politics and the role of the state in channeling migration. Zolberg 1999 also touches on how states affect emigration, the movement of people out of a country, the other side of the immigration coin. The theme of emigration is richly developed in Fitzgerald 2009, a study of the Mexican state. Light 2006 brings together economic and political approaches to understand the internal dispersion of migrants, developing the idea of deflection in cases where cities have become oversaturated with prior waves of migration.

  • Fitzgerald, David. 2009. A nation of emigrants: How Mexico manages its migration. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    This book examines how Mexico has sought to stem, control, and eventually negotiate the exit and lives of its nationals who move to the United States. The book is innovative in its attention to the politics and policies states enact in the face of massive emigration, and in showing how population movements reconfigure notions of membership.

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  • Hatton, Timothy J., and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 1998. The age of mass migration: Causes and economic impact. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    Studying migration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, this book takes an economic approach, explaining that population pressures in Europe and wage gaps between countries on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean drove trans-Atlantic migration.

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  • Light, Ivan. 2006. Deflecting immigration: Networks, markets, and regulation in Los Angeles. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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    Focusing on Los Angeles, this book elaborates a model to explain how migrants can be “deflected” from a traditional immigrant city to other areas in a country. Light offers a multistep process that involves labor market absorption and saturation, as well as favorable and oppositional political reactions, to explain deflection.

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  • Massey, Douglas S., Joaquin Arango, Hugo Graeme, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino, and J. Edward Taylor. 1993. Theories of international migration: A review and appraisal. Population and Development Review 19.3: 431–466.

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    This now-classic overview of migration theories summarizes different economic and social models and then argues for a theory of cumulative causation: economic factors trigger migration, while networks and migration cultures perpetuate it.

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  • Piore, Michael J. 1979. Birds of passage: Migrant labor and industrial societies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    Situating migration within a framework of capitalist production and growth, Piore rejects economic approaches that explain migration on the basis of income differentials and argues that migration does not benefit both sending and receiving countries, but rather serves different types of labor markets and business interests.

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  • Sassen, Saskia. 1998. Globalization and its discontents: Essays on the new mobility of people and money. New York: New Press.

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    This compilation focuses on how global changes affect migration policies, marginalization of women and minorities, businesses and multinational companies, patterns of migration, and virtual and physical space. Migration is situated within a much broader process of globalization and economic transformation.

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  • Zolberg, Aristide R. 1999. Matters of state: Theorizing immigration policy. In The handbook of international migration: The American experience. Edited by C. Hirschman, P. Kasinitz, and J. DeWind, 71–93. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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    In this argument for the importance of immigration policies and politics more generally, Zolberg critiques commonly held theories of migration that ignore state laws and politics. Much of the argument focuses on the history and contemporary dynamics of US immigration, but Zolberg also touches on other examples.

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Explaining Immigration Policy

Political bodies pass immigration legislation. States regulate migrant flows by designating border crossers as either temporary or permanent residents, and by granting permanent status on the basis of economic, family, or humanitarian considerations. Scholars debate why political bodies pass the legislation they do, and whether such policies are effective, particularly in the face of unauthorized migration. Freeman 1995 offers an account of policymaking that pays particular attention to interest groups and to the long-term institutionalization of immigration management, while Meyers 2007 pays greater attention to political economy and foreign policy in explaining migration policy. Guiraudon 2003 pushes the analysis “up,” beyond nation-states, by considering policymaking in the European Union, whereas Money 1999 argues that the roots of national policies are often found in the unequal distribution of immigration’s costs and benefits within a country; this means that immigration debates are not just about national but also local politics. Both Castles 2004 and Cornelius 2005 examine when migration policies fail or end up being ineffective. Unauthorized migration, in particular, is often viewed as an example of failed policy. To reassert state control over undocumented migrants, states often resort to deportation, a topic that is only recently receiving the attention it deserves, as in Ellerman 2009, a detailed look at deportation policies and processes. Those with an interest in the legislative history of US immigration policy should consult Zolberg 2006, a highly readable account, or Tichenor 2002, a detailed examination.

  • Castles, Stephen. 2004. States and modes of political incorporation: The factors that make and unmake migration policies. International Migration Review 38.3: 852–884.

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    This article looks at how migration policies are made and also undermined. It argues that policies often end up with hidden agendas or contradictory objectives due to the social dynamics of the migration process, globalization and transnationalism, and domestic politics.

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  • Cornelius, Wayne A. 2005. Controlling “unwanted” immigration: Lessons from the United States, 1993–2004. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31.4: 775–794.

    DOI: 10.1080/13691830500110017Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article also considers how migration policies are undermined or ineffective by examining the specific case of US border control. Cornelius concludes that border control policies have failed completely and makes suggestions for more effective policy solutions.

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  • Ellermann, Antje. 2009. States against migrants: Deportation in Germany and the United States. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    This book offers a detailed look at the politics and policy of deportation: how do states expel migrants from their borders? Ellermann argues that these processes differ significantly between Germany and the United States, and that the state’s capacity to deport varies at different stages of the process.

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  • Freeman, Gary. 1995. Modes of immigration politics in liberal democratic states. International Migration Review 29.4: 881–902.

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    Freeman examines both similarities and differences in the migration policies of Western liberal democracies, pointing in particular to how different historical experiences with migration generate different constellations of interest groups and institutionalized structures of management and planning. He predicts further convergence across countries toward a broadly expansionist and inclusive policy.

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  • Guiraudon, Virginie. 2003. The constitution of a European immigration policy domain: A political sociology approach. Journal of European Public Policy 10.2: 263–282.

    DOI: 10.1080/1350176032000059035Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article looks at the European Union’s efforts to create a comprehensive immigration and asylum policy across its member states. It identifies a diversity of actors from law officials to NGOs and discusses how they compete to institute different policies, resulting in contradictory policy outcomes.

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  • Meyers, Eytan. 2007. International immigration policy: A theoretical and comparative analysis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

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    Comparing the United States, Britain, the Netherlands, and Germany, Meyers evaluates specific socioeconomic and foreign policy factors that contribute to immigration policy outcomes. He concludes that these factors interact with the type and source of immigration, as well as the type of receiving society, to determine what sort of immigration policies the state passes.

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  • Money, Jeannette. 1999. Fences and neighbors: The political geography of immigration control. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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    Money argues that we must pay attention to the spatial distribution of immigration’s costs and benefits within a country. She contends that local political contests centered on the relative concentration of immigrants in a locality, the area’s socioeconomic conditions, and access to the welfare state often end up shaping national immigration policies in Great Britain, France, and Australia.

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  • Tichenor, David J. 2002. Dividing lines: The politics of immigration control in America. Princeton Studies in American Politics: Historical, International, and Comparative Perspectives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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    This book offers a historically grounded, institutional understanding of the evolution of US immigration policies. Tichenor argues that changes to immigration policy occur in episodic bursts, owing to a fragmented political system that provides multiple veto points to political and social actors; legislative change thus requires coalitions between unlikely political partners.

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  • Zolberg, Aristide. 2006. A nation by design: Immigration policy in the fashioning of America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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    Zolberg offers a sweeping look at US immigration policy from the colonial period to the present, arguing that immigration policies were an integral tool in constructing core ideas of the nation. The book also examines how legal and illegal migration as well as asylum-seekers shape debates around immigration in the contemporary United States.

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Refugees and Asylum-Seekers

Many theories of migration focus on labor or economic migration, but there are also other flows of people across international borders. Refugees are migrants forced to flee their country of origin, usually for political reasons. The designation of a migrant as a refugee is not a simple or obvious process, as various social scientists show. For example, Zolberg and Benda 2001 examines the perception and reality of a refugee “crisis” in the 1980s and 1990s, while Zucker and Zucker 1992 underscores the hard-nose foreign-policy considerations that often drove the US government’s approach to refugees in the post–World War II era. These scholars show how the role of the state is critical in the designation and regulation process. Are refugees consequently really any different from other migrants? Hein 1993 surveys the debates on this question, while Bernstein and Weiner 1999 offers an analytical framework to understand refugee policies in relation to other types of migrants. The desire to help refugees based on humanitarian concerns often collides against countries’ desire to exert control and sovereignty over their borders. This gives rise to difficult ethical and political debates, as Gibney 2004 discusses.

  • Bernstein, Ann, and Myron Weiner. 1999. Migration and refugee policies: An overview. New York: Pinter.

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    This compilation takes a policy-focused approach to analyze illegal immigration, skilled migration, foreign guest workers, refugees, and foreign policies toward sending countries. The book ends by applying its findings and concepts to the South African case.

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  • Gibney, Matthew J. 2004. The ethics and politics of asylum: Liberal democracy and the response to refugees. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    This book takes a political and ethical look at recent debates around refugee policies. It draws on the empirical cases of the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Australia to explain the emergence of refugees as a key political issue, and also to suggest solutions to refugee policy challenges.

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  • Hein, Jeremy. 1993. Refugees, immigrants, and the state. Annual Review of Sociology 19:43–59.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev.so.19.080193.000355Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Hein considers to what extent refugee flows are distinct from other migration streams. Looking at the causes of movement, actual patterns of migration, and the dynamics of adaptation, Hein suggests that there are significant overlaps between immigrant and refugee experiences, but that relationships to states distinguish refugees in key ways.

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  • Zolberg, Aristide, and Peter Benda. 2001. Global migrants, global refugees: Problems and solutions. New York: Berghahn.

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    Responding to an increase in the rhetoric of crisis, this book attempts to accurately describe to what extent is there a migration and refugee crisis. From this analysis, the authors recommend US humanitarian actions, policy reforms, and developmental assistance to deal with migration problems.

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  • Zucker, Norman L., and Naomi Flink Zucker. 1992. From immigration to refugee redefinition: A history of refugee and asylum policy in the United States. Journal of Policy History 4.1: 54–70.

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    This article surveys the history of US policy on refugees from World War II to the early 1990s. It documents how immigrants and refugees were not initially distinguished from each other, the evolution of special refugee-like categories as a result of foreign policy concerns, and the creation of the refugee category in the Refugee Act of 1980.

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Clandestine and Irregular Migration

The movement and presence of millions of people without proper legal status is a key part of migration around the world. It drives political debates over immigration in many countries, and it raises academic questions about the ability of governments to control economic migration, refugee flows, and human smuggling. Are states helpless in controlling migration, or do they facilitate the growth of undocumented populations? If they tolerate or facilitate undocumented migration, why do they do so? In the United States, Massey, et al. 2002 situates undocumented Mexican migration within a long historical relationship and, especially, the growing integration of North American economies. Andreas 2000 instead draws on symbolic interactionism to describe the politics of border control. Clandestine or irregular migration is also an important reality in Europe, as outlined in Düvell 2006, an edited volume. Beyond questions of state control and sovereignty, unauthorized migration has also prompted researchers to study the economic and organizational structures that facilitate illegal migration, from the coyotes who work on the US–Mexico border (Andreas 2000) to people smugglers in Europe (Heckmann 2004) and “snakeheads” in China (Keefe 2009). Many studies of undocumented migrants adopt the common, simplified distinction between legal and illegal migrants, but Menjivar 2006 offers an important broadening to the field. She argues that legality is not dichotomous, but that migrants experience many in-between stages and move between legal categories, with significant, often negative repercussions for their lives and futures.

  • Andreas, Peter. 2000. Border games: Policing the U.S.–Mexico divide. Cornell Studies in Political Economy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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    Studying US efforts to control illegal immigrants and drug trafficking along the US–Mexican border, Andreas argues that policing escalated in the 1990s because of unintended policy feedbacks. These include bureaucratic incentives for border control officials to play up problems to secure resources, and politicians’ use of border control to promote a symbolic politics of border control, despite its limited effectiveness.

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  • Düvell, Franck, ed. 2006. Illegal immigration in Europe: Beyond control? New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

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    This book analyzes the causes of illegal immigration, paying particular attention to European history and political economy. Its chapters also include studies of particular groups of undocumented migrants in the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and Greece.

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  • Heckmann, Friedrich. 2004. Illegal migration: What can we know and what can we explain? The case of Germany. International Migration Review 38.3: 1103–1125.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2004.tb00230.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using Germany as a case study, Heckmann discusses both the methodological and analytical challenges of studying illegal migration. He places particular emphasis on the social organization of human smuggling, and the interaction between law enforcement and the groups that facilitate unauthorized migration.

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  • Keefe, Patrick Radden. 2009. Snakeheads and smuggling: The dynamics of illegal Chinese immigration. World Policy Journal 26.1: 33–44.

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    Keefe describes and analyzes the phenomenon of smuggling Chinese people to countries around the world. In doing so, he presents a picture of a smuggling industry that is a business with a global economic reach.

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  • Massey, Douglas, Jorge Durand, and Nolan Malone. 2002. Beyond smoke and mirrors: Mexican immigration in an era of economic integration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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    Using the case of emigration from Mexico to the United States, Massey et al. explains the causes for migration through a historical perspective that accounts for a long and deep relationship between the two countries—one that ties their immigration problems together through policies such as NAFTA and the economic integration of the two nations.

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  • Menjivar, Cecilia. 2006. Liminal legality: Salvadoran and Guatemalan immigrants’ lives in the United States. American Journal of Sociology 111.4: 999–1037.

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    Looking at the empirical cases of Salvadoran and Guatemalan immigrants, this article argues that illegality is not dichotomous as only legal/illegal, but has many in-between stages that have significant effects on the integration and lived experiences of migrants trapped in “liminal legality.”

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Citizenship, Membership, Rights, and Belonging

The movement of people across international borders raises significant questions about the nature of membership and citizenship in a globalizing world, as a matter of academic inquiry, public policy, and normative political philosophy. Bloemraad, et al. 2008 provides a brief overview of this vast literature, while Joppke 2010 offers a more extensive synthesis. Both pieces highlight the continued importance of nation-states in determining citizenship and rights, a position questioned by Carens 1987 and Bauböck 2005, the former from a liberal rights perspective, the latter based in part on the empirical reality of transnationalism. This debate about the importance of the state as a grantor and guarantor of rights and membership is a central theme in the literature, especially in the European context. Soysal 1994 and Bosniak 2000 both agree that individual rights, previously tied to nation-state citizenship, are now linked more to personhood and human rights, suggesting that citizenship has become “postnational.” The postnational perspective is challenged by studies that underscore the continued relevance of nation-states and that document significant cross-national variation in citizenship laws. This national models approach is epitomized by the argument in Brubaker 1992 that immigrants’ ability to acquire citizenship is shaped by a country’s “ethnic” or “civic” notions of national belonging. Scholars now debate whether countries differ or are converging in their citizenship and nationality laws (Hansen and Weil 2001), in their willingness to embrace dual or multiple citizenships (Faist and Kivisto 2008), and in their explanations for what drives patterns of convergence or divergence.

  • Bauböck, Rainer. 2005. Expansive citizenship: Voting beyond territory and membership. PS: Political Science and Politics 38.4: 683–687.

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    Taking on a supranational viewpoint, Bauböck looks at how migration has undermined traditional understanding of national citizenship. He reports a phenomenon whereby countries have allowed citizens to vote from beyond the state’s national political boundaries, and argues in favor of this trend.

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  • Bloemraad, Irene, Anna Korteweg, and Gökçe Yurdakul. 2008. Citizenship and immigration: Multiculturalism, assimilation, and challenges to the nation-state. Annual Review of Sociology 34:153–179.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134608Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An overarching review of citizenship literature, this article focuses on issues regarding citizenship within nation-states, such as assimilation, ethnic and civic nationalism, as well as citizenship beyond nation-states, such as transnationalism, postnationalism, and dual citizenship.

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  • Bosniak, Linda. 2000. Citizenship denationalized. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 7.2: 447–510.

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    Reviewing works on postnational forms of citizenship, this article starts by deconstructing the different aspects of citizenship and showing how, to different extents, they have all become increasingly denationalized. Bosniak concludes by supporting new supranational forms of citizenship that recognize migrants, but acknowledging the continued role of state policies.

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  • Brubaker, William Rogers. 1992. Citizenship and nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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    This book uses a historical approach to analyze different conceptions of nationhood to understand why more immigrants and their children hold citizenship in France than in Germany. Brubaker argues that France has a long history of republican beliefs that beget civic nationalism while Germany, because of its constant ethnic comparisons with Poland, has a firmly rooted ethnic nationalism.

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  • Carens, Joseph H. 1987. Aliens and citizens: The case for open borders. Review of Politics 49.2: 251–273.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0034670500033817Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article engages in the ethical debates surrounding immigration policies. Using the philosophy of John Rawls and the veil of ignorance, Carens argues that no moral arguments hold up in affirming a geography-based system for dissemination of rights, and instead governments have a moral obligation to allow open borders.

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  • Faist, Thomas, and Peter Kivisto. 2008. Dual citizenship in global perspective: From unitary to multiple citizenship. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

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    This compilation of scholarly works explores the implications of an increasing number of countries allowing dual citizenship. It argues that increasing dual citizenship is a sign of liberalization of citizenship laws, eroding popular sovereignty, and changing conceptions of nationhood.

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  • Hansen, Randall, and Patrick Weil. 2001. Towards a European nationality: Citizenship, immigration, and nationality law in the EU. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

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    Comparing countries in the European Union, this book examines the evolution of laws since World War I. It tests the hypothesis that large-scale non-European immigration has caused convergence among European countries and their immigration law.

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  • Joppke, Christian. 2010. Citizenship and immigration. Immigration & Society. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

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    Providing a succinct overview of citizenship studies and literature, this book traces the ebbs and flows of citizenship. Instead of arguing for the decline of nation-states, Joppke focuses on how the forms of citizenship have changed toward an increasingly liberal vision in the context of a human rights culture.

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  • Soysal, Yasemin Nuhoglu. 1994. Limits of citizenship: Migrants and postnational membership in Europe. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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    Through a study of guest workers in Europe, Soysal argues that a new model of citizenship has emerged, “postnational citizenship.” This model predicts a dissemination of human rights from supranational organizations and courts, enabling migrant workers to gain rights similar to those of citizens without obtaining official citizenship.

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Transnationalism

When migrants move to another country, but keep sustained contacts with their place of origin, they help create transnational economic, social, and political spaces. An early and influential argument for a transnational view to migration, one open to multiple locations and memberships, is outlined in Basch, et al. 1994. Vertovec 2009 provides a contemporary overview of the field, which has grown exponentially since the early 1990s. Scholars debate the foundations of transnationalism—how it comes to exist—and also its relative importance in the lives of immigrants and their children. Is transnationalism extensive, and does it persist over time? On the question of foundations, transnationalism can be understood as grounded in dynamics of global capital and power (Ong 1999), as social fields of engagement and interaction (Levitt 2001), or through the lens of political theory (Bauböck 2003). On its breadth and persistence, Levitt 2001 argues for extensive transnationalism, while Guarnizo, et al. 2003 suggests a much more limited phenomenon, one that engages more privileged migrants rather than the marginalized individuals studied in early anthropological research (Basch, et al. 1994). Levitt and Waters 2002 continues the debate over persistence by examining whether the children of migrants, born and raised in another country, retain transnational ties to their parents’ place of origin.

  • Basch, Linda, Nina Glick Schiller, and Cristina Szanton Blanc. 1994. Nations unbound: Transnational projects, postcolonial predicaments and deterritorialized nation-states. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach.

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    Drawing on ethnographic studies, this book reveals how some migrants live their lives in two places, which changes both sending and receiving countries and challenges traditional concepts of citizenship and nationhood. It is one of the first extended discussions and studies of contemporary transnationalism.

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  • Bauböck, Rainer. 2003. Towards a political theory of migrant transnationalism. International Migration Review 37.3: 700–723.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2003.tb00155.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article argues for the need to widen the field’s vision of political transnationalism. Typical approaches focus on voting and political participation, but by applying political theory, Bauböck argues that a broadening framework should consider changes in collective identity and conceptions of citizenship.

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  • Guarnizo, Luis Eduardo, Alejandro Portes, and William Haller. 2003. Assimilation and transnationalism: Determinants of transnational political action among contemporary migrants. American Journal of Sociology 108.6: 1211–1248.

    DOI: 10.1086/375195Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Arguing that transnational political involvement has been exaggerated, this article uses statistical evidence from Latin American migrants in the United States to show that political transnationalism is a relatively limited phenomenon, and that it tends to apply only to privileged and educated migrants.

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  • Levitt, Peggy. 2001. The transnational villagers. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    Levitt uses in-depth fieldwork in the Dominican Republic and United States to show how migrants stay involved with their home countries even after settling in the United States. In this extended argument for a transnational view of migration, Levitt documents, through transnational interactions, how gender norms, family values, ideas about work, and cultural practices are challenged.

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  • Levitt, Peggy, and Mary C. Waters, eds. 2002. The changing face of home: The transnational lives of the second generation. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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    This compilation starts from the premise that transnationalism is not only a phenomenon for immigrants, but also affects their children, the second generation. The book brings together chapters that apply a transnational lens to understanding integration challenges faced by the second generation, as well as these individuals’ transnational practices.

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  • Ong, Aihwa. 1999. Flexible citizenship: The cultural logics of transnationality. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

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    Using an anthropological approach, Ong argues that governments and individuals develop a flexible form of citizenship and sovereignty so as to maximize capital accumulation and power—logics and practices favoring flexibility become preferable in a world where opportunities move quickly through space.

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  • Vertovec, Steven. 2009. Transnationalism. New York: Routledge.

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    This book provides an overview of the concept of transnationalism. It includes a discussion on the definition of “transnationalism” as well as its effects on society, culture, politics, economy, and religion.

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Integration Theories

The idea of “integration” is central to immigration studies, particularly in sociology (Favell 2003). In Europe, debates over the role of the nation-state extend to understanding processes of integration, which Favell 2001 links to public philosophies and institutions, while Freeman 2004 distinguishes integration regimes among Western democracies through their systems of regulation. In the US context, integration is usually studied as a social process, with limited theorizing about the role of governments and state power. The social lens continues a century-long concern in the United States over immigrant “assimilation,” encompassing everything from acculturation to friendship networks and civic norms (Gordon 1964). Assimilation was often equated with Americanization in the early 20th century and understood as the erasure of distinctions between immigrants and the native-born population. Already in the 1960s, however, scholars such as Glazer and Moynihan (see Glazer and Moynihan 1970) documented the persistence of ethnicity, while Breton 1964 examined how ethnic institutions kept ethnic identity and connections salient to immigrants and their children. Contemporary scholars debate whether assimilation continues to be a useful concept and accurate description of the experiences of 21st-century migrants and their descendents. Alba and Nee 2003 suggests that it does, although today those with immigrant origins can keep cultural and religious distinctions within a more diverse mainstream. In contrast, the segmented assimilation model articulated by Portes and Zhou 1993 argues that hour-glass economies and racial hierarchies create distinct assimilation pathways for migrants with more or less human and social capital. Studies of the second generation—the native-born children of immigrants—are now also taking off in the European context. Thomson and Crul 2007 provides a useful discussion of how the US scholarship on intergenerational integration might apply (or not) to the European case.

  • Alba, Richard, and Victor Nee. 2003. Remaking the American mainstream: Assimilation and contemporary immigration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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    This book revives and remodels the traditional straight-line assimilation theory into a new assimilation theory. The authors argue that because of social movements and changes in American institutions, law, and social structures, immigrants and their children will become assimilated into a diverse American mainstream as they pursue personal projects of economic success and social integration.

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  • Breton, Raymond. 1964. Institutional completeness of ethnic communities and the personal relations of immigrants. American Journal of Sociology 70.2: 193–205.

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    This classic article investigates the factors that increase the propensity for immigrants to be and remain attached to their ethnic communities. Breton argues that the more institutionally complete the ethnic community, the more likely that ethnicity remains salient to migrants, even those who do not participate in or use community institutions.

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  • Favell, Adrian. 2001. Philosophies of integration: Immigration and the idea of citizenship in France and Britain. 2d ed. New York: St. Martin’s.

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    Favell argues that countries have particular ideas and institutional frameworks that structure notions of citizenship and inclusion in distinct ways. Comparing France and Great Britain, Favell outlines these different “philosophies,” but he also discusses the tensions and contradictions within countries, both between the diverse actors involved in integration debates, and between the accepted philosophies and realities on the ground.

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  • Favell, Adrian. 2003. Integration nations: The nation state and research on immigrants in Western Europe. Comparative Social Research 22:13–42.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0195-6310(03)22001-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article offers an extended examination of “integration” as a predominant paradigm in migration studies. Favell underscores how integration reinforces a functionalist unity of nation/ state/society, but suggests that even in postnational or transnational research, integration remains a dominant principle of social organization and scholarly analysis.

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  • Freeman, Gary. 2004. States and modes of political incorporation: Immigrant incorporation in Western democracies. International Migration Review 38.3: 945–969.

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    This article proposes a new framework for evaluating integration policies in Western democracies that centers on the intersection of migrants’ aspirations and strategies with their regulation in four domains: state, market, welfare, and culture. Freeman concludes by identifying four types of integration regimes, based on different mixes of regulation.

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  • Glazer, Nathan, and Daniel P. Moynihan. 1970. Beyond the melting pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians and Irish of New York City. 2d ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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    This influential book responds to the idea that America is a melting pot where immigrants lose their cultural identities and instead adopt an American identity. The authors argue that ethnic homogenization is not inevitable and, in fact, the ethnic groups of New York City show resilience in forming their own distinct ethnicities, despite many generations of residence in the city.

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  • Gordon, Milton M. 1964. Assimilation in American life: The role of race, religion, and national origins. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    In an effort to clarify different models of assimilation, Gordon’s classic work outlines a series of distinct stages of assimilation. He argues that the first step, acculturation, does not automatically or immediately lead to other types of assimilation. The final phase, structural assimilation (integration into friendship networks and social groups), might take many generations to achieve.

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  • Portes, Alejandro and Min Zhou. 1993. The new second generation: Segmented assimilation and its variants. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 530:74–96.

    DOI: 10.1177/0002716293530001006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article lays the foundations of the theory of segmented assimilation, which posits three distinct paths of integration. The authors contend that some immigrants integrate into the American white, middle-class as per a traditional model of assimilation, but others are integrating “downward” into an economically marginalized and racialized segment of US society. A third path exists for those at risk for downward assimilation: they can use co-ethnic social networks, immigrant cultures, and community institutions to achieve upward mobility.

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  • Thomson, Mark, and Maurice Crul. 2007. The second generation in Europe and the United States: How is the transatlantic debate relevant for further research on the European second generation? Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 33.7: 1025–1041.

    DOI: 10.1080/13691830701541556Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This introduction to a special journal issue on the second generation in Europe not only introduces the individual articles, but also provides a useful discussion of US theories of integration, and debates their relevance for the European context.

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Labor Markets and the Economy

Because migrant flows are often considered labor flows, questions related to the economic consequences of migration are central to the field. The centrality of an economic lens is evident in many migration theories, as discussed above, and in the voluminous research on migrants’ economic incorporation. Some scholars take a “macro” view to the question, asking about the economic impact of migration on receiving societies, the first section below. Others focus on the labor experience of immigrant workers and on the native-born workers who might be displaced by migrants, a topic surveyed in Labor Markets, Job Queues, and Work Conditions. Some feminist scholars in both the macroeconomic and work/labor approaches have developed a gendered analysis of migration and work, one that links female migrants’ experiences to global economic structures and hierarchies of power based on gender, race, and national origin, as discussed in Gender, Migration, and Work.

Economic Impacts of Migration

There is an extensive literature assessing the impact of migration on receiving societies. Smith and Edmonston 1997 provides a framework for understanding these consequences, from fiscal impacts on public budgets to labor market effects, using a range of economic models. Scholars who use such models engage in a fierce debate over the benefits of migration for receiving societies’ economies and fiscal balance sheets. Borjas 1999 finds more evidence of problems than benefits in the United States, a claim challenged by Card 2005, which concludes that immigrant economic integration has gone relatively well. Borjas and Card are both economists, but adopting a demographic lens leads to a somewhat different analysis, as showcased in Myers 2007, which argues that an aging native-born population must integrate migrants into the economy to sustain retirees’ standard of living. Portes 1995 takes yet another approach, applying concepts from economic sociology, such as networks and social capital, to immigration studies. Zimmermann 1995 offers a broad assessment of the economic benefits and challenges of immigration in the European context.

  • Borjas, George. 1999. Heaven’s door: Immigration policy and the American economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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    This book examines US immigration policy from an economic perspective and concludes that the current policy that emphasizes family reunification harms the American economy and labor market. Borjas recommends reducing the number of incoming migrants and moving to a more skill-based policy so that a greater proportion of migrants enter with high human capital.

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  • Card, David. 2005. Is the new immigration really so bad? Economic Journal 115.507: 300–323.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0297.2005.01037.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Card finds little evidence to suggest that immigration hurts the labor market opportunities of low-skilled natives. He concludes that the children of immigrants have assimilated relatively well, as measured by educational achievement and wages.

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  • Myers, Dowell. 2007. Immigrants and boomers: Forging a new social contract for the future of America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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    Drawing on a demographic perspective, Myers argues that the mass retirement of baby boomers will cause fiscal problems for social policy and housing markets. Myers proposes a social contract through which boomers invest in immigrants and their children so that both can enjoy economic prosperity.

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  • Portes, Alejandro, ed. 1995. The economic sociology of immigration: Essays on networks, ethnicity, and entrepreneurship. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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    This compilation of articles applies principles of economic sociology to immigration debates over local labor markets, ethnic firms and entrepreneurs, migrant networks, urbanization, and segmented assimilation.

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  • Smith, J. P., and B. Edmonston, eds. 1997. The new Americans: Economic, demographic, and fiscal effects of immigration. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

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    This report is the result of a panel investigation seeking to define the impact of immigrants on the national and local labor markets; federal, state, and local government budgets; and the national population. While some of the data might be dated, the framework for evaluation remains very useful.

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  • Zimmermann, Klaus F. 1995. Tackling the European migration problem. Journal of Economic Perspectives 9.2: 45–62.

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    After examining four phases of European migration, this article predicts that increasing migration to Europe may have negative effects on labor because of slow labor market adjustment, but suggests that national and European Union policies could utilize migration to bring about higher wages and more flexible European economies.

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Labor Markets, Job Queues, and Work Conditions

A standard economic theory of the labor market suggests that as the supply of workers increases, as is the case with mass migration, wages should go down, a premise that Borjas 2003 defends on the basis of labor market surveys. Waldinger and Lichter 2003 challenges a simple economic analysis. The authors interviewed business owners and managers across various industries to conclude that employers have come to regard immigrants as particularly suited to specific low-paid and low-skill jobs, showing how social perceptions shape economic outcomes. Fears over job competition have, historically, given labor unions cause to oppose migration, but Milkman 2006 discusses how labor unions can help immigrants and how immigrants can help the labor movement. In this way, economic dynamics are informed by political activities and mobilization. Gordon 2005 extends the analysis to nonprofit organizations, showing how community organizing among undocumented migrants can improve economic conditions. Sociologists thus debate and study the noneconomic factors influencing labor market dynamics in receiving societies. Domestic economic, social, and political processes are not, however, immune to dynamics in other regions of the world. Taking a broader geographical focus, Cornelius, et al. 2010 shows how economic contractions in one country affect migration decisions in another, while Sassen 1988 places such dynamics within a context of global capitalism, challenging classical economic models. Often, in such studies, scholars focus on less skilled labor, but as Saxenian 2002 documents, much of the high-skilled technological revolution in the United States was spurred by foreign-born engineers and entrepreneurs.

  • Borjas, George. 2003. The labor demand curve is downward sloping: Reexamining the impact of immigration on the labor market. Quarterly Journal of Economics 118.4: 1335–1374.

    DOI: 10.1162/003355303322552810Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Exploiting comparisons between workers with different levels of schooling and work experience, Borjas concludes that an increase in immigration to the United States decreases the wages of native-born workers.

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  • Cornelius, Wayne A., David Fitzgerald, Pedro Lewin Fischer, and Leah Muse-Orlinoff. 2010. Mexican migration and the U.S. economic crisis: A transnational perspective. La Jolla, CA: Center for Comparative Immigration Studies.

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    Based on extensive surveys and in-depth interviews, this book shows that the economic crisis of 2007 led potential migrant workers in Mexico to postpone emigration to the United States, and discusses how migrants navigate through economic crisis.

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  • Gordon, Jennifer. 2005. Suburban sweatshops: The fight for immigrant rights. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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    This book chronicles the development of a nonprofit organization that engaged in effective community building among undocumented immigrant Latinos. It shows how immigrant labor organizations can be successful in mobilizing and empowering illegal immigrants.

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  • Milkman, Ruth. 2006. L.A. story: Immigrant workers and the future of the U.S. labor movement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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    Milkman argues that unions and the labor movement are relevant to immigrant workers, improving work conditions and providing a basis for collective mobilization. Moreover, the author suggests that immigration does not weaken organized labor, but has the potential to strengthen existing movements.

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  • Sassen, Saskia. 1988.The mobility of capital and labor: A study in international investment and labor flow. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    This book uses segmented labor market and world systems theory to show how the internationalization of production has played a defining role in establishing migration patterns between the United States and Mexico.

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  • Saxenian, Annalee. 2002. Silicon Valley’s new immigrant high-growth entrepreneurs. Economic Development Quarterly 16.1: 20–31.

    DOI: 10.1177/0891242402016001003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Saxenian reveals the importance of skilled immigrant labor in running a large portion of Silicon Valley’s high technology industry. The article also shows how immigrants utilize ethnic resources to integrate into the mainstream technological economy.

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  • Waldinger, Roger, and Michael Lichter. 2003. How the other half works: Immigration and the social organization of labor. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    This study explains the apparent paradox of how low-skilled immigrant labor integrated into an American economy that demanded high-skilled labor during the 1990s. It discusses the role of ethnic networks and finds that employers perceived migrant labor as better suited for demeaning work and, as a result, preferred to hire immigrant over native-born workers.

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Gender, Migration, and Work

Scholars of women’s migration have long underscored the lack of attention to gender in immigration scholarship (Pedraza 1991, Pessar 1999) and have elaborated how attention to gender improves researchers’ ability to relate microprocess to macrostructures. This includes, but is not limited to, the important insight that people rarely act as individuals, but as members of households and family units. A significant amount of research on female migrants examines gendered work, especially migrants’ employment as domestic and sex workers around the world (Ehrenreich and Hochschild 2003, Hondagneu-Sotelo 2001, Parreñas 2001). These studies challenge a national models paradigm by arguing that global capitalism and gendered divisions of work create similar experiences for female migrants in many countries. In contrast, Oishi 2005 argues that nation-states do differ in their gender norms, with the result that some encourage women to work overseas while others prevent female migration. A gender lens can also inform understandings of governments’ contemporary policy positions on immigration, terrorism, and social cohesion (Yuval Davis, et al. 2005).

  • Ehrenreich, Barbara, and Arlie Hochschild. 2003. Global woman: Nannies, maids and sex workers in the new economy. New York: Metropolitan/Owl.

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    This compilation of articles documents the plight of many immigrant women who are, in an era of globalization, imported to do unwanted jobs. Women’s work is explicitly linked to global economic processes and gendered notions of appropriate employment.

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  • Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette. 2001. Doméstica: Immigrant workers cleaning and caring in the shadows of affluence. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    Drawing on interviews of migrant workers in domestic work, this book describes the difficulties of this industry and occupation and shows how employers desire low conflict and low contact with domestic workers.

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  • Oishi, Nana. 2005. Women in motion: Globalization, state policies, and labor migration in Asia. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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    Taking the cases of labor migration from countries like the Philippines, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka to countries such as Hong Kong, Singapore, and Japan, Oishi argues that most current theories poorly explain the labor migration of women, She concludes that state policies, social legitimacy, cultural norms, and level of autonomy help explain migration flows of women.

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  • Parreñas, Rhacel Salazar. 2001. Servants of globalization: Women, migration, and domestic work. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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    Comparing the cases of Filipino migrant workers in Rome and Los Angeles, this book argues that female migrants experience similar problems with integration into nation-state, family, labor market, and the migrant community because of their similar status as low-wage laborers. The book consequently challenges a national models approach that presumes differences between industrialized countries.

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  • Pedraza, Silvia. 1991. Women and migration: The social consequences of gender. Annual Review of Sociology 17:303–325.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev.so.17.080191.001511Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article provides a snapshot of the scholarly literature on migration, gender, and work two decades ago. Pedraza argues that without attention to gender and the family, scholars are missing a link between micro and macro levels of analysis for such questions as motivations to migrate, labor market incorporation, and relationships between private and public spheres of life.

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  • Pessar, Patricia R. 1999. The role of gender, households, and social networks in the migration process: A review and appraisal. In The handbook of international migration: The American experience. Edited by Charles Hirschman, Philip Kasinitz, and Josh DeWind, 53–70. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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    This critical review argues that scholars must acknowledge gender issues when conducting studies of immigrant households and social networks. Recognizing how gender roles change and play out differently for migrants can provide better explanatory models for a host of topics.

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  • Yuval Davis, Nira, Floya Anthias, and Eleonore Kofman. 2005. Secure borders and safe haven and the gendered politics of belonging: Beyond social cohesion. Ethnic and Racial Studies 28.3: 513–535.

    DOI: 10.1080/0141987042000337867Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article assesses the gendered implications of recent immigration policies in Europe, and specifically of secure boundary dialogues in Britain, and relates them to issues of racism and feminism.

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Where Migrants Live

Do immigrants live and establish businesses in certain neighborhoods by choice or because they are forced to do so? What are the consequences of residential and business concentrations? The degree of residential choice faced by immigrants is actively debated. Peach 1999 compares residential segregation in New York and London to show that patterns vary across cities and groups; not all places offer similar choice to all migrant groups. Logan, et al. 2002 provides an analysis of residential concentrations in the United States, suggesting that at least some immigrant enclaves evolve by choice. To the extent that some concentrations are based on choice, scholars and public officials in North America tend to find ethnic enclaves less problematic than do Europeans, either because they are viewed as a way station to integration or because they might offer tangible benefits to migrants. Wilson and Portes 1980 spawned a voluminous academic debate when they suggested that ethnic business enclaves help immigrant entrepreneurs and workers by providing an alternative space between primary and second labor markets. Chief among works that question such a conclusion is Sanders and Nee 1987, which argues that ethnic business owners might exploit low-wage co-ethnic workers. Kloosterman and Rath 2003 provides a more recent and global collection focused on ethnic entrepreneurship in a variety of countries. The longstanding focus on urban enclaves has more recently been expanded by those studying the residential dispersion of immigrants in the United States to new metropolitan gateways, suburbs, and regions with little experience of migration, such as the American South and Midwest (Singer, et al. 2008; Zúñiga and Hernández-León 2006). The growth of “new destinations” raises the question of whether other places will undergo the transformation experienced by Miami in the face of large-scale migration (Portes and Stepick 1993).

  • Kloosterman, Robert, and Jan Rath, eds. 2003. Immigrant entrepreneurs: Venturing abroad in the age of globalization. New York: New York University Press.

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    A global look at immigrant entrepreneurs, this compilation argues that immigrants are not confined to filling vacant, unwanted jobs, but also engage in creating jobs, goods, and services that indigenous entrepreneurs do not provide.

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  • Logan, John R., Richard D. Alba, and Wenquan Zhang. 2002. Immigrant enclaves and ethnic communities in New York and Los Angeles. American Sociological Review 67.2: 299–322.

    DOI: 10.2307/3088897Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comparing ethnic neighborhoods in New York and Los Angeles, this article argues that some immigrants choose to live in ethnic enclaves even though they have the economic resources and ability to live elsewhere, showing a preference for either urban or suburban ethnic enclaves.

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  • Peach, Ceri. 1999. London and New York: Contrasts in British and American models of segregation. International Journal of Population Geography 5.5: 319–351.

    DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1220(199909/10)5:5<319::AID-IJPG148>3.0.CO;2-QSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This comparative study between London and New York argues that London’s Afro-Caribbean population is integrating according to melting pot theories, while South Asians follow a pluralistic path. New York’s African Americans experience hyper-segregation, while Latinos move toward a melting pot path.

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  • Portes, Alejandro, and Alex Stepick. 1993. City on the edge: The transformation of Miami. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    This book traces the historical transformations of Miami, focusing in particular on how Miami went from a sleepy tourist town made up of Anglo and African American residents to a cosmopolitan and economic metropolis. Much of the change followed from large-scale migration from Cuba, Haiti, and Nicaragua, showing how ethnic ties and political projects fundamentally changed Miami.

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  • Sanders, Jimy, and Victor Nee. 1987. The limits of ethnic solidarity in the enclave economy. American Sociological Review 52.6: 745–773.

    DOI: 10.2307/2095833Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article tests the findings that immigrant workers in ethnic enclaves earn as much as do those in the primary labor market. It finds that this is partially true in the case of ethnic entrepreneurs, but workers might suffer exploitation rather than benefit from working for co-ethnic employers.

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  • Singer, Audrey, Susan W. Hardwick, and Caroline B. Brettell, eds. 2008. Twenty-first-century gateways: Immigrant incorporation in suburban America. James A. Johnson Metro series. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

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    This book documents the changing patterns of immigration settlement in the United States. Some of the traditional gateway cities of a hundred years ago continue to attract migrants, but they have been joined by new, emerging gateway cities and the movement of migrants to suburbs across the United States. Explanations for these changes include social networks, socioeconomic mobility, and gentrification.

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  • Wilson, Kenneth L., and Alejandro Portes. 1980. Immigrant enclaves: An analysis of the labor market experiences of Cubans in Miami. American Journal of Sociology 86.2: 295–319.

    DOI: 10.1086/227240Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Employing a longitudinal study of Cubans in Miami, this article shows that a dual labor market exists, but also that ethnic enclaves serve as a third option for immigrant labor. Immigrant enterprises in ethnic enclaves show a significant return to human capital investments that does not exist in secondary labor markets, and they can provide workers with mobility ladders.

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  • Zúñiga, Víctor, and Rubén Hernández-León, eds. 2006. New destinations: Mexican immigration in the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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    This edited collection presents case studies of Mexicans migration to towns and regions of the US South, Midwest, and Northeast that have little history of dealing with migration. The chapters also investigate the repercussions of migration for race relations, residential settlement, and labor market dynamics in these new destinations.

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Political Mobilization and Civic Inclusion

Scholars of immigrants’ political and civic inclusion draw on a variety of theoretical and analytical traditions. In the United States, many standard political science models view engagement as a function of individuals’ interests, resources, and skills, an approach that has been extended to immigrants. In this vein, Ramakrishnan 2005 begins from a political behavior perspective focused on individual resources and attributes, but he quickly notes their limits for the immigrant case. Among European scholars, researchers have been more apt to modify social movement theories, especially the idea of political opportunity structures, to argue that social and political institutions shape immigrant political behavior (Koopmans, et al. 2005). This approach has recently been integrated into North American scholarship, both in the greater attention to social movement dynamics, especially among undocumented migrants (Voss and Bloemraad 2011), and in studies of the effects of government policies and institutions for immigrants’ political inclusion (Bloemraad 2006). Given the deepening and further institutionalization of the European Union, the institutional focus is also applied to EU policies and bodies (Geddes 1995). Between micro- and macro- analytical strategies, we find increasing attention to social networks, sometimes called social capital (Fennema and Tillie 2000), and community organizations and civic associations that tie individuals together in civil society (Wong 2006). Scholars in this field are also trying to bridge disciplinary traditions and develop more synthetic models of immigrants’ political mobilization and civic inclusion (Lee, et al. 2006; Voss and Bloemraad 2011).

  • Bloemraad, Irene. 2006. Becoming a citizen: Incorporating immigrants and refugees in the United States and Canada. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    Comparing Vietnamese refugees and Portuguese immigrants in Canada and the United States, this book shows how and why institutional differences and policy initiatives affect immigrant political integration. Bloemraad argues that Canada’s multicultural settlement model is more successful than the US laissez-faire approach.

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  • Fennema, M., and J. N. Tillie. 2000. Civic communities, political participation and political trust of ethnic groups. Connections 23.2: 44–59.

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    Using the case of Amsterdam, this article argues that a higher density of ethnic associations, networks, and membership levels correlates with increased political participation and trust by ethnic minorities.

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  • Geddes, Andrew. 1995. Immigrant and ethnic minorities and the EU’s “democratic deficit.” Journal of Common Market Studies 33.2: 197–217.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-5965.1995.tb00527.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article analyzes EU immigration policy to argue that emphasizing tighter controls has resulted in increases in the democratic deficit of the European Union and has hindered immigrant political participation.

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  • Koopmans, Ruud, Paul Statham, Marco Guigni, and Florence Passey. 2005. Contested citizenship: Immigration and cultural diversity in Europe. Social Movements, Protest and Contention 25. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

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    This book argues that mobilization around citizenship and immigration should take into account a country’s discursive opportunity structure, delimited by a state’s approach to civic versus ethnic national belonging and mono- or multiculturalism. Using countries’ placement along these dimensions, the authors explain contestation over immigration by migrants, their supporters, and those who oppose them.

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  • Lee, Taeku, S. Karthick Ramakrishnan, and Ricardo Ramirez, eds. 2006. Transforming politics, transforming America: The political and civic incorporation of immigrants in the United States. Papers presented at “A Nation of Immigrants: Ethnic Identity and Political Incorporation,” held in May 2003 in Berkeley, CA. Charlottesville: Univ. of Virginia Press.

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    This compilation focuses on the period of 1965 to the present and attempts to understand how increasing immigration from Asia and Latin America affects one’s understanding of political assimilation, participation, and mobilization.

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  • Ramakrishnan, S. Karthick. 2005. Democracy in immigrant America: Changing demographics and political participation. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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    This book concludes that current models of voting behavior that emphasize age and socioeconomic status do not adequately explain immigrants’ political participation, and that factors such as length of stay, immigrant generation, and country of origin must also be considered. The author also tests sociological theories of generational integration applied to political participation.

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  • Voss, Kim, and Irene Bloemraad, eds. 2011. Rallying for immigrant rights: The fight for inclusion in 21st century America. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    This volume brings together a multidisciplinary group of scholars to understand the explosion of activism, and its rapid demobilization, around immigrant rights in 2006. The editors generate a conversation between political behavior accounts of mobilization that are standard to political science and a social movements perspective used more frequently in sociology.

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  • Wong, Janelle S. 2006. Democracy’s promise: Immigrants and American civic institutions. Politics of Race and Ethnicity. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

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    Studying Chinese and Mexican immigrants in New York and Los Angeles, this book argues that the absence of extensive immigrant political participation is not caused by apathy or lack of assimilation, but instead by civic institutions and their level of involvement with immigrant communities.

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Social and Cultural Transformations

Processes of immigrant incorporation not only carry consequences for economic systems, but also affect social relations, national identities, and the culture of both the receiving society and the people who migrate. Depending on patterns of migration and the history, institutions and politics of a country or region, the sociocultural issues around immigration can vary in important ways. In the United States, given the legacies of slavery and the prevalence of racial hierarchies throughout US history, immigration has led scholars to debate how migrants might affect the US “color line,” as elaborated in Ethnic and Racial Identities. With the exception of the United Kingdom, European intellectuals and governments have been more suspicious of race-sensitive analysis and policies, though this tendency has been changing as Europeans increasingly tackle issues of discrimination. In Europe, the prevailing sociocultural worry has instead focused on religion, in particular debates about the place of Muslims in the continent, as discussed in Religion, Migration, and National Identities. From a sociological perspective, debates over race, religion, and language lend themselves to a variety of analytical lenses, including concepts of boundary making and shifting, historical–institutional analysis, and literatures on mobilization and social problems.

Ethnic and Racial Identities

Given the legacies of slavery and racial hierarchies in US society, an important focus among US immigration scholars is the ethnic and racial identities of immigrants and their descendents, as well as the relative importance of boundaries predicated on notions of race. Key points of debate include the number of distinct patterns of ethnic identity—a single one of assimilation, a dichotomous one of majority and minority status, or multiple patterns depending on group—as well as disagreement over the dynamics that solidify or blur ethno-racial distinctions. Gans 1979 suggests that remnants of ethnic identity among later-generation European Americans are only a symbolic ethnicity with few repercussions in daily life, a proposition supported by the empirical study Waters 1990. The subsequent research in Waters 1999 with first- and second-generation black immigrants, however, suggests that long-entrenched racial distinctions between blacks and whites make ethnic or immigrant identity difficult to sustain for this group. Using a similar research strategy, Tuan 1998 argues that later-generation Asian Americans face a unique challenge of being treated as foreign “others” by fellow Americans, yet not being seen as sufficiently authentic by new Asian migrants. Jiménez 2010 extends Tuan’s argument to later-generation Mexican Americans, contending that a key factor perpetuating the salience of ethnic identity is continued large-scale migration. Given these flows, Bonilla-Silva 2004 argues that the old American color line of black/white will move to a new tripartite system in which skin tone is important, a contention challenged by Alba 2009, who focuses on how future economic opportunities will open up to the descendents of nonwhite immigrants when baby boomers retire. The whole discussion of a racial color line, prevalent in the United States, is repudiated by many in continental Europe. In this context, Simon 2005 offers a useful discussion about the interrelationship of social science statistics on race and antidiscrimination policies, while Bleich 2004 provides a detailed discussion of French hostility toward the scholarship of and politics around race.

  • Alba, Richard. 2009. Blurring the color line: The new chance for a more integrated America. Nathan I. Huggins Lectures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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    Alba contends that social cleavages dividing Americans into distinct and unequal ethno-racial groups could narrow or disappear in coming decades as a large group of mostly white baby boomers retire, opening up job and leadership opportunities to younger cohorts of nonwhites. This situation of “non-zero-sum mobility” will blur the color line.

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  • Bleich, Erik. 2004. Anti-racism without races: Politics and policy in a “color-blind” state. In Race in France: Interdisciplinary perspectives on the politics of difference. Edited by Herrick Chapman and Laura Frader, 162–188. New York: Berghahn.

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    Bleich argues that contrary to France’s professed “color-blind” stance, there are cases in French history when ethnic or racial distinctions were tolerated or used. Nevertheless, repudiating the importance of race and ethnicity in the public sphere is central to French conceptions of citizenship, a discourse that Bleich reviews with nuance.

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  • Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2004. From bi-racial to tri-racial: Towards a new system of racial stratification in the USA. Ethnic and Racial Studies 27.6: 931–950.

    DOI: 10.1080/0141987042000268530Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Given the large-scale migration of people from diverse racial backgrounds and global transformations, Bonilla-Silva posits that future racial hierarchies in the United States will be organized around a tripartite division of white, honorary white, and collective black. The distinctions will rest on skin tone and socioeconomic background.

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  • Gans, Herbert J. 1979. Symbolic ethnicity: The future of ethnic groups and cultures in America. Ethnic and Racial Studies 2:1–20.

    DOI: 10.1080/01419870.1979.9993248Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This classic work develops the idea of symbolic ethnicity to counter the argument that assimilation has not occurred among later-generation European Americans because they retain ethnic practices and attachments. Gans argues that these attachments and behaviors are situational and optional, not fundamental aspects of daily life, making ethnic identities another form of assimilation.

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  • Jiménez, Tomás R. 2010. Replenished ethnicity: Mexican Americans, immigration, and identity. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    Drawing on interviews and participant observation in Kansas and California, this book studies later-generation Mexican Americans and shows that although they exhibit remarkable levels of socioeconomic integration, a constant influx of new Mexican migration generates conditions that lead these people to retain a strong ethnic identity.

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  • Simon, Patrick. 2005. The measurement of racial discrimination: The policy use of statistics. International Social Science Journal 57.183: 9–25.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.0020-8701.2005.00528.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article discusses how directives passed by the European Union against racial and ethnic discrimination become difficult to evaluate or enforce without appropriate statistics that categorize populations by race and ethnicity. Simon contends that while such classifications might reify socially constructed (and perhaps problematic) categories, such statistics serve a number of important purposes.

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  • Tuan, Mia. 1998. Forever foreigners or honorary whites? The contemporary Asian ethnic experience today. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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    Based on interviews with later-generation Chinese and Japanese Americans in California, Tuan concludes that despite significant educational achievement and economic success, many still feel that they are perceived as foreigners or “others” in the United States due to deep-seated racial hierarchies and the continued influx of new Asian immigrants.

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  • Waters, Mary C. 1990. Ethnic options: Choosing identities in America. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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    Using in-depth interviews with “ethnic whites,” later-generation descendants of earlier European migrants, this book argues that many retain a sense of their ethnic identity, but enjoy significant choices about how it defines them and how they portray their ethnicity.

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  • Waters, Mary C. 1999. Black identities: West Indian immigrant dreams and American realities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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    Waters studies the ethnic identity and experiences in work and school of immigrant and second-generation black West Indians in New York City. The author finds that Caribbean immigrants who resist assimilation are most likely to succeed in America, but that the retention of ethnic identities is increasingly difficult for the second generation given the overwhelming importance of race in social interactions and US institutions.

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Religion, Migration, and National Identities

If race (and language) is a central point of contention in the United States, religion serves as a similar flashpoint in Europe, since a large proportion of immigrants are non-Christian and religion is a touchstone for notions of national identity, creating boundaries between insiders and outsiders. Zolberg and Woon 1999 and Alba 2005 outline a boundary paradigm to understanding comparative integration dynamics, arguing that the type of boundaries differ across countries (e.g., racial or religious boundaries) but the social and political processes that determine how such boundaries affect immigrants and national identities can be similar. A boundary approach suggests that symbols become important flashpoints for immigrant and nonimmigrant actors to shape notions of belonging, as Shadid and van Koningsveld 2005 discusses in a survey of headscarf controversies, a topic explored in depth by Thomas 2006 in an analysis of the French case. Fetzer and Soper 2005 adopts instead a historical, institutional approach in their broad investigation of state-based accommodations of Muslims in Europe, arguing that cross-national differences are rooted in historical church-state institutional arrangements. Bridging the boundary and institutional approach, Foner and Alba 2008 argues that while religion might cause division in Europe, it offers a path to integration for immigrants in the United States.

  • Alba, Richard. 2005. Bright vs. blurred boundaries: Second-generation assimilation and exclusion in France, Germany, and the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies 28.1: 20–49.

    DOI: 10.1080/0141987042000280003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comparing France, Germany, and the United States, Alba argues that history and policy generate particular boundaries that can divide immigrants and native-born population, thus affecting immigrants’ successful integration. Particularly important are boundaries of race, religion, citizenship, and language.

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  • Fetzer, Joel S., and J. Christopher Soper. 2005. Muslims and the state in Britain, France, and Germany. Cambridge Studies in Social Theory, Religion, and Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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    Analyzing state-based accommodations for Muslims in Britain, France, and Germany, this book argues that theories of resource mobilization, political opportunity, and ideology fail to explain the three cases. Instead, the authors suggest that historical church–state institutional arrangements drive policy outcomes.

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  • Foner, Nancy, and Richard Alba. 2008. Immigrant religion in the U.S. and Western Europe: Bridge or barrier to inclusion? International Migration Review 42.2: 360–392.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2008.00128.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article analyzes why immigrant religion is seen as integrative in the United States but problematic in Europe. The empirical cases come from the United States, France, Germany, Britain, and the Netherlands.

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  • Shadid, W., and P. S. van Koningsveld. 2005. Muslim dress in Europe: Debates on the headscarf. Journal of Islamic Studies 16.1: 35–61.

    DOI: 10.1093/jis/16.1.35Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article studies how educational and constitutional institutions affect the way countries have ruled on the headscarf controversy in Europe. It also discusses various assumptions about the Islamic headscarf present in court decisions and political discussions.

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  • Thomas, Elaine. 2006. Keeping identity at a distance: Explaining France’s new legal restrictions on the Islamic headscarf. Racial and Ethnic Studies 29.2: 237–259.

    DOI: 10.1080/01419870500465355Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Thomas challenges explanations of the French ban on headscarves in schools that point to pro-Christian prejudice or fears of terrorism. Rather, she argues, the French law evolved from dissatisfaction with prior policy, the successful mobilization of feminist groups, concerns over anti-Semitism and developments in international human rights law.

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  • Zolberg, Aristide R., and Long Litt Woon. 1999. Why Islam is like Spanish: Cultural incorporation in Europe and the United States. Politics & Society 27.1: 5–38.

    DOI: 10.1177/0032329299027001002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comparing the United States and western Europe, this article argues that a core part of European identity is rooted in Christianity and in the United States it is rooted in English as a common language. As a consequence, the social and cultural boundaries that immigrants face mean that Muslim and Spanish-speaking migrants face similar challenges in trying to become accepted members of society.

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Migration and Development

Failed or stalled development can drive migration, but how does migration affect development efforts in the countries that emigrants leave behind? Migration might reduce unemployment and population pressures, but can also lead to “brain drain” as the most talented and skilled members of a developing society leave, harming the chances for future growth (Kapur and McHale 2005). Some now talk about “brain circulation” that can help sending and receiving societies (Saxenian 2005). In addition to people, migrants can send resources and money back to their countries of origin, known as remittances, which can affect consumption patterns, provide funding for public goods, or serve as a source for private investment capital (Guiliano and Ruiz-Arranz 2009, Özden and Schiff 2005). Migrants, and the transnational spaces they create, can also bring other sorts of development aid, transforming ordinary people into development agents (Faist 2008). Careful attention to the heterogeneity of migration’s impacts, however, suggests that states remain important actors by establishing a productive environment for the transnational flows of people, ideas, and resources (de Haas 2010).

  • de Haas, Hein. 2010. Migration and development: A theoretical perspective. International Migration Review 44.1: 227–264.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2009.00804.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This review surveys debates on migration and development that swings from developmental optimism to neo-Marxist pessimism. De Haas concludes that both positions are problematic, given the heterogeneity of migration impacts, and thus builds on existing models to propose a new approach that recognizes the role of states in providing positive development conditions, and acknowledging how migration and development are mutually constitutive of each other.

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  • Faist, Thomas. 2008. Migrants as transnational development agents: An inquiry into the newest round of the migration-development nexus. Population, Space and Place 14.1: 21–42.

    DOI: 10.1002/psp.471Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article discusses the increasingly important role that migrants play in development, through their individual actions and transnational collective associations. Not only are nation-states and international organizations encouraging this, but they also attempt to create structures to facilitate transnational connections and flows of resources to maximize development.

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  • Giuliano, Paola, and Marta Ruiz-Arranz. 2009. Remittances, financial development, and growth. Journal of Development Economics 90.1: 144–152.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2008.10.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using a database of remittance flows to about 100 developing countries, the authors find that remittances can boost economic growth in places with weak, underdeveloped financial systems because they provide an alternative channel of investment funds.

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  • Kapur, Devesh, and John McHale. 2005. Give us your best and brightest: The global hunt for talent and its impact on the developing world. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.

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    A thorough look at the issue of brain drain, this book argues that while brain circulation has the propensity to increase development, brain drain is still a major problem in certain economic sectors and places in the world. It discusses the consequences of skilled-labor emigration, and what states can do to maximize the benefits while minimizing the costs.

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  • Özden, Çaglar, and Maurice Schiff, eds. 2005. International migration, remittances and brain drain. Trade and Development Quarterly. Washington, DC: World Bank.

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    A comprehensive look at remittances and brain drain, this World Bank report brings together several articles that assess, both empirically and theoretically, the extent of remittances and the implications of migration on development.

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  • Saxenian, AnnaLee. 2005. From brain drain to brain circulation: Transnational communities and regional upgrading in India and China. Studies in Comparative International Development. 40.2: 35–61.

    DOI: 10.1007/BF02686293Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article lays the foundation for the brain circulation debate, which argues that skilled emigration can have positive feedback effects on the sending country. Specifically, Saxenian looks at how high-technology emigrants have used social connections and home visits to bring information, technology, and ideas back to India and China, stimulating economic sectors there.

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LAST MODIFIED: 07/27/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199756384-0026

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