- LAST REVIEWED: 05 May 2017
- LAST MODIFIED: 31 August 2015
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0151
- LAST REVIEWED: 05 May 2017
- LAST MODIFIED: 31 August 2015
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0151
The term food systems refers to the complex of institutions, actors, and actions that take place across the spheres of food policy regulation, production, distribution, marketing and exchange, consumption, and, more recently, the postconsumption activities of waste disposal and recycling. Within each of the spheres there are multiple activities—for example, production involves plant seed and animal genetic development; fertilizer, pesticide, and veterinary medicine manufacture; on-farm growing and harvesting activities; commodity sale negotiations with wholesalers or retailers; and environmental management to ensure consistent production capacity. Food systems also have a spatial dimension, being manifest at the household and community or local level, and at the national, regional, and global levels. One of the major changes in food systems over the last two hundred years has been the transition from household subsistence activities, with minimal commercial relationships, to highly complex, multilevel systems, with participation from international agencies, transnational corporations, multiple government agencies beyond agriculture and trade, nongovernment agencies, professional bodies, research and policy bodies, and social movements. Within a context of growing malnutrition, civil unrest sparked by food shortages and price rises, and environmental constraints on the food supply, public health researchers now work alongside agricultural economists, environmental scientists, and economists to advocate for transdisciplinary research to advance the case for health-promoting and sustainable food systems. The new perspectives—public health ecology; One Health, which involves equal consideration of animal and human health; and agri-health, which involves equal consideration of agri-environmental health and human health—share a concern that the dominant model of industrial food systems is delivering poor health outcomes, is unsustainable, and is unjust. Industrial food systems adopt a narrow focus of the most efficient production of the highest possible food yields to be distributed via commercial channels to mass consumer markets. This approach to feeding populations has been very successful in increasing the amount of calories available globally, but it has led to numerous population and environmental concerns, prompting civil society to support alternative food systems that stress quality over quantity, fair returns to farmers over corporate profits, environmental protections over food yield maximization, and producer-consumer engagement over a relationship built on price, Through the office of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, renewed attention is being paid to the human right to adequate nutrition through fair livelihoods for those who are formally engaged in the food system, given that a high proportion of the world’s farmers and fishermen live in poverty. The interrelationship between human security, principally freedom from want and fear, and nutrition security has also come onto the United Nations agenda.
As systems constructed out of a diverse array of nature-society interactions, and with multiple spheres of sociocultural, political, economic, and environmental activity that vary from place to place, food systems are typically examined using an array of mixed methods. Global databases exist—EUROSTAT, FAOSTAT—which permit comparative national examinations of particular food supply issues (including available nutrients and prices) and food consumption trends (including nutrients utilized). There are also opportunities to analyze the impacts on nutrition of natural experiments, such as the Cuban experience of domestic food self-sufficiency, wartime food rationing, and structural adjustment programs. However, assessing cause and effect relationships, understood in the epidemiologic sense, between the operations of a food system and health outcomes is rarely possible. The interdisciplinary nature of food system scholarship means that systematic reviews are not undertaken, although there are an increasing number of special journal issues and edited collections which focus in some detail on an aspect of the system, like retailing, or a specific problem, like aquaculture sustainability. A selection of relevant special journal issues and edited collections is provided below under Journals/Special Issues and Edited Book Collections. The works in this section provide an introduction to the origins of the modern food system as understood from different disciplines: social history, anthropology, development sociology, and economic geography. One social history, Toussaint-Samat 1992, moves from the Paleolithic age, and the evolution of fire, to the present science and technology–based food supply; while Mintz 1985 covers the transition of a single commodity over a period of 500 years, but in a way that sheds light on the types of economic, cultural, and geopolitical considerations lying behind the contemporary food system. Winson 2013 describes how dramatically diets have changed with industrialization over the past 150 years. From economic geography comes a co-edited collection describing the changing nature of pastoral systems (occupying 25 percent of the world’s land area and central to the livelihoods of 200 million households), which traces not only the centuries-old marketization of livestock, but also the more recent pressures on food system livelihoods coming from global supply chains (Gertel and LeHeron 2011). From development sociology, Friedmann and McMichael 1989 explains the modern food system in terms of the dynamics of capitalist economy formations, specifically industrialization. Hawkes, et al. 2010 provides insight into one of the most pressing food system governance issues with a bearing on food security in relation to global food trade. Again from sociology comes Warde 1997, an early empirical study of consumption, including attempts to better understand the adoption of “healthy” foods. This work is regularly cited in more contemporary examinations of sustainable consumption practices. Finally, Pretty 2002 provides an ecosystem treatment of production and consumption within a context of nature-society relations.
Friedmann, Harriett, and Philip McMichael. 1989. Agriculture and the state system. Sociologia Ruralis 39.2: 93–117.
Building on world-system theory, this pathbreaking article argues that contemporary food systems can best be understood as periods of stability and crisis in state-producer-consumer relationships. By adopting this approach, a succession of food regimes involving the deployment of different regulatory mechanisms is illuminated.
Gertel, Jorg, and Richard LeHeron, eds. 2011. Economic spaces of pastoral production and commodity systems. Farnham, UK: Ashgate.
Using rich case studies from postcolonial Africa, Central Asia, and Australia and New Zealand, this book examines an overlooked aspect of food systems: pastoralism. Chapters investigate how market economies are altering the livelihood structures of pastoralists, with consequences for the nature of the meat and dairy foods available in the global market.
Hawkes, Corinna, Chantal Blouin, Spencer Henson, Nick Drager, and Laurette Dubé, eds. 2010. Trade, food, diet, and health: Perspectives and policy options. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
Provides an overview of the major ways in which the import and export of foods is contributing to the rise of chronic noncommunicable disease. It contains a useful “Glossary of Trade Terms” and a section devoted to the primary national and international regulatory instruments being adopted to advance the trade in both unhealthy and healthy foods.
Mintz, S. 1985. Sweetness and power: The place of sugar in modern history. New York: Viking Penguin.
Widely regarded as a classic text in economic anthropology and agri-food studies, Mintz links the current fondness for sugary foods, and the advent of cheap calories, to the unfolding of European industrialization built on the natural abundance of sugarcane found in tropical colonies. The book’s multifaceted approach provides a template for the study of food commodity trajectories more generally.
Pretty, J. 2002. Agri-culture: Reconnecting people, land and nature. London: Earthscan.
Based on a mix of empirical evidence of environmental conditions and food yields, farmer narratives, and policy analysis, there are calls for a new agricultural revolution based on what is being learned of farmer, corporate, and regulatory innovation. The book highlights the importance of recognizing farmers as lay scientists who have a deep knowledge and appreciation of biospheric resources.
Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne. 1992. A history of food. Translated by Anthea Bell. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Reference.
Part dictionary and part philosophical treatise, this book provides histories of hunting and gathering, followed by sections devoted to histories of staple, luxury, and “sacramental” foods; the rise of urban markets; and the centrality of spices and salt to food trade. A good place to begin any commodity or culinary culture-based research. First published in French in 1987 as Histoire naturelle & morale de la nourriture; expanded edition published in 2009.
Warde, A. 1997. Consumption, food and taste: Culinary antinomies and commodity culture. London: SAGE.
Among the first works to take the study of food consumption seriously, and to locate its different forms within broader social systems, including class and the life stage. Warde links the adoption of novel tastes and consumption habits, including health, to new forms of niche production and marketing.
Winson, A. 2013. The industrial diet: The degradation of food and the struggle for healthy eating. Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia Press.
This book lays out in some detail what is meant by an industrial food system: stripping natural ingredients out of whole foods, adding chemicals and other additives to increase shelf life and improve flavor, making claims about the qualities of products that are not based in evidence, and shipping foods around the world where they can do as much health harm as good.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
- Access to Health Care
- Action Research
- Active Aging
- Active Living
- Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior in the United States
- Advocacy, Public Health
- Agricultural Safety and Public Health
- Air Quality: Health Effects
- Air Quality: Indoor Health Effects
- Alcohol Availability and Violence
- Alternative Research Designs
- Ambient Air Quality Standards and Guidelines
- American Perspectives on Chronic Disease and Control
- Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
- Asthma in Children
- Attachment as a Health Determinant
- Behavior Change Theory in Health Education and Promotion
- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
- Bicycling and Cycling Safety
- Birth and Death Registration
- Birth Cohort Studies
- Board of Health
- Built Environment and Health, The
- Business and Corporate Practices
- Cancer Communication Strategies in North America
- Cancer Prevention
- Cancer Screening
- Capacity Building
- Capacity Building for NCDs in LMICs
- Capacity-Building for Applied Public Health in LMIC: A US ...
- Cardiovascular Health and Disease
- Child Maltreatment
- Children, Air Pollution and
- Children, Injury Risk-Taking Behaviors in
- Children, Obesity in
- Citizen Advisory Boards
- Climate Change and Human Health
- Climate Change: Institutional Response
- Clinical Preventive Medicine
- Community Air Pollution
- Community Development
- Community Gardens
- Community Health Assessment
- Community Partnerships and Coalitions
- Community-Based Participatory Research
- Complexity and Systems Theory
- Culture and Public Health
- Definition of Health
- Dental Public Health
- Design and Health
- Dietary Guidelines
- Directions in Global Public Health Graduate Education
- Ecological Approaches
- Enabling Factors
- Environmental Laws
- Environmental Protection Agency
- Ethics of Public Health
- Evidence-Based Public Health Practice
- Family Planning Services and Birth Control
- Food Safety
- Food Security and Food Banks
- Food Systems
- Frail Elderly
- Functional Literacy
- Genomics, Public Health
- Geographic Information Systems
- Geography and Health
- Global Health
- Global Health Diplomacy
- Global Health Promotion
- Guide to Community Preventive Services, The
- Health Administration
- Health Communication
- Health Disparities
- Health Education
- Health Impact Assessment
- Health in All Policies
- Health in All Policies in European Countries
- Health Literacy
- Health Literacy and Non-Communicable Diseases
- Health Measurement Scales
- Health Planning
- Health Promoting Hospitals
- Health Promotion
- Health Promotion Foundations
- Health Promotion Workforce Capacity
- Health Promotion Workforce Capacity
- Healthy People Initiative
- Hepatitis C
- High Risk Prevention Strategies
- Human Rights, Health and
- Immigrant Populations
- Immunization and Pneumococcal Infection
- Indigenous Peoples, Public Health and
- Indigenous Populations of North America, Australasia, and ...
- Indoor Air Quality Guidelines
- Internet Applications in Promoting Health Behavior
- Intersectoral Strategies in Low - Middle Income Countries ...
- Justice, Social
- Knowledge Translation and Exchange
- Knowledge Utilization and Exchange
- Law of Public Health in the United States
- Media Advocacy
- Mental Health
- Mental Health Promotion
- Migrant Health
- Motor Vehicle Injury Prevention
- Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
- National Association of Local Boards of Health
- National Public Health Institutions
- Needs Assessment
- Needs Assessments in International Disasters and Emergenci...
- Obesity Prevention
- Occupational Cancers
- Occupational Exposure to Benzene
- Occupational Exposure to Erionite
- Occupational Safety and Health
- Oral Health Equity for Minority Populations in the United ...
- Ottawa Charter
- Parenting and Work
- Parenting Skills and Capacity
- Participatory Action Research
- Patient Decision Making
- Pesticide Exposure and Pesticide Health Effects
- Physical Activity and Exercise
- Physical Activity Promotion
- Polio Eradication in Pakistan
- Population Aging
- Population Determinants of Unhealthy Foods and Beverages
- Population Health Objectives and Targets
- Precautionary Principle
- Prenatal Health
- Program Evaluation in American Health Education
- Program Planning and Evaluation
- Public Health, History of
- Public Health Surveillance
- Public-Private Partnerships in Public Health Research and ...
- Public-Private Partnerships to Prevent and Manage Obesity ...
- Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
- Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies
- Randomized Controlled Trials
- Real World Evaluation Strategies
- Reducing Obesity-Related Health Disparities in Hispanic an...
- Research Integrity in Public Health
- Resilient Health Systems
- Rural Health in the United States
- Safety, Patient
- School Health Programs in the Pacific Region
- Sex Education in HIV/AIDS Prevention
- Skin Cancer Prevention
- Smoking Cessation
- Social Determinants of Health
- Social Epidemiology
- Social Marketing
- Statistics in Public Health
- STI Networks, Patterns, and Control Strategies
- Systems in the United States, Public Health
- Systems Modeling and Big Data for Non-Communicable Disease...
- Systems Theory in Public Health
- Traditional, Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative M...
- Translation of Science to Practice and Policy
- Traumatic Stress and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
- Tuberculosis among Adults and the Determinants of Health
- Unintentional Injury Prevention
- Urban Health
- Vaccine Hesitancy
- Violence Prevention
- Water Quality
- Water Quality and Water-Related Disease
- Weight Management in US Occupational Settings
- Welfare States, Public Health and Health Inequalities
- Worksite Health Promotion
- World Health Organization (WHO)