Public Health Mental Health
by
Vikki Vandiver, Nikki Hozack
  • LAST REVIEWED: 15 June 2015
  • LAST MODIFIED: 23 February 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0112

Introduction

An essential starting point for understanding and describing mental health is to also understand mental illness. Essentially, what is mental health, and what is mental illness? From a public health perspective, mental illness is considered a public health concern due to the fact that people with serious mental illnesses often have serious medical problems, co-occurring alcohol and drug problems, and higher mortality rates than the general population. Conventional descriptions of mental illness refer to individuals who exhibit clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndromes or patterns and in whom these syndromes are associated with present distress (e.g., painful symptom) and disability (e.g., impairment in functioning) and result in increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom. Mental health, on the other hand, can be described as both a process and an outcome that includes features such as purpose in life, self-acceptance, autonomy, positive relations, social acceptance, social actualization, and self-esteem. Mental health is considered critical to overall health and cognitive and emotional well-being and includes an individual’s ability to enjoy and balance life as well as to achieve emotional and psychological resilience. Strategies for achieving mental health are seen in consumer empowerment and recovery models of care as well as the uptick in the application of evidence-based practices and family- and consumer-friendly policies. The boundary between mental health and mental illness is not rigid but fluid, subject to social, environmental, policy, and individual influences, and there is no one definition of mental health. Until recently the focus of mental health research and writing was on pathology and the reduction of symptoms rather than on finding paths to mental wellness and improving quality of life. While there are many published works discussing mental illness and pathology, fewer explore mental health as an interdisciplinary field of philosophy, practice, and policy that emphasizes wellness and consumer preference. However, with the growing emphasis on mental health care reform, the number is growing. Although it would be impossible to provide an exhaustive list of all published resources in mental health, this article provides a broad list of common and not so common resources for any reader who wants to familiarize himself or herself with the intersection of mental health and public health.

Introductory Works

Though the focus of this bibliography is to increase knowledge of mental health rather than mental illness, it is difficult to entirely separate the two. Mental health can be a goal for those with and without mental disorders, and as a result the works in this section introduce and define mental health and mental health services from different perspectives. Eight main areas are reviewed: principles and practices in Corrigan, et al. 2008, self-esteem and well-being in Donnelly, et al. 2001, race and culture in Fernando 2010, an overview of mental health and children in Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences 2009, an overview of mental health in the United Kingdom in Kinsella and Kinsella 2006, psychology of being in Maslow 1998, mental health care and nursing in Morrison-Valfre 2008, a guide for consumers and family members in Canada in Plans 2004.

  • Corrigan, Patrick W., Kim T. Mueser, Gary R. Bond, Robert E. Drake, and Phyllis Solomon. 2008. The principles and practice of psychiatric rehabilitation: An empirical approach. New York: Guilford.

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    This textbook discusses the importance of teaching skills and designing supports that enable people living with mental illness to function within the community and experience meaningful achievements with as minimal intrusion of symptoms as possible. The book addresses various realms of community involvement, including work, education, socializing, friendships, spirituality, independent living, illness self-management, family, recreation, sexual intimacy, and citizenship.

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    • Donnelly, Joseph W., Norn Eburne, and Mark Kittleson. 2001. Mental health: Dimensions of self-esteem and emotional well-being. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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      Using a holistic approach, this book examines the cognitive, emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions of mental health and incorporates public health, medicine and psychiatry, psychology, and health education perspectives.

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      • Fernando, Suman. 2010. Mental health, race, and culture. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

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        This text discusses mental health theories, practices, traditions, and innovations from around the world while acknowledging the ethnocentric racial biases found in Western psychiatry. Topics include trauma-informed care, culturally sensitive practice, cross-cultural collaboration, and resilience in the face of trauma and exile, social suffering, and violence.

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        • Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. 2009. Preventing mental emotional and behavioral disorders among young people. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

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          Mental health has been recognized as an important service and program component for younger populations who are experiencing mental health and substance abuse problems. The Institute of Medicine’s updated report is a comprehensive resource for readers interested in the combined approaches of prevention and health promotion.

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          • Kinsella, Caroline, and Connor Kinsella. 2006. Introducing mental health: A practical guide. London: Jessica Kingsley.

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            Written for new and experienced practitioners, this book details the major mental health disorders using perspectives from the United Kingdom Mental Health Act of 1983. It includes information on risk assessment and management and community collaboration as well as references, resources, handouts, and case studies.

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            • Maslow, Abraham H. 1998. Toward a psychology of being. 3d ed. San Francisco: Wiley.

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              The third edition of this psychology classic, written by the founder of modern humanistic psychology, Abraham H. Maslow, raises and answers questions fundamental to human nature and psychological well-being and what is needed to promote, maintain, and restore mental and emotional well-being.

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              • Morrison-Valfre, Michelle. 2008. Foundations of mental health care. 4th ed. New York: Elsevier.

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                The fourth edition of this book provides a holistic view of mental health care for nurses and other mental health care workers. Chapter topics include psychopharmacology, cases studies, and specific psychological and psychosocial issues.

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                • Plans, Miriam L. 2004. Mental health: A layman’s guide. Victoria, BC: Trafford.

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                  Though written primarily for the mental health consumer and family members, this book is an accessible guide to mental health practices that can be a valuable resource for mental health professionals. Topics include looking for organic causes of mental illness, proper usage of medications, working with support groups, and interdisciplinary practices.

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                  Reference Works

                  Readers in both the mental health and the public health fields will find the resources in this section helpful. They are divided into handbooks, monographs, encyclopedias, guidebooks, and resource manuals. Nine main areas are represented: legal and ethical resources are reviewed in Ahai 2009, diagnosing is reviewed in American Psychiatric Association 2000, Friedman 1998 is a mental health encyclopedia, Jordan 2008 is a reference guide, L’Abate 2004 is an evidence-based workbook, new technologies are reviewed in Maheu, et al. 2005, victims and offenders are reviewed in Springer and Roberts 2007, terminology is reviewed in Welfel and Ingersoll 2004, and global mental health is reviewed in World Health Organization Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse 2005.

                  • Ahai, C. Emmanuel. 2009. Legal and ethical dictionary for mental health professionals. Lanham, MD: Univ. Press of America.

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                    This dictionary provides mental health professionals with clear and concise definitions of legal and ethical terms used in the field of forensic mental health practice. Specific sections include practical dimensions related to legal and ethical decision making.

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                    • American Psychiatric Association. 2000. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

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                      The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) provides a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes. This resource is used in the United States and internationally by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, and policy makers.

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                      • Friedman, Howard S., ed. 1998. Encyclopedia of mental health. 3 vols. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

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                        This comprehensive set of scholarly encyclopedias examines mental health using an interdisciplinary approach, taking into account current knowledge about the genetic, biological, social, societal, and cultural natures of mental health and mental illness. Each article contains an outline, a glossary, a definition of terms, and a bibliography.

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                        • Jordan, Karin, ed. 2008. The quick theory reference guide: A resource for expert and novice mental health professionals. New York: Nova Science.

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                          The editor of this book has compiled thirty-four articles that cover counseling, family therapy, and psychotherapy theories. The chapters include an overview of the difference between counseling- and theory-based practice, twelve individual therapy models, and twenty-one family therapy models.

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                          • L’Abate, Luciano, ed. 2004. Using workbooks in mental health: Resources in prevention, psychotherapy, and rehabilitation for clinicians and researchers. New York: Haworth.

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                            Using supportive evidence, this book examines the effectiveness of mental health workbooks designed to address problems ranging from dementia and depression to addiction, spousal abuse, eating disorders, and more. Chapter topics include the role of workbooks in psychological intervention over the last decade of the 20th century and the cost-effectiveness of time and money in treatment.

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                            • Maheu, Marlene M., Myron L. Pulier, Frank H. Wilhelm, Joseph P. McMenamin, and Nancy E. Brown-Conner. 2005. The mental health professional and the new technologies: A handbook for practice today. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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                              This multiauthored text takes a broad approach to describing the practical, financial, ethical, and legal questions that arise from integrating new technologies into mental health services. Chapter topics range from implications of simple e-mail exchanges to websites to videoconferencing.

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                              • Springer, David W., and Albert R. Roberts, eds. 2007. Handbook of forensic mental health with victims and offenders: Assessment, treatment, and research. New York: Springer.

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                                This edited book describes a wide range of treatments, roles, practices, and research related to the field of forensic mental health. Specifically topics include prevention of prisoners’ sudden deaths, expert testimony in child welfare and woman battering, treatment of dually diagnosed adolescents, overrepresentation of African Americans in juvenile delinquency, and jail mental health services for adults.

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                                • Welfel, Elizabeth Reynolds, and R. Elliott Ingersoll, eds. 2004. The mental health desk reference: A practice-based guide to diagnosis, treatment, and professional ethics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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                                  This reference provides an extensive review of information from more than seventy experts regarding diagnosis, treatment, and ethics of practice. Each entry summarizes key constructs and terminology associated with the topic, major findings from research, and specific recommendations on theory and practice.

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                                  • World Health Organization Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse. 2005. Mental health atlas 2005. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

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                                    This book provides some of the most comprehensive and essential information on global mental health. Country information includes epidemiology, substance abuse policy, programs, national therapeutic drug policy and essential list of drugs, legislation, financing, facilities, psychiatric beds and professionals, nongovernmental organizations, information gathering system, special populations, and other relevant information.

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                                    Textbooks

                                    Textbooks can be valuable resources for both the student and the professional and cover a variety of topics related to mental health and mental health services. The resources listed in this section are often used in interdisciplinary academic settings as either primary or supplemental texts and can be found in curriculums ranging from medical schools to programs in psychiatric rehabilitation. Eight main areas are reviewed: the role of occupational therapists in empowerment, recovery, and hope in Brown 2001; history of US mental health policy in Carter, et al. 2010; mental capital and well-being over the life span in Cooper, et al. 2009; basics of evidence-based practice in Drake, et al. 2005; international disasters and mental health in López-Ibor, et al. 2005; rural mental health in Patal 2003; recovery in Ralph and Corrigan 2004; and an overview of community mental health in Rosenberg and Rosenberg 2006.

                                    • Brown, Catana, ed. 2001. Recovery and wellness: Models of hope and empowerment for people with mental illness. New York: Haworth.

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                                      This text illustrates the role that occupational therapists have in working with individuals diagnosed with mental illness. Chapter topics include descriptions of the recovery model from theoretical and experiential perspectives, model constructs, descriptions of the recovery process and guidelines to support recovery, wellness, and recovery principles.

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                                      • Carter, Rosalynn, with Susan K. Golandt and Kathryn E. Cade. 2010. Within our reach: Ending the mental health crisis. New York: Rodale.

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                                        Former first lady Rosalyn Carter and her coauthors provide a poignant review of the state of mental health in the United States in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Key chapter topics include a historical description of the mental health system and why the system fails despite scientific breakthroughs.

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                                        • Cooper, Cary L., Usha Goswami, and Barbara J. Sahakian, eds. 2009. Mental capital and wellbeing. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

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                                          Using a series of scientific reviews written by leading international scientists, this text offers a comprehensive exploration of how mental capital and well-being (health) operate over the life span. Chapter topics include how experiences in the family, in school, at work, and following retirement enhance or decrease mental capital and well-being and the impact this has the individual, the community, and the nation.

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                                          • Drake, Robert E., Matthew R. Merrens, and David Lynde, eds. 2005. Evidence-based mental health practice: A textbook. New York: Norton.

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                                            This edited textbook overviews the principles and specifics of evidence-based mental health practices for persons with severe mental illness. The book is considered an essential primer for all practitioners, because it provides research data and clinical strategies necessary for moving toward an evidence-based orientation.

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                                            • López-Ibor, Juan José, George Christodoulou, Mario Maj, Norman Sartorius, and Ahmed Okasha, eds. 2005. Disasters and mental health. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

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                                              This text compiles a wide range of experiences and reports on disasters and mental health. Chapter topics include an overview of clinical, epidemiological, psychobiological, psychosocial, and service organization aspects of disaster psychiatry.

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                                              • Patal, Vikram. 2003. Where there is no psychiatrist: A mental health manual. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.

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                                                This text is written primarily for health workers in rural areas or developing countries where there is no formal mental health system. Chapter topics include providing the health practitioner with a basic understanding of mental health and mental illness from a mental health promotion perspective, strategies for problem solving, assessment, and treatment.

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                                                • Ralph, Ruth O., and Patrick W. Corrigan. 2004. Recovery in mental illness: Broadening our understanding of wellness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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                                                  This text seeks to help the mental health professional better understand the nature of recovery from various perspectives, including sociology and consumer and qualitative studies. Chapter topics include recovery as a process, outcome and natural occurrence, interventions that enhance well-being, and quality of life.

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                                                  • Rosenberg, Jessica, and Samuel Rosenberg, eds. 2006. Community mental health: Challenges for the 21st century. New York: Routledge.

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                                                    This edited textbook focuses on five main categories: recovery and consumer movement, best practices in community mental health, homelessness, organizational issues, and policy issues. Examples of chapters include recovery and the consumer movement, consumer theories, pursuing hope, wraparound processes, values, neuropsychiatric perspectives, stigma, sexual orientation, and homelessness.

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                                                    Anthologies

                                                    Defined as a collection of selected writing by various authors on the same subject, anthologies can provide the mental health practitioner with a wide range of mental health topics. This section includes an expansive breadth of work covering issues central to mental health. Eight main areas are reviewed: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2003 is a compendium of mental health resources; a system of care for children’s mental health is at Research and Training Center for Children’s Mental Health; essays on clinical, ethical, and social mental health issues are in Donley and Buckley 2000; a collection of mental health essays and papers from Hippocrates to Carl Rogers is in Eghigian 2010; essays on court rulings and judgments are in Engdahl 2007; psychiatric ethics are reviewed in Green and Bloch 2006; Knapp, et al. 2007 reviews mental health policies and practices across Europe; and Quigley 2007 is a series of short papers on controversial issues in mental health.

                                                    • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2003. Compendium of research related to mental health. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services.

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                                                      This compendium reflects the broad portfolio of the mental health research sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). This web-based collection is an overview of the research and activities conducted or funded by the AHRQ and provides brief abstracts describing the material and information on how to access the full reports and articles.

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                                                      • Donley, Carol C., and Sheryl Buckley, eds. 2000. What’s normal? Narratives of mental and emotional disorders. Kent, OH: Kent State Univ. Press.

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                                                        This is a wide-ranging collection of essays and articles written by renowned clinicians who address clinical, ethical, and social issues related to mental illness and disorders. In addition the book features sections on fiction, poetry, and drama to portray mental and behavioral abnormalities.

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                                                        • Eghigian, Greg, ed. 2010. From madness to mental health: Psychiatric disorder and its treatment in Western civilization. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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                                                          This anthology of readings incorporates contributions from the fields of psychiatry, clinical psychology, and psychotherapy in a review of how mental health disorders have been understood and viewed throughout history, from Hippocrates to Carl Rogers. Readers will find original sources, memoirs, academic lectures, government records, and art collections all related to the phenomenon of mental illness.

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                                                          • Engdahl, Sylvia, ed. 2007. Mental health. Issues on Trial. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven.

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                                                            Using court rulings and dissenting legal opinions as well as the analyses and opinions of mental health and legal experts, this book covers controversial issues in mental health tied to legal trials. Chapters cover involuntary commitment of adults and children, mandated medication, the rights of institutionalized patients, and the right for the mentally ill to live in the community and receive community treatment.

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                                                            • Green, Stephen A., and Sidney Bloch. 2006. An anthology of psychiatric ethics. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                              This text is a compilation of papers relating to psychiatric ethics with particular emphasis given to boundary violations, ethical dilemmas experienced daily, and the ethical duties of psychiatrists employed by the state. As Green and Bloch note, although the original concept for this anthology was produced as a conference transcript in 1976, the issues, principles, and arguments are no different today.

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                                                              • Knapp, Martin, David McDaid, Elias Mossialos, and Graham Thornicroft. 2007. Mental health policy and practice across Europe: The future direction of mental health care. Maidenhead, UK: Open Univ. Press.

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                                                                International mental health experts, the authors of this book have covered an extensive range of policy issues related to mental health, including legal rights of people with mental disorders, the impact of stigma, social exclusion and discrimination, consumer and family roles in the development of mental health services and policies, and much more.

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                                                                • Quigley, Ann, ed. 2007. Mental health. Current Controversies. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven.

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                                                                  This anthology provides students and mental health professionals with concise views of divergent opinions in mental health. Chapter topics include the seriousness of mental illness in the United States, a biomedical model of treatment, alternative treatments, and societal response to mental illness. This text also contains extensive book and periodical bibliographies and a contact information list for related organizations.

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                                                                  • Research and Training Center for Children’s Mental Health, University of South Florida. Conference proceedings: A system of care for children’s mental health; Expanding the research base.

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                                                                    This collection of twenty-two conference proceedings sponsored by the University of South Florida Research and Training Center for Children’s Mental Health contains diverse and relevant information on issues of children’s mental health.

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                                                                    Bibliographies

                                                                    This section provides a comprehensive list of online bibliographies and resources developed by different organizations meant to inform mental health care professionals. This list includes organizations that provide lists of consumer materials, books, journal articles, reports, proceedings, and other information relevant to mental health and mental health care services. Nine types of online specialty bibliographies are listed: law and ethics at Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, multicultural mental health at Center for Multicultural Mental Health Research, wellness and resiliency at Gifts from Within, scientific committee reports at Institute of Medicine of the National Academies; alcohol and drug resources at National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, mental health at National Institute of Mental Health, substance abuse and mental health at Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, mental health in Latin American and Caribbean countries at Pan American Health Organization, and international health and mental health policy and practice at World Health Organization.

                                                                    Journals

                                                                    Academic journals are an important way to keep up to date on the important research studies, emerging trends, and study reviews and meta-analyses that guide evidence-based practice. There are many peer-reviewed journals of mental health that address specific topics and populations, and though only a few are covered in this list, academic journals are excellent resources for further knowledge of mental health policy, theory, and practice. Nine main journals are included here: Aging and Mental Health; Best Practices in Mental Health; Community Mental Health Journal; Evidence-based Mental Health; Health Psychology; Journal of Ethics in Mental Health; Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics; Mental Health, Religion, and Culture; and Psychiatric Services.

                                                                    History

                                                                    While incidences of mental illness can be traced to ancient civilizations and “modern” ideas of psychology and psychiatry can be linked to the 16th century, very little historical work looks at mental health as separate from pathology. However, one cannot explore the history of mental wellness without also examining the historical context in which it lies. Thus the bibliographies in this section look at both the modern history of mental health and the harsh reality of past mental illness concepts, theories, and practices. Nine main areas are reviewed: history of recovery in Davidson and Strauss 2010, mental illness and values in Eghigian 2010, mental health policy in Frank and Glied 2006, women in Geller and Harris 1994, philosophy in Levine 1981, arts and mental illness in Reiss 2008, history of psychiatry in Shorter 1997, coercion in Szasz 2009, and rural mental health in Wagenfeld, et al. 1996.

                                                                    • Davidson, Larry, Jaak Rakfeldt, and John Strauss. 2010. The roots of the recovery movement in psychiatry: Lessons learned. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

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                                                                      Written for a multidisciplinary mental health audience, this text provides an extensive overview of the history of the recovery movement, starting with major philosophers and achievers, such as Philippe Pinel, Dorothea Dix, and Harry Stack Sullivan. Chapter topics include moral treatment, reciprocity in community-based care, hospital closings, civil rights, and agency as the basis for transformation.

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                                                                      • Eghigian, Greg. 2010. From madness to mental health: Psychiatric disorder and its treatment in Western civilization. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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                                                                        The author has compiled readings from ancient times to the early 21st century that include religious texts, clinical case studies, memoirs, academic lectures, hospital and government records, and legal and medical treatises. The book portrays how mental disorders have historically challenged the ways human beings have understood and valued their bodies, minds, and souls.

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                                                                        • Frank, Richard G., and Sherry A. Glied. 2006. Better but not well: Mental health policy in the United States since 1950. Baltimore: John Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                                                                          Written by two prominent health economists, this book documents the transformation of the mental health system since the mid-20th century. A major theme of the book is that the central issues in our current mental health system arise from a tension surrounding the mainstreaming of mental health care into the general health system. Topics include economics, treatment, standard of living, rights, and stigma.

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                                                                          • Geller, Jeffrey L., and Maxine Harris. 1994. Women of the asylum: Voices from behind the walls, 1840–1945. New York: Anchor.

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                                                                            Divided into four sections, this classic text presents twenty-six accounts of asylum stays that range from six weeks to twenty-eight years. Each section prefaces the role of women and the general state of psychiatry as well as an analysis of how treatment and diagnosis differed from the male equivalents in the specified time periods.

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                                                                            • Levine, Murray. 1981. The history and politics of community mental health. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                              This book outlines the critical steps taken by government to outsource mental health services into the community. Though the text does not cover the history of community health since 1980, it provides a keen insight into the original philosophy and beginnings of the community health movement.

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                                                                              • Reiss, Benjamin. 2008. Theaters of madness: Insane asylums and nineteenth-century American culture. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                The author explores the rich offerings of the utopian movement that took place in the publicly funded asylums in the mid-1800s, where patients participated in theatrical programs, debating societies, literary journals, and academic and religious services and concepts of treatment centered on freedom, democracy, and modernity.

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                                                                                • Shorter, Edward, 1997. A history of psychiatry: From the era of the asylum to the age of Prozac. New York: Wiley.

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                                                                                  In this book the author exposes the harsh reality of society’s changing attitude toward helping the mentally ill. Looking at the contributions of psychiatry’s leading historical figures, he assesses their roles in advancing or sidetracking the knowledge and understanding of mental health and illness.

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                                                                                  • Szasz, Thomas. 2009. Coercion as a cure: A critical history of psychiatry. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

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                                                                                    The author of this history book, better known for his The Myth of Mental Illness(New York: Harper & Row, 1974), offers a highly critical examination of the use of coercion and involuntary treatment in the history of psychiatry. He argues that the profession cannot successfully look at its history or future without recognizing the ingrained coercive characteristics that dominate the field.

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                                                                                    • Wagenfeld, Morton O., J. Dennis Murray, and Jeanne C. DeBruyn. 1996. Mental health and rural America, 1980–1993: An overview and annotated bibliography. Rockville, MD: Office of Rural Health Policy.

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                                                                                      Though limited in its time frame, this book outlines the mental health and alcohol and drug abuse policy and practice in rural America just after deinstitutionalization. Through an epidemiologic review, an overview of delivery services, and organizational and clinical issues, it provides a glimpse of a part of US mental health history.

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                                                                                      Definitions

                                                                                      In the seminal report US Department of Health and Human Services 1999, Surgeon General David Satcher set a holistic tone for defining mental health as “the successful performance of mental functioning, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with others, and the ability to adapt to change and to successfully cope with adversity.” World Health Organization 2010 defines mental health as “not just the absence of mental disorder. It is a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community.” What is critical about these definitions is the focus on the pursuit of mental health as both a process and a goal. Staying with this perspective, the resources in this section explore seven main themes: population health approach to mental health in Department of Health and Ageing 2006, emerging policy recommendations in Institute of Medicine 2001, defining mental health and mental health promotion in Keyes 2007, mental health policy and recommendations in President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health 2003, national report on mental health in US Department of Health and Human Services 1999, defining mental health and mental health promotion in Vandiver 2008, and global definitions of mental health and illness in World Health Organization 2010.

                                                                                      • Department of Health and Ageing. 2006. Promotion, prevention, and early intervention for mental health: A monograph. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government.

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                                                                                        This monongraph details the work of the Australian Department of Health and Ageing’s Mental Health Promotion and Prevention Working Group. The report provides readers with an understanding of a population health approach to tracking the multifactoral pathways to health and mental health problems. See especially chapter 3, “Conceptual Framework for Promotion, Prevention, and Early Intervention for Mental Health.”

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                                                                                        • Institute of Medicine. 2001. Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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                                                                                          This multiauthored report details extensive scientific findings on aspects of mental illness and mental health care while providing policy recommendations for multiple levels of government and funding.

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                                                                                          • Keyes, Corey L. M. 2007. Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing. American Psychologist 62.2: 95–108.

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                                                                                            This article provides a fresh view of the tensions in defining, measuring, and providing mental health services. The author calls for a national move toward mental health promotion and offers several descriptions of what it means for people to “flourish.”

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                                                                                            • President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. 2003. Achieving the promise: Transforming mental health care in America. DHHS Publication no. SMA-03-3832. Rockville, MD: President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health.

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                                                                                              This document has helped shape US policy conversations by acknowledging the need to transform mental health services. The report overviews the many terms and descriptions of mental health, mental illness, and recovery. Emphasis is given to concepts such as resilience, recovery, consumer participation in services, and evidence-based practices.

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                                                                                              • US Department of Health and Human Services. 1999. Mental health: A report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services.

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                                                                                                This classic report was the first nationally sponsored critical review of the US mental health system. Special emphasis was given to defining mental health and illness and providing a critical review of fragmented systems, lack of basic health care access, stigma, employment, and basic health care as problems facing individuals with mental illnesses.

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                                                                                                • Vandiver, Vikki L. 2008. Integrating health promotion and mental health: An introduction to policies, principles, and practices. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                  This textbook offers a comprehensive review of the field of health promotion and strategies for how to integrate this public health perspective into community mental health practice and policies.

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                                                                                                  • World Health Organization. 2010. What is mental health? Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

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                                                                                                    This report provides a succinct yet comprehensive review of mental health topics that is beneficial to any reader interested in global definitions and practices of mental illness and mental health.

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                                                                                                    Evidence-Based Practice

                                                                                                    The term “evidence-based medicine” was introduced in 1990 to refer to a systematic approach to helping physicians apply scientific evidence to decision making regarding treatment with individual patients. The premise of evidence-based practice (EBP) is that mental health services should have a scientific base: the evidence that researchers have systematically collected data to say that certain services provided to families and consumers are beneficial. EPB affects all fields of health and mental health care. Simply put, EBP and best-practice guidelines are treatment interventions that have been evidenced by research to be effective in treating mental health issues. While there are many reference and resource materials available via journal articles, texts, and the Internet, this list provides an overview of mental health EBPs and best practices as well as volumes on how to implement EBPs organizationally and the debates surrounding EBPs. The EBP resource areas reviewed are psychiatric guidelines in American Psychiatric Association 2006; alcohol and drug disorders in Edmudson and McCarty 2005; diverse populations in Gallardo and McNeill 2009; children and adolescents in Glicken 2009b; aging in Glicken 2009a; health outcomes in Roberts and Yeager 2004; anxiety disorders in Rygh and Sanderson 2004; and substance abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and bipolar disorder in Weiner 2006–2007. Drake, et al. 2005 is an EBP textbook, and Emmelkamp and Vedel 2006 is an alcohol and drug practitioners guide.

                                                                                                    • American Psychiatric Association. 2006. American Psychiatric Association practice guidelines for the treatment of psychiatric disorders: Compendium 2006. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

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                                                                                                      This compendium contains evidence-based guidelines developed by the American Psychiatric Association for the treatment of thirteen of the most common major psychiatric disorders. Each section includes information on the medical model of a specific disorder symptomatology, psychiatric assessment and diagnosis, assessment of efficacy and risks of medications, and intervention evaluation and planning.

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                                                                                                      • Drake, Robert E., Matthew R. Merrens, and David Lynde. eds. 2005. Evidence-based mental health practice: A textbook. New York: Norton.

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                                                                                                        This text provides an in-depth view of six EBPs for persons with severe mental illness, including assertive community treatment, integrated dual-disorder treatment, illness management and recovery, medication, supported employment, and family psychoeducation. Chapter topics include defining mental illness, principles, implementation, practices, and the future of mental health services.

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                                                                                                        • Edmudson, Eldon, Jr., and Dennis McCarty, eds. 2005. Implementing evidence-based practices for treatment of alcohol and drug disorders. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Medical.

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                                                                                                          Providing information on how to successfully implement alcohol and drug EBPs at the agency organizational level, this book discusses formal structural and organizational change within the agency. While the implementation proposed is related to substance abuse, many of the chapters can be generalized to introduce a variety of mental health EBPs into mental health care agencies.

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                                                                                                          • Emmelkamp, Paul M. G., and Ellen Vedel. 2006. Evidence-based treatment for alcohol and drug abuse: A practitioner’s guide to theory, methods, and practice. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                            Using up-to-date research in the field, this text provides the clinician with current evidence-based assessments and interventions as well as an understanding of the epidemiology, etiology, course, and prognosis of the various substance abuse disorders, including abuse and dependence on alcohol, stimulants, cannabis, and party drugs.

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                                                                                                            • Gallardo, Miguel E., and Brian W. McNeill, eds. 2009. Intersections of multiple identities: A casebook of evidence-based practices with diverse populations. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                              This casebook seeks to help mental health professionals integrate and modify current EBPs into work with diverse populations. Each expert presents a case with a detailed analysis of his or her evidence-based intervention and then discusses the modifications necessary to make it appropriate to the population indicated. In addition each author discusses how his or her own worldview and concepts of diversity can enhance or impede treatment.

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                                                                                                              • Glicken, Morley D. 2009a. Evidence-based counseling and psychotherapy for an aging population. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

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                                                                                                                The purpose of this text is to provide mental health professionals working with aging populations with the most current research and best-evidence practices. With an emphasis on the conditions and disorders most common for this patient population, including social isolation, elder abuse and neglect, depression, anxiety disorders, terminal illnesses and disabilities, bereavement, substance abuse, and dementias, this book outlines in step-by-step detail evidence-based assessment, diagnosis, and treatment for each diagnosis.

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                                                                                                                • Glicken, Morley D. 2009b. Evidence-based practice with emotionally troubled children and adolescents. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

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                                                                                                                  After providing a discussion of the state of child mental health care services and research and the importance of EBPs, this text focuses on the early-21st-century research and best evidence regarding assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of children and adolescents with a range of emotional problems, including but not limited to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, gang involvement, and social isolation. Each chapter offers how-to explanations of evidence-based intervention techniques, cases studies, and issues relating to diversity.

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                                                                                                                  • Roberts, Albert R., and Kenneth R. Yeager, eds. 2004. Evidence-based practice manual: Research and outcome measures in health and human services. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                    This extensive volume of 104 chapters summarizes key elements, issues, and concepts related to the application of EBPs for the field of behavioral health and human services. Topics include program evaluation, quality and operational improvement strategies, research grant applications, validating measurement tools, and using statistical procedures.

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                                                                                                                    • Rygh, Jayne L., and William C. Sanderson. 2004. Treating generalized anxiety disorder: Evidence-based strategies, tools, and techniques. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                                      This manual provides an overview of evidence-based tools, techniques, and reproducible materials (e.g., client forms and handouts) for assessing and treating clients with generalized anxiety disorder. Topics include diagnosis and theories, and extensive sections discuss treatment, assessment, and planning, with specific areas describing cognitive, physiological, and behavioral components of treatments.

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                                                                                                                      • Weiner, I. B., ed. 2006–2007. The Wiley Concise Guides to Mental Health. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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                                                                                                                        This series provides mental health care practitioners with easily accessible overviews of the origins, symptomatology, assessment, and interventions of some of the most common mental health diagnoses. Drawing from research and clinical expertise, each guide contains the history, conceptualization, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and cutting-edge research as well as vignettes and case illustrations of the mental health topic it covers.

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                                                                                                                        Practice Guidelines

                                                                                                                        While there are many guides and textbooks that can help the mental health practitioner, this list contains topics central to conducting effective clinical practice. Differing from reference materials, these books provide the mental health worker with not just information but the tools, skills, and step-by-step guidelines for a variety of mental health topics. Nine main areas are reviewed: legal practice guidelines in Hartsell and Bernstein 2008; interdisciplinary teams in Burns 2004; biopsychosocial formats in Campbell and Rohrbaugh 2006; post-traumatic stress disorder in Foa, et al. 2009; trauma-informed care in Jennings 2004; treatment planning in Johnson 2004; cognitive-behavioral therapy in Kinsella and Garland 2008; psychopharmacology in Preston, et al. 2010; and relaxation, meditation, and mindfulness in Smith 2005.

                                                                                                                        • Burns, Tom. 2004. Community mental health teams: A guide to current practices. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                          This book provides practical advice for community health working teams. Chapter topics cover the individual roles of team members, including nurses, doctors, social workers, psychologists, and support staff; assertive outreach; crisis resolution; and early intervention services.

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                                                                                                                          • Campbell, William H., and Robert M. Rohrbaugh. 2006. The biopsychosocial formulation manual: A guide for mental health professionals. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                            Based on general systems theory, this comprehensive guide helps the new mental health professional gather, organize, assess, and diagnose clients to obtain a comprehensive picture of the physical, mental, and environmental influences on their mental health.

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                                                                                                                            • Foa, Edna B., Terrence M. Keane, Matthew J. Friedman, and Judith A. Cohen, eds. 2009. Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. 2d ed. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                                              This workbook focuses on the latest research on trauma populations, such as children and adolescents. Chapter topics include child and adolescent therapies; early intervention and prevention strategies; psychosocial therapies; group, couple, and family treatments; pharmacotherapy; comorbid psychiatric disorders; and treatment guidelines.

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                                                                                                                              • Hartsell, Thomas L., and Barton E. Bernstein. 2008. The portable ethicist for mental health professionals: A complete guide to responsible practice; With HIPAA update. 2d ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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                                                                                                                                This book reviews clinical and ethical issues that mental health workers face. Chapter topics include confidentiality, dual relationships, sexual misconduct, misleading statements, drug and alcohol use, and record keeping.

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                                                                                                                                • Jennings, Ann. 2004. Models for developing trauma-informed behavioral health systems and trauma-specific services. Alexandria, VA: National Technical Assistance Center for State Mental Health Planning, National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors.

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                                                                                                                                  This manual contains a list of models used by mental health agencies that work with community members who struggle with issues of mental health and substance abuse. Included in the manual are models that can be used specifically with individuals, adults, parents, children, and peer support groups.

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                                                                                                                                  • Johnson, Sharon L. 2004. Therapist’s guide to clinical intervention: The 1–2–3’s of treatment planning. 2d ed. San Diego, CA: Elsevier.

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                                                                                                                                    This book is written in a practical, hands-on format. Chapter topics cover treatment goals and objectives, identifying skill-building resources for clinicians who are involved in treatment settings requiring formalized care, and special assessments, including domestic violence, phobias, eating disorders, and adult attention deficit disorder.

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                                                                                                                                    • Kinsella, Philip, and Anne Garland. 2008. Cognitive behavioral therapy for mental health workers: A beginner’s guide. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                      This guide will help the mental health worker who is new to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) begin to integrate CBT skills into every day practice. Chapter topics include therapeutic relationships in CBT, treating anxiety and depression, and using cognitive behavioral therapy in different mental health settings.

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                                                                                                                                      • Preston, John D., John H. O’Neal, and Mary C. Talaga. 2010. Handbook of clinical psychopharmacology for therapists. 6th ed. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.

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                                                                                                                                        This handbook, in its sixth edition, is the definitive reference guide for mental health workers. Updated with the latest medical research, this handbook makes it simple to look up efficacy, indications, side effect contraindications, and success indicators for patients of all ages.

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                                                                                                                                        • Smith, Jonathan C. 2005. Relaxation, meditation, and mindfulness: A mental health practitioner’s guide to new and traditional approaches. New York: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                          This practical guide explains why the hundreds of types of relaxation techniques can be sorted into six different groups and then integrates those groups into a comprehensive model. The author has found that different types of relaxation have different effects that go beyond stress management.

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                                                                                                                                          Accessing Evidence-Based Resources

                                                                                                                                          When books and guidelines are not accessible or available, providers and consumers can access a variety of databases. In the era of increased patient self-education and empowerment, many organizations have made state-of-the-art treatment information directly available to consumers. Consumers can now access treatment documents—previously accessible only through the professional relationship—that their providers will also be using. Similarly treatment providers now have direct access to a plethora of evidence-based guides and treatment manuals that will assist them in clinical practice. The resources listed in this section are examples of five internationally recognized sources for evidence-based reviews: systematic reviews at Campbell Collaboration and Cochrane Collaboration; evidence-based practices, such as supported employment, assertive community treatment, and psychoeducation, at Dartmouth; a list of evidence-based treatment protocols at National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices; and diagnosis and specific practice guidelines for providers, patients, and family members at Expert Consensus Guidelines.

                                                                                                                                          • Campbell Collaboration.

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                                                                                                                                            The Campbell Collaboration Library posts an international searchable database of randomized controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews of social, psychological, educational, and criminological research. All research presented on the website has met rigorous methodological standards and is designed to provide researchers, policy makers, and practitioners with critical reviews of current research. As of 2010 twenty-one full reviews are available to download from the website, and several more are in progress.

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                                                                                                                                            • Cochrane Collaboration.

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                                                                                                                                              The Cochrane Collaboration is an international, independent organization of scientists and professionals who provide systematic reviews of health care interventions known as Cochrane Reviews. These reviews are published online in the Cochrane Library and are intended to help providers, practitioners, and patients make informed decisions about evidence-based health care interventions.

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                                                                                                                                              • Dartmouth Psychiatric Research Center.

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                                                                                                                                                This organization provides a variety of resources for evidence-based practice, including supported employment, assertive community treatment, and psychoeducation.

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                                                                                                                                                • Expert Consensus Guidelines.

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                                                                                                                                                  This resource provides over fifteen reader-friendly practice guidelines for professionals and family members. Examples include schizophrenia, depression and older adults, post-traumatic stress disorder, and psychopharmacology during pregnancy. Families and patients will appreciate the free patient and family guidelines available at the end of each guideline. Certain guidelines are available for a nominal fee.

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                                                                                                                                                  • National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices.

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                                                                                                                                                    The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices is a searchable online registry of more than 160 interventions supporting mental health promotion, substance abuse prevention, and substance abuse treatment. The registry does not provide an exhaustive list, and inclusion in the registry does not denote endorsement of the intervention.

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                                                                                                                                                    Specific Populations

                                                                                                                                                    Despite the prevalence of mental disorders in the United States, where it is estimated that one in two Americans has a diagnosable mental health condition, and the incidence of disability relating to those disorders, it is estimated that only one-half of adults and only one-third of children with diagnosable disorders receive help. These numbers are more shocking as research has improved our ability to effectively recognize, diagnose, and treat 80 to 90 percent of mental disorders. When one looks at multicultural and diverse populations, those not served increases dramatically, due in part to lack of availability and access to services, stigma, and the dearth of culturally specific knowledge and services. The resources in this section highlight specific populations. Nine areas are reviewed: health and mental health related to aging in Cummings and Kropf 2009; well-being of children and adolescents in Dwivedi and Harper 2004; health and mental health among African Americans in Hampton, et al. 2010; determinants of minority mental health and wellness in Loue and Sajatovic 2009; sexual orientation and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual people in Omoto and Kurtzman 2006; mental health among Asian Americans in Uba 2003; mental health among Chicanos and Chicanas in Velsquez, et al. 2004; mental health among the aboriginal peoples of Canada in Waldram 2004; and infant mental health in Zeanah 2009.

                                                                                                                                                    • Cummings, Sherry M., and Nancy P. Kropf, eds. 2009. Handbook of psychosocial interventions with older adults: Evidence-based approaches. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                      This text focuses on two goals: present systematic reviews of research-based psychosocial interventions and provide effective strategies to improve the medical and psychosocial aspects of older adults and their caregivers. Chapter topics include medical illnesses (for example, cardiac disease, diabetes, arthritis and pain, cancer, and HIV/AIDS), mental health, and cognitive decline (e.g., depression, dementia, and grandparent caregivers), and a concluding section discusses intervention research.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Dwivedi, Kedar Nath, and Peter Brinley Harper, eds. 2004. Promoting the emotional well-being of children and adolescents and preventing their mental ill health: A handbook. London: Jessica Kingsley.

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                                                                                                                                                        With contributions from a range of academic and professional disciplines, this handbook is a guide for promoting mental health in children and adolescents. Emphasizing the need for early intervention and prevention, topics include prevention and management of eating disorders, development of culturally sensitive services, the impact of parenting programs, and others.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Hampton, Robert L., Thomas P. Gullotta, and Raymond L. Crowel, eds. 2010. Handbook of African American health. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                                                                          This edited book reviews the science on both the physical health and the psychological and mental health of African Americans. Chapters include strengths and challenges facing African Americans, spirituality, well-being and resilience, anxiety, major depressive disorders and stigma, and pharmacotherapy.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Loue, Sana, and Martha Sajatovic, eds. 2009. Determinants of minority mental health and wellness. New York: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                            Because this work focuses on minority mental health and wellness, it addresses not only recognized risk factors for mental illness within specific minority populations but also the protective factors and strategies to prevent mental illness. Using a holistic approach, it outlines the determinants of mental health at the macrosocial, exosystemic, family, and individual levels.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Omoto, Allen Martin, and Howard S. Kurtzman, eds. 2006. Sexual orientation and mental health: Examining identity and development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1037/11261-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              This book covers multiple areas pertaining to sexual orientation and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Chapter topics include sexual development, substance use and abuse, and mental health among sexual minority youths; issues of social anxiety; and behavior and identity, and the book introduces the findings that contribute to the development of prevention and treatment interventions, service delivery systems, and health policies.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Uba, Laura. 2003. Asian Americans: Personality patterns, identity, and mental health. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                                                                                This book summarizes research on Asian American personality development, identity, and mental health using an ethnocultural framework. Chapter topics include common sources of stress, racial discrimination, immigrant and refugee experiences, psychotherapy, rates of mental health problems, and culturally sensitive service delivery models.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Velsquez, Roberto J., Leticia M. Arellano, and Brian McNeill. 2004. The handbook of Chicana/o psychology and mental health. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Using recent research and theory, case studies, and literary works from Chicanas and Chicanos, this book addresses a wide array of issues related to Mexican Americans and mental health. Topics include ethnic identity and gender role development and stereotyping, family dynamics, and domestic violence as well as assessment, prevention, and treatment strategies for use with Chicana and Chicano and other Latin American populations.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Waldram, James B. 2004. Revenge of the Windigo: The construction of the mind and mental health of North American aboriginal peoples. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                    This book explores how aboriginal mental health is generated and communicated. Chapter topics include negative implications of cultural bias of recent research on aboriginal peoples and the roles of mental health professionals and researchers in understanding aboriginal definitions of mental illness and treatment.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., ed. 2009. Handbook of infant mental health. 3d ed. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                                                                                      This book reviews the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to preschool years. Chapters include models of development; biological, family, and sociocultural risk and protective factors; disorders and disabilities; evidence-based treatment approaches; and early intervention in mental health, primary care, child care, and child welfare settings.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Research Methods and Theories

                                                                                                                                                                      Listed in this section are works gathered from a variety of academic disciplines and perspectives on research methods and theories related to mental health. Readers will find examples of traditional and commonly accepted research methods and theories that focus on the pathology of mental illness, as well as other emerging research and theoretical trends hat focus on the concepts of mental health and well-being, such as the reduction of stigma surrounding mental disorders and positive psychology. Research methods are reviewed in Breakwell, et al. 2006; advances in psychology research in Columbus, et al. 2001–2010; stigma and research in Corrigan 2005; grounded theory research and psychosis in Dilks, et al. 2010; ethics in mental health research in DuBois 2007; behavioral sciences research in Gravetter and Forzano 2008; and self-esteem research in Mruk 2006. Ghaemi 2009 is a clinicians’ guide to statistics and epidemiology in mental health, and Ong and Van Dulmen 2006 is a handbook of positive psychology.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Breakwell, Glynis M., Sean Hammond, Chris Fife-Schaw, and Jonathan A. Smith, eds. 2006. Research methods in psychology. 3d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Divided into three sections, the bases of research, data gathering, and data treatment, the third edition of this textbook guides the reader through formulating research questions, designing research activity, data gathering, and analysis. The author uses case study material and recent research examples to inform the reader of developments in methods and techniques.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Columbus, Alexandra M., F. H Columbus, and S. P. Shohav, eds. 2001–. Advances in Psychology Research. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.

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                                                                                                                                                                          This quarterly publication presents original study results on the leading edge of psychology research. Each paper has been carefully selected in an attempt to present substantial research results across a broad spectrum.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Corrigan, Patrick W., ed. 2005. On the stigma of mental illness: Practical strategies for research and social change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Written by participants and social scientists in the Chicago Consortium for Stigma Research, this text explores the causes and ramifications of mental illness stigma as well as the possible means to eliminate it. Chapters include the use of basic behavioral research, especially from social psychology, and strategies for finding practical ways to reduce stigma.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Dilks, Sarah, Fiona Tasker, and Bernadette Wren. 2010. Managing the impact of psychosis: A grounded theory exploration of recovery in psychosis. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 49.1: 87–107.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1348/014466509X439658Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              This article reviews the links between therapy and recovery in psychosis using a grounded theory approach designed to solicit narrative information on the personal experiences of thirty-one clients engaged in therapy. The authors conclude that service users acknowledge the importance of individually directed sessions that emphasize active, ongoing work.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • DuBois, James M. 2007. Ethics in mental health research: Principles, guidance, and cases. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Using case studies throughout the text, this book explores ethical issues in mental health research and offers concrete guidance to researchers who seek to comply with federal regulations while conducting research that is both ethical and scientifically credible.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Ghaemi, S. Nassir. 2009. A clinician’s guide to statistics and epidemiology in mental health: Measuring truth and uncertainty. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  This book is designed to be both accessible and clinically relevant for mental health researchers and providers. Chapter topics include statistical concepts using easy-to-understand language, limitations of statistical techniques, importance of interpretation, philosophical and political factors involved, and the pharmaceutical industry’s role in psychiatric research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gravetter, Frederick J., and Lori-Ann B. Forzano. 2008. Research methods for the behavioral sciences. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Opening with tips and strategies for generating research ideas, this text then moves to selecting measures and participants and next offers an examination of research strategy and design. This step-by-step approach emphasizes the decisions researchers must make at each stage of the process.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mruk, Christopher J. 2006. Self-esteem research, theory, and practice: Toward a positive psychology of self-esteem. 3d ed. New York: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Lack of self-esteem is frequently a precursor to depression, suicidal behavior, and other personality disorders and can have serious effects on mental health and well-being. The author uses a comprehensive analysis of self-esteem literature and research studies to discuss how modern research and theory can inform mental health practice surrounding issues of self-esteem.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ong, Anthony D., and Manfred H. M. Van Dulmen. 2006. Oxford handbook of methods in positive psychology. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        This text provides a broad overview of diverse modern research methods and theories in positive psychology. Each chapter incorporates multiple levels of analysis, from biology to culture, and state-of-the art study techniques. Topics include wisdom, health, hope, resilience, religion, relationships, emotions, well-being, character strengths, and laughter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Economic Considerations

                                                                                                                                                                                        The cost of mental health care is a critical issue of debate worldwide. While some countries, such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and New Zealand, provide universal health care that includes mental health care, other countries, such as the United States, provide a sparse level of mental health care that is tied to employer-subsidized insurance policies, entitlement programs, or none at all. Consequently health economics play a vital role in our understanding of mental health disparities and outcomes. What is clear is that health and mental health are interrelated concepts that are often reflected in local, state or provincial, and national policies. The resources in this section were selected based on their broad international appeal to include economics in our understanding of health and mental health care status. Nine main areas are reviewed: economic happiness in Bruni and Porta 2006; dollars and decisions for sustaining mental health systems in Chisholm, et al. 2006; cost-effective interventions in Disease Control Priorities Project 2006; classic historical health economics and mental illness in Frank and Manning 1992; national costs of mental illness in Hu 2006; costs of supported housing for homeless persons in Rosenheck, et al. 2003; out-of-pocket expenses across socioeconomic groups in Ringel and Sturm 2001; the role of marriage, financial resources, and depressive symptoms for African American mothers in Varner and Mandara 2009; and economics and managed care in Weitz 2000.

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bruni, Luigino, and Pier Luigi Porta, eds. 2006. Handbook on the economics of happiness. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Reflecting the contribution of a major research activity on the study of happiness, economics, and interpersonal relations, this book offers insight into the vast scope of the field in terms of the theory, its applications, and its experimental design.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Chisholm, Daniel, Shekhar Saxena, and Mark Van Ommeren. 2006. Dollars, DALYs, and decisions: Economic aspects of the mental health system. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            This book emphasizes the need to recognize mental health services as a worthwhile requirement and to generate evidence on mental health care strategies that are not only effective and appropriate but also cost-effective and sustainable.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Disease Control Priorities Project. 2006. Disease control priorities related to mental, neurological, developmental, and substance abuse disorders. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              With chapters covering disorders characterized by low levels of effective interventions, this volume’s purpose is to provide information on cost-effectiveness of interventions for these specific groups. This information should contribute to reformulation of policies and programs and reallocation of resources, eventually leading to reduction of morbidity and mortality.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Frank, Richard G., and Willard G. Manning Jr., eds. 1992. Economics and mental health. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Gathering experts from the field of mental health economics, this classic text uses labor market analysis to explain how mental illness affects the economy through lost productivity and reduced labor supply and how care for many is negatively influenced by the health insurance regulations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hu, T. W. 2006. Perspectives: An international review of the national cost estimates of mental illness, 1990–2003. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics 9.1: 3–13.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  This article reviews cost studies from around the world and helps the reader understand the magnitude of the economic consequences surrounding mental illness.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ringel, J. S., and R. Sturm. 2001. Financial burden and out-of-pocket expenditures for mental health across different socioeconomic groups: Results from HealthCare for Communities. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics 4.3: 141–150.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    This study examines differences in out-of-pocket expenditures and their burdens across different populations stratified by insurance status, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic groups.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Rosenheck, Robert, Wesley Kasprow, Linda Frisman, and Wen Liu-Mares. 2003. Cost-effectiveness of supported housing for homeless persons with mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry 60.9: 940–951.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.60.9.940Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      This study found that supported housing for homeless people with mental illness results in superior housing outcomes to intensive case management alone or standard care and only modestly increases societal costs. This study does not take into account the burden of emergency room care.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Varner, F., and Jelani Mandara. 2009. Marital transitions and changes in African American mothers’ depressive symptoms: The buffering role of financial resources. Journal of Family Psychology 23.6 (December): 839–847.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1037/a0017007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        This unique study looked at the effects of financial resources and changes in marital status among mothers who met the clinical criteria for depression. The conclusion was that while divorce is a risk factor for mental health concerns among African American mothers, financial resources serve as a protective factor.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Weitz, Robert D., ed. 2000. Psycho-economics: Managed care in mental health in the new millennium. New York: Haworth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Contributors offer advice to professionals involved in changes resulting from managed care. Using empirical research and practitioner accounts, this book assesses the impact of managed care, suggests ways to ameliorate its negative effects, and proposes ideas for the improvement of the managed care system and mental health care in general. Legal and ethical considerations are given special attention.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mental Health Principles, Policies, and Concepts

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fundamental to mental health is the understanding of the principles, concepts, and policies that inform mental health care services. In this section are international and national works that outline national and international mental health issues of concern and the recommendations, legislation, and policies created to improve the lives of those affected with mental illness and to encourage the overall mental well-being of all individuals. Also included are guides and information for implementation of services dictated by these same principles, concepts, and policies. Six main areas are reviewed: mental health laws, rights, and legislation in World Health Organization 2005; resilience and inequalities in Friedli 2009; the federal agenda for transformation in Goldman, et al. 2009; concepts for interdisciplinary practice in Waughfield and Burckhalter 2002; internationally recognized mental health principles of law in World Health Organization 1996; and a review of fourteen international policy and practice packages in World Health Organization 2003–2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Friedli, Lynne. 2009. Mental health, resilience, and inequalities. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            This sixty-four-page report explores the relationship between mental health and wide-ranging outcomes and benefits for individuals and communities. The author sees mental health as the core of resilience, health assets, capabilities, and positive adaptation that allow people to cope with adversity and reach their full potentials.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Goldman, Howard G., Jeffrey A. Buck, and Kenneth S. Thompson, eds. 2009. Transforming mental health services: Implementing the federal agenda for change. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              This compendium of seventeen articles addresses the goals set forth in President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health 2003 (cited under Definitions). The central themes of the articles are related to transforming the mental health care system from disability management and symptom reduction to helping individuals achieve meaningful lives in their communities and actively participate in their own care.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Waughfield, Claire G., and Teresa S. Burckhalter. 2002. Mental health concepts. 5th ed. Clifton Park, NY: Thompson Learning.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                This text uses scientific rationale and research to guide nurses and other mental health professionals into adopting holistic, safe, and effective mental health care practices for a variety of specific mental conditions. Mental health is observed over the life span, and an emphasis is placed on overall well-being and reintegration of mental health consumers into the community.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • World Health Organization. 1996. Mental health care law: Ten basic principles. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This short, twenty-five-page document outlines the ten principles created by the World Health Organization to guide the formulation of mental health legislation and provides annotations for implementation in practice. Principles include the promotion of mental health, access to care, culturally appropriate assessment, and self-determination, among others.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • World Health Organization. 2003–2005. The WHO mental health policy and service guidance package. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This report offers fourteen modules to help mental health care policy makers and planners develop policies and comprehensive strategies for improving mental health, use existing resources to the fullest extent possible, provide effective services to those in need, and assist individuals with mental illness in reintegrating into all aspects of community life to improve overall quality of life. These modules are freely available online.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • World Health Organization. 2005. WHO resource book on mental health, human rights, and legislation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Because legislation is a key factor in securing more resources for mental health and improving rights and mental health standards, this book provides practical guidance on key issues that need to be considered and incorporated into mental health laws as well as useful strategies to facilitate the development, adoption, and implementation of the laws.

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