Capacity-Building for Applied Public Health in LMIC: A US Perspective
- LAST REVIEWED: 15 June 2015
- LAST MODIFIED: 30 January 2014
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0074
- LAST REVIEWED: 15 June 2015
- LAST MODIFIED: 30 January 2014
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0074
Applied public health is the application of public health concepts, methodologies, and skills in order to improve health on the ground. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the health burden is particularly large, capacity for applied public health is critical. This capacity can come from high-income countries, with the resources—human, institutional, and financial—to address these health issues. However, it is equally important to develop a sustainable workforce in-country, to develop the capacity of a skilled cadre of public health professionals for sustainable health improvement efforts. The following bibliography provides a collection of some of these resources (textbooks, journals, websites, articles) that provide insight into the field of applied public health. Resources detailing the needs, challenges, and current issues in applied public health (capacity building, ethics, knowledge translation, understanding the population, advocacy and policy, leadership and partnerships) have also been provided. This bibliography discusses capacity building in LMICs from a US perspective; as such, it is beyond the scope of this article to provide a bibliography of other concepts and approaches on capacity building in LMICs by European countries (for example, UK, Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands), as well as other countries such as Cuba, Japan, and China, which have made substantial contributions to capacity building in LMICs.
This section covers a broad array of articles that introduce the field of capacity building for applied public health, including capacity building for key health research to inform public health interventions, as well as important monitoring and evaluation aspects. Potter and Brough 2004 focuses on a core definition for the broad concept of capacity building, and creates a hierarchy of capacity-building needs. Baillie, et al. 2009 attempts to create a conceptual model for capacity building, using an example from public health nutrition. Howze, et al. 2009 focuses specifically on building health promotion capacity, drawing upon experience in the United States. The following four articles discuss capacity building from the perspective of research to inform applied interventions, covering issues of building capacity, the potential impact of such capacity, how to evaluate it, and strategies for success. Lansang and Dennis 2004 discusses the components necessary for developing capacity for national health research systems. Minja, et al. 2011 provides specific examples of capacity-building approaches and their impact. Bates, et al. 2006 and Trostle 1992 discuss evaluation of research capacity building initiatives. Finally, Redman-Maclaren, et al. 2012 draws from a specific example—a partnership at a hospital in the Solomon Islands—for building mutually beneficial capacity-building projects in the developing world.
Baillie, E., C. Bjarnholt, M. Gruber, and R. Hughes. 2009. A capacity-building conceptual framework for public health nutrition practice. Public Health Nutrition 12.8: 1031–1038.
Through a literature review, this article describes a conceptual framework to assist in the application of capacity-building principles to public health nutrition practice. The present paper defines, contextualizes, and outlines a framework for integrating and making explicit the importance of capacity building within public health nutrition practice at many levels.
Bates, I., A. Akoto, D. Ansong, et al. 2006. Evaluating health research capacity building: An evidence-based tool. PLoS Medicine 3.8: 1224–1229.
This article describes the need for, and the development and use of, an evidence-based tool for determining whether the required infrastructure for capacity building in health research is present in any given setting, and for underpinning the design and evaluation of capacity-building programs in health research.
Howze, E. H., M. E. Auld, L. D. Woodhouse, J. Gershick, and W. C. Livingood. 2009. Building health promotion capacity in developing countries: Strategies from 60 years of experience in the United States. Health Education & Behavior 36.3: 464–475.
In this article, the authors draw on the experience acquired by the health promotion profession in the United States to illustrate what might be done to build health promotion capacity in developing countries, focusing on accreditation and certification, research and publications, advocating for the profession, and advocating for public health policy.
Lansang, M. A., and R. Dennis. 2004. Building capacity in health research in the developing world. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82.10: 764–770.
Strong national health research systems are needed, particularly in developing countries. The authors review the positive features and weaknesses of various approaches to capacity building, as well as key elements of capacity building: leadership, career structure, critical mass, infrastructure, information access, and interfaces between research producers and users.
Minja, H., C. Nsanzabana, C. Maure, et al. 2011. Impact of health research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries: The case of WHO/TDR programmes. PLoS Neglected Troical Diseases 5.10: e1351.
Reports on the impact of individual and institutional capacity-strengthening programs conducted by the UNICEF/United Nations Development Program/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases and on the factors that influenced the outcome of its Research Capacity Strengthening activities. The study highlights the need for a more equitable process to improve the effectiveness of such activities, tailored to the country level.
Potter, C., and R. Brough. 2004. Systemic capacity building: A hierarchy of needs. Health Policy and Planning 19.5: 336–345.
Although capacity building is a common goal of development programs, satisfactory definitions do not exist. This paper argues that it is more important to address systemic capacity building and a four-tier hierarchy of capacity-building needs: (1) structures, systems and roles, (2) staff and facilities, (3) skills, and (4) tools. Experience from India is presented to illustrate how the concept of the capacity-building pyramid has been put to practical use.
Redman-Maclaren, M., D. J. Maclaren, H. Harrington, et al. 2012. Mutual research capacity strengthening: A qualitative study of two-way partnerships in public health research. Internation Journal of Equity and Health 11:79.
Reports on a study about research partnerships undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands. Six major themes emerged: respectful relationships; increased knowledge and experience with the research process; participation at all stages in the research process; contribution to public health action; supporting and sustaining research opportunities; and managing challenges of capacity strengthening. Embedding mutuality throughout the research capacity-strengthening process may benefit North-South research capacity partnerships.
Trostle, J. 1992. Research capacity building in international health: Definitions, evaluations and strategies for success. Social Science and Medicine 35.11: 1321–1324.
The paper contextualizes a special series of papers on the processes, rather than products, behind research capacity building in international health. It answers the following key questions. (1) What is research capacity building? (2) How should it be evaluated? (3) What is its ultimate goal? (4) How can research capacity be leveraged? (5) What are issues for future debate and consideration?
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
How to Subscribe
Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here.
Purchase an Ebook Version of This Article
Ebooks of the Oxford Bibliographies Online subject articles are available in North America via a number of retailers including Amazon, vitalsource, and more. Simply search on their sites for Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guides and your desired subject article.
If you would like to purchase an eBook article and live outside North America please email firstname.lastname@example.org to express your interest.
- Access to Health Care
- Action Research
- Active Aging
- Active Living
- Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior in the United States
- Advocacy, Public Health
- Agricultural Safety and Public Health
- Air Quality: Health Effects
- Air Quality: Indoor Health Effects
- Alcohol Availability and Violence
- Alternative Research Designs
- Ambient Air Quality Standards and Guidelines
- American Perspectives on Chronic Disease and Control
- Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
- Asthma in Children
- Attachment as a Health Determinant
- Behavior Change Theory in Health Education and Promotion
- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
- Bicycling and Cycling Safety
- Birth and Death Registration
- Birth Cohort Studies
- Board of Health
- Built Environment and Health, The
- Business and Corporate Practices
- Cancer Communication Strategies in North America
- Cancer Prevention
- Cancer Screening
- Capacity Building
- Capacity Building for NCDs in LMICs
- Capacity-Building for Applied Public Health in LMIC: A US ...
- Cardiovascular Health and Disease
- Child Maltreatment
- Children, Air Pollution and
- Children, Injury Risk-Taking Behaviors in
- Children, Obesity in
- Citizen Advisory Boards
- Climate Change and Human Health
- Climate Change: Institutional Response
- Clinical Preventive Medicine
- Community Air Pollution
- Community Development
- Community Gardens
- Community Health Assessment
- Community Partnerships and Coalitions
- Community-Based Participatory Research
- Complexity and Systems Theory
- Definition of Health
- Dental Public Health
- Design and Health
- Dietary Guidelines
- Ecological Approaches
- Enabling Factors
- Environmental Laws
- Environmental Protection Agency
- Ethics of Public Health
- Evidence-Based Public Health Practice
- Family Planning Services and Birth Control
- Food Safety
- Food Security and Food Banks
- Food Systems
- Frail Elderly
- Functional Literacy
- Genomics, Public Health
- Geographic Information Systems
- Geography and Health
- Global Health
- Global Health Diplomacy
- Global Health Promotion
- Guide to Community Preventive Services, The
- Health Administration
- Health Communication
- Health Disparities
- Health Education
- Health Impact Assessment
- Health in All Policies
- Health in All Policies in European Countries
- Health Literacy
- Health Literacy and Non-Communicable Diseases
- Health Measurement Scales
- Health Planning
- Health Promoting Hospitals
- Health Promotion
- Health Promotion Workforce Capacity
- Healthy People Initiative
- Hepatitis C
- High Risk Prevention Strategies
- Human Rights, Health and
- Immigrant Populations
- Immunization and Pneumococcal Infection
- Indigenous Peoples, Public Health and
- Indigenous Populations of North America, Australasia, and ...
- Indoor Air Quality Guidelines
- Internet Applications in Promoting Health Behavior
- Intersectoral Strategies in Low - Middle Income Countries ...
- Justice, Social
- Knowledge Translation and Exchange
- Knowledge Utilization and Exchange
- Law of Public Health in the United States
- Media Advocacy
- Mental Health
- Mental Health Promotion
- Migrant Health
- Motor Vehicle Injury Prevention
- Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
- National Association of Local Boards of Health
- National Public Health Institutions
- Needs Assessment
- Obesity Prevention
- Occupational Cancers
- Occupational Safety and Health
- Ottawa Charter
- Parenting and Work
- Parenting Skills and Capacity
- Participatory Action Research
- Patient Decision Making
- Pesticide Exposure and Pesticide Health Effects
- Physical Activity and Exercise
- Physical Activity Promotion
- Polio Eradication in Pakistan
- Population Aging
- Population Determinants of Unhealthy Foods and Beverages
- Population Health Objectives and Targets
- Precautionary Principle
- Prenatal Health
- Program Evaluation in American Health Education
- Program Planning and Evaluation
- Public Health, History of
- Public Health Surveillance
- Public-Private Partnerships in Public Health Research and ...
- Public-Private Partnerships to Prevent and Manage Obesity ...
- Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
- Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies
- Randomized Controlled Trials
- Real World Evaluation Strategies
- Reducing Obesity-Related Health Disparities in Hispanic an...
- Rural Health in the United States
- Safety, Patient
- Sex Education in HIV/AIDS Prevention
- Skin Cancer Prevention
- Smoking Cessation
- Social Determinants of Health
- Social Epidemiology
- Social Marketing
- Statistics in Public Health
- Systems in the United States, Public Health
- Systems Theory in Public Health
- Traditional, Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative M...
- Translation of Science to Practice and Policy
- Traumatic Stress and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
- Tuberculosis among Adults and the Determinants of Health
- Unintentional Injury Prevention
- Urban Health
- Vaccine Hesitancy
- Violence Prevention
- Water Quality
- Water Quality and Water-Related Disease
- Weight Management in US Occupational Settings
- Worksite Health Promotion