Jump to Content Jump to Main Navigation

Sociology Social Movements
by
Donatella della Porta

Introduction

Four elements are common in social science definitions of social movements: a network structure, the use of unconventional means, shared beliefs and solidarity, and the pursuit of some conflictual aims. Once a marginal area in the social sciences, social movement studies grew into a main field of study in sociology and a significant one in other proximate disciplines, such as political science, anthropology, geography, history, and psychology. This growth was accompanied by significant shifts in the ways in which social movements have been addressed. Before the 1970s, especially (but not only) in the United States, social movements were conceived of as forms of collective behavior, different from “normal” behavior because of high emotionality and, often, anomic syndromes; in Europe instead, especially the main historical social movement, the labor movement, was addressed within a Marxist perspective, with attention paid to the structural conditions for its development. Since the 1970s, both approaches were shaken by the spread of new forms of protest. First of all, in the United States, studies on the civil rights movement showed that it was neither irrational nor anomic, being instead guided by strategic behavior and strong normative systems. Social movement organizations started therefore to be seen as actors that mobilize resources in their environment for collective action. In Europe, the emergence of the student, the women’s, and the environmental movements were considered as examples of new social movements, bound to substitute for the increasingly institutionalized labor movement. Class-based approaches were therefore supplanted by an attention to emerging collective identities. Social movement studies in the 1970s and the following decade focused mainly on macro-level political opportunities for protest and organizational forms and strategies at the meso level, with only limited attention to social structures and individual commitment. Since the 1990s, this structural bias was then challenged by a renewed attention to various cultural aspects, as well as to the causal mechanisms that intervene between structure and action in a field redefined as contentious politics and covering social movements as well as revolutions, democratization, and other contentious phenomena.

Introductory Texts

There are several introductory books to social movements. Several of them can be used as textbooks but also go beyond that function by arguing for some specific approaches. In the form of a companion to main concepts and movements, Snow, et al. 2004 offers a most useful introduction to social movement studies (especially by Anglophone authors). Della Porta and Diani 2006 is a widely used introduction that covers the by now traditional resource mobilization and new social movement approaches but also, in the second expanded edition, the more recent “cultural turn” and the causal mechanisms in contentious politics. Tilly and Tarrow 2007 is devoted to the latter topic; it provides a synthetic analysis of this new approach. The French volume Cefaï 2007 presents a very complete critical analysis of social movement studies, covering both the English-language literature and the French. Similarly, Crossley 2002 goes beyond the English-language literature, attempting to combine it with the work of European social scientists such as Melucci, Habermas, Bourdieu, and Touraine. While these texts cover mainly works within sociology and political science, Klandermans 1997 presents an innovative introduction to relevant psychological approaches to social movements.

  • Cefaï, Daniel. 2007. Pourquoi se mobilise-t-on? Les théories de l’action collective. Paris: La Découverte.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is a dense and thick (727 pages) introduction to main approaches in social movement studies. Moving chronologically from the collective behavior approach of the Chicago school to the resource mobilization and new social movement approaches, it pays particular attention to the micro-level analyses developed from the symbolic interactionism of Ervin Goffman and his contributions on frames and ethnographic views. Especially worthwhile for those who want to go beyond English-language literature.

    Find this resource:

  • Crossley, Nick. 2002. Making sense of social movements. Buckingham, UK: Open Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A useful introduction to social movement studies on both sides of the Atlantic, this book also presents a critique of the structuralist bias in mainstream approaches, arguing for a synthesis of social movement studies with French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of practice.

    Find this resource:

  • della Porta, Donatella, and Mario Diani. 2006. Social movements: An introduction. 2d ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Broadly used for undergraduate and graduate courses, this introduction to social movement studies bridges European and American approaches in the field. The chapters cover theory and empirical research on issues such as social and political opportunities, frames, networks, and repertoires of action. Originally published in 1999.

    Find this resource:

  • Klandermans, Bert. 1997. The social psychology of protest. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    That social psychology is relevant to explain protest behavior does not mean that activists are endowed with pathological personality. In this introduction, Bert Klandermans supports the resource-mobilization approach with social psychology.

    Find this resource:

  • Snow, David A., Sarah A. Soule, and Hanspeter Kriesi, eds. 2004. The Blackwell companion to social movements. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Twenty-nine chapters written by major experts on main concepts in social movement studies. The most useful volume for all those who need a guided introduction, but also for those who are already familiar with the field.

    Find this resource:

  • Tilly, Charles, and Sidney Tarrow. 2007. Contentious politics. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Very readable, this volume provides an easily accessible introduction to contentious politics, with rich examples on various social movements in different geographical and historical contexts. A very useful tool for undergraduate teaching.

    Find this resource:

Research Methods

Social movement research has used all main empirical methods of data collection and data analysis, also developing some specific ones. Diani and Eyerman 1992 is the first volume that covered some of these methods, also reflecting on the specific challenges in research on social movements. Published ten years later, Klandermans and Staggenborg 2002 is a complete survey of main methods in data collection and data analysis as far as social movements are concerned.

  • Diani, Mario, and Ron Eyerman, eds. 1992. Studying collective action. London: SAGE.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A very useful introduction to some main methods used in social movement research (including network analysis, protest-event analysis, discourse analysis, and life histories), written by some of the most influential scholars in the field.

    Find this resource:

  • Klandermans, Bert, and Suzanne Staggenborg, eds. 2002. Methods of social movement research. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The chapters cover different empirical methods (from interviews to protest events, from participant observation to comparative research), looking at the ways in which they have been used in social movement research and discussing the main methodological choices involved in their use. An extremely useful text for undergraduate and especially graduate courses.

    Find this resource:

Anthologies and Dictionaries

As the study of social movements has expanded, several anthologies have been produced. A later one that pays particular attention to the cultural turn in social movement studies is Goodwin and Jasper 2009. A dictionary of main social movement aspects is offered in French in Fillieule, et al. 2009; both Anglophone and French literature are covered. Roth and Rucht 2008 introduces various aspects of the German social movements that have been particularly relevant for the reflection on new social movements in general.

  • Fillieule, Olivier, Lilian Mathieu, and Cécile Péchu, eds. 2009. Dictionnaire des mouvements sociaux. Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This dictionary covers seventy-seven concepts on social movements’ causes, , and consequences, as well as theories on social movements and methods to study them. Written mainly by French-speaking scholars, it goes beyond the English-language literature, which dominates the field. Entries are short but useful in synthesizing conceptualizations and explanations as well as in pointing at some essential works.

    Find this resource:

  • Goodwin, Jeff, and James M. Jasper, eds. 2009. The social movements reader: Cases and concepts. 2d ed. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Including forty-one chapters, this reader presents excerpts from some of the most influential works in the Anglophone social science literature on social movements. It address some main questions at the individual (who joins, who drops out, what participants think and feel) and organizational levels (how are movements organized), and explores contextual aspects (when and why movements occur). Useful for undergraduate and, especially, graduate teaching. Originally published in 2003.

    Find this resource:

  • Roth, Roland, and Dieter Rucht, eds. 2008. Die sozialen Bewegungen in Deutschland seit 1945: Ein Handbuch. Frankfurt: Campus.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This handbook is composed of twenty-nine chapters that introduce the main social movements and social movement campaigns in East and West Germany.

    Find this resource:

Journals

Social movements are covered by all main journals in political sociology and political science, as well as increasingly in other disciplines. There is also, however, a growing number of specialized journal. The oldest of them is Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change. Founded in 1995, Mobilization developed to become probably the better-known journal in the field, followed by Social Movement Studies.

Theoretical Approaches

Dominant theoretical approaches to social movements have changed in time, influenced by evolution in the social science as well as in the social and political environment. Especially in the United States, collective behavior and relative deprivation approaches were the most widespread until the late sixties, both considering social movements as rare and unusual, if not abnormal, phenomena. In the same period in Europe, Marxist and other class-oriented approaches dominated research focusing especially on the labor movement. The situation changed after the turmoil of the late 1960s and the development of various social movements in the next decades. In the United States, the resource mobilization approach developed, defining social movements as strategic actors that mobilize resources in their social and political environment (even though more structured forms of rational choice approaches remained marginal in the field). In Europe, the new social movements approach looked at the women’s movement and the environmental movement as innovative political and social actors, focusing on emerging collective identities. A few decades later, around the 1990s, the so-called cultural turn approached the role of emotion and cognition in social movements, while the concept of contentious politics was used simultaneously to enlarge the empirical attention from social movements to similar phenomena such as revolutions or ethnic conflicts, as well as theorizing a relational framework that takes causal mechanisms seriously.

Collective Behavior

The collective behavior approach locates social movements within a broader context, including crowds, fashions, panics, and the like. In reality, the term has been used quite differently within two different schools. Smelser 1962 is the main work on social movements of the functionalist school, presenting a focus on the societal conditions from which they emerge. The Chicago school is instead interested in social movements as producing new norms: Blumer 1951 is a synthetic critical introduction to this vision, which is fully developed in Turner and Killian 1987. Gusfield 1963 is a seminal work on how social problems are constructed. McPhail 1991 offers a perceptive updating on collective behavior, with particular attention to temporary gatherings.

  • Blumer, Herbert 1951. Social movements. In Principles of sociology. Edited by Alfred McClung Lee, 9–220. New York: Barnes & Noble.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This chapter presents the main tenets of the collective behavior approach that considered social movements as part of a larger category of phenomena, including crowds and panics, looking at the dynamic propagation of behavior on the basis of circular reactions and social contagion,

    Find this resource:

  • Gusfield, Joseph R. 1963. Symbolic crusade: Status politics and the American temperance movement. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This important book discusses the temperance movement in 19th-century American history as status politics, with a focus on how a social problem is constructed by different actors.

    Find this resource:

  • McPhail, Clark. 1991. The myth of the madding crowd. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Theoretically engaging and empirically grounded, the volume presents a critical assessment of some main theories on collective behavior, with particular attention to temporary gatherings as situations in which purposive actors construct meaning.

    Find this resource:

  • Smelser, Neil J. 1962. Theory of collective behavior. New York: Free Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A theorization of collective behavior within the functionalist theory. It looks at the various systemic conditions and forms of development of various type of collective behavior.

    Find this resource:

  • Turner, Ralph H., and Lewis M. Killian. 1987. Collective behavior. 3d ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The most systematic presentation of the collective behavior approach to social movements in the Chicago-school tradition. Particular attention is paid to the emergence of new norms. Originally published in 1957.

    Find this resource:

Relative Deprivation

Often associated with the collective behavior approach, the relative deprivation approach focuses more on individual psychology. Gurr 1970 offers the most elaborate and influential version of it, suggesting that people rebel when they are frustrated. A useful critical review of this view, which had a more limited impact in social movement studies that in other fields in the social sciences, is offered in Buechler 2004.

  • Buechler, Steven M. 2004. The strange career of strain and breakdown theories of collective action. In The Blackwell companion to social movements. Edited by Davis A. Snow, Sarah H. Soule, and Hanspeter Kriesi, 47–66. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

    DOI: 10.1002/9780470999103Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A good review of the breakdown approaches to social movements as produced by strains and frustration, and of their critics.

    Find this resource:

  • Gurr, Ted R. 1970. Why men rebel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    On the basis of many illustrations, Ted Gurr offers an interpretation of rebellious behavior explaining it as an effect of individual frustration and related aggression, updating the psychosociological theories available at that time.

    Find this resource:

Resource Mobilization

While other approaches look at grievances and societal tensions, the resource mobilization perspective developed within organizational theory points at social movement organizations as strategic actors mobilizing resources in their environment. This perspective was proposed by McCarthy and Zald 1977, but some elements of it were already present in Obershall 1973. Zald and McCarthy 1987 collects several of the main early works in this perspective. With Tilly 1978, the organizational perspective is combined with a focus on the historical political conditions for the development of protest, a topic later developed within political science by Tarrow 1998. Some important steps in the resource mobilization approach are presented in two edited volumes that include the proceedings of two main conferences in which the organizational basis of the resource mobilization perspective expanded to cover political opportunities at the macro-level and frame analysis. Klandermans, et al. 1988 is the first of them; McAdam, et al. 1996 the second one.

  • Klandermans, Bert, Hanspeter Kriesi, and Sidney Tarrow, eds. 1988. From structure to action: Comparing social movement research across cultures. Greenwich, CT: JAI.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Proceedings of the very first conference bringing together European and American scholars in dialogue with each other.

    Find this resource:

  • McAdam, Doug, John D. McCarthy, and Mayer N. Zald, eds. 1996. Comparative perspectives on social movements: Political opportunities, mobilizing structures, and cultural framing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An influential collection that addresses some main concepts in the resource mobilization approach. Written by some of the better-known European and American social movement scholars, most chapters engage in conceptual bridging, looking at the interaction of political opportunities, mobilizing structures, and cultural framing.

    Find this resource:

  • McCarthy, John D., and Mayer N. Zald. 1977. Resource mobilization and social movements: A partial theory. American Journal of Sociology 82:1212–1241.

    DOI: 10.1086/226464Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A most influential article that theorizes the function of social movement organizations as strategic actors that aim at mobilizing resources in their environment.

    Find this resource:

  • Oberschall, Anthony. 1973. Social conflict and social movements. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A pathbreaking critique of the vision of social movements as anomic and/or spontaneous behavior, this volume represents one of the first theorization of the resource mobilization perspective, with a focus on the internal organizations of the mobilizing groups.

    Find this resource:

  • Tarrow, Sidney. 1998. Power in movement: Social movements. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this seminal contribution to social movement studies, Sidney Tarrow develops the political process approach, with attention to movement dynamics. Originally published in 1994.

    Find this resource:

  • Tilly, Charles. 1978. From mobilization to revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this frequently quoted volume, Charles Tilly locates social movements as political actors that challenge the elites, advancing collective claims in the political system.

    Find this resource:

  • Zald, Mayer N., and John D. McCarthy. 1987. Social movements in an organizational society. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of essays on the role and characteristics of social movement organizations that stresses their importance in mobilizing resources for collective action

    Find this resource:

New Social Movements

Social movement studies developed in Europe in the 1970s with a particular attention to the new social movements that emerged from the late 1960s. During this time the labor movement was considered to be institutionalized and the class cleavage pacified. Among works by theorists of the so-called new social movement approach, Offe 1985 stressed the redefinition of the political sphere to include new aims and new means. New social movements also played a major theoretical role in the French sociologist Alain Touraine’s analysis, as developed in Touraine 1977 and Touraine 1981, the latter presenting a most ambitious research project that covered various social movements in France and elsewhere. Within this project, the analysis of the antinuclear movement is presented in Touraine, et al. 1983. Influenced by Touraine but developing an original focus on the building of collective identities is the version of the new social movement approach elaborated by Italian sociologist Alberto Melucci, especially in Melucci 1996, which built upon the empirical research covered in Melucci 1984.

  • Melucci, Alberto, ed. 1984. Altri codici: Aree di movimento nella metropoli. Bologna, Italy: Il Mulino.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A comparative study of feminist, environmental, youth, and religious new social movements in Milan, analyzed through an experimental method and group interviews. It provides the empirical basis for Melucci’s influential theorization on social movements as producers of new codes.

    Find this resource:

  • Melucci, Alberto. 1996. Challenging codes: Collective action in the information age. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511520891Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Presents Alberto Melucci’s influential theorization of collective action in the information age. New social movements are presented as important actors in the construction of alternative codes, at the intersection between politics and culture.

    Find this resource:

  • Offe, Claus. 1985. New social movements: Changing boundaries of the political. Social Research 52:817–868.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A highly quoted essays on new social movements as challenging the existing boundaries of politics, innovating in the forms of action but also in the conception of politics.

    Find this resource:

  • Touraine, Alain. 1977. The self-production of society. Translated by Derek Coltman. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A broad theorization of the development of society through different stages, culminating with the postindustrial information stage. Social movements emerge as the main actors within each of them. First published as La production de la société (Paris: Seuil, 1973).

    Find this resource:

  • Touraine, Alain. 1981. The voice and the eye: An analysis of social movements. Translated by Alan Duff. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Presents a broad and influential program of research on new social movements. Social movements are conceptualized as actors that struggle for the control of the historicité. A new method—the so called sociological intervention, based on focus interviews and experiments—is developed in order to grasp emerging collective identities. Originally published as La voix et le regard (Paris: Seuil, 1978).

    Find this resource:

  • Touraine, Alain, Zsusza Hegedus, François Dubet, and Michel Wieviorka. 1983. Anti-nuclear protest: The opposition to nuclear energy in France. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The potential capacity of the antinuclear movement in France to develop into a new social movement, in Touraine’s definition as the social movement in an information society, is investigated on the basis of an experimental methodology. Originally published as La prophétie anti-nucléaire (Paris: Seuil, 1983).

    Find this resource:

Rational Choice

Notwithstanding its influence in political science and sociology, rational choice theory remained marginal in social movement studies. While Olson 1995 was certainly influential in recognizing the purposive and instrumental aspects present in social movements, DeNardo 1985 and Chong 1991 present two of the very few attempts to develop rational choice analysis of social movements. In a recent introduction to social movements, Opp 2009 reflects on possible integration of rational choice assumption in social movement studies.

  • Chong, Dennis. 1991. Collective action and the civil rights movement. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Applying rational choice theory to the civil rights movement in the United States, Chong refers to the role of reputation and of the individual’s circles of references in explaining commitment to collective action.

    Find this resource:

  • DeNardo, James. 1985. Power in numbers: The political strategy of protest and rebellion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of the few attempts to apply rational choice theory in social movement studies, the volume reflects on the strategic importance of mobilizing large number of protestors.

    Find this resource:

  • Olson, Mancur, Jr. 1995. The logic of collective action: Public goods and the theory of groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A central conceptualization of the free rider paradox as hampering collective action by rational actors in large groups, and on the ways in which selective incentives can help mobilization.

    Find this resource:

  • Opp, Karl-Dieter. 2009. Theories of political protest and social movements: A multidisciplinary introduction, critique and synthesis. London: Routledge.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This volume covers some main explanatory approaches to social movements, singling out their strengths and weaknesses and suggesting ways to integrate them with a structural-cognitive model.

    Find this resource:

Cultural Turn

Developing from a critique of the structuralist bias in the mainstream resource mobilization approach, the “cultural turn,” as a more focused attention to cultural issues, developed. Goodwin, et al. 2001 and Goodwin and Jasper 2004 collect essays that aim to bring emotion as well as cognitive elements into social movement studies. In the same vein, Jasper 1997 stresses the role of cultural phenomenon is social movements.

  • Goodwin, Jeff, and James M. Jasper. 2004, eds. Rethinking social movements: Structure, meaning and emotion. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This collection develops a critique of the “structuralist bias” in social movement studies, stressing instead the role of cognitive and emotional processes. It is considered as a cornerstone of the so-called cultural turn, with calls for an attention to the cultural (rather than merely political) dimension of social movements.

    Find this resource:

  • Goodwin, Jeff, James M. Jasper, and Francesca Polletta. 2001, eds. Passionate politics: Emotions and social movements. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This widely cited collection brings emotions back into social movement studies, where it had remained understudied after the criticism of the collective behavior approach. It includes theoretical reflections on the status of emotions and their relations to cognition and identities, as well as empirical research on various social movements.

    Find this resource:

  • Jasper, James M. 1997. The art of moral protest: Culture, biography, and creativity in social movements. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Provides a perceptive reflection on, and convincing evidence regarding, the importance of cultural phenomena in protest.

    Find this resource:

Contentious Politics

The structuralist bias of the resource mobilization approach, especially in its political process version, was criticized from within by some of its main exponents, who apply a more dynamic and relational approach to what they defined as contentious politics. The main theoretical contribution and most seminal work in this respect is McAdam, et al. 2001. Aminzade, et al. 2001 presents a more applied focus, singling out potential developments in new areas of research.

  • Aminzade, Roland R., Jack A. Goldstone, Doug McAdam, Elizabeth J. Perry, William H. Sewell Jr., Sidney Tarrow, and Charles Tilly. 2001. Silence and voice in the study of contentious politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This collection of essays gives voice to several silences in social movement studies: emotions, space, temporality, leadership, religion, and demography are among them.

    Find this resource:

  • McAdam, Doug, Sidney Tarrow, and Charles Tilly. 2001. Dynamics of contention. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Developing from a critique of the structural basis of much social movement studies, this groundbreaking volume forcefully suggests that one should look at causal mechanisms rather than variables. In laying the foundations for this enterprise, it also bridges social science literature on social movements, ethnic conflicts, revolution, and democratization, all conceptualized as contentious politics.

    Find this resource:

Marxist and Other Class-Oriented Approaches

While Marxist approaches to social movements have been very influential in the analysis of the European labor movement, their importance declined when the focus of social movements studies moved to new movements. However, attention to class and social structures survived in different forms. One of them, within a world-systemic view, is the analysis of antisystemic movements, seen in Arrighi, et al. 1989. Second, class analyses remained relevant in research in the global South, in particular in Latin America, of which Silva 2009 is a good example. Third, some analyses have linked attention to structural class basis with attention to cultural characteristics, as in Eder 1993. Marxism (at least, in modified versions) has remained central in research on social movements in the global South, as in Omvedt 1993 and Shah 2002 on social movements in India. Structural conditions have been addressed also in research on the peasants’ movement (Wolf 1969) and revolutions (see the Oxford Bibliographies articles “Political Sociology” and “Historical Sociology”).

  • Arrighi, Giovanni, Terence K. Hopkins, and Immanuel Wallerstein. 1989. Antisystemic movements. London: Verso.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Social movements develop as part of global waves of economic and social transformations. Looking at the world-historical context, the volume conceptualizes “antisystemic movements” and looks at their developments.

    Find this resource:

  • Eder, Klaus. 1993. The new politics of class: Social movements and cultural dynamics in advanced societies. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    New social movements are usually presented as middle-class politics. In this volume, Klaus Eder locates them within broad processes of social transformation.

    Find this resource:

  • Omvedt, Gail. 1993. Reinventing revolution: New social movements and the socialist tradition in India. Armonk, NY: M. E Sharpe.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Within a critical, modified” Marxist perspective, this book analyses four major new social movements in India: the women’s movement, the anticaste movement of Dalits and other low castes, the farmers’ movements, and the environmental movement. The author suggests that new social movements can fit within a Marxist approach but that Marxism should be modified in order to take into account groups that are not central actors in traditional versions of Marxism.

    Find this resource:

  • Shah, Ghanshyam, ed. 2002. Social movements and the state. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This volume addresses various social movements in contemporary India, looking at their role as agents of political and social changes. It opens up with a much discussed article by Andree Gunther Frank and Marta Fuentes, “Nine Theses on Social Movements.”

    Find this resource:

  • Silva, Eduardo. 2009. Challenging neoliberalism in Latin America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This volume represents an exception to social movement studies’ main focus on Western democracies, venturing into a comparative analysis of protest against neoliberalism in Latin America. Explaining the wave of protest against liberalization, especially in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela, the author presents them as countermovements of resistance against the commodification introduced by the neoliberal critical juncture.

    Find this resource:

  • Wolf, Eric R. 1969. Peasant wars of the twentieth century. New York: Harper & Row.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This influential text (republished with a new preface by the University of Oklahoma Press in 1999) presents an in-depth description of peasant-driven revolutions in Algeria, China, Cuba, Mexico, Russia, and Vietnam. Local grievances are linked to broad social changes.

    Find this resource:

Main Aspects

Research and theory focused on a few aspects that referred both to the social movement internal life and to its relations with the external (social, political, and cultural) environment. As for the social movements’ internal life, much attention went to the protest repertoires used by social movements, with some research on the choice of violent and (less) nonviolent action strategies. Given their centrality in the dominant resource mobilization approach, social movement organizations have received broad attention as strategic actors, while the new social movement approach has been more interested in collective identities. Framing processes and other cultural aspects of social movements have been addressed as well. Social movements have been considered also as producing effects in their environment. As for the latter, research addressed the mass media and communication processes, the policing of protest, and the broader political opportunities. The role of social movements in processes of transnationalization, Europeanization, and democratization is receiving growing attention.

Protest Repertoires

Social movements are characterized by their use of unconventional forms of political participation. Lipsky 1969 is seminal in defining protest as a resource of the powerless. Much research later focused on the analysis of the repertoire of action of social movements, which, as Tilly, et al. 1975 and Tilly 1986 forcefully demonstrated, changed following major historical developments. As in-depth case studies have indicated, specific forms of protest, such as the march (carefully described in Favre 1990), have been broadly used and adapted to different historical periods; other forms have emerged more recently, such as the hunger strike, which is studied in Siméant 2009. Another way to analyze forms of protest has been through opinion pools, such as the ones reported in Dalton 1988 and Norris 2002 that looked at the increasing acceptance of (once) unconventional forms of protest in the broad population.

  • Dalton, Russell J. 1988. Citizen politics in western democracies: Public opinion and political parties in the United States, Great Britain, West Germany, and France. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Skillfully using opinion polls, Dalton single out new trends from conventional to nonconventional forms of political participation in Western democracies.

    Find this resource:

  • Favre, Pierre, ed. 1990. La manifestation. Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection devoted to the march as a form of protest. With a deep historical look, the authors of the different chapters address issues of legal status and public legitimacy as well as the morphological characteristics of the march, its actors, and rituals.

    Find this resource:

  • Lipsky, Michael. 1969. Protest and city politics: Rent strikes, housing, and the power of the poor. Chicago: Rand McNally.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reporting on very interesting research on rent strikes in New York, Michael Lipsky conceptualizes protest as a resource of the powerless, who need the mediation of more powerful actors to reach their targets.

    Find this resource:

  • Norris, Pippa. 2002. Democratic phoenix: Reinventing political activism. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    On the basis of an impressive amount of public opinion data, Pippa Norris shows that the decline of conventional forms of political participation is balanced by a growth of unconventional ones.

    Find this resource:

  • Siméant, Johanna. 2009. La grève de la faim. Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A fine grained analysis that looks at the symbolic message of hunger strike as well as at their organizational forms and motivations.

    Find this resource:

  • Tilly, Charles. 1986. The contentious French. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    On the basis of a large amount of data on various forms of protest, this seminal work shows the transformation of social movements between the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century, with a shift from a localized and parochial repertoire of collective action to a national and autonomous one.

    Find this resource:

  • Tilly, Charles, Louise Tilly, and Richard Tilly. 1975. The rebellious century, 1830–1930. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Introducing the protest-events analysis in social movement studies, this pathbreaking research investigates the development of a national repertoire of protest in 19th-century France on the basis of rich archival materials.

    Find this resource:

Violence and Nonviolence

Protest repertoires have been distinguished along different lines, a key one being their degree of radicalism. Notwithstanding this, social movement studies have rarely tried to understand why some conflicts remain peaceful while others radicalize. Two early exceptions to this are della Porta 1995, which compared political violence in Italy and Germany, and Wieviorka 1993, which studied Italy, the Basque Country, and Palestine. More recently, Tilly 2003 offers a relational approach to various forms of collective violence. Even less frequent have been studies oriented to understand the choice of nonviolent repertoire; on this, Schock 2005 presents a well developed analysis. The debate on the use of violence is also important in analysis of revolutions (see the Oxford Bibliographies articles “Political Sociology” and “Historical Sociology”).

  • della Porta, Donatella. 1995. Social movements, political violence and the state: A comparative analysis of Italy and Germany. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comparing left-wing underground organizations in Italy and Germany, the author uses social movement theories to explain contextual conditions, organizational dynamics, and individual motivations of political violence.

    Find this resource:

  • Schock, Kurt. 2005. Unarmed insurrections: People power movements in nondemocracies. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This well-researched and analytically perceptive volume compares successful social movements for democratization in South Africa, the Philippines, Nepal, and Thailand with failed ones in Burma and China. Looking at state and civil society dynamics at both the national and transnational level, the author indicates under which conditions nonviolent protest campaigns, which he argues became dominant in the global South, are successful in promoting democracy from below.

    Find this resource:

  • Tilly, Charles. 2003. The politics of collective violence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using a broad range of empirical illustrations, Charles Tilly conceptualizes and explains different types of collective violence. Bridging various fields of knowledge, the volume convincingly argues about the advantages of a relational approach.

    Find this resource:

  • Wieviorka, Michel. 1993. The making of terrorism. Translated by David Gordon White. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    On the basis of broad comparative research on Italian, Basque, and Palestinian terrorism, this volume explains violence as an outcome of social antimovements, deriving from the inversion through alienation from the social movement they refer to. Originally published as Societé et terrorisme (Paris: Fayard, 1988).

    Find this resource:

Social Movement Organizations as Networks

Given the prominence of the resource mobilization approach, social movement studies devoted much attention to social movement organizations. Social movements have been defined as networks, rather than hierarchical organizations. Gerlach and Hine 1970 presented some initial observations on movements as loosely coupled, an idea that has then been developed in more systematic conceptualization of social movements as networks, in particular, in Diani 1992, as well as in empirical research using network analysis as a method, as found in Diani 1995 and Diani and McAdam 2003. The concept of a network has been said to resonate more and more with the collective identities of emerging social movements, as brilliantly demonstrated in the anthropological study by Juris 2008. A seminal critique of the negative effects of organizational bureaucratization on the protest of poor people is to be found in Piven and Cloward 1977.

Frames

Frames and framing are very central concepts is social movement studies. Snow, et al 1986 presents the most influential theorization of their role in collective action. A well-developed systematization of the different conceptualizations of frames in social movement studies can be found in Johnston and Noakes 2005. Benford and Snow 2000 and Snow 2000 synthesize the main research in the field.

Collective Identity

The development of collective identities is central for social movements, as new social movement scholars have stressed. Research on the ways in which collective identities develop took different paths. McAdam 1988 presents a highly influential analysis of the socialization of activists at the level of micromobilization. From the normative point of view, Hobson 2003 reflects on the role of identities in recognition struggles. That topic is addressed empirically in Broqua 2005, which looks at the ways in which social movements build identities that go beyond those of their own members. Recently, emotional dynamics have been reconsidered, especially in the so-called cultural turn. Goodwin, et al. 2004 reviews how this occurred.

  • Broqua, Christophe. 2005. Agir pour ne pas mourir! Act Up, les homosexuels et le sida. Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Illustrates the way in which social movement organizations construct not only the collective identity of their members but also the collective identity of their constituency.

    Find this resource:

  • Goodwin, Jeff, James M. Jasper, and Francesca Polletta. 2004. Emotional dimensions of social movements. In The Blackwell companion to social movements. Edited by Davis A. Snow, Sarah H. Soule, and Hanspeter Kriesi, 413–432. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

    DOI: 10.1002/9780470999103Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A synthetic and updated review on the role of emotions in social movements.

    Find this resource:

  • Hobson, Barbara, ed. 2003. Recognition struggles and social movements: Contested identities, agency and power. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This edited collection addresses the debate on the shift from interest to identity, with the related conceptualization of recognition struggles. It includes chapters on normative theory and empirical research, helping in the rethinking of the issue of identity in social movements.

    Find this resource:

  • McAdam, Doug. 1988. Freedom summer. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Groundbreaking research that looks into the characteristics of the US civil rights activists who risked their lives by traveling to southern states in order to register African American voters. On the basis of biographical data, it demonstrates the importance of social networks as well as the long-lasting effects of political socialization in social movements.

    Find this resource:

Culture

The culture of social movements has been looked at from various perspectives. Beyond the analysis of frames and framing and the cultural turn, a cognitive approach has been presented by Eyerman and Jamison 1991; the relevance of some broad cultural value has been analyzed in Lichterman 1996; a focus on the emergence of new norms has been developed in Rochon 1998; and the importance of storytelling stressed in Polletta 2006. The interaction of cultural moods and social movement is addressed by Eyerman and Jamison 1997.

  • Eyerman, Ron, and Andrew Jamison. 1991. Social movements: A cognitive approach. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    While most literature addresses the role of social movements as political actors, Eyerman and Jamison reflect on their cognitive capacity

    Find this resource:

  • Eyerman, Ron, and Andrew Jamison. 1997. Music and social movements: Mobilizing traditions in the twentieth century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Social movements are important for the development of musical fashions, and vice versa. This volume explains why and how.

    Find this resource:

  • Lichterman, Paul. 1996. The search for political community: American activists reinventing commitment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A very sophisticated comparison of local environmental groups in the United States. On the basis of careful, theory-driven ethnographic research, it shows that individualism does not necessarily jeopardize commitment.

    Find this resource:

  • Polletta, Francesca. 2006. It was like a fever: Storytelling in protest and politics. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This book develops a theory of storytelling in social movements on the basis of in-depth research on the different uses of narratives for mobilization for social change by different social movements and activists—covering both their advantages and also risks.

    Find this resource:

  • Rochon, Thomas R. 1998. Culture moves: Ideas, activism, and changing values. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Social movements not only change policies but also produce new ideas and transform existing values. This fascinating volume looks at the process by which this happens.

    Find this resource:

Effects

Social movements aim to produce effects at the political, social, and/or cultural level. Long understudied, the issue of social movement outcomes is now coming to the fore. Gamson 1990 presents the first major attempt to conceptualize and empirically investigate social movement successes in terms of policy changes and political access. Amenta 2006 presents a carefully researched case study on social movement impacts in the emergence of social security in the United States. Giugni 2004 is the most complex comparative analysis of the effects of social movements. Giugni, et al. 1998 and Giugni, et al. 1999 collect some main pioneering research in the field. Amenta and Caren 2004 offers a good introduction to the topic.

  • Amenta, Edwin. 2006. When movements matter: The Townsend Plan and the rise of social security. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Historical sociology has stressed the role of social movements for the development of citizenship rights. This fine-grained analysis of the US movement for social security rights explains how and when their protest campaigns are successful.

    Find this resource:

  • Amenta, Edwin, and Neal Caren. 2004. The legislative, organizational, and beneficiary consequences of state oriented challengers. In The Blackwell companion to social movements. Edited by Davis A. Snow, Sarah H. Soule, and Hanspeter Kriesi, 461–488. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

    DOI: 10.1002/9780470999103Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This chapter in a volume on social movements presents a well-organized and exhaustive introduction to research on the policy effects of protest.

    Find this resource:

  • Cress, Daniel M., and David A. Snow. 2000. The outcomes of homeless mobilization: The influence of organization, disruption, political mediation, and framing. American Journal of Sociology 105:1063–1104.

    DOI: 10.1086/210399Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to compare social movement organizations for the homeless in the United States, this article discusses configurations of various conditions that explain the outcomes of these movements.

    Find this resource:

  • Gamson, William A. 1990. The strategy of social protest. 2d ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Groundbreaking empirical research and theorization on when and why social movements are effective. On the basis of various cases of protest campaigns in different historical moments, Gamson explains procedural and substantial successes and failures. Originally published in 1975.

    Find this resource:

  • Giugni, Marco. 2004. Social protest and policy change: Ecological, antinuclear, and peace movements in comparative perspective. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A highly systematic empirical study on the effects of protest on public decision making. It compares ecological, environmental, and peace movements in Italy, Switzerland, and the United States, stressing the role of political opportunities.

    Find this resource:

  • Giugni, Marco G., Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly, eds. 1998. From contention to democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Consequences of social movements are difficult to study. This edited collection shows different ways to empirically address the question of social movement effects in democratic countries.

    Find this resource:

  • Giugni, Marco, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly, eds. 1999. How social movements matter. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of essays on various ways in which movements matter, and circumstances under which they matter.

    Find this resource:

Communication and Media

Social movements use unconventional means to convince the public and put pressure on the elites. In order to do this, they need their message to be spread by mass media. Gitlin 1980 represents one of the first and most influential reflections on the effects on social movements’ dependence on the media logic. Castells 2001 explains how the Internet can provide new resources for movements. Couldry 2006 takes a more relational point of view by looking at the media as a complex field in which several actors intervene. Gamson 2004 authoritatively introduces the whole debate.

  • Castells, Manuel. 2001. The Internet galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, business, and society. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Looks at the ways in which social movements and protest are enhanced by the development of new technologies.

    Find this resource:

  • Couldry, Nick. 2006. Listening beyond the echoes: Media, ethics and agency in an uncertain world. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is an innovative approach that goes beyond the assessment of the abstract “power of the media,” focusing on the relations between media and publics and the ways in which people exercise their agency in relation to the media. Media practices therefore become central, covering not only the practices of the media actors but more broadly what various actors do in relations with the media, including activist media practices.

    Find this resource:

  • Gamson, William A. 2004: Bystanders, public opinion, and the media. In The Blackwell companion to social movements. Edited by Davis A. Snow, Sarah H. Soule, and Hanspeter Kriesi, 242–261. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A concise and updated introduction to research on mass media and social movements written by one of the main scholars in the field.

    Find this resource:

  • Gitlin, Todd. 1980. The whole world is watching: Mass media in the making and unmaking of the New Left. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In one of the first examples of research to look at the impact of media logic on social movements, Gitlin points at the effects of mediatization on the organizational structures of the New Left.

    Find this resource:

Protest Policing

During protest events, social movements interact on the street with the police, who are in charge of controlling public order. The different police styles, their causes, and effects have been addressed only quite recently. Della Porta and Reiter 1998 is the first volume devoted to the topic; it conceptualizes protest policing and researches the differences in the police styles in time and space. An updating of this research to include most recent transnational protest events and the specificity of their policing is presented in della Porta, et al. 2006. With an ethnographic method, Fernandez 2008 singles out some new conceptions in controlling dissent, while Davenport 2010 looks at the ways in which different media sources present different interpretations and explanations of police repression.

  • Davenport, Christian. 2010. Media bias, perspective and state repression: The Black Panther Party. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A highly sophisticated methodological inquiry about the media bias in reporting protest events. Comparing coverage on the Black Panther Party across newspapers, it shows how it changes according to the proximity to the event and the ideological preferences of the journals, and how this affects the evidence on interaction between social movements and repression.

    Find this resource:

  • della Porta, Donatella, and Herbert Reiter, eds. 1998. Policing protest: The control of mass demonstrations in Western democracies. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is the first collective volume devoted to what della Porta and Reiter conceptualize as protest policing. On the basis of empirical evidence from various countries (including Spain, Britain, France, Italy, Switzerland, and the United States), the authors point at a transformation in the style of control of protest, linking them to changes in police organization and knowledge.

    Find this resource:

  • della Porta, Donatella, Abby Peterson, and Herbert Reiter. 2006. The policing of transnational protest. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Covering Europe and North America, this collection of studies on the policing of transnational protest events in the first decade of the 21st century shows the developments of new police styles that adapt to emerging forms of collective action.

    Find this resource:

  • Fernandez, Luis A. 2008. Policing dissent: Social control and the anti-globalization movement. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Through careful ethnographic work on a few relevant transnational protest events, Luis Fernandez demonstrates how state power is expressed through new strategies of physical control of spaces.

    Find this resource:

Political Opportunities

A main tenet of the resource mobilization approach to social movements (especially among researchers who pay attention to the political process) is the importance of available political opportunities to facilitate mobilization. This idea was first developed at the city level by Eisinger 1973, and then applied at the national level in research on the civil rights movement in the United States, as explained by McAdam 1982, or the cycle of protest that started in the mid-1960s in Italy, as studied by Tarrow 1989. Comparative analyses of protest events (as covered in Research Methods) have helped to develop explanations on the main characteristics of political systems, which explain the forms and intensity of protest. A pivotal role in this development is to be found in Kitschelt 1986 and Kriesi, et al. 1995. Rucht 1994 has expanded attention to broad societal changes. Kriesi 2004 presents a useful introduction to this literature.

  • Eisinger, Peter K. 1973. The conditions of protest behavior in American cities. American Political Science Review 67:11–28.

    DOI: 10.2307/1958525Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The article that first theorized the importance of (at least partially) open political opportunities for protest. While the attention is focused on the city level, the hypotheses developed here have been adapted and applied to cross-national comparison.

    Find this resource:

  • Kitschelt, Herbert P. 1986. Political opportunity structures and political protest: Anti-nuclear movements in four democracies. British Journal of Political Science 16:57–85.

    DOI: 10.1017/S000712340000380XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An often-quoted conceptualization of the political opportunity structure, which distinguishes an input and an output side and looks at the effects of each on social movements.

    Find this resource:

  • Kriesi, Hanspeter. 2004. Political context and opportunity. In The Blackwell companion to social movements. Edited by Davis A. Snow, Sarah H. Soule, and Hanspeter Kriesi, 67–90. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Useful review of social movement studies that have looked at political opportunities and constraints in their environment.

    Find this resource:

  • Kriesi, Hanspeter, Ruud Koopmans, Jan Willem Duyvendak, and Marco G. Giugni. 1995. New social movements in Western Europe: A comparative analysis. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A main implementation of the political process approach in a cross-national comparison of Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. On the basis of protest-event analysis, the authors discuss the effects of stable and contingent opportunities on protest and its forms.

    Find this resource:

  • McAdam, Doug. 1982. Political process and the development of black insurgency, 1930–1970. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this groundbreaking research on the civil rights movement in the United States, McAdam combines attention to the organization as resource mobilization with attention to political opportunities.

    Find this resource:

  • Rucht, Dieter. 1994. Modernisierung und neue soziale Bewegungen: Deutschland, Frankreich und USA im Vergleich. Frankfurt: Campus.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    On the basis of empirical evidence from a complex cross-social movement and cross-country comparison covering Germany, France, and the United States, Dieter Rucht theorizes about the role of social movements in processes of modernization.

    Find this resource:

  • Tarrow, Sidney. 1989. Democracy and disorder: Protest and politics in Italy, 1965–1975. Oxford: Clarendon.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The importance of this book goes beyond the careful analysis of events of protest in Italy between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s, lying especially in the theorization of the interaction between political opportunities and cycles of protest.

    Find this resource:

Transnationalization

Research on political opportunity has anchored social movement studies within nation-states. However, recent research has been more and more interested in the ways in which globalization impacts social movements. This topic has been addressed first in social movement studies in della Porta, et al. 2009. Some of the research in the field focuses on protest against international governmental organizations, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO; analyzed by Gerhards 1993) and the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (analyzed by O’Brian, et al 2000). Other studies—such as those in della Porta and Tarrow 2004, Tarrow 2005, and della Porta, et al. 2006—have looked at the transnationalization of social movements that tend to address multilevel targets.

  • della Porta, Donatella, Massimiliano Andretta, Lorenzo Mosca, and Herbert Reiter. 2006. Globalization from below: Transnational activists and protest networks. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    On the basis of surveys with protestors and document analysis, the authors look at the anti-G8 protest in Genoa in 2001 and the first European social forum in Florence in 2002 while reconstructing the organizational networks, repertoires of action, and multiple identities of the global justice movement.

    Find this resource:

  • della Porta, Donatella, Hanspeter Kriesi, and Dieter Rucht, eds. 2009. Social movements in a globalizing world. 2d ed. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Originally published in 1999, this collection of essays is one of the first to look at how globalization—in economic, political and cultural terms—impacts upon social movements.

    Find this resource:

  • della Porta, Donatella, and Sidney Tarrow, eds. 2004. Transnational protest and global activism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This collection of essays reconceptualizes the role and development of transnational social movements face to complex internationalism.

    Find this resource:

  • Gerhards, Jürgen. 1993. Neue Konfliktlinie in der Mobilisierung öffentlicher Meinung: Eine Fallstudie. Opladen, Germany: Westdeutscher Verlag.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Interesting research on the mobilization process in one of the first transnational protests against the International Monetary Fund, which took place in Berlin in 1988.

    Find this resource:

  • O’Brien, Robert, Anne Marie Goetz, Jaan Aart Scholte, and Marc Williams. 2000. Contesting global governance: Multilateral economic institutions and global social movements. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An interesting comparison of some protest campaigns that address international finance organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization. It shows that even especially closed and not transparent organizations are sensible to pressure from below.

    Find this resource:

  • Tarrow, Sidney. 2005. The new transnational activism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Developing new concepts (from complex internationalism to deep-rooted cosmopolitanism), this volume is extremely useful in presenting and explaining various forms of transnational contention.

    Find this resource:

Europeanization

Europeanization is a specific instance of broader transnational processes like transnationalization that has received attention because of its effect on social movements. Early collections of research on the various ways in which the construction of European institutions affects social movements are to be found in Balme, et al. 2002 and Imig and Tarrow 2001. Ruzza 2004 develops a systematic comparison of Europe-wide mobilizations on various issues. The development of European identities through contestation is stressed in della Porta 2009 and della Porta and Caiani 2009.

  • Balme, Richard, Didier Chabanet, and Vincent Wright, eds. 2002. L’action collective en Europe. Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of the first collections to address, through empirical research on different cases, the specific characteristics of collective action targeting the European Union.

    Find this resource:

  • della Porta, Donatella, ed. 2009. Another Europe: Conceptions and practices of democracy in the European social forums. London: Routledge.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Based upon surveys at various editions of the European social forum, document analysis and participant observation, the volume looks at the sociobiographical, political, and cultural characteristics of social movement activists, with particular attention to their conceptions of democracy.

    Find this resource:

  • della Porta, Donatella, and Manuela Caiani. 2009. Social movements and Europeanization. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using data on protest events and surveys of social movement activists and their organizations, the volume singles out various strategies protestors use when addressing the European Union.

    Find this resource:

  • Imig, Doug, and Sidney Tarrow, eds. 2001. Contentious Europeans: Protest and politics in an emerging polity. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An early analysis of protest targeting the European Union. It provides both statistical analysis of protest events and qualitative case studies of single campaigns in different areas of decision making.

    Find this resource:

  • Ruzza, Carlo. 2004. Europe and civil society: Movement coalitions and European governance. Manchester, UK: Manchester Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    With its democratic deficit (related to the weakness of institutional accountability), the European Union has long been considered impermeable to pressures from below. Comparing various social movements, this volume shows instead that civil society organizations have available and use various channels of access to EU institutions.

    Find this resource:

Democratization

Social movements have not only developed mostly in democracies, but they have also contributed (or attempted to contribute) to democratization processes. Even though this topic has not been central in social movement studies, it has been addressed under different perspectives. Polletta 2002 and della Porta 2009 represent some of the few examples of research on the ways in which social movements conceive of and practice democracy in their internal life. Extending analysis of social movements to nondemocratic contexts, Boudreau 2004, Collier 1999, Wood 2000, and Wood 2003 provide analyses of paths to democratization from below, covering Southeast Asia, Latin America, South Africa, and southern Europe. Tilly 2004a and Tilly 2004b offer broad historical overviews. Smith 2008 focuses on the transnational level, looking at social movement action to democratize international politics.

  • Boudreau, Vincent. 2004. Resisting dictatorship repression and protest in Southeast Asia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of the rare examples of social movement studies in non-Western democracies; Boudreau compares social movements and state repression in Burma under Ne Win’s dictatorship, Indonesia under Suharto, and the Philippines under Ferdinand Marcos, describing the specific repressive responses to social movement challenges.

    Find this resource:

  • Collier, Ruth Berins. 1999. Paths toward democracy: The working class and elites in Western Europe and South America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comparing recent Latin America experiences with older European ones, Ruth Collier investigates the conditions under which labor organizations became part of the democratization process and play an active role in promoting democratization.

    Find this resource:

  • della Porta, Donatella, ed. 2009. Democracy in social movements. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Looking at the intersection between national and transnational protest, this volume reports on research on social movement organizations involved in the Global Justice Movement in Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, and Britain on the basis of document analysis and in-depth interviews.

    Find this resource:

  • Polletta, Francesca. 2002. Freedom is an endless meeting: Democracy in American social movements. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of the few attempts to understand conceptions and practices of democracy in social movements, this volume covers their evolution in time, singling out continuities and changes.

    Find this resource:

  • Smith, Jackie. 2008. Social movements for global democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Based upon extensive research on transnational protest campaigns, this book looks at social movements that aim to democratize global politics, reflecting on their strategies and chances of success.

    Find this resource:

  • Tilly, Charles. 2004a. Contention and democracy in Europe, 1650–2000. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Covering three and a half centuries, Charles Tilly forcefully links historical paths of democratization to contentious politics. Social movements are therefore presented as important actors in various historical eras, showing how contention (intentionally or not) produces democratization.

    Find this resource:

  • Tilly, Charles. 2004b. Social movements, 1768–2004. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Looks at the interaction of social and political claims in the evolution of social movements over more than two centuries.

    Find this resource:

  • Wood, Elisabeth Jean. 2000. Forging democracy from below: Insurgent transitions in South Africa and El Salvador. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comparing quite different cases of democratization in South Africa and El Salvador, conceptualized as oligarchic regimes, the author shows when and how social movements can contribute to forge democracy from below. Well-researched and theoretically innovative.

    Find this resource:

  • Wood, Elisabeth Jean. 2003. Insurgent collective action and civil war in El Salvador. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    On the basis of fascinating ethnographic work during the civil war in El Salvador, this volume convincingly argues about the role of moral and emotional motivations in high-risk activism. It also shows how social networks and collective identities are forged during the insurgency, rather than preexisting it.

    Find this resource:

Main Social Movements

Some social movements have been particularly central for social movement theorization: the labor movement in particular for research in a Marxist perspective (see Marxist and Other Class-Oriented Approaches), Women’s Movement and Sexuality Movement, and Environmental Movement for the reflections on the characteristics of new social movements. Even if less studied, the peace and human rights movements as well as the ethnonationalist, migrants’, and religious movements are important for their potential to expand attention in social movement studies beyond Europe and North-America. This happened also through research on the Global Justice Movement in the early 21st century (see Transnationalization and Europeanization).

Historical Labor Movements

Research on the emergence and development of the labor movement has been developed by historians often within a class perspective, such as with Marxist and other class-oriented approaches. Thompson 1991, Perrot 1977, Calhoun 1982, and Sewell 1980 represent the main contributions to the debate on the ways in which the labor movement developed a class consciousness and an organizational structure. With an in-depth case study, Gould 1995 focuses on the class struggle in Paris in the mid-19th century, while an analysis based on a large number of labor protests is presented in Franzosi 1995.

  • Calhoun, Craig. 1982. The question of class struggle: Social foundations of popular radicalism during the Industrial Revolution. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Looks at the difficult formation of the labor movement in the period of the industrial revolution.

    Find this resource:

  • Franzosi, Roberto. 1995. The puzzle of strikes: Class and state strategies in postwar Italy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A methodologically sophisticated analysis of strikes in postwar Italy, bridging social movement studies with the analysis of labor issues.

    Find this resource:

  • Gould, Roger V. 1995. Insurgent identities: Class, community, and protest in Paris from 1848 to the Commune. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    On the basis of rich archival material on contentious politics in Paris in the first half of the 19th century, this volume develops an original interpretation of the impact of the transformation of the urban space on urban conflicts.

    Find this resource:

  • Perrot, Michelle. 1977. Les ouvriers en grève, 1871–1890. Paris: Mouton.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An impressive research on the French labor movement in the late 19th century. Mixing quantitative and qualitative data, historian Michelle Perrot analyzes both the conditions for the development of strikes and their effects in terms of creation of a class consciousness and solidarity.

    Find this resource:

  • Sewell, William H., Jr. 1980. Work and revolution in France: The language of labor from the Old Regime to 1848. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Well researched and theoretically innovative, this book shows the emergence of the labor movement in France from the old corporations but also its development through new forms of struggle and the building of alternative public spheres.

    Find this resource:

  • Thompson, E. P. 1991. The making of the English working class. London: Penguin.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The most classic historical work on the making of the English working class through protest action. Shows the continuities with old forms of organization of labor, but also the innovation through the creation of the trade unions and also the participation in struggles for democratic rights.

    Find this resource:

Contemporary Labor Movements

By the late 20th century, social movement scholars did not pay much attention to the labor movement, with Fantasia 1988 representing one of the few exceptions. Scholars considered the labor movement to have institutionalized and lost its conflictive aspects. Still, in the years since the turn of the 21st century there has been a reemergence of attention to labor politics, especially the new social movement strategies of trade unions aiming to mobilize precarious workers. These new trends are summarized in Fantasia and Stepan-Norris 2004. Research also expanded to cover the labor movement in the global South. Silver 2003 and Svampa and Pereyra 2003 address it, with attention to global transformations in the social and economic system.

  • Fantasia, Rick. 1988. Cultures of solidarity: Consciousness, action, and contemporary American workers. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Labor protest is not just the result of existing consciousness. Looking at so-called American exceptionalism, this fascinating research analyzes the development of cultures of solidarity in the course of labor conflicts.

    Find this resource:

  • Fantasia, Rick, and Judith Stepan-Norris. 2004. The labor movement in motion. In The Blackwell companion to social movements. Edited by Davis A. Snow, Sarah H. Soule, and Hanspeter Kriesi, 555–575. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

    DOI: 10.1002/9780470999103Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An updated and synthetic introduction to the few (but growing) social movement studies on the labor movements.

    Find this resource:

  • Silver, Beverly J. 2003. Forces of labor: Workers’ movements and globalization since 1870. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using a large database and locating the forces of labor in a long-term and world perspective, this volume traces the wave-like rise and decline of labor. In response to labor militancy, capital mobility helped the spreading of labor conflicts in many parts of the world.

    Find this resource:

  • Svampa, Maristella, and Sebastián Pereyra. 2003. Entre la ruta y el barrio: La experiencia de las organizaciones piqueteras. Buenos Aires: Biblos.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of the better developed analyses of the movement of the unemployed (piqueteros) in Argentina, their repertoires of action, and their political claims. Svampa and Pereyra carefully map the discourses, strategies, and networks of the many organizations that compose this complex movement, looking at its interactions with the state.

    Find this resource:

Women’s Movement and Sexuality Movement

Among the new social movements, the women’s movement has received much attention as epitomizing some new trends in organizational networked forms and, especially, in the politicization of once private issues. In groundbreaking research, Rupp and Taylor 1987 looks at the continuities between the second wave of feminism in the 1970s and previous mobilizations for women’s rights. Research has looked at disparate aspects of women’s mobilization: from the self-help activities, covered in Taylor 1996, to the insider strategies within the most macho institutions such as the church and the army, as discussed in Katzenstein 1998. The development of research on the lesbian, gay, transgender, and bisexual movement brought with it a focus not only on sexuality, but also on the cultural repertoires of resistance, which is analyzed in Rupp and Taylor 2003. Although looking at the private sphere, the women’s movement is strongly influenced by the political system it targets: the essays collected in Banaszak, et al. 2003 look comparatively at the affects of state transformations on the women’s movement.

  • Banaszak, Lee Ann, Karen Beckwith, and Dieter Rucht, eds. 2003. Women’s movements facing the reconfigured state. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The women’s movement has often been considered as addressing culture and private life more than politics and the public life. This edited collection shows instead the interactions between women and the state, looking in particular at the effects of broad transformations in the welfare state.

    Find this resource:

  • Ferree, Myra Marx, and Carol McClurg Mueller. 2004. Feminism and the women’s movement: A global perspective. In The Blackwell companion to social movements. Edited by Davis A. Snow, Sarah H. Soule, and Hanspeter Kriesi, 576–607. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A perceptive and updated introduction to research on the women’s movement.

    Find this resource:

  • Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod. 1998. Faithful and fearless: Moving feminist protest inside the church and military. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An original look at how feminism spread inside the most male-dominated institutions: the church and the army.

    Find this resource:

  • Rupp, Leila J., and Verta Taylor. 1987. Survival in the doldrums: The American women’s rights movement, 1945 to the 1960s. Columbus: Ohio State Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A rich analysis of feminism in the post–World War II period. Looking at periods of low mass mobilization, Rupp and Taylor show how social movements not only survive in the doldrums, but also build relational and cognitive resources for further waves of mobilization.

    Find this resource:

  • Rupp, Leila J., and Verta Taylor. 2003. Drag queens at the 801 Cabaret. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An engaging analysis of Key West drag queens and their challenges to sex and gender conventions. This text wittily describes unusual forms of protest and resistances

    Find this resource:

  • Taylor, Verta. 1996. Rock-a-by baby: Feminism, self-help, and postpartum depression. New York: Routledge.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    On the basis of in-depth empirical research of the self-help groups active on postpartum depression, this research bridges feminist gender studies with social movement studies.

    Find this resource:

Environmental Movement

The environmental movement has been at the basis of theorization on new social movements. As Flam 1994 shows, the antinuclear protest of the 1970s contributed to politicizing environmental issues, with different dynamics in different countries. In fact, later on, environmental protest continued to be influenced by national political opportunities, as the cross-national comparison in Rootes 2003 demonstrates for European countries. Old and new organizations contribute to mobilization on environmental issues, as shown, again with reference to Europe, by Dalton 1994. While some components of the environmental movement tend to rely more and more on insiders’ strategies, grassroots protest is still widespread, as Doherty 2002 demonstrates. A rare example of research on environmentalism in the global South is in Guha and Martinez-Alier 1997. Research on local conflicts on environmental issues has been particularly interested in the ways in which space influences protest and vice versa. On urban protests that often address environmental issues, a most influential analysis is in Castells 1983.

  • Castells, Manuel. 1983. The city and the grassroots: A cross-cultural theory of urban social movements. London: Edward Arnold.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An influential theorization of urban social movements as bridging concerns for social equality, political autonomy, and community identity.

    Find this resource:

  • Dalton, Russell J. 1994. The green rainbow: Environmental groups in Western Europe. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Analyzes a broad range of environmental groups in Western Europe, looking at their resources and strategies.

    Find this resource:

  • Doherty, Brian. 2002. Ideas and actions in the green movement. London: Routledge.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The green movement has been considered to be subject to quick institutionalization. The research reported in this volume points instead at the plurality of strategies that characterizes green protest.

    Find this resource:

  • Flam, Helena, ed. 1994. States and anti-nuclear movements. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Reports the results of a cross-national research project looking at the antinuclear movement in several Western democracies. Particularly interesting for its focus on the relationship between the state characteristics and social movement development.

    Find this resource:

  • Guha, Ramachandra, and Juan Martinez-Alier. 1997. Varieties of environmentalism: Essays North and South. London: Earthscan.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of the first books to study environmental movements in the global South, it challenges the view that citizens of poorest regions of the world are too poor to push forward environmental claims. On the basis of empirical analysis, the book covers environmental protests and discourses in North and South America, Asia, and Europe.

    Find this resource:

  • Miller, Byron A. 2000. Geography and social movements: Comparing antinuclear activism in the Boston area. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of the first examples of research to conceptualize and empirically observe the role of spatial conditions in collective action, defined as territorially localized and situated.

    Find this resource:

  • Rootes, Christopher, ed. 2003. Environmental protest in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This edited volume reports the results of a comparative research project based on protest events, collected from daily newspapers in Britain, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, and Sweden.

    Find this resource:

Peace and Human Rights Movements

Of the various waves that have been popularized in the peace movement, the wave at the beginning of the 1980s around the deployment of nuclear missiles has been the most studied. Differences between the United States and the Western European experiences with this emerge from Meyer 1990 and Rochon 1988, respectively. Walgrave and Rucht 2010 covers the global day of action against the war in Iraq in 2003—considered to be the largest protest event of all time. Research on transnational campaigns for the human rights movement has bridged attention to domestic politics and to international relations: this can be observed in Keck and Sikkink 1998 and Bob 2005. Concerns with human rights are also central in so-called political consumerism, promoting ethical concerns in market behavior. Two of the best examples of research on this topic are Micheletti 2003 and Soule 2009.

  • Bob, Clifford. 2005. The marketing of rebellion: Insurgents, media, and international activism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Covering transnational protest campaigns, such as Nigeria’s Ogoni movement and the Mexico Zapatista uprising, the volume shows how even humanitarian nongovernmental organizations have to engage with commercial logic in order to survive and be successful.

    Find this resource:

  • Keck, Margaret, and Kathryn Sikkink. 1998. Activists beyond borders: Advocacy networks in international politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A very influential analysis of transnational protest, aiming at a boomerang effect: to mobilize international allies for domestic aims.

    Find this resource:

  • Meyer, David S. 1990. A winter of discontent: The nuclear freeze and American politics. New York: Praeger.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A valuable piece of research on the peace movement in the United States.

    Find this resource:

  • Micheletti, Michele. 2003. Political virtue and shopping: Individuals, consumerism, and collective action. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Political consumerism is an increasingly used form of participation that directly targets corporations and the market through boycott, as well as through ethical consumption. Michele Micheletti’s works aim to conceptualize and explain it by presenting a large amount of empirical evidence.

    Find this resource:

  • Rochon, Thomas R. 1988. Mobilizing for peace: The antinuclear movements in Western Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A very well-researched comparative analysis of the movement against the deployment of NATO Cruise and Pershing II missiles in several European countries.

    Find this resource:

  • Soule, Sarah A. 2009. Contention and corporate social responsibility. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This volume reports on social movements addressing corporations, mixing quantitative analysis of protest events in the United States from 1960 to 1990 with qualitative analysis of six recent campaigns, singling out insiders’ and outsiders’ tactics. The corporate level of opportunities emerges as nested within other types of opportunities in influencing the protest and its forms.

    Find this resource:

  • Walgrave, Stefaan, and Dieter Rucht, eds. 2010. The world says no to war: Demonstrations against the war on Iraq. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This edited collection reports the results of a cross-nationally coordinated survey conducted in eight countries on 15 February 2003, the global day of protest against the war in Iraq that turned out to be the largest one-day protest that has taken place in human history.

    Find this resource:

Ethnonationalist, Migrants’, and Religious Movements

While ethnonationalism and ethnic conflicts are the most relevant issues in the social sciences, they have rarely been addressed within social movement studies. Among the few exceptions are Olzak 1992, which looks at ethnic conflicts at the domestic level; Beissinger 2002, which locates nationalist mobilization in the context of the collapse of the Soviet Union; and Yashar 2005, who looks at the protest of indigenous peoples in Latin America. A cross-national comparison of protests around migration issues in Europe is presented in Koopmans, et al. 2005. Among the few examples of research on racist movements are Blee 2002 and Wright 2007, both focusing on radical right movements in the United States. Social movement studies have rarely considered religious aspects; exceptions are Wiktorowicz 2004, which looks at Islamic social movements, and Flam 2001, which covers the role of religious networks in Eastern Europe.

  • Beissinger, Mark R. 2002. Nationalist mobilization and the collapse of the Soviet state. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511613593Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Using a large amount of data on protest events, the author explains how nationalist mobilizations developed and what their effects were on the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    Find this resource:

  • Blee, Kathleen M. 2002. Inside organized racism: Women in the hate movement. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Right-wing social movements are rarely studied. This volume presents a valuable exception by investigating, though in-depth interviews, women’s participation in racist groups in the United States.

    Find this resource:

  • Flam, Helena. 2001. Pink, purple, green: Women’s, religious, environmental and gay/lesbian movements in Central Europe today. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    One of the few attempts to look at new social movements in Central Europe.

    Find this resource:

  • Koopmans, Ruud, Paul Statham, Marco Giugni, and Florence Passy. 2005. Contested citizenship: Immigration and cultural diversity in Europe. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This text presents the results of cross-national research on the contentious politics of immigration and ethnic relations in five European countries on the basis of a quantitative analysis of claims reported in newspapers.

    Find this resource:

  • Olzak, Susan. 1992. The dynamics of ethnic competition and conflict. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An impressive example of research on ethnic conflicts on the basis of protest event analysis.

    Find this resource:

  • Wiktorowicz, Quentin, ed. 2004. Islamic activism: A social movement theory approach. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This edited collection is one of the very few works that addresses Islamic activism in the Middle East through the instruments of social movement studies.

    Find this resource:

  • Wright, Stuart A. 2007. Patriots, politics and the Oklahoma City bombing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    While social movement studies overwhelmingly focus on left-wing empirical cases, this volume shows the usefulness of some categories and approaches in explaining right-wing movements. With rich empirical evidence, the author reconstructs the evolution of radical right movements in the United States, linking them to broader social conflicts.

    Find this resource:

  • Yashar, Deborah J. 2005. Contesting citizenship in Latin America: The rise of indigenous movements and the postliberal challenge. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comparing protest campaigns by indigenous people in Latin America, this carefully investigated volume combines insights from social movement studies and ethnic politics to look at the politicization of ethnic cleavages and its effects.

    Find this resource:

LAST MODIFIED: 07/27/2011

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199756384-0050

back to top

Article

Up

Down