Public Health Health Promotion
by
Lawrence W. Green
  • LAST REVIEWED: 15 June 2015
  • LAST MODIFIED: 23 February 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0004

Introduction

While the scope and definition of health promotion continues to evolve, international consensus has settled on some essential elements of this new emphasis in public health. These include educational, environmental, and organizational supports to enable people to gain greater control over the determinants of their health. This entry identifies resources that pertain to the definition, development, and implementation of health promotion. Health-promotion programs are established at the micro and macro levels of society, from organizational and community initiatives to worldwide campaigns. Health promotion in developing nations has increasingly shifted from predominantly emphasizing communicable-disease control to giving increasing attention to chronic-disease prevention, with death and disease caused by tobacco use and obesity leading the way.

Introductory Works

There are few introductions for the casual reader or the broader field of public-health professionals and health scientists to health promotion generally. Buchanan 2000 focuses on ethics, while Young and Hayes 2002 offers a postmodern emphasis directed at health promotion practiced in nursing. Others take a historical period or a specific country or health issue as their focus. For example, O’Neill, et al. 2007 and Pederson, et al. 1994 provide snapshots of Canada’s efforts and experiences with health promotion in two distinct decades, the first in which Canada was held up internationally as the leading country in blazing the trail for this new field, the second of which exhibits much frustration with the barriers to implementation of the earlier ideals and expectations.

  • Buchanan, David R. 2000. An ethic for health promotion: Rethinking the sources of human well-being. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    Challenges the means and ends sought in health promotion as related to achieving human well-being. The epidemiological transition from communicable diseases with a focus on controlling the agent shifted to controlling the host (people’s behavior), with the new focus on chronic diseases. Advocates redefining well-being in terms of integrity.

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    • O’Neill, Michael, Ann Pederson, Sophie Dupéré, and Irving Rootman. 2007. Health promotion in Canada: Critical perspectives. 2d ed. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.

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      In the early 21st century, health promotion in Canada declined in the face of a “population health” initiative that characterized health promotion as too “individualistic,” somewhat as health promotion during its ascendancy had characterized health education. This book tells that story while also pushing the boundaries of thinking on health promotion’s place in Canada and Canada’s international influence. Also in French: La promotion de la santé au Canada et au Québec: perspectives critiques (Quebec: Presses de l’Université Laval, 2007).

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      • Pederson, Ann, Michele O’Neill, and Irving Rootman. 1994. Health promotion in Canada: Provincial, national and international perspectives. Toronto: W. B. Saunders Canada.

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        This first edition reflects the hopes and mounting momentum of an international movement launched in Canada with the 1974 Lalonde Report (Lalonde 1974, cited under History) and the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (World Health Organization 1986, cited under History). This edition takes a historical and sociological approach to understanding the social, political, and economic context in which health promotion took shape.

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        • Young, Lynne E., and Virginia E. Hayes, eds. 2002. Transforming health promotion practice: Concepts, issues, and applications. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.

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          Directed particularly at health promotion practiced in nursing, this book takes a postmodern approach to the broader need, in the authors’ and some of the contributors’ views, for an interdisciplinary health promotion that increases patients’ or clients’ control over their health and their lives.

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          Reference Works

          Reference sources for those serving this field are divided most notably between academic references and practitioner references. Most of the practitioner reference works are the textbooks described in Textbooks, whereas the academic reference works have tended to be more specific articles that push the boundaries of the field. A few notable reference works that do cut across the academic or scientific and the policy and practice spheres are Last 2006, Breslow 2002, and Anderson 2004. Health promotion makes up about one-third of the topics and terms covered respectively in each of these.

          • Anderson, Norman B., ed. 2004. Encyclopedia of health and behavior. 2 vols. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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            Behavioral-science applications in health promotion and their theoretical underpinnings are described, from individual-level interventions to prevent or manage diseases to policies and organizational issues. Each of the two hundred entries is described in four to six pages by an expert in that subject.

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            • Breslow, Lester, ed. 2002. Encyclopedia of public health. 4 vols. New York: Macmillan Reference USA.

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              Offers descriptive summaries of the sciences, arts, practical skills, organization, essential functions, and historical traditions of public health. Of the nine hundred entries in the four volumes, more than half relate to the social or behavioral aspects of public health, which makes them largely about health promotion.

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              • Last, John M., ed. 2006. A dictionary of public health. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                Definitions of some five thousand words and terms used in public-health science and practice. Definitions are cross-referenced with related terms. Website links are offered for further information on many terms.

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                Textbooks

                Textbooks with “health promotion” in their titles picked up where health education textbooks, notably Ross and Mico 1980, which had dominated the market before the 1980s, left off. Some, such as Simons-Morton, et al. 1995, use both terms in their titles, suggesting that health education still exists as a distinct discipline, especially in the United States, upon which health promotion has expanded. Koelen and Ban 2004 offers that bridge also for the Netherlands. Beginning with its second edition, Green and Kreuter 2005, which had presented the Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation (PRECEDE) model for predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing constructs in educational diagnosis and evaluation in 1980, changed its title from Health Education Planning to Health Program Planning, as did many other textbooks. Green and Kreuter 2005 also added elements of policy, regulation, and organization in educational and ecological development with the PRECEDE-PROCEED (Policy, Regulatory, and Organizational Constructs in Educational and Environmental Development) model. Most of the other textbooks devote a section to summarizing this model and its applications. Bartholomew, et al. 2006 expands on the PRECEDE model with more detailed procedures for mapping theory onto the diagnostic findings of community assessments to arrive at more detailed health-promotion plans. Breckon, et al. 1998 shows how the health-promotion professional manages the development and implementation of programs. McKenzie and Jurs 1993 covers both the planning and the managing of programs as well as their evaluation, which makes its coverage of all of these topics necessarily more superficial and suitable for the undergraduate. Textbooks on health promotion have also multiplied in Australia, following the lead of Egger, et al. 2005 (and see Anthologies), and the Netherlands, following the lead of Koelen and Ban 2004. Such books have become increasingly mainstream in public-health graduate-degree programs and undergraduate community-health programs, as issues of lifestyle and ecological approaches to controlling the upstream social determinants of health have become more dominant in the public-health portfolio.

                • Bartholomew, Kay, Guy S. Parcel, Gerjo Kok, and Nell H. Gottlieb, eds. 2006. Planning health promotion programs: An intervention mapping approach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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                  With a new publisher, this second edition of Intervention Mapping: Designing Theory- and Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs, which first appeared in 2001, seeks to fill the gap many felt between the detailed expositions on needs assessment and those on program evaluation; that is., linking theory and evidence to the design of elements of a program.

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                  • Breckon, Donald J., John R. Harvey, and R. Brick Lancaster. 1998. Community health education: Settings, roles, and skills for the 21st century. 4th ed. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.

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                    This edition has given particular attention to the practitioner’s point of view, having submitted most chapters to practitioners for their review. Classroom use is enhanced by inclusion of “in-basket” assignments, case studies, buzzwords, website references, and an instructor’s manual.

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                    • Egger, Gary, Ross Spark, Jim Lawson, and Rob Donovan. 2005. Health promotion strategies and methods. 2d ed. Sydney: McGraw-Hill.

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                      A practical primer, with brief descriptions of the most frequently used theories on changing individuals, groups, or populations. For the last of these, three more chapters—one on social marketing and the media, one on community organization and community development, and one on environmental adaptations—summarize how health promotion has combined the theories in developing population-level interventions.

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                      • Green, Lawrence W., and Marshall W. Kreuter. 2005. Health program planning: An educational and ecological approach. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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                        The 1980 first edition of this text presented a planning and evaluation model (PRECEDE), which became a standard in graduate training programs in health education and, with subsequent editions (1991, 1999), in health promotion. The model has been used in over a thousand published applications. The fourth edition expands the application of the model to the wider range of public health and community health programs. Also see Green’s online bibliography.

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                        • Koelen, Maria A., and Anne W. van den Ban. 2004. Health education and health promotion. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publshers.

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                          The first two chapters describe the evolution of health education and health promotion, World Health Organization policy, and theories that have shaped these fields. Other chapters are devoted to communications, community participation, and intersectoral collaboration, designing programs, research, organization, management, and ethics.

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                          • McKenzie, James F., and Jan L. Jurs. 1993. Planning, implementing, and evaluating health promotion programs: A primer. New York: Macmillan.

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                            Written for students enrolled in their first professional course in health promotion program development, management, and evaluation. Some graduate programs separate these topics, using more specialized textbooks for each.

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                            • Ross, Helen S., and Paul R. Mico. 1980. Theory and practice in health education. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.

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                              This was said to have been written primarily for the undergraduate student, but its survey of theory and practice made it a touchstone, if not a required text, for introductory graduate courses during the period when health education was evolving toward health promotion.

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                              • Simons-Morton, Bruce G., Walter H. Greene, and Nell H. Gottlieb. 1995. Introduction to health education and health promotion. 2d ed. Prospects Heights, IL: Waveland.

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                                Reserving a place for the profession of health education and in the expanding field of health promotion, this edition includes a model called MATCH (Multilevel Approach to Community Health), to incorporate the findings from diagnostic needs-assessments, theory, and research evidence on interventions into an ecological approach to program development.

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                                Anthologies

                                Because of the breadth of the field of health promotion and the numerous social, behavioral, and administrative sciences that it draws upon for theory, research, and practice, books have turned increasingly to multiple authors to represent areas of expertise within the field in which they have become specialized. In the case of Glanz, et al. 2008, readers are offered a wide range of theories and supporting research that guide practice in health promotion. Davies and Macdowall 2006 and O’Conner-Fleming and Parker 2001 both illustrate good practice and provide evidence organized around examples drawn from several countries. Gorin and Arnold 2006 is a textbook aimed at several health-practitioner audiences.

                                • Davies, Maggie, and Wendy Macdowall. 2006. Health promotion theory. Maidenhead, UK: Open Univ. Press.

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                                  Philosophical, methodological, theoretical, ethical, and political underpinnings of health promotion to guide practitioners, particularly in the United Kingdom. Focus is on applying the ideas and concepts to practical program implementation. To illustrate good practice and provide evidence of what works, examples are drawn from several countries, representing different cultural backgrounds. Chapters contributed by other British authors.

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                                  • Glanz, Karen, Barbara K. Rimer, K. Viswanath, eds. 2008. Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice. 4th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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                                    A widely used textbook that presents the theories that have been the basis for health-education practice for decades. With the addition of new theories in successive editions, the book encompasses the wider range of theories and supporting research that guide practice in health promotion.

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                                    • Gorin, Sherri Sheinfeld, and Joan Arnold, eds. 2006. Health promotion in practice. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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                                      Designed as a textbook (earlier edition titled Health Promotion Handbook), this is also an anthology, with some chapters contributed by other authors. Aimed as much at nurses, dentists, physicians, and other health practitioners as at those identifying themselves as health educators or health-promotion specialists.

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                                      • O’Conner-Fleming, Mary Louise, and Elizabeth Parker. 2001. Health promotion: principles and practice in the Australian context. 2d ed. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen and Unwin.

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                                        The authors, together with twelve other contributors to chapters, describe the social history of the “new public health” and the Australian national strategy for health promotion, then devote the remaining chapters to planning and evaluation skills and various settings for health promotion (schools, workplaces, Aboriginal communities, rural areas, etc.).

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                                        Bibliographies

                                        The growing scope and completeness of the standard public health bibliographic databases online, such as PubMed, have made searches of the health-promotion literature increasingly rich in their yield, but with the concomitant problem of making the selection of the most useful, appropriate, or relevant items for one’s specific purposes more difficult. More specialized bibliographies have been placed online by various organizations and individuals to meet this need. Troy B. Adams, one of the associate editors for the American Journal of Health Promotion, has provided a service of abstracting and commenting on the practical implications of specific research and evaluation results as a regular section of the journal (DataBase: Research and Evaluation Results). The US Department of Health and Human Services’ Healthfinder does something similar to bridge the gap between those searching for information on health topics and the reputable sources of such information in government and nonprofit organizations. The Canadian Annotated Bibliography of Selected Health Promotion Titles offers a more globally oriented bibliography.

                                        • Adams, Troy B., ed. “DataBase: Research and Evaluation Results.” American Journal of Health Promotion.

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                                          Bimonthly section of the journal in its “Science of Health Promotion” section, featuring structured abstracts and editor’s comments on recent articles reporting on research and evaluation. These are followed by a DataBase Citations Chart summarizing in spreadsheet format the summary, research design rating, sample size, duration, and measurement tools used in the studies.

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                                          • Annotated Bibliography of Selected Health Promotion Titles

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                                            This website was compiled by the University of Toronto’s World Health Organization Collaborating Centre, with an orientation toward developed countries and especially Canada.

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                                            • Healthfinder.

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                                              A one-stop shopper’s guide to health-information resources selected by the US Department of Health and Human Services from over 1,700 government agencies and reliable nonprofit organizations. Every resource includes a description and contact information for the organization that produces it. This Healthy People website points the user to specific sources that pertain to the objectives for the United States in health promotion.

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                                              Journals

                                              Health promotion, with its blending of disciplines and fields that had previously developed more independently, has inherited a convergence of journals having their origins in behavioral research (American Journal of Health behavior), worksite wellness programs (American Journal of Health Promotion), public health (Annual Review of Public Health), international health education and health promotion (Global Health Promotion, Health Promotion International), and health-education research and practice (Health Education Research, Health Education and behavior, Health Promotion Practice).

                                              History

                                              In 1974 Canada’s Department of Health published its landmark policy statement, A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians (Lalonde 1974), which gave “lifestyle” a more prominent place among the major determinants of health than it had been given in previous decades. In the same year, the US Congress passed Public Law 94-317, the Health Information and Health Promotion Act, the legislative history of which is chronicled by Viseltear 1976. This act created the federal Office of Health Information and Health Promotion, later renamed the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, which set in motion the ten-year US national planning cycle known as Healthy People, an evidence-based setting of national goals and targets for health promotion and disease prevention. This federal initiative, in its fourth decennial cycle, can be tracked on the US Department of Health and Human Services Healthy People 2020 website. The World Health Organization (WHO) also began a series of health-promotion initiatives in the early 1980s, especially in Europe. The international Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (World Health Organization 1986) was in part a product of the European initiatives, and marked a turning point in the international development of health promotion. That charter has remained the main touchstone for health promotion internationally.

                                              • Lalonde, Marc. 1974. A new perspective on the health of Canadians: A working document. Ottawa: Health and Welfare Canada.

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                                                A defining study and opening volley in the realignment of health care planning and public-health concerns to give greater emphasis to the behavioral (“lifestyle”) determinants of health.

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                                                • US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2020.

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                                                  The decennial renewal of quantitative objectives for health promotion and disease prevention has guided the priorities and budget allocations of the federal agencies and national organizations since 1980.

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                                                  • US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 1979. Healthy People: Surgeon General’s Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Washington, DC: Public Health Service, DHEW-PHS-79-55071.

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                                                    This report launched the federal initiative to set ten-year quantified and measurable objectives in disease prevention and health promotion alongside health-protection and preventive-health services. The initiative has lasted three decades.

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                                                    • Viseltear, Arthur. 1976. Health education and public policy: A short history of P.L. 94-317: Report presented at the National Conference on Preventive Medicine, held in June 1975 at the National Institutes of Health. In Preventive medicine USA: Task force reports. Edited by the John E. Fogarty International Center for Advanced Study in the Health Sciences, 825–837. New York: Prodist.

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                                                      A professor from Yale who spent a sabbatical year as a congressional aid describes the development of the public law that launched the health promotion initiatives of the US government.

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                                                      • World Health Organization. 1986. Ottawa Charter for health promotion. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

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                                                        This document, created and ratified at an international conference sponsored by the World Health Organization, has become the major touchstone for defining and guiding the central philosophies and methods of health promotion. Reprinted in Health Promotion International 1.1: iii–v.

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                                                        Definitions

                                                        The World Health Organization (WHO) definition, first officially promulgated by the Working Group on Concepts and Principles of Health Promotion (World Health Organization European Regional Office 1984) and then adapted in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was “the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health” (p. 1). A fuller explanatory definition emphasizing the methods (“strengthening the skills and capabilities of individuals” and “changing social, environmental and economic conditions so as to alleviate their impact on public and individual health”) was refined over the following decade in the WHO Health Promotion Glossary (Nutbeam 1998, p. 11). The quasi-official definition of health promotion for the US federal Healthy People initiative was “any combination of health education and related organizational, political and economic interventions designed to facilitate behavioral and environmental changes conducive to health” (Green 1979).

                                                        • Green, Lawrence W. 1979. National policy in the promotion of health. International Journal of Health Education 22:161–168.

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                                                          A definition of health promotion adopted in the US Healthy People initiative for health promotion, extending the scope of what had been known as health education to encompass related organizational, economic, and policy supports for behaviors and social environments conducive to health.

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                                                          • Kickbush, Ilona. 1986. Health promotion: A global perspective. Canadian Journal of Public Health 77.5: 321–326.

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                                                            This document introduced the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and anticipated the main features of it. It traced the history of the World Health Organization’s background work leading up to the first International Conference on Health Promotion in Ottawa, and it set the stage for the definition of terms most widely used in the field.

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                                                            • Nutbeam, Donald. 1998. Health promotion glossary. WHO/HPR/HEP/98.1. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

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                                                              An update of the consensus document originally published in 1986 as background for the Ottawa Charter meetings, offering definitions more or less ratified by individual professionals across nations participating in WHO’s health-promotion initiatives.

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                                                              • World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. 1984. Health promotion: A discussion document on the concept and principles. ICP/HSR 602. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

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                                                                Evidence-Based Practice and “Best Practice” Guidelines

                                                                The demand for programs to be evidence based has created the recognition of a gap between science and practice and of the need to fill that gap. An early international example is World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion 1997. A more recent understanding is that much of that gap can be attributed not to the resistance of practitioners, program planners, and policy makers to using scientific evidence, but to their perception that much of the evidence generated by the most rigorous science is not particularly relevant to many, if not most, of the wide-ranging settings and populations in which their findings would be applied. This led the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to base its most widely used “best practices” manual (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1999) on a more compelling combination of evidence from controlled research and practice-based evidence from the experience of states and localities that had successfully achieved results from policy and comprehensive programs. It also led to universities seeking to provide more incentives and rewards for faculty to engage in community-based research as recommended by the Commission on Community-Engaged Scholarship in the Health Professions 2005. With the emergence of new epidemics, such as obesity, health promotion must take action in the face of very limited evidence of what will work and so must be committed to deriving evidence through systematic evaluation of the innovations in policy and practice, as reflected in volumes such as Crawford and Jeffery 2005 and Institute of Medicine 2010.

                                                                • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Best practices for comprehensive tobacco control programs. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.

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                                                                  Decades of controlled randomized trials of smoking cessation, usually in clinical settings, had limited influence on broader community and state interventions. When California and Massachusetts initiated policies and comprehensive tobacco-control programs, they tripled and quadrupled the rate of reduced consumption of tobacco. Other states paid more attention to their practice-based evidence (summarized in this document) than to the evidence from hundreds of academically controlled intervention trials.

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                                                                  • Commission on Community-Engaged Scholarship in the Health Professions. 2005. Linking scholarship and communities. Seattle, WA: Community-Campus Partnerships for Health.

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                                                                    This commission’s report lays out a series of recommendations to health-professional schools for reform of their university promotions and tenure policies and practices, and their recruitment of faculty, to give greater emphasis to the importance and value of engaging their communities in the research process.

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                                                                    • Crawford, David, and Robert W. Jeffery, eds. 2005. Obesity prevention and public health. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                      The epidemic of obesity that arose in the United States in the 1970s and spread rapidly to other countries led this book’s authors to turn to previous successes in tobacco control and policy initiatives in the regulation of the food supply and the building of urban and suburban environments more conducive to physical activity

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                                                                      • Institute of Medicine. 2010. Bridging the evidence gap in obesity prevention: A framework to inform decision making. Washington, DC: National Academies.

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                                                                        In the face of the epidemic proportions of the obesity epidemic, public health officials must do something, even without firm evidence of what works. This blue-ribbon committee report suggests a series of steps and procedures local, state, and national organizations can take to locate, evaluate, and assemble evidence, such as it is, and to inform their decisions for action in the absence of certainty.

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                                                                        • WHO Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion. 1997. Promoting health through schools. WHO Technical Report Series 870. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

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                                                                          This is a report by an international committee of experts reviewed the evidence and the practices of school systems around the world in applying evidence-based practices. They recommended specific actions for the WHO and for countries to strengthen health-promoting schools and for studies to fill the gaps in the research.

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                                                                          Disparities and Specific Populations

                                                                          A lamentable side effect of some of the most successful health-promotion programs is that, while improving whole population averages on some health statistics, they have increased, rather than decreased, disparities between the affluent and the poor or underserved. Such anomalies have been noted by national committees, such as the one that produced the report Thompson, et al. 2006. People with economic resources and more education have been the first to respond to most health-promotion campaigns during the initial advocacy and public-awareness phases of such programs. The poor and underserved also often lack health literacy and are often unable to afford the health resources needed to take advantage of new knowledge and services that would promote their health. The work in this area has concentrated on describing the problem in epidemiological and sociological terms. Schorr 1997 has poignantly identified economic and policy barriers to change, but has shown ways to avert them that are “within our reach.” Kline and Huff 2007 has noted the cultural misalignments between professional, scientific, and poor communities as a source of the problems that can be addressed within public health, even though many of the other problems of poverty and education of the poor lie largely outside the purview of public health.

                                                                          • Kline, Michael V., and Robert M. Huff, eds. 2007. Promoting health in multicultural populations: A handbook for practitioners. 2d ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.

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                                                                            Health-promotion programs in multicultural settings require knowledge of the cultures of the groups being targeted and their interaction with the professional culture of helping organizations. The second edition expanded the book to include increased attention to students and instructors while also continuing to provide a handbook for practitioners in the field.

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                                                                            • Schorr, Lisbeth B. 1997. Common purpose: Strengthening families and neighborhoods to rebuild America. New York: Anchor.

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                                                                              Schorr goes to the heart of what public health has called the “upstream determinants of health” or “social determinants,” namely, the community and policy conditions that produce inner-city and rural poverty, high rates of unwed births, school failure and dropout, and unemployment. Schorr strikes an optimistic note based on case studies of successful programs that have turned some of these underlying conditions around.

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                                                                              • Thompson, Gerald E., Faith Mitchell, and Monique B. Williams, eds. 2006. Examining the health disparities research plan of the National Institutes of Health: Unfinished business. Washington, DC: National Academies.

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                                                                                This Institute of Medicine report of the Committee on the Review and Assessment of the National Institutes of Health’s Strategic Research Plan and Budget to Reduce and Ultimately Eliminate Health Disparities examines definitions and measures of health disparities and the research activity across the National Institutes of Health. The report acknowledges the challenge of applying the traditional research methods of the National Institutes of Health to the more intractable, complex, interacting social conditions that contribute to disparities in health.

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                                                                                Research Methods and Theories

                                                                                Research in health promotion has borrowed heavily from epidemiological and social sciences, building on the methods of studying population dynamics from epidemiology and sociology and from the theories and methods of studying human behavior in individuals, groups, organizations, and communities. The practical orientation of such research has leaned toward a more participatory approach to community-based research (e.g., Minkler and Wallerstein 2008), the use of multiple methods and multiple levels of analysis to address the complexities of health-promotion interventions (e.g., Crosby, et al. 2006), and the blending of theories from multiple disciplines and that which is emergent from practice settings (e.g., DiClemente, et al. 2009). The most pervasive applications of research resources in health promotion are in assessments of community needs and capacities (e.g., Gilmore and Campbell 2005) and in program evaluation (e.g., Rootman, et al. 2001). Some texts cover both, like Crosby, et al. 2006 and Sarvela and McDermott 1993.

                                                                                • Crosby, Richard A., Ralph J. DiClemente, and Laura F. Salazar, eds. 2006. Research methods in health promotion. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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                                                                                  While maintaining that “research involves a predetermined series of well-defined steps” (p. xiv), the editors have sought contributors who could also bring perspectives on the adaptation of lockstep research methods from the experience of practitioners and program planners so that the product is more relevant to their needs.

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                                                                                  • DiClemente, Ralph J., Richard A. Crosby, and Michelle C. Kegler, eds. 2009. Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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                                                                                    Emphasizing the transdisciplinary nature of health promotion, the editors have assembled a blend of coauthors for virtually every chapter who could bring both the depth of social- or behavioral-science theory and the understanding of the realities of practice pertaining to the topic.

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                                                                                    • Gilmore, Gary D., and M. Donald Campbell. 2005. Needs and capacity assessment strategies for health education and health promotion. 3d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

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                                                                                      Offers students and practitioners specific details on practical tools for the particular tasks within the broader needs-assessment and capacity-assessment methods of planning models such as Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation (PRECEDE), Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEX-PH), Comprehensive Assessment, Strategic Success (COMPASS), Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP), and Planned Approach to Community Health (PATCH). Appendices reproduce some of the questionnaires and observational instruments used in Health Risk Appraisal and other assessments.

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                                                                                      • Minkler, Meredith, and Nina Wallerstein, eds. 2008. Community-based participatory research for health: From process to outcomes. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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                                                                                        Health-promotion theory and philosophy has converged with research approaches to health promotion with growing recognition that the research needs to be done more often with the communities for whom the results would be relevant and useful. This has produced an emphasis on participatory research, described here with case examples.

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                                                                                        • Rootman, Irving, Michael Goodstadt, Brian Hyndman, David V. McQueen, Louise Potvin, Jane Springett, and Erio Ziglio, eds. 2001. Evaluation in health promotion: Principles and perspectives. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization Regional Publications.

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                                                                                          This international group of fifty-two editors and authors, sponsored by the European Regional Office of the World Health Organization (WHO), Health Canada, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US Department of Health and Human Services), offers a wide range of perspectives and methods for the evaluation of the usually complex interventions inherent in health-promotion programs and policies.

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                                                                                          • Sarvela, Paul D., and Robert J. McDermott. 1993. Health education evaluation and measurement: A practitioner’s perspective. Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark.

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                                                                                            Besides the usual methodological issues in evaluation and measurement, this text also devotes a chapter to a historical overview of evaluation and how it has played out in health promotion, and a chapter to the politics and ethics of program evaluation.

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                                                                                            • Sussman, Steve, ed. 2000. Handbook of program development for health behavior research and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                                              Details a series of six steps in the application of behavioral-science theory and evidence in planning and developing health-promotion programs. Chapters include expert presentations of each of the steps, followed by case studies showing how the theory or data was used in local or state health-promotion planning efforts.

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