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Public Health Community Development
by
Frances Dunn Butterfoss

Introduction

Although its work is continuously redefined by current social issues, community development (CD) is a broad term applied to the values, practices, and academic disciplines of civic leaders, activists, citizens, and professionals to improve local communities. CD empowers individuals and groups to affect change by providing them with skills that build political power and alter their communities’ positions within the context of larger social institutions. CD methods are used at many levels of society and focus on organizational, community-wide, and international campaigns. Because CD work is so broad, this article acknowledges its many approaches, including community-driven economic development, community empowerment and capacity building, social-capital formation, political participatory development, ecologically sustainable development, asset-based community development, community-based participatory research, community building/mobilization, and coalition building and participatory and community-based planning. Since some of these areas are covered elsewhere in Oxford Bibliographies Online, this article will focus more on community development as it relates to community empowerment and capacity building, social capital formation, community building/mobilization, and coalition building and participatory and community-based planning.

Introductory Works

Two books stand out as introductions to the field for the novice community developer. Ferguson and Dickens 1999 tells the story of the development of community development (CD) using broad examples, and Phillips and Pittman 2009 focuses more on CD’s tools and methods.

  • Ferguson, Ronald F., and William T. Dickens, eds. 1999. Urban problems and community development. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

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    Survey of CD’s past, current, and potential contributions. Diverse authors define CD as capacity building (social, intellectual, physical, financial, and political assets) to improve quality of life in low- to moderate-income neighborhoods. History of urban development, politics of resource allocation, business and workforce development, CD corporations, informal social organizations, schooling, and public security are highlighted.

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  • Phillips, Rhonda, and Robert H. Pittman, eds. 2009. An introduction to community development. London: Routledge.

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    Comprehensive book that demonstrates how to rebuild, revitalize, and develop communities utilizing various economic and strategic tools. Chapters cover social capital and community building, CD practice, visioning and strategic planning, building community-based organizations, developing leadership, asset mapping, programming techniques, and strategies and issues impacting CD.

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Reference Works

Reference works for this field span the disciplines of public health, social work, and community practice, and are directed mostly to practitioners who incorporate aspects of community development (CD) into their regular practice, rather than being solely CD focused. These works range from coverage of local to global issues and solutions. Christensen and Levinson 2003 is the most inclusive and far-reaching work; four volumes cover issues that relate directly to CD or indirectly by focusing on human communities. Similarly, Mizrahi and Davis 2009, a four-volume encyclopedia, gives the social workers’ perspective on issues that are common to both the fields of CD and social work. Last 2007 offers definitions for CD-related terminology and is useful for new practitioners or students who are attempting to learn language and terms used in the field. Weil 2005 provides the most complete and in-depth coverage of CD practices, as well as analyses of some of its most critical issues.

  • Christensen, Karen, and David Levinson, eds. 2003. Encyclopedia of community: From the village to the virtual world. 4 vols. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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    Four volumes of inspiring stories and strategies that engage the public and students from many disciplines and summarize how humans come together, with examples of effective community institutions. Reader’s guide allows interdisciplinary comparisons among topics, such as types of communities (19th-century utopians, 1960s communes, Rotary International clubs, Amish communities, and cyber communities), technology, urban life, politics, law, community design, and global studies.

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  • Last, John M. 2007. A dictionary of public health. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    Defines over 5,000 words and terms used in public health practice, including CD. Cross-references definitions with related terms; offers websites for further information about terms.

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  • Mizrahi, Terry, and Larry E. Davis. 2009. The encyclopedia of social work. 20th ed. 4 vols. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    Four volumes of cross-referenced, indexed articles by leading academics and practitioners. Covers all aspects of social-work practice, interventions, social environments, conditions, challenges, social policy, and history, including new areas since 19th edition (1995): demographic changes from immigration, technology, implications of managed care, faith-based assistance, evidence-based practice, gerontology, trauma, and disaster.

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  • Weil, Marie, ed. 2005. The handbook of community practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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    Encompassing community development, organizing, and planning, this first community-practice text covers globalization and its impact on US and international communities. It is grounded in participatory and empowerment practice, including social change, diversity, social/economic development, and community collaboratives. Persistent poverty, policy practice, and research approaches are analyzed to provide strategies for advocacy and legislative action.

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Textbooks

Only two textbooks deal directly with community development (CD): Green and Haynes 2008 and Rubin and Rubin 2008. Butterfoss 2007 is included here to illustrate the perspective and role that coalition building plays in CD. Eichler 2007, Minkler 2005, and Smock 2004 devote a section or chapter to summarizing CD and its application to community and coalition building, mostly stressing the role of community organizing in CD. Maser 1996 is included to acknowledge the growing environmental context of CD. McNight 1995 offers an insightful, if controversial, treatment of the role that professionals and agencies play in community development. These texts have broad applicability across disciplines, not solely for public health professionals.

  • Butterfoss, Frances Dunn. 2007. Coalitions and partnerships in community health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    In-depth, analytical, and practical approach to building, sustaining, and nurturing coalitions and partnerships to improve community health for practitioners, researchers, and students of public health and social science. Provides not only philosophy and theory but also practical guidance, recommendations, resources, tools, and examples from actual coalition work.

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  • Eichler, Mike. 2007. Consensus organizing: Building communities of mutual self interest. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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    Summary of the consensus method of organizing, which Eichler pioneered—a logical, pragmatic 21st-century model of social change. Through real examples the author illustrates how to practice consensus organizing to help the poor and disempowered. A companion workbook, Ohmer and DeMasi 2008 (cited under Manuals and Handbooks) is available.

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  • Green, Gary Paul, and Anna Haines. 2008. Asset building and community development. 2d ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.

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    Core textbook for CD, planning, and urban sociology that connects history, theory, and practice of community development, its promise, and its limits. It examines the role of assets in local development, i.e., how communities build on physical, human, social, financial, environmental, political, and cultural capital assets; includes a focus on community-based organizations.

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  • Maser, Chris. 1996. Sustainable community development: Principles and concepts. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

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    Clear treatment of a community-directed process of development that is based on human values, active learning, shared communication, and cooperation; emphasizes the need to shift personal consciousness from self- to other-centeredness. Intended for environmentalists, business leaders, developers, community/government leaders, policymakers, economists, and academicians.

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  • McKnight, John. 1995. The careless society: Community and its counterfeits. New York: Basic Books.

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    A controversial text, but a “must read” for students and agencies whose goal is to build caring communities. McKnight explains how social-service agencies in urban America isolate and target populations for their own convenience—determining the needs of clients and fostering dependency, rather than helping individuals express their own desires and work toward solutions. Rather than developing more and better services, professionals are urged to focus on building community capacity.

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  • Minkler, Meredith, ed. 2005. Community organizing and community building for health. 2d ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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    This text is a guide to theory, concepts, and models needed to practice effective community building. Thirty activists, professionals, and scholars contribute chapters that cover confronting ethical dilemmas, building coalitions, diversifying funding, and mapping community assets.

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  • Rubin, Herbert J., and Irene S. Rubin. 2008. Community organizing and development. 4th ed. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

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    Revised edition brings together organizing and development practices as well as guiding values, and explains why various approaches work. Describes infrastructure that enables change to happen and how activists can respond to economic and social problems by building skills in fund-raising, writing news releases, running an organization, and implementing political actions.

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  • Smock, Kristina. 2004. Democracy in action: Community organizing and urban change. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

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    Critical analysis of the value and power of community organizing and a practical guide to the efficacy of various models of community organizing. Intended for a broad audience concerned with grassroots civic renewal, it covers building community capacity, effective governance structures, diagnosing/framing community problems, and strategies for success.

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Definitions and Practice Guidelines

For over a hundred years, the community development (CD) profession has been defined by national standards, theory, and experience. Active citizen volunteers, other professions, and agencies use a CD approach or some aspects of it in their community work; the following British publications define the work and guidelines for effective practice across the globe. Community Development Foundation for Communities and Local Government 2006 clarifies many CD terms and offers recommendations for community practice, while Lifelong Learning UK 2009 actually provides the principles and occupational standards for CD.

Journals

Most community-development journals do not have public roots but rather are grounded in political science, economic development, agriculture, psychology, and social science. Their multidisciplinary nature and broad array of methodologies make them accessible and useful to a wide variety of practitioners and academics who focus on community development work as it applies to health, wellness, and advocacy. Many of these journals are published in the United Kingdom or Canada, with the exception of the Journal for Comprehensive Community Development, American Journal of Community Psychology, Journal of Community Psychology, and Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology. The Community Development Journal, CDS Journal, and the Journal of Rural and Community Development focus exclusively on the community development (CD) field, with the latter providing a rural focus that is missing in most CD professional publications. The Journal of Community Psychology and the American Journal of Community Psychology offer manuscripts that concentrate more on human and group behavior in community settings. Both journals cover a broad scope of issues related to community practice and organizing. Finally, the National Civic Review offers more commentary than research or practice.

  • American Journal of Community Psychology.

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    Quarterly journal by the Society for Community Research and Action: the Division of Community Psychology of the American Psychological Association; features research, theory, and innovative interventions. Covers health promotion, community empowerment, social action/mobilization, coalition building, advocacy, community organizing, social change, community development, technical assistance, and community-based participatory research. Encourages international submissions and those concerning underrepresented/diverse populations.

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  • CDS Journal.

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    Published quarterly by Routledge, this journal features articles on rural/urban economic development, social capital, entrepreneurship, theory, technology, and leadership for academics and practitioners.

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  • Community Development Journal.

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    Published quarterly by Oxford University Press and circulated in over eighty countries, this journal provides an international forum for political, economic, and social programs that links activities of people with institutions and government. Dealing with theory and practice of policies, programs, and methods employed, the journal covers diverse topics, such as community action, planning, and rural development.

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  • Journal for Comprehensive Community Development.

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    Online journal for practitioners, researchers, funders, and policymakers engaged in comprehensive CD. Topics range from the impact of social issues on health to initiatives that strengthen public education through CD. Articles, photo essays, and video are sought on CD theory and practice, innovative solutions, new trends/challenges, best practices, and policy changes that build stronger communities.

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  • Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology.

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    International journal published six times per year by Wiley Interscience for social/clinical psychologists and psychiatrists, social workers, administrators, community health professionals, and social scientists. Encourages research and review articles, promising interventions, debates, commentaries, and book reviews focused on mental/physical health, community empowerment and participation, organizations and communities of practice, health education, social services, community programs, community action, and sustainability.

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  • Journal of Community Practice.

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    Quarterly journal published by Routledge and sponsored by Association for Community Organization and Social Administration (ACOSA). Covers research, theory, practice, and curriculum strategies for communities/organizations in dealing with social problems. The only journal focused on community practice, including community organizing; planning; nonprofit management; economic, organizational, and community development; and social change.

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  • Journal of Community Psychology.

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    Published six times per year by Wiley Interscience for social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, counselors, and mental health professionals, this journal is devoted to research, evaluation, assessment, intervention, and review articles that deal with human behavior and group interaction in community settings.

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  • Journal of Rural and Community Development.

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    Published twice annually, this journal is based in the Rural Development Institute (RDI) at Brandon University (an academic research center and leading source of information on issues affecting rural communities in western Canada and elsewhere). The Journal of Rural and Community Development is funded through annual grants from Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives.

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  • National Civic Review.

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    Quarterly journal published by Jossey-Bass for the National Civic League, featuring thoughtful commentary on democratic governance and civic engagement.

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History

Few books cover the history of community development (CD), perhaps because it is diffuse and circuitous. Peet and Hartwick 2009 uses theory to trace the development of CD over time, and Rist 2008 takes an economic-development focus.

  • Peet, Richard, and Elaine Hartwick. 2009. Theories of development: Contentions, arguments, alternatives. 2d ed. New York: Guilford.

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    Widely adopted text evaluates theories of international economic development from classical, economic, and sociological models to Marxist, poststructuralist, and feminist perspectives. No other book provides such comprehensive coverage or links the theories as well to contemporary world events and policy debates. Reexamining concepts of community and economic development, the authors show what just, democratic development might look like today.

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  • Rist, Gilbert. 2008. The history of development: From Western origins to global faith. Translated by Patrick Camiller. 3d ed. London: Zed.

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    Overview of what development has meant from its origins in a Western view of history, through early stages of the world system, the rise of US domination, and building the Third World, to concerns about the environment and globalization; includes two new chapters on the Millennium Development Goals and postdevelopment thinking.

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Disparities and Specific Populations

Focusing on diverse populations in urban and rural settings is an essential component of community development (CD) and is implicitly covered in all other citations in this article. However, Rivera and Erlich 1998 and Putnam 2007 forthrightly discuss the issues of race and ethnicity as they apply to CD. Further, Hart 2002 compares age-related diversity concerning CD in several countries.

  • Hart, Roger A. 2002. Children’s participation: The theory and practice of involving young citizens in community development and environmental care. London: Earthscan.

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    Presents issues and methods for involving children in community-development research, planning, management, and monitoring. Using examples from diverse cultures and social classes in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and the Philippines, the text focuses on developing participatory capacity, institutional alliances, action research, public awareness, and political action. Methodologies include drawings, collages, mapping, modeling, interviewing, surveying, media, and communication.

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  • Putnam, Robert D. 2007. E pluribus unum: Diversity and community in the twenty-first century. Scandinavian Political Studies 30.2: 137–174.

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    Putnam suggests that in ethnically diverse US neighborhoods, residents of all races “hunker down,” which leads to decreased trust, altruism, and community cooperation. Examples from US military and religious institutions and earlier waves of immigration show how successful immigrant societies have overcome fragmentation by creating new forms of social solidarity and more encompassing identities.

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  • Rivera, Felix G., and John L. Erlich, eds. 1998. Community organizing in a diverse society. 3d ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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    The Council for Social Work Education’s new Curriculum Policy Standards are incorporated in this edition. From a social-change perspective, chapters focus on specific communities (e.g., Chicanos, Filipino-Americans, and Southeast Asians). Relevant theories and methods of community organizing are applied to those communities, including a new section on theethical dilemmas of organizing with communities of color.

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Manuals and Handbooks

Most community development (CD) publications are in the form of manuals, handbooks, and guides, which attests to the practical nature of this work. These manuals provide step-by-step approaches replete with community examples of how to engage in effective community building and development. Although most focus on process, the practitioner will be guided to develop and sustain the human and financial resources that make positive results more likely. Some of these publications (Brown 2007, Wolff 2010) use a personal, story-telling approach, which may prove to be either encouraging or too simplistic for advanced practitioners. Kretzmann and McKnight 1993 and Mattessich and Monsey 1997 offer principles for assessing community assets prior to engaging in development activities. Ohmer and DeMasi 2008 provides a framework and tools for consensus organizing, which is a step that is preliminary to CD. Bacon 2009, Block 2008, and Brown 2007 provide practical stories about effective collaboration and CD work, as well as tools for accomplishing basic CD tasks and making them happen locally. Wolff and Kaye 1995 takes a similar tack but from a coalition-building framework. Ternali 2002 is a manual centered on the economics of community development. Wolff 2010 and Schuman 2006 hone in on the collaborative nature of CD activities and are enriched by principles and examples, with the latter publication aiming for an international audience. Most of these works have utility across different disciplines and types of communities.

  • Bacon, Jono. 2009. The art of community: Building the new age of participation. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly.

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    Book to help multidisciplinary practitioners develop skills to recruit, motivate and manage people to become active participants in building community. It covers: developing strategies with specific objectives; creating infrastructure, governance, processes, and tools to help communities accomplish tasks; tracking work; and identifying/managing conflict, including dealing with divisive personalities.

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  • Block, Peter. 2008. Community: The structure of belonging. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

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    Inspiring exploration of how community can emerge and build from fragmentation. Guide for volunteers, civic leaders, businesspersons, and community activists who want to improve their workplaces and communities. Author identifies essential ingredients, qualities, questions, atmosphere, and actions needed to create and build accountable and engaged communities.

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  • Brown, Michael Jacoby. 2007. Building powerful community organizations: A personal guide to creating groups that can solve problems and change the world. Arlington, MA: Long Haul.

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    Step-by-step guide to create/revitalize organizations for social change for those planning to start or strengthen community/civic groups, congregations, and neighborhood associations. Stresses community organizing and building processes by using lessons learned, exercises, and stories about how groups work; steps for building durable organizations; developing mission, goals, and objectives; recruiting/mobilizing others; fund-raising; and taking action.

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  • Kretzmann, John P., and John L. McKnight. 1993. Building communities from the inside out: A path toward finding and mobilizing a community’s assets. Chicago: ACTA.

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    Guide summarizes lessons learned by studying successful community-building initiatives in neighborhoods across United States. Provides practical advice, helpful tools, and stories of what local communities can do to engage in effective asset-based development.

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  • Mattessich, Paul, and Barbara Monsey. 1997. Community building: What makes it work; A review of factors influencing successful community building. St. Paul, MN: Amherst H. Wilder Foundation.

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    Practical guide shows what contributes to community-building success and provides understandable research based on real-life experiences. Twenty-eight keys to help build community are grouped by characteristics of community, community building process, and community-building organizers. Descriptions and case examples, practical assessment questions, definitions, field resources, contacts, explanation of research process, and bibliography are included.

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  • Ohmer, Mary, and Karen DeMasi. 2008. Consensus organizing: A community development workbook; A comprehensive guide to designing, implementing, and evaluating community change initiatives. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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    Practical approach for applying consensus organizing to a range of issues. Through exercises, role playing, case scenarios, and discussion questions, a framework for consensus organizing is presented. Workbook can be used alone or with Eichler 2007 (cited in the Textbooks section). Online study site available.

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  • Schuman, Sandy, ed. 2006. Creating a culture of collaboration: The International Association of Facilitators handbook. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    International group of practitioners and researchers from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, the United Kingdom, and the United States provide proven approaches to creating a culture of collaboration within and among groups, organizations, communities, and societies. Publication is intended for advocates, leaders, and practitioners of collaboration in private, public, and nonprofit sectors.

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  • Temali, Mihailo. 2002. Community economic development handbook: Strategies and tools to revitalize your neighborhood. St. Paul, MN: Amherst H. Wilder Foundation.

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    Comprehensive, step-by-step guide to a proven way to make any community a better place to live. Four elements crucial to neighborhood economies are defined: revitalizing commercial district, establishing microbusinesses, developing the community workforce, and growing jobs. Stories and field notes from successful community economic-development organizations, appendices, and worksheets enrich the text.

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  • Wolff, Tom. 2010. The power of collaborative solutions: Six principles and effective tools for building healthy communities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    Six proven principles for creating collaborative solutions for communities. Addresses contemporary social problems by helping people from diverse circumstances and backgrounds work together to solve community challenges. Contains illustrative stories and practical tools that show community developers and builders how to make lasting change happen.

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  • Wolff, Tom, and Gillian Kaye, eds. 1995. From the ground up! A workbook on coalition building and community development. Amherst, MA: AHEC/Community Partners.

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    Two-hundred-page workbook that is a complete toolbox for using coalition building and CD to create healthy communities, offering field ideas, frameworks, exercises, and hands-on worksheets that evolved from work in communities countrywide. Chapters by renowned authors in field of CD: Chavis, Fawcett, Francisco, Foster, Kaye, and Rosenthal.

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Anthologies and Case Studies

These anthologies and case studies use multiple authors and settings to represent their areas of expertise in the field of community building and development. DeFillippis and Saegert 2008 is a comprehensive beginning reader, while Hof 1998, Ledwith 2005, and Putnam and Feldstein 2003 provide complex case examples that illustrate effective methods of community development (CD) in urban and rural settings. Mander and Edwards 1996, Wharf and Clague 1997, and McMichael 2008 provide compelling case examples of local community-organizing initiatives on an international level. Berkowitz and Wolff 2000 focuses in depth and firsthand on the coalition-building aspect of community development with accounts of coalition work for social justice, documents, and practical lessons.

  • Berkowitz, Bill, and Tom Wolff. 2000. The spirit of the coalition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

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    Book providing public health practitioners with personal examples and lessons learned about how coalitions can be built and sustained to improve community participation and measurable outcomes. Good samples of processes and materials that coalitions have used (e.g., planning documents, membership brochures, and publicity flyers) are provided as models.

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  • DeFilippis, James, and Susan Saegert, eds. 2008. The community development reader. New York: Routledge.

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    First comprehensive reader for students of planning, community development, and urban policy, addressing history, theory, and power dynamics of community development; covers the history and future of CD; institutions and practice; understanding, building, and organizing community; and theoretical concepts and debates.

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  • Hoff, Marie D., ed. 1998. Sustainable community development: Studies in economic, environmental, and cultural revitalization. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

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    In-depth collection of case studies of urban and rural communities committed to sustainable development provides a more detailed description of this process than was previously available. It demonstrates common approaches across various environmental and cultural settings and examines an emerging consciousness from diverse viewpoints.

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  • Ledwith, Margaret. 2005. Community development: A critical approach. 2d ed. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.

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    Critical approach to CD for students and educators involved in CD, youth and community work, social work, and health education. Grounded in the pedagogy of Paulo Freire, it helps readers understand transformative potential of CD theories, develop practical skills, analyze and reflect, and apply global context to local practice. Case studies illustrate how to apply ideas and models to current crises of poverty, justice, and sustainability.

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  • Mander, Jerry, and Edward Goldsmith, eds. 1996. The case against the global economy: And for a turn toward the local. San Francisco: Sierra Club.

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    This book presents the imperative for local community organizing to advance global thinking and development. It highlights the implications for food security, health, human rights, global economics, and poverty. The international case studies that are presented highlight the need for greater local self-sufficiency.

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  • McMichael, Philip. 2008. Development and social change: A global perspective. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

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    The fourth edition of this text maps the current trends in community development worldwide and implications for food security, ecology, culture, and women’s rights. Every article is illustrated with an international case study and students are urged to think critically about the costs and benefits of development.

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  • Putnam, Robert D., and Lewis M. Feldstein. 2003. Better together: Restoring the American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.

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    The follow-up to Bowling Alone, this book offers case studies of what diverse groups achieve by cultivating networks of mutual assistance. Examples range from a Boston neighborhood and a Mississippi county to the “virtual community” of Craigslist. Authors stress participatory involvement and networks that create opportunities for people to find their own public voice rather than relying on community organizers. Work of local governments, neighborhood associations, faith communities, and unions are equally featured.

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  • Wharf, Brian, and Michael Clague, eds. 1997. Community organizing: Canadian experiences. Toronto: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    This collection of fifteen articles organized in four sections is the first attempt to trace four decades of community organizing in Canada. Contributors seek to determine lasting legacies and to extract lessons from their many varied experiences. The strength of the book lies in these individual contributions, especially in the area of community treatment of mental health and other complex issues.

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Organizational Resources

Due to the dynamic, fast-paced nature of the field of community development (CD), online resources are essential. The following represent US- and UK-based sites that are invaluable to practitioners and academics. Many offer free or low-cost publications, as well as searchable databases to enhance CD work. CommunityCollab and the Federation for Community Development Learning offer online discussion forums to supplement their journals and print resources. The Community Development Foundation, National Association of Development Organizations, and National Civic League offer manuals and other publications as well as advocacy, training, and technical-assistance resources. The Community Toolbox is an extensive online library of resources for community building and CD work.

  • CommunityCollab.

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    To supplement and extend work in the Journal for Comprehensive Community Development, the Institute for Comprehensive Community Development encourages participation in CommunityCollab, an online venue for discussion and sharing issues related to CD. The Collab has more than six hundred members involved in community-related work.

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  • Community Development Foundation.

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    Leading source of CD expertise and delivery in the United Kingdom, bridging government, community, and voluntary sectors. Organized under themes of community cohesion, community engagement, and strong communities, this site provides publications that can be downloaded or ordered and current information on CD issues.

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  • Community Toolbox.

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    Global resource for free information promoting essential skills for building healthy communities; over 7,000 pages of practical guidance in creating change and improvement (See Chapters 1 and 2: “Models for Promoting Community Health” and “Development”). Through the University of Kansas Work Group, technical assistance, training, consultation, and coaching services are offered in community health and development.

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    • Federation for Community Development Learning.

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      This federation helped develop the revised Occupational Standards for Community Development Work, the England Standards Board, and Paulo, the National Training Organization for youth/community work and adult learning. Website reaches out to national network of individuals and organizations interested in CD learning and sharing best practices; features information/resources to support community work training and special interest groups around particular issues.

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    • National Association of Development Organizations.

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      Organization that provides advocacy, education, research, and training for US regional development organizations. Website offers access to services, benefits, and information that enhance development organizations’ ability to foster regional solutions to local government, business, and community needs.

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    • National Civic League.

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      The National Civic League is a nonprofit, nonpartisan membership organization that fosters innovative community building and political reform, assists local governments, and recognizes collaborative community achievement through technical assistance, training, publishing, and research. Website features online publications, e-newsletters, and numerous manuals for ordering, including Model City Charter, Handbook for Council Members, Guide for Charter Commissions, Handbook for Strategic Planning and Visioning, and Civic Index: Measuring Your Community’s Civic Health.

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    LAST MODIFIED: 02/23/2011

    DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199756797-0019

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