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Public Health Health Education
by
Elaine Auld, Stephen F. Gambescia

Introduction

Health education is defined as “any combination of learning experiences designed to facilitate voluntary actions conducive to health” (Green and Kreuter 2005). Although the history of health education dates back to the 19th century, it was not until the 1940s that the field began evolving as a distinct discipline. Over time, health education’s theory and practice base have broadened from focusing on one-to-one and mass media behavioral interventions to encompass responsibility for policies, systems, and environments that affect population health. In the early 21st century, the terms health education and health promotion (i.e., the latter including an ecological approach) are often used interchangeably in the United States, while internationally health promotion is used as an overarching concept that includes health education. Health education is considered a mature profession given that it has developed a discrete body of knowledge, defined competencies, a certification system for individuals, a code of ethics, a federal occupational classification, and recognized accreditation processes in higher education. Health education is generally aligned with the behavioral and social sciences as one of the core dimensions of public health study and practice. Additionally, the field draws from theories and models from education, health studies, communications, and other diverse areas. The unique combination of these knowledge areas forms the basis for health education competencies. Health educators employ a core set of competencies, regardless of the diverse practice settings in which they work (i.e., schools, universities, health departments, community-based organizations, health-care settings, worksites, and international organizations). This bibliography is organized around major areas of health education practice, such as assessing, planning, implementing, managing, and evaluating health education or health promotion programs, services, and interventions. It includes historical and philosophical foundations, and development of its professionalism and ethics. The discipline embraces both qualitative and quantitative methods, community-based participatory research, health communication and social marketing principles, and policy and media advocacy to accomplish program objectives. Health educators are stalwarts in the fight for social justice and believe that the health of a population should be a priority in any society.

Definition and Scope of Practice

The definition and scope of health education have evolved since the 1950s, particularly in relation to improved understanding of behavioral and socio-ecological influences on health. The early definition of health education in Griffiths 1972 primarily emphasized the provision of learning experiences to promote voluntary changes to individual health. Subsequent work in Robertson and Minkler 1994, Schwartz, et al. 1995, and Downie, et al. 1996 provides a broader context of health education in relation to policy, systems, and environmental changes inherent in the practice of health promotion and related philosophies. Taub, et al. 2009 provides a concise overview of how the terms health education and health promotion are used differently in the early 21st century in the United States versus internationally, due to historical, cultural, and political considerations. Gold and Miner 2002 and Modeste, et al. 2004 provide good sources of contemporary definitions for many other terms, which is especially important due to the eclectic base from which health education draws.

  • Downie, Robert, Carol Tannahill, and Andrew Tannahill. 1996. Health promotion: Models and values. 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    A comprehensive and systematic review of how to define health promotion and the range of underlying values held by those in practice. One of the few works that addresses the influence of values held by the profession, government entities, and communities on health promotion.

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  • Gold, Robert S., and Kathleen R. Miner. 2002. 2000 Joint Committee on Health Education and Promotion Terminology. Journal of School Health 7.2: 3–7.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2002.tb06501.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The Joint Committee convenes every decade to evaluate the current terminology in health education, which changes with the advancement of scholarship, technological developments, and professional practice. This citation is the seventh major health education terminology report issued during the past seventy years.

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  • Griffiths, William. 1972. Health education definitions, problems, and philosophies. Health Education Monographs 31:12–14.

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    This health education pioneer defines health education as an “attempt to close the gap between what is known about optimum health practice and that which is actually practiced.” Later, as part of the views offered to President Richard M. Nixon’s First White House Conference on Health Education, Griffiths also asserted the health educator’s role in changing societal conditions that influence health.

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  • Modeste, Naomi, Teri Tamayose, and Helen H. Marshak. 2004. Dictionary of public health promotion and education: Terms and concepts. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    Brief dictionary of the most common and more esoteric terms used in health promotion and education. Expands on concepts beyond a rote definition, which is useful to both students and practitioners.

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  • Robertson, A., and Meredith Minkler. 1994. New health promotion movement: A critical examination. Health Education Quarterly 21:295–312.

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    Explores the various meanings of health education to date and identifies the characteristics of a new health promotion movement and implications for practice and research.

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  • Schwartz, Randy, Robert Goodman, and Alan Steckler. 1995. Policy advocacy interventions for health promotion and education: Advancing the state of practice. Health Education Quarterly 22.4: 421–426.

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    This theme issue outlines the role of policy advocacy in achieving health education and health promotion objectives. Includes seminal articles on environmental and policy change for tobacco, cardiovascular disease, physical activity, and nutrition.

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  • Taub, Alyson, John P. Allegrante, Margaret P. Barry, and Keiko Sakagami. 2009. Perspectives on terminology and conceptual and professional issues in health education and health promotion credentialing. Health Education & Behavior 36.3: 439–450.

    DOI: 10.1177/1090198109333826Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Explains how the terms health education and health promotion have been defined and used differently in the United States and other countries, and includes a succinct and useful table. Also addresses key international perspectives on professional competencies, standards, and accreditation.

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Historical and Philosophical Foundations

Health education is a foundational function of public health; however, the development of its theories and models, best practices, and professional preparation of practitioners is relatively “new,” occurring over the last sixty years. A standout and comprehensive source of history in the field is Society for Public Health Education 1982, which compiles journal articles and national conference proceedings from the 1950s forward. World Health Organization 1986 and most recently Porter 2007 have described a “shift in focus” of the strategies used to promote the health of the public. In terms of a philosophical foundation for the field, Gambescia 2007 notes that such a foundation is not self-evident and that some may hold to a presumptive philosophy for all. Therefore, Allegrante and Sleet 2004, Allegrante 2006, Buchanan 2006, and Eddy 2006 argue for a particular philosophy for the field. Black, et al. 2010 provides a collection of writings that begin to answer fundamental questions about who we are, what areas of the human condition we choose to affect, why (and in what way) we do the things we do, and what difference we are making as health educators.

  • Allegrante, John. 2006. In search of a new ethic for health promotion. Health Education & Behavior 33.3: 305–307.

    DOI: 10.1177/1090198105276222Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This commentary responds to David Buchanan’s “new ethic for health promotion” (Buchanan 2006). Argues that much progress has been made in health education theory and research and that the medical model, which rests on the scientific method, is valuable or else health education may lose resources and respectability among the health fields.

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  • Allegrante, John P., and David Sleet, eds. 2004. Derryberry’s educating for health: A foundation for contemporary health education practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    Mayhew Derryberry, the first chief of the Division of Health Education in the US Public Health Service, pioneered the study of the confluence of behavioral, environmental, and social factors affecting human disease. This book includes his writings with commentary by contemporary experts and academics in the field.

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  • Black, Jill, Steven Furney, Helen Graf, and Ann Nolte, eds. 2010. Philosophical foundations of health education. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

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    Unique collection of articles from dozens of authors explaining the various philosophies of health education, how one formulates a philosophy of health education, and the difference a philosophy makes in improving the human condition.

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  • Buchanan, David. 2006. A new ethic for health promotion: Reflection on a philosophy of health education for a new millennium. Health Education & Behavior 33.3: 290–304.

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    Author believes that health education should not be too quick to model its epistemic standards on “reason” and the traditional scientific method, and argues for a broader social constructionist theory to guide health education.

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  • Eddy, James. 2006. Epistemology of the health education process. American Journal of Health Education 27.5: 258–270.

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    Explains the epistemic issues in health education and their implications for planning and best practices. Focuses on the benefits that the health education process brings to improving the health of individuals and communities.

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  • Gambescia, Stephen F.. 2007. SOPHE presidential address: Discovering a philosophy of health education. Health Education & Behavior 34.5: 718–722.

    DOI: 10.1177/1090198107307455Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Argues for the need for health education to develop its own philosophy rather than borrow from other disciplines by asking fundamental questions about who we are, what areas of the human condition we choose to affect, why (and in what way) we do the things we do, and what difference we are making as health educators.

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  • Porter, Christine. 2007. Ottawa to Bangkok: Changing health promotion discourse. Health Promotion International 22.1: 72–79.

    DOI: 10.1093/heapro/dal037Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Critical analysis of discourse that compares the Ottawa Charter with the updated Bangkok Charter. Argues that the Bangkok Charter represents a radical departure from the Ottawa Charter by shifting from a “new social movements” discourse of eco-social justice to a capitalist discourse of law and economics.

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  • Society for Public Health Education. 1982. The SOPHE heritage collection of health education monographs. Oakland, CA: Third Party Publishing.

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    Three-volume monograph that includes the foundational works from journal articles and national conference proceedings (1950–1980) in areas of (1) philosophical, behavioral, and professional basis for health education; (2) practice; and (3) research and evaluation in health education. Timeless works especially valuable for training health education students.

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  • World Health Organization. 1986. Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion Ottawa, ON, World Health Organization.

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    The culmination of an international conference on health promotion whose goals were to achieve Health for All by the year 2000 and beyond. It builds on the work of the Declaration of Primary Health Care at Alma-Alta, the WHO Targets for Health for All, and the WHO intersectoral’s action for health.

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Theories and Models

This collection of theories and models in health education, while no means exhaustive, includes some of the most popular books and articles in the field. Included are contemporary works such as Minkler and Wallerstein 2008, as well as seminal constructs like Bandura 1997, Green and Kreuter 2005, and Rogers 2003. Glanz, et al. 2008 provides a well-developed digest of the most relevant theoretical models in use, while DiClemente, et al. 2009 offers provocative insight into emerging theories and paradigms that maybe more relevant to the rapidly evolving demographic, cultural, technological, and other societal changes. Clark and McLeroy 1995 provides the first research agenda for the field, while Airhihenbuwa and Quinn 2006 takes the agenda a step beyond in addressing the complex research questions and issues related to eliminating health disparities. Best, et al. 2003 wrestles with complex but critical issues in bridging the chasms between health education theory and practice.

  • Airhihenbuwa, Collins O., and Sandra C. Quinn, eds. 2006. Eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities: Framing a health education research agenda. Health Education & Behavior 33: 425–541.

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    Contains presentations from SOPHE’s 2005 inaugural summit on eliminating health disparity, which produced a transdisciplinary research agenda. Articles address fundamental challenges when conducting health equity research, such as data sources, culture, power, and transdisciplinary collaboration. The issue should be read in tandem with the July 2006 special issue of Health Promotion Practice.

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  • Bandura, Albert. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.

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    Social learning theory and self-efficacy are utilized widely in health education, behavior modification, and behavioral modeling. Stresses the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others and the continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences.

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  • Best, Allan, Daniel Stokols, Lawrence Green, Scott Leischow, Beverly Holmes, and Kaye Buchholz. 2003. An integrative framework for community partnering to translate theory into effective health promotion strategy. American Journal of Health Promotion 18.2: 168–176.

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    Provides insights on how to bridge the gap between research and practice, a long-standing and pervasive problem in the field. Outlines a theoretical foundation for future health promotion research and practice that integrates four models, and stresses the need for expanded use of systems theory in health promotion.

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  • Clark, Noreen M., and Kenneth R. McLeroy, eds. 1995. Creating capacity: A research agenda for public health education. Health Education Quarterly 22.3: 269–408.

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    This special journal issue outlines a first research agenda for the overall field of health education. Addresses what is known and unknown in the field, the search for relevant theories and principles, underserved and special populations, evaluation, and recommendations for future research.

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  • DiClemente, Ralph, Richard Crosby, and Michelle Kegler, eds. 2009. Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research. 2d ed. San Francisco: Wiley.

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    First published in 2002. The authors provide a second wave of theories and models that are emerging to shape the research and practice of health promotion. Twenty-six contributors describe how recent behavioral health models can improve the health of the public.

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  • Glanz, Karen, Barbara Rimer, and K. Viswanath, eds. 2008. Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice. 4th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    One of the most comprehensive works on health education theory in which leading authors in the field explain theories and models of health education and how they are used in practice. Provides the reader with excellent references and many charts and tables.

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  • Green, Lawrence W., and Marshall Kreuter. 2005. Health program planning: An educational and ecological approach. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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    The Precede-Proceed Model of health program planning and evaluation is one of the most widely tested and used theoretical foundations in health education and health promotion. The model is based on two fundamental propositions: (1) health and health risks are caused by multiple factors and (2) because health and health risks are determined by multiple factors, efforts to effect behavioral, environmental, and social change must be multidimensional or multisectoral, and participatory.

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  • Minkler, Meredith, and Nina Wallerstein, eds. 2008. Community-based participatory research for health: From process to outcomes. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    A six-part book with more than seventy authors on the basis of community-based participatory research (CBPR), a process that equitably involves all partners in research and recognizes the unique strengths that each brings. Addresses CBPR’s theoretical and historical roots, experimental design, working with diverse communities, evaluating outcomes, methodological and ethical considerations, and policy and systems change.

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  • Rogers, Everett M. 2003. Diffusion of innovations. 5th ed. New York: Free Press.

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    First appearing in the early 1960s, this classic work by a communication professor explains how new ideas spread among people through various communication channels and over time. Given that health education seeks to “get useful information to people,” it has become an essential book in the field.

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Community Assessment

Conducting a community assessment is a fundamental step in formulating a health education and health promotion program. It involves gaining information on the current health status of individuals or populations and desired health knowledge, behaviors, or outcomes. Gilmore and Campbell 2005 and Fertman and Allensworth 2010 describe approaches and provide case examples of assessing individuals as well as groups in schools, worksites, health-care organizations, and communities. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010 targets worksites and the extensive arena of health risk appraisals being conducted in businesses and worksites. University of Kansas Workgroup for Community Health and Development 2010 provides extensive resources on community assessment, including use of Geographic Information Systems and community mapping, which are important skills in today’s health education toolbox. Another critical step in needs assessment is examining the optimum policy or practice needed to produce health outcomes.

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. CDC’s Lean Works!: A Workplace Obesity Prevention Program

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    Outlines the need for and approaches to conducting a needs assessment before planning a worksite health promotion program. Provides an overview of health risk appraisals, ethics, budgeting, and gaining employee and senior management support. Also includes valuable links to the Task Force on Community Preventive Services, recommendations and promising practices, and various sample surveys and templates.

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  • Fertman, Carl I., and Diane Allensworth, eds. 2010. Health promotion programs: From theory to practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    A collection of articles from more than forty researchers, academics, and practitioners that provides an overview on the theoretical foundations for, and assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation, and sustaining of health education programs. First undergraduate textbook published by SOPHE.

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  • Gilmore, Gary D., and M. Donald Campbell. 2005. Needs and capacity assessment strategies for health education and health promotion. 3d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

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    This hands-on book describes the need for and methodological approaches to assessing the needs of both individuals and groups. Provides details on single- and multistep surveys, group participation processes, self-directed assessments, using technology to assess needs, and other fundamental approaches to assessing needs.

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  • University of Kansas Workgroup for Community Health and Development. 2010. The Community Tool Box.

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    Includes forty-six chapters with over three hundred different sections that provide step-by-step guidance in community-building skills. Includes information related to community assessment, such as how to assess community needs and resources, get issues on the public agenda, build coalitions, and analyze community problems.

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Planning

Planning is a critical competency that a professionally prepared health educator can bring to the health-enhancing team and is a complex process. Minkler 2007 and Poland, et al. 2009 explain that health education planning is a community affair and requires a complex set of skills not often familiar to most health professionals. Cottrell, et al. 2009 and McKenzie, et al. 2009 describe how planning in health education is purpose-driven, based on accurate and reliable data from many sources, and is a dynamic process involving interpersonal exchanges with stakeholders and even detractors interested in the health issue at hand. A leading planning model in the field of health education is the Precede-Proceed Model developed in Green and Kreuter 2005. The model moved the field to take an ecological approach to health education and promotion, consistent with McLeroy, et al. 1988, whereby educators consider variables beyond the individual to include environmental factors or policy controls that influence an individual’s or groups’ behavior. It provides a framework with nine phases of planning that asks planners to assess internal and external variables affecting the health issue and explains important evaluation steps needed after implementation of the health education intervention. In the early 21st century, health education planning also has several structured models and standards at its disposal, such as those presented by Bartholomew, et al. 2006 and American Cancer Society 2007.

  • American Cancer Society. 2007. National health education standards: Achieving excellence. 2d ed. Atlanta: American Cancer Society.

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    Provides a framework for health instruction in schools and helps enable students to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote personal, family, and community health. The eight standard statements enable education professionals to align health education curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices.

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  • Bartholomew, L. Kay, Guy Parcel, Gerjo Kok, and Nell Gottlieb. 2006. Planning health promotion programs: An intervention mapping approach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    Provides health promotion professionals with a framework for effective decision making at each step of the process involved in health program design, implementation, and evaluation. Gives specific steps and procedures for developing health education and promotion programs based on theory, empirical findings, and data.

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  • Cottrell, Randall R., James T. Girvan, and James F. McKenzie. 2009. Principles and foundations of health promotion and education. 4th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.

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    Gives an in-depth history and philosophy of the health education field and outlines the up-to-date roles and responsibilities of the health educator. Describes the sectors and organizations in which health educators are employed and gives a history and update on the professionalization of the health education specialist.

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  • Green, Lawrence, and Marshall Kreuter. 2005. Health program planning: An educational and ecological approach. 4th ed. Guilford, CT: McGraw-Hill.

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    Presents the principles and processes of a health promotion planning model (Precede-Proceed) that is used by many practitioners. Now in its fourth edition, the book provides an up-to-date rationale and references for best practices in health education planning.

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  • McKenzie, James, Brad Neiger, and Rosemary Thackeray. 2009. Planning, implementing and evaluating health promotion programs. 5th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.

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    A comprehensive primer on the practical and theoretical skills needed to plan, implement, and evaluate health promotion programs in a variety of settings. Addresses the various functions that a health educator encounters in his or her work and in various settings, for example, community, school, health-care setting.

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  • McLeroy, Kenneth, D. Bibeau, Alan Steckler, and Karen Glanz. 1988. An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Education Quarterly 15.4: 331–337.

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    Authors introduce a model for health promotion that considers both the individual and the social environmental factors. Addresses the importance of interventions directed at changing interpersonal, organizational, community, and public policy factors, which can ultimately support and maintain healthy or unhealthy behaviors.

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  • Minkler, Meredith. 2007. Community organizing and community building for health. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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    A mix of practitioners and scholars work together to provide strategies and best practices in working with communities that face challenging contemporary health issues. Authors show how working back from community perspectives adds value to any health-enhancing initiative.

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  • Poland, Blake, Gene Krupa, and Douglas McCall. 2009. Settings for health promotion: An analytic framework to guide intervention design and implementation. Health Promotion Practice. 10.4: 505–516.

    DOI: 10.1177/1524839909341025Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Authors address the contexts within which people live, work, and play and make these the object of inquiry and health promotion intervention. Provides a template or framework for systematically analyzing those features of settings that should influence intervention design and delivery.

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Implementation and Best Practices

At some level, implementation is the raison d’être of health education. Kreuter, et al. 2003 describes how health educators need to be able to put an intervention, program, project, campaign, or initiative into motion, regardless of the population or setting. The Health Promotion and Education Database is a repository for exemplary models of implementing community health education interventions. The Guide to Community Preventive Services serves as a helpful bible of evidence-based recommendations about what works to improve public health in major topic areas. Goldman and Schmalz 2005 provides basics or “tools” in a popular series, and Johnson and Breckon 2007 is a handbook for managing health education programs. Fodor, et al. 2002 is one of a few works on actual health instruction in school health education settings. To be effective, health education communication must be culturally, linguistically, and ethnically appropriate; Doak, et al. 1996 has guided the health field in teaching patients and adults with low literacy skills. Finally, good implementation stems from good planning and anticipates program evaluation. As generalists, health educators are quite athletic members of a health-enhancement team as they can play the role of planner, instructor, communicator, facilitator, and evaluator at multiple sites. Standards of practice are being developed for each site, such as those set by American College Health Association 2005.

  • American College Health Education Association. 2005. Standards of practice for health promotion in higher education. Baltimore: American College Health Education Association.

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    In 1996 a task force was appointed by this association to develop standards of practice to enhance the quality of health promotion in higher education. This brief document delineates six standards, each with several substandards.

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  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Guide to Community Preventive Services

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    A resource for evidence-based recommendations and findings about what works to improve public health in some twenty topic areas such as cancer, diabetes, tobacco, and HIV/AIDs. Each review addresses what interventions have and have not worked (including in which populations and settings), cost of the intervention, other benefits or harms, and additional research needs. Complements the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services.

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  • Doak, Cecilia, Leonard Doak, and Jane Root. 1996. Teaching patients with low literacy skills. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

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    A classic “how to” book by experts in this growing field guides the educator developing the necessary tools for teaching those patients with limited literacy skills. They present strategies for evaluating comprehension and teaching patients using written materials, tapes, video, computer-aided instruction, visuals, and graphics.

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  • Fodor, John, Gus Dalis, and Susan Giarratano-Russell. 2002. Health instruction: Theory and application for community, school, health care and workplace settings. Dubuqe, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

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    Health education and promotion are based at some level on instructional models. This work is one of few in the field dedicated to pedagogy. Although some may see instruction as a throw-back strategy, many groups are reached using traditional health instruction modalities.

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  • Goldman, Karen, and Kathleen Schmalz, eds. 2005. Health education tools of the trade: Tools for tasks that didn’t come with the job description. Washington, DC: Society for Public Health Education.

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    These tools give health educators succinct practical advice for the many tasks needed in their work, from running meetings, and managing coalitions, volunteers and the boss, to writing articles for publication, and to making presentations. Excellent student reference.

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  • Johnson, James, and Breckon, Donald. 2007. Managing health education and promotion programs: Leadership skills for the 21st century. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

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    One of few works in the field that discusses the managing function for health promotion and education. Follows a logical sequence of topics in general nonprofit management from board development to personnel management, to fundraising, to marketing and communication. Includes more recent topics for management, such as technology, outcomes evaluation, and public policy.

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  • Kreuter, Marshall, Nicole Lezin, Matthew Kreuter, and Lawrence Green. 2003. Community health promotion ideas that work. 2d ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

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    Using real case studies, the authors demonstrate how health education actually works in the field. Case studies also illuminate major goals, principles, and players that made health education programs successful and give lessons learned.

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  • National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Health Promotion and Education Database.

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    Contains thousands of resources for chronic disease prevention, health promotion, and health education emphasizing methodology and the application of effective programs and risk reduction intervention. Years of coverage 1977 to present.

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    Relationship to Health Professions, Health-Enhancing Systems, and Sectors

    Health education is a profession with well-defined education, training, and certification requirements. Health educators are important and necessary contributors to improving the health of populations especially as part of the public health infrastructure. The Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education website, Ashton 1992, and Zaza, et al. 2005 acknowledge that health educators have unique skills for contributing to improving the health of a community and are important members of the health enhancing team. Although not a clinical discipline, health educators need to be aware of how health education integrates into a clinical setting; they should be aware of the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2009) and how education is implemented in a clinical practice as described by Woolf and Lawrence 1996. Health educators are good consultants; they can act as resources for a variety of health and safety initiatives at organizational, community, and state and federal levels and as described by Minelli and Breckon 2009 at various sites. While health educators have worked to develop their unique professional identity, they need to work closely with other health professionals. Berkowitz and Wolff 2000 and, more recently, Butterfoss 2009 explain in detail how health educators best work in coalitions to accomplish goals.

    • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2009. Guide to clinical preventive services 2009: Recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

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      Commissioned by the US Public Health Service, the US Preventive Services Task Force is the leading independent panel of private-sector experts in clinical prevention and primary care. The USPSTF conducts rigorous, impartial assessments of the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of a range of clinical preventive services, including health education. A large proportion of the recommendations are for patient counseling.

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    • Ashton, John, ed. 1992. Healthy cities. Milton Keynes, UK: Open Univ. Press.

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      Gives the origins of the Healthy Cities Project, its development, and movement into a worldwide initiative that seeks collaborative, intersectorial, and community-based approaches to improving the health of communities. Outlines goals, strategies, and outcomes and impact measures for healthy city initiatives, particularly in Canada, the United States, Australia, and some developing countries.

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    • Berkowitz, Bill, and Wolff, Tom. 2000. The spirit of the coalition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

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      Provides public health practitioners and other health professionals with “down to earth details” of how to form coalitions, how coalitions work, and how to evaluate their success. Coalition leaders give examples of field initiatives and share lessons learned. Emphasizes how to make coalitions work.

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    • Butterfoss, Fran Dunn. 2009. Coalitions and partnerships in community health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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      The most comprehensive work on coalition building to date, this book provides the historical, philosophical, and theoretical context for why coalitions are important to solve community health problems. Provides vivid strategies, best practices, and lessons learned in coalition participation and management to meet health objectives.

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    • Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education. Roles and functions of health promotion and health education units in state health departments

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      Identifies and succinctly explains the several functions of health education and health promotion and how they have served historically as a core function of public health and how they can function within a state health department.

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    • Minelli, Mark, and Donald Breckon. 2009. Community health education: Settings, roles, and skills. 5th ed. 2009. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

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      This book gives a history of the development of the profession, including professionalization and credentialing. One of few works that describes in detail the practice of health education at the various sectors and sites, and its relationship to the health-care team.

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    • Woolf, S. J., and Robert Lawrence eds. 1996. Health promotion and disease prevention in clinical practice. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1996.

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      The clinical practice compendium to the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. One of the best works that shows how health promotion and education is integral to primary care and prevention. Gives step-by-step instructions to manage risk factors through evidence-based preventive medicine.

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    • Zaza, Stephanie, Peter A. Briss, and Kate W. Harris, eds. 2005. The guide to community preventive services: What works to promote health? New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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      After almost a decade of work by a select scientific task force, the Guide presents recommendations for interventions that promote health and prevent diseases in communities and health-care systems. Recommendations are based on systematically derived scientific evidence of their effectiveness.

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    Health Communication, Social Marketing, and Policy Advocacy

    The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community health have gained increased prominence in recent decades, in part due to the increased number of communication channels, consumer demand for quality health information, and sophistication of marketing techniques. Atkin and Wallack 1990 and Maibach and Parrott 1995 discuss the evidence and impact of mass media campaigns as one aspect of multidimensional interventions to improve the health of diverse audiences. Schiavo 2007 documents the growing role of interactive media to exchange information, facilitate informed decision making, enhance peer and emotional support, and promote self-care. Reynolds and Quinn 2008 addresses the specialty area of risk communication and the importance of engaging communities in discussions about infectious and other health risks, particularly in times of crisis. As chronicled by Kotler and Lee 2008, the field of social marketing is a specialized approach of influencing individuals and communities through health communication, using marketing principles to “sell” ideas, attitudes, and behaviors. Wallack, et al. 1999 explains how to use the media to advocate for health policy changes. Altman 1994 provides a seminal handbook on policy advocacy, while the Center for Civic Partnerships 2010 coaches the beginning advocate on the foundations for health policy change.

    • Altman, David. 1994. Public health advocacy: Creating community change to improve health. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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      Handbook written by leading community activists and researchers who participated in major public health advocacy initiatives. Explores major stages of advocacy: identifying the root cause of the issue, setting objectives, identifying strategies and principals to be involved, creating communication messages, and evaluation.

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    • Atkin, Charles, and Lawrence Wallack. 1990. Mass communication and public health. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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      This seminal work on how the mass media can be used to improve the public’s health shows the dynamic between and among the media, the public, public health professionals, and policy makers. It is one of the first major works to argue for the case that public health professionals need to be media savvy.

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    • Center for Civic Partnerships. 2010. Media Advocacy.

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      Provides definitions, tips, and linkages to many other valuable sites and books on the role and uses of media advocacy in catalyzing social change and improving the public’s health.

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    • Kotler, Philip, and Nancy Lee. 2008. Social marketing: Influencing behavior for good. 3d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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      This book by pioneering authors in the field eloquently explains how concepts developed in academia are translated to practice. Provides detailed examples of successful social marketing campaigns, including the background and rationale for a campaign’s steps toward implementation, and evaluation.

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    • Maibach, Edward, and Roxanne Parrott, eds. 1995. Designing health messages: Approaches from communication theory and public health practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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      Provides critical foundation for developing large-scale health messages as it explains how health messages are developed based on theories of human behavior change and the processing of external health behavior. Covers linguistic considerations, the role of fear in content, and using positive affect.

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    • Reynolds, Barbara, and Sandra Crouse Quinn, eds. 2008. Crisis and emergency risk communication for pandemic influenza. Health Promotion Practice 9.4: 5s–97s.

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      Communicating risk, especially during a crisis, takes special skill and competence. This journal supplement addresses the research surrounding and practice of communicating during an outbreak of avian flu, with particular attention to public attitudes toward risk communicators, building capacity and community resilience, simulation exercises, and public education and outreach.

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    • Schiavo, Renata. 2007. Health communication from theory to practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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      Combines a comprehensive introduction to current issues, theories, and special topics in health communication with a hands-on guide to program development and implementation. Addresses the role of health communication in community mobilization, policy change, constituency communications, public relations, and other areas.

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    • Wallack, Lawrence, Katie Woodruff, Lori Dorfman, and Iris Diaz. 1999. News for a change: An advocate’s guide to working with the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 1999.

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      Explains how to use mainstream media to advocate for social and health changes. Provides a basic introduction to media advocacy, with step-by-step suggestions and checklists.

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    Evaluation

    An adage that public health professionals have learned to appreciate is that what does not get measured does not get done. International Union for Health Promotion and Education 1999 continues to look for evidence of health promotion’s effectiveness, while Tang, et al. 2003 gives a contemporary perspective on this subject. Heath educators have become more skilled in the research and evaluation process. Windsor, et al. 1994 is an early guide, while Crosby, et al. 2006 provides additional text illustrating advances in the field. Lorig 1996 shows evaluation tools at the individual patient level, and Issel 2009 examines evaluation at the community level. There has been a growing understanding that research to practice is better thought of not as a bridge but rather as a circle, in that each enterprise depends on the other and the beginning may be just as arbitrary as any end. McDermott and Sarvela 1999 explains that research and evaluation must not lose sight of its practitioner’s perspective.

    • Crosby, Richard, Ralph DiClemente, and Laura Salazar. 2006. Research methods in health promotion. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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      Describes in detail the steps in the health promotion research process, such as establishing a research design, selecting the type of research to meet the questions asked, sampling, and measurement techniques. Emphasizes the ethical issues in research and the public nature of the research process. Explains the difference between research and program evaluation.

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    • International Union for Health Promotion and Education. 1999. The evidence of health promotion effectiveness: Shaping a new public health in Europe. Part 2, Evidence book. Paris: IUHPE.

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      Brief report for the European Commission that assesses twenty years of evidence for the health, social, economic, and political affects of health promotion.

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    • Israel, Barbara, Eugenia Eng, Amy Schulz, and Edith Parker, eds. 2005. Methods in community-based participatory research for health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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      Community-based participatory research has become a useful process in improving the health of communities. This comprehensive book with several leading authors in the field helps explain the rationale, design, steps, and evaluation tools and expectations of a complex research process.

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    • Issel, L. Michele. 2009. Health program planning and evaluation: A practical, systematic approach for community health. 2d.ed. Salisbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

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      Uses a public health pyramid, program logic model, and evidence-based practice protocols to set up a system for health program planning and evaluation that can be done across the health-care disciplines.

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    • Lorig, Kate. 1996. Outcome measures for health education and other health care interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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      Explains how health education can be used and evaluated in a patient-care setting. Provides more than fifty self-administered scales for measuring health behaviors, health status, self-efficacy, and health-care utilization and how these scales were developed, especially for chronic disease self-management programs.

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    • McDermott, Robert, and Paul Sarvela. 1999. Health education evaluation and measurement: A practitioner’s perspective. 2d ed. Dubuque, IA: McGraw-Hill.

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      Provides program evaluation basics, including rationale, models, measurement tools, pilot testing, data interpretation, and communicating results. Covers in depth issues such as validity and reliability; quantitative versus qualitative studies. Chapter on needs assessment and assessing evaluation costs.

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    • Tang K. C, J. P. Ehsani, and David McQueen. 2003. Evidence based health promotion: Recollections, reflections, and reconsiderations. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 57.11: 841–843.

      DOI: 10.1136/jech.57.11.841Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      These three leading authors in health promotion effectiveness explain the shortcomings, so far, in methods used to test health promotion effectiveness. They propose a new typology for rating its success and give commentary on some of the unique challenges that health promotion has in the evaluation arena.

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    • Windsor, Richard, Noreen Clark, Neal Richard Boyd, and Robert Goodman. 1994. Evaluation of health promotion, health education, and disease prevention programs. 2d ed. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

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      This book is intended for public health practitioners and trainees to develop their skills at planning, implementing, and evaluating programs in different health-promoting settings. Topics include promoting organizational change, qualitative process evaluation, evaluating effectiveness, data collection methods, and cost analysis.

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    Professionalism and Ethics

    Among the hallmarks of a true profession are the setting of standards for professional preparation and practice, a distinct body of knowledge, and an ethical code. Livingood and Auld 2001, Allegrante and Barry 2009, and Taub, et al. 2009 document the evolution of credentialing processes on both the individual and program levels, as well as exciting new developments in global health promotion standards. National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, et al. 2006 reveals the latest competencies for all health educators at the beginning and advanced levels and provides the basis for the field’s certification system. The Coalition of National Health Education Organizations has been a potent force for enabling the profession to collaborate on issues that transcend practice setting, including the development of a code of ethics (Coalition of National Health Education Organizations 1999). Buchanan 2000 underscores the central tenet of ethics, which underlies the health education practice, while Seffrin 1997 outlines future challenges to the profession and research needs.

    • Allegrante, John P., and Margaret M. Barry eds. 2009. The Galway Consensus Conference: Achieving excellence in credentialing for global health promotion. Health Education & Behavior 36.3: 427–486.

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      Describes the first international consensus conference to develop the core competencies of professionals in health education and health promotion, and uniform standards for the accreditation of academic professional preparation programs. Complements articles in a special issue of Global Health Promotion.

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    • Buchanan, David. 2000. An ethic for health promotion. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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      Recognizing that most public health work involves some type of behavioral change, the author builds the case that health promotion is a moral and political issue. He argues that the goals of health promotion can be achieved by promoting autonomy and responsibility.

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    • Coalition of National Health Education Organizations. 1999. Code of Ethics for the Health Education Profession

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      Outlines the ethical responsibilities of health educators to the public, health education profession, employers, as well as in the delivery of health education, in research and evaluation, and in professional preparation. Is grounded in fundamental ethical principles that underlie all health care services: respect for autonomy, promotion of social justice, active promotion of good, and avoidance of harm.

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    • Livingood, William, and M. Elaine Auld. 2001. The credentialing of a population-based health profession: Lessons learned from health education certification. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice.7.4: 38–45.

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      Provides a brief history of the health education credentialing movement, and important decision points in the process for the profession, and distinguishes credentialed professions that work with individuals versus those, such as health education, that work with populations.

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    • National Commission for Health Education Credentialing and Coalition of National Health Education Organizations. 1996. The health education profession in the twenty-first century: Setting the stage. Journal of Health Education 27.6: 357–364.

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      Proceedings of a conference held on 16–17 June 1995 in Atlanta. Documents how leaders from some ten health education organizations developed a common vision of how the profession can collaborate in improving the public’s health through education, advocacy, and research.

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    • National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, Society for Public Health Education, and American Association for Health Education. 2006. A competency framework for health educators—2006. Whitehall, PA: National Commission for Health Education Credentialing.

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      Presents a new hierarchical model for health education practice at the entry level and two advanced levels, including 7 areas of responsibility, 35 competencies, and 163 subcompetencies. Describes the historical development and evolution of a competency-based model for health education.

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    • Seffrin, John. 1997. Premises, promises, and potential payoffs of responsible health education. Journal of Health Education 30.5: 267–273.

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      Examines the history and future of health education. Explains how well-designed, carefully conducted research can affect current understanding and future decisions in health education.

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    • Taub, Alyson, David A. Birch, M. Elaine Auld, Linda Lysoby, Laura Rasar King. 2009. Strengthening quality assurance in health education: Recent milestones and future directions. Health Promotion Practice 10.2: 192–200.

      DOI: 10.1177/1524839908329854Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Documents the history of the health education profession in creating capacity and standards for quality assurance of health education, including certification of individuals and accreditation and approval of professional preparation programs. Outlines future challenges.

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    LAST MODIFIED: 02/23/2011

    DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199756797-0044

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