Public Health Workforce
by
Jean Moore
  • LAST REVIEWED: 21 October 2016
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 May 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0093

Introduction

The public health system is a complex network of organizations that works to promote, protect, and preserve the health of the population as a whole. While governmental public health agencies (i.e., federal, state, and local) play a critical role in the planning and delivery of public health services, many other private and nonprofit organizations make up the public health system, including health and human services agencies, faith-based organizations, businesses, and schools. Recent concerns about natural disasters and threats of biological, chemical, and nuclear terrorism, as well as infectious diseases such as West Nile virus and Lyme disease, have raised public awareness about the need for an effective public health system. Well-prepared public health professionals are essential to an effective public health system in the United States. However, concern exists about the adequacy of the supply of public health workers and their skills and competencies. Public health draws its workforce from a wide array of professions both within and outside of health care. Health professionals in the public health workforce include registered nurses, social workers, health educators, nutritionists, physicians, and dentists, among others. Additional public health professionals include epidemiologists, sanitarians, and other environmental health workers. Some members of the workforce have had formal training in public health, but many have not. National data on the size and composition of the public health workforce are limited. The lack of clear definitions and good data make it difficult to fully assess the sufficiency of the supply of public health workers in relation to the demand for them. These issues are common threads found in public health workforce literature. This article identifies references on a variety of topics related to the public health workforce, including key areas for consideration in public health workforce research, workforce enumeration strategies, workforce recruitment and retention, and education and training of public health professionals. The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance provided by Maria A. MacPherson, RN, MPH, and Lyrysa Smith to complete this work.

General Overviews

Key reports released since the 1990s provide critical context about public health and the adequacy of this workforce to provide vital services aimed at maintaining the health of the population. The Institute of Medicine 1988 highlights the critical challenges faced by the public health system, including the lack of an adequately sized and trained workforce. Given emerging priorities in public health, US Department of Health and Human Services 1994 recommends the addition of new content to the curricula used to train public health professionals. Association of Schools of Public Health 1999 encourages the development of stronger ties between public health education and practice. Association of State and Territorial Health Officials 2004 is one of the first national reports to document concerns about health workforce shortages by state public health agencies.

National Reports

Gebbie 2000, a national report funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration, describes the scope and size of a broadly defined public health workforce. Bell and Khodeli 2004, Bureau of Health Professions 2005, and Bekemeier 2006 are reports that identify important workforce-related concerns, and they each include a particular emphasis on emerging shortages of public health workers.

  • Bekemeier, B., G. Kelly, and J. Matthews. 2006. The public health nursing shortage: A threat to the public’s health. Oklahoma City: Quad Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Data drawn from secondary sources are used to document a public health nursing shortage. Recommendations to address the shortage are provided and include strategies that target the recruitment and retention of public health nurses.

    Find this resource:

    • Bell, M. T., and I. Khodeli. 2004. Public health worker shortages: Trends alert. Lexington, KY: Council of State Governments.

      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Reports findings from a survey of human resources directors at state public health offices regarding workforce recruitment and retention issues, specific occupations with the most significant supply/demand gaps, and state-specific strategies to address the identified workforce issues.

      Find this resource:

      • Bureau of Health Professions. 2005. Public health workforce study. Merrifield, VA: Bureau of Health Professions.

        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        A six-state case study of state, regional, and local health agencies to examine their most pressing workforce issues. Key findings: many public health professions, particularly registered nurses, are hard to recruit and sometimes to retain; budget constraints are the biggest barrier to adequate staffing; and public health workers with formal public health training mostly work in state or large municipal agencies.

        Find this resource:

        • Gebbie, K. 2000. The public health workforce: Enumeration 2000. Washington, DC: National Center for Health Workforce Information and Analysis.

          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Uses primary data collection and secondary data sources to estimate the size and composition of the US public health workforce in 2000. Prepared by the Center for Health Policy, Columbia University School of Nursing.

          Find this resource:

          State-Level Studies

          States play key roles in supporting and delivering public health services to their residents. These reports provide perspective on state-specific public health workforce studies that cover a variety of topics, including enumeration studies (McGinnis, et al. 2008, Wisconsin Department of Health Services 2011), a workforce development model (Uden-Holman, et al. 2005), assessment of the educational attainment of public health nurses (Hill, et al. 2010), workforce needs for effective disaster preparedness (John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development 2007), impacts of workforce characteristics on local health performance (Hajat, et al. 2009), and assessment of regional need for a school of public health (Colorado Public Health Education and Research Advisory Committee 2002).

          • Colorado Public Health Education and Research Advisory Committee. 2002. A recommendation to create a collaborative school of public health for Colorado. Aurora: Colorado School of Public Health.

            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

            This report builds the case for developing a collaborative, accredited school of public health to meet regional need for public health education, research, and service. Ultimately, three separate programs of public health in Colorado merged to become a school of public health in 2007. Currently available online in Colorado School of Public Health Self-Study: Appendices Supporting Documentation, prepared for the Council on Education for Public Health.

            Find this resource:

            • Hajat, A., D. Cilenti, L. Harrison, et al. 2009. “What predicts local public health agency performance improvement: A pilot study of North Carolina.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 15.2: E22–E33.

              DOI: 10.1097/01.PHH.0000346022.14426.84Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              This study identifies factors associated with local public health performance in North Carolina from 1999 to 2004. Findings indicate that workforce characteristics, among others, impact the performance of local public health agencies. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

              Find this resource:

              • Hill, W., P. Butterfield, and S. Kuntz. 2010. “Barriers and facilitators to the incorporation of environmental health into public health nursing practice.” Public Health Nursing 27.2: 121–130.

                DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1446.2010.00835.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                A 2005 survey of public health nurses in Montana found that about 30 percent of the nurses had less than baccalaureate preparation. Raises concern that these nurses may not have had formal training in areas for which they are responsible, including environmental health. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                Find this resource:

                • John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development. Understanding the workforce needs of New Jersey’s public health and other disaster manager employers. 2007. New Brunswick: Edward J. Bloustein School of Public Planning and Policy, Rutgers Univ.

                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  A workforce needs assessment of the state’s disaster preparedness system, including both the workers and skills needed in state and local public health agencies for effective emergency response.

                  Find this resource:

                  • McGinnis, S., D. Robertson, and J. Moore. 2008. Enumeration of the local public health workforce in New York: 2006. Albany: Center for Health Workforce Studies, School of Public Health, State Univ. of New York at Albany.

                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                    A 2006 enumeration study of local public health workers in New York finds an older-than-average workforce that is not as diverse as the population it serves. Many of the workers age fifty-five and older report retirement plans in the next five years and about 20 percent of workers younger than age thirty-five report plans to leave the field of public health.

                    Find this resource:

                    • Uden-Holman, T., L. Walkner, D. Huse, B. Greene, D. Gentsch, and C. Atchison. 2005. “Matching documented training needs with practical capacity: Lessons learned from project protect public health ready.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 11.6 (Suppl.): S106–S112.

                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      Describes the development of the Iowa systems model for workforce development and its implementation in a rural local public health agency and a program evaluation. Discusses the importance of collaboration between academia and health departments to identify training needs and methods. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                      Find this resource:

                      • Wisconsin Department of Health Services, Division of Public Health, Office of Health Informatics, Population Health Information Section. 2011. Wisconsin public health workforce report, 2011. Madison: Wisconsin Department of Health Services.

                        Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        Recent data on the public health workforce in Wisconsin, drawn from a variety of sources, are presented in this report. The focus is on the size and composition as well as demographic and educational characteristics of the state and local government public health workforces.

                        Find this resource:

                        Textbooks

                        A small number of introductory public health textbooks include information on the public health workforce. Two examples of public health workforce chapters found in textbooks are listed in this section, and they are both written by Bernard Turnock. Turnock 2012a, “The Infrastructure of Public Health,” is a detailed description of the public health workforce and issues that is better suited for graduate public health courses. Turnock 2012b, “The Public Health Workforce,” is less detailed and better suited for undergraduate public health courses.

                        • Turnock, B. J. 2012a. “The infrastructure of public health.” In Public health: What it is and how it works. By B. J. Turnock, 283–352. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          Frequently used in graduate public health courses. The workforce section of the infrastructure chapter has an in-depth description of the public health workforce, including size, distribution, composition, competencies and skills, and projection of future demand. Includes a discussion on public health workforce development and the different approaches to credentialing public health workers.

                          Find this resource:

                          • Turnock, B. J. 2012b. “The public health workforce.” In Essentials of public health. By B. J. Turnock, 123–129. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

                            Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            Often used in undergraduate public health courses. The workforce chapter includes basic information on the size, distribution, and composition of the public health workforce as well as a discussion of skills, competencies, and characteristics of public health occupations.

                            Find this resource:

                            Special Edition Journals

                            Journals will, on occasion, devote an entire edition to a specific theme. The special edition journals listed in this section feature commentaries and articles focused on a public health workforce, some broadly, including Novick 2009, Woltring and Novick 2003, and Potter 2001. Others are more specifically focused, including Koo, et al. 2008, which looks in-depth at the issue of competency development for epidemiologists.

                            • Koo, D., G. S. Birkhead, and A. L. Reingold, eds. 2008. “Guest editorial.” Public Health Reports 123 (Suppl. 1): 1–3.

                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              Devoted to the topic of competency development for epidemiologists working in governmental public health.

                              Find this resource:

                              • Novick, L., ed. 2009. Special issue: Opportunities to inform public health workforce policies. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 15 (Suppl. 6) (November).

                                Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                Describes key public health workforce issues as well as strategies for addressing them. Articles available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                Find this resource:

                                • Potter, M. A., ed. 2001. Special issue: Public health workforce. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 7.4.

                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  Commentaries and articles on a wide array of public health workforce issues, including enumeration, workforce development, credentialing, and leadership development. Articles available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                  Find this resource:

                                  • Woltring, C. S., and L. F. Novick, eds. 2003. “Public health workforce: Infrastructure’s keystone.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 9.6 (November–December): 438–439.

                                    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    Commentaries and articles on current public health workforce issues, including workforce development, credentialing, research needs, and barriers to building stronger linkages between public health education and practice. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                    Find this resource:

                                    Journal Articles

                                    Public health workforce journal articles cover a wide array of topics, but typically they focus on a number of key themes, including workforce research, profession-specific studies, recruitment and retention, and education and training of public health professionals.

                                    An International Perspective

                                    Drawn from international literature, some of the articles illustrate the similarities between the public health workforce issues and challenges faced in other countries compared to those found in the United States, including Beaglehole and Dal Poz 2003 and Fleming, et al. 2009. Other articles, including Allegrante, et al. 2009 and Nsubuga, et al. 2011, describe collaborations between countries related to profession-specific credentialing and workforce development, respectively. Two articles, Mukanga, et al. 2010 and Rolle, et al. 2011, detail findings from evaluations of workforce development programs in African countries.

                                    Profession Specific

                                    Many professions are included in the public health workforce. These articles focus on specific professions within the public health workforce and highlight some of the unique issues they face. They include Allegrante, et al. 2001 and Cottrell, et al. 2009 on health educators; Bekemeier 2007; Campbell, et al. 2004; and Sistrom and Hale 2006 on public health nurses; and Birkhead and Koo 2006; George, et al. 2009; and Resnick, et al. 2009 on epidemiologists, nutritionists, and environmental health workers, respectively.

                                    Workforce Development

                                    This is an important public health workforce topic, particularly as it relates to efforts to provide formal public health education and training to the governmental public health workforce. Some of the articles consider issues related to public health workforce development from a broad perspective, including Kennedy and Moore 2001; Martin, et al. 2010; and Turnock 2003, while others are more focused on strategies such as effective training needs assessments, including Danielson, et al. 2003; Potter, et al. 2000; and Potter, et al. 2003; or successful collaborations between public health education and practice, including Davis, et al. 2003; Greene, et al. 1999; and Keller, et al. 2011.

                                    • Danielson, J., S. Zahniser, and D. Jarvis. 2003. “Identifying training needs in the public health workforce: The Public Health Prevention Service as a case study.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 9.2: 157–164.

                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      Preferred format and topics for training of public health workers are identified based on the Public Health Prevention Services (PHPS) training needs assessment completed at the PHPS June 2000 annual conference. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                      Find this resource:

                                      • Davis, M., S. Dandoy, and W. Greaves. 2003. “Graduate programs: What is their contribution to the training of the public health workforce?” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 24.4: 361–366.

                                        DOI: 10.1016/S0749-3797(03)00016-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        Findings from a survey of community health/preventive medicine and community health education graduate programs suggest that these programs may play important roles in the production of public health professionals, particularly in areas where there are no schools of public health. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                        Find this resource:

                                        • Greene, D., C. Healton, M. Hamburg, et al. 1999. “Creating training opportunities for public health practitioners.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 16.3S: 80–85.

                                          DOI: 10.1016/S0749-3797(99)00007-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          Describes a collaboration between a local health department and a school of public health in New York City aimed at creating opportunities for advanced public health education for the existing public health workforce.

                                          Find this resource:

                                          • Keller, L., M. Schaffer, P. Schoon, B. Brueshoff, and R. Jost. 2011. “Finding common ground in public health nursing education and practice.” Public Health Nursing 28.3 (May–June): 261–270.

                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1446.2010.00905.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            Describes an innovative collaboration between baccalaureate nursing education programs and local health departments in Minnesota to facilitate the placement of nursing students in public health settings. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                            Find this resource:

                                            • Kennedy, V. C., and F. I. Moore. 2001. “A systems approach to public health workforce development.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 7.4: 17–22.

                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              Proposes a systems approach for public health workforce development that considers relationships among the work, the worker, and the work organization. The article suggests that efforts to improve workforce competence may necessitate organizational changes in the public health employment sector. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                              Find this resource:

                                              • Martin, B., J. Stoots, R. Pack, R. Wykoff, and J. Dreyzehner. 2010. “Potential approaches to address the undergraduate public health training needs for working professionals: A case study of one rural area.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 16.2: 128–133.

                                                DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0b013e3181c8cb37Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                Makes the case for providing undergraduate public health training to the current public health workforce. Four approaches to training and educating the existing public health workforce are reviewed: online or online/on-site degree completion programs, course clusters for academic credit, partnerships with community colleges, and nonacademic training programs. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                Find this resource:

                                                • Potter, M. A., G. Barron, and J. Cioffi. 2003. “A model for public health workforce development using the National Public Health Performance Standards Program.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 9.3: 199–207.

                                                  Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  This study describes a public health training center evaluation of a workforce training needs assessment and strategic planning process. The ten essential public health services provide the framework for both training and outcome evaluation. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                  Find this resource:

                                                  • Potter, M. A., C. L. Pistella, C. I. Fertman, and V. M. Dato. 2000. “Needs assessment and a model agenda for training the public health workforce.” American Journal of Public Health 90.8: 1294–1296.

                                                    DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.90.8.1294Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    Describes a research project that tests the use of universal competencies to identify training needs for state and local public health workers. Concludes that using these competencies is an important starting point for training needs assessment and curriculum development.

                                                    Find this resource:

                                                    • Turnock, B. J. 2003. “Roadmap for public health workforce preparedness.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 9.6: 471–480.

                                                      Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      A review of national public health workforce development priorities and funding resources from the 1990s to the present. Proposes a shift in future public health workforce priorities toward accountability and a preparedness model of worker and workforce performance measures. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                      Find this resource:

                                                      Research

                                                      Beck and Boulton 2012 completes a comprehensive review of public health workforce literature published between 1985 and 2010. Some articles describe what is known about the public health workforce, including Gebbie, et al. 2002 and Tilson and Gebbie 2004, while others, including Cioffi, et al. 2004; Crawford, et al. 2009; Fraser 2003; Moore 2009; and Thacker 2009, identify the main themes and issues that should be the focus of future research on this topic.

                                                      • Beck, A. J., and M. L. Boulton. 2012. “Building an effective workforce: A systematic review of public health workforce literature.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 42.5S: S6–S16.

                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.01.020Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        A review of public health workforce articles published between 1985 and 2010 addressing any of the following four research themes: size and combination, effectiveness, demand, and policy. The majority of the 126 articles are descriptive and not empirical in nature. The literature search reveals little progress in efforts to systematically monitor the public health workforce. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                        Find this resource:

                                                        • Cioffi, J., M. Lichtveld, and H. Tilson. 2004. “A research agenda for public health workforce development.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 10.3: 186–192.

                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          Describes a systematic approach to setting an agenda for public health workforce research. Proposed agenda includes studying the relationship between workforce and outcomes, evaluating approaches to competency development, assessing workforce performance, monitoring the public health workforce, and studying the impacts of labor market forces on workforce recruitment and retention. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                          Find this resource:

                                                          • Crawford, C., W. Summerfelt, K. Roy, Z. Chen, D. Meltzer, and S. Thacker. 2009. “Perspectives on public health workforce research.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 15.6 (Suppl.): S5–S15.

                                                            DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0b013e3181bdff7dSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            Eight public health research themes, with potential research objectives and questions, are reviewed: workforce size and composition; workforce diversity; workforce effectiveness; recruitment, retention, and retirement; pay, promotion, performance, and job satisfaction; demand for public health workers; education, training, and credentialing; and policy.

                                                            Find this resource:

                                                            • Fraser, M. 2003. “The local public health agency workforce: Research needs and practice realities.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 9.6: 496–499.

                                                              Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              Highlights the critical need for collecting basic information on the local public health workforce to inform decisions on staffing needs to assure healthy communities. Emphasizes the need for collaboration between public health education and practice in conducting effective public health workforce research. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                              Find this resource:

                                                              • Gebbie, K., J. Merrill, and H. Tilson. 2002. “The public health workforce.” Health Affairs 21.6: 57–67.

                                                                DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.21.6.57Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                An in-depth discussion about the broadly defined public health workforce that considers size, composition, and responsibilities of this workforce. Highlights the importance of public health training and education for all public health workers. Recommends the inclusion of core public health content into curricula for a wide array of health professionals.

                                                                Find this resource:

                                                                • Moore, J. 2009. “Studying an ill-defined workforce: Public health workforce research.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 15.6: 48–53.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0b013e3181b23978Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  Describes issues and strategies associated with public health workforce research. Case studies of previous public health workforce research illustrate how different levels of analyses can be used to better understand recruitment and retention issues of public health workers.

                                                                  Find this resource:

                                                                  • Thacker, S. B. 2009. “Guide for applied public health workforce research: An evidence-based approach to workforce development.” Journal Pubic Health Management and Practice 15.6 (Suppl.): S109–S112.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0b013e3181b1eb85Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Describes the need for evidence-based research to guide public health workforce development. Reviews the history of public health workforce development from 1988, with the release of the Institute of Medicine’s The Future of Public Health, to 2009.

                                                                    Find this resource:

                                                                    • Tilson, H., and K. M. Gebbie. 2004. “The public health workforce.” Annual Review of Public Health 25:341–356.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.25.102802.124357Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Discusses key public health workforce challenges, including the need for clear definitions of scope and content of work in public health, better data on size and composition of the public health workforce, well-defined public health competencies, training for and assessment of public health competencies, and development of a clear public health workforce research agenda. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                      Find this resource:

                                                                      Enumeration

                                                                      These articles focus on workforce enumeration and illustrate the use of diverse approaches in efforts to describe the size and distribution of the public health workforce. Boulton, et al. 2009 and Kennedy 2009 describe profession-oriented approaches and Hajat, et al. 2003 describes geographic approach, while Resnick, et al. 2009 describes a combined approach that is both profession-specific and geographic.

                                                                      • Boulton, M., J. Lemmings, and A. Beck. 2009. “Assessment of epidemiology capacity in state health departments, 2001–2006.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 15.4: 328–336.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0b013e3181a01eb3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        Findings from an analysis of surveys of state health departments in 2001, 2004, and 2006 assessing trends in epidemiology capacity. While the number of epidemiologists in state health departments increased by 40 percent between 2001 and 2006, much of the growth occurred in bioterrorism programs. State health departments report a need for 30 percent more epidemiologists. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                        Find this resource:

                                                                        • Hajat, A., K. Stewart, and K. Hayes. 2003. “The local public health workforce in rural communities.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 9.6: 481–488.

                                                                          Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          Results from a national sample survey of local health departments are used to compare urban, suburban, and rural differences in size, composition, workforce needs, and use of resources for workforce training. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                          Find this resource:

                                                                          • Kennedy, V. 2009. “Public health workforce employment in US public and private sectors.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 15.3: E1–E8.

                                                                            DOI: 10.1097/01.PHH.0000349744.11738.25Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            A study that uses Occupational Employment Statistics from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics to estimate the supply and distribution of twenty-six public health occupations in both governmental and nongovernmental industries. This approach captures occupation and setting but not work content. May be of potential value in future efforts to estimate the number and distribution of public health workers. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                            Find this resource:

                                                                            • Resnick, B., J. Zablotsky, E. Janus, B. Maggy, and T. Burke. 2009. “An examination of environmental public health organizational and workforce configurations in the Northeast/Mid-Atlantic United States: How do we determine if these configurations impact performance?” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 15.6: 509–517.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0b013e3181a3919fSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              This study describes the varied environmental public health organizations and workforce structures in a thirteen-state region, including differences in functions, responsibilities, and governance. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

                                                                              Find this resource:

                                                                              back to top

                                                                              Article

                                                                              Up

                                                                              Down