Systems Modeling and Big Data for Non-Communicable Disease Prevention
- LAST MODIFIED: 22 February 2018
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0176
- LAST MODIFIED: 22 February 2018
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756797-0176
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a complex problem and are the leading cause of death globally. Numerous factors contribute to the development of NCDs including environmental, social, physical, cultural, socio-economic, behavioral, and biological determinants. These factors are interrelated and change over time, making them challenging to understand and address effectively. Quantitative systems science methods, such as dynamic simulation modeling, have been used for many years in engineering and other disciplines. Dynamic simulation modeling methods are increasingly being employed in the health sector to navigate the complex causes of NCDs and help formulate efficient and effective responses to address them. Agent-based modeling, system dynamics, and discrete event simulation are methods collectively termed “dynamic simulation modeling.” Dynamic simulation modeling is demonstrating increasing promise for enabling the collaborative development of “what if” tools that can inform policy and practice, and help build consensus for action. Parallel technological developments in data generation and collection have led to the creation of extremely large, high density and diverse data sets, commonly known as “big data.” Increasingly, attention is being paid to the potential for the fields (and analytic outputs) of dynamic simulation modeling and big data to be cross-leveraged, with each being informed, refined, and increased in predictive power by the other. This bibliography provides key resources and publications that highlight the value of dynamic simulation modeling and the use of big data for informing actions for improved prevention of NCDs. A brief overview of the challenges of policy making for complex health problems is presented. Next, a description of dynamic simulation modeling methods is provided, including an overview of the application of these methods in NCD prevention specifically, and public health more broadly. This is followed by commentary on big data and the use of big data in NCD prevention specifically and public health more broadly. An overview of the value and more recent advances and applications of combining dynamic simulation modeling methods with big data for public health is then included. Finally, a number of useful systems resources are listed as they offer relevant guidance. In this article, the term “non-communicable diseases” refers to the health conditions sometimes described to as “chronic diseases,” and “modeling” has been used for brevity in section titles as an abbreviation for “dynamic simulation modeling.” We dedicate this work to our colleague, mentor, and above-all friend, Associate Professor Sonia Wutzke (1970–2017). The public health community is richer for having had you as one of its most passionate advocates.
Introductory Works: Health Policy Challenges and Systems Science
The World Health Organization 2011 has released a number of reports on the burden of NCDs as well an international strategy for strengthening prevention efforts from World Health Organization 2013. The challenges experienced in public health and the value of systems science techniques to address these challenges are explored by Green 2006. Ip, et al. 2013 elaborates on how these challenges can be addressed by systems science techniques. The authors claim that while statistical and systems science may differ in strategies and language, these differences can be navigated and resolved. An Oxford Bibliography by Finegood, et al. 2012 presents a broader review of useful resources for understanding complexity and systems theory. Reponses to the considerable burden of NCDs are partly determined by the effectiveness of service delivery systems that can facilitate these solutions. International context on health systems is provided by the World Health Organization 2007, with its Framework for Action identifying six building blocks of health system features. In their review of systems science research, Carey, et al. 2015 proposes a framework for health systems that includes guidance on where public health could engage more fully with systems methodologies, including modeling.
Carey, G., E. Malbon, N. Carey, A. Joyce, B. Crammond, and A. Carey. 2015. Systems science and systems thinking for public health: A systematic review of the field. BMJ Open 5.12: e009002.
In this systematic review, the authors provide a useful overview of systems science research in public health. The future potential and limitations in dynamic simulation modeling taking place in this field are also explored.
Finegood, D., L. Johnston, P. Giabbanelli, P. Deck, S. Frood, L. Burgos-Liz, and A. Best. 2012. Complexity and systems theory. Oxford Bibliographies.
The authors provide a bibliography of works covering the principles of systems thinking and complexity science. Also included are articles and resources on the application of these approaches in public health. The application to individual behavior change is included, which is of particular relevance to the prevention of lifestyle related chronic disease.
Green, L. 2006. Public health asks of systems science: To advance our evidence-based practice, can you help us get more practice-based evidence? American Journal of Public Health 96.3: 406–409.
This commentary proposes how systems science techniques can help in the improvement of public health. The author describes how the public health community seek a more evidence-based public health practice, while most evidence comes from artificially controlled research that does not reflect practice.
Ip, E. H., H. Rahmandad, D. A. Shoham, R. Hammond, T. T. -K. Huang, Y. Wang, and P. L. Mabry. 2013. Reconciling statistical and systems science approaches to public health. Health Education & Behavior 40.1 Suppl.: 123S–131S.
This article describes how statistical and systems science approaches, while having some conflicts, can be reconciled, and together can progress solutions to complex challenges. The authors present different forms of models as representing various compromises among the four requirements of generality, realism, fit, and precision.
World Health Organization. 2007. Everybody’s business: Strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes. Framework for Action.
This is the WHO Framework for Action. This report articulates international health service issues and challenges, aiming to “clarify and strengthen” the WHO’s role in health systems. A framework containing six building blocks is provided, to allow a definition of required features of health systems, express the WHO’s priorities, and identify gaps in WHO support. The building blocks include service delivery, health workforce, information, medical products, vaccines and technologies, and financing and stewardship.
World Health Organization. 2011. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010.
This report highlights the extent of the burden of disease from NCDs. It includes commentary on the impact this has on development, particularly among populations in lower social and economic positions. Suggested actions focus on improving data collection, encouraging population-wide interventions, and system level solutions, such as taxation, advertising bans on tobacco, product reformulation, and restricting access to alcohol sales.
World Health Organization. 2013. Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013–2020.
This action plan emphasizes how the multitude of premature deaths internationally from NCDs could have largely been prevented. It provides a suite of policy options for member states, the World Health Organization (WHO), other United Nations organizations and intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector for the attainment of voluntary global targets, including that of a 25 percent relative reduction in premature mortality from NCDs by 2025.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
How to Subscribe
Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here.
- Access to Health Care
- Action Research
- Active Aging
- Active Living
- Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior in the United States
- Advocacy, Public Health
- Agricultural Safety and Public Health
- Air Quality: Health Effects
- Air Quality: Indoor Health Effects
- Alcohol Availability and Violence
- Alternative Research Designs
- Ambient Air Quality Standards and Guidelines
- American Perspectives on Chronic Disease and Control
- Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
- Asthma in Children
- Attachment as a Health Determinant
- Behavior Change Theory in Health Education and Promotion
- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
- Bicycling and Cycling Safety
- Birth and Death Registration
- Birth Cohort Studies
- Board of Health
- Built Environment and Health, The
- Business and Corporate Practices
- Cancer Communication Strategies in North America
- Cancer Prevention
- Cancer Screening
- Capacity Building
- Capacity Building for NCDs in LMICs
- Capacity-Building for Applied Public Health in LMIC: A US ...
- Cardiovascular Health and Disease
- Child Maltreatment
- Children, Air Pollution and
- Children, Injury Risk-Taking Behaviors in
- Children, Obesity in
- Citizen Advisory Boards
- Climate Change and Human Health
- Climate Change: Institutional Response
- Clinical Preventive Medicine
- Community Air Pollution
- Community Development
- Community Gardens
- Community Health Assessment
- Community Partnerships and Coalitions
- Community-Based Participatory Research
- Complexity and Systems Theory
- Culture and Public Health
- Definition of Health
- Dental Public Health
- Design and Health
- Dietary Guidelines
- Ecological Approaches
- Enabling Factors
- Environmental Laws
- Environmental Protection Agency
- Ethics of Public Health
- Evidence-Based Public Health Practice
- Family Planning Services and Birth Control
- Food Safety
- Food Security and Food Banks
- Food Systems
- Frail Elderly
- Functional Literacy
- Genomics, Public Health
- Geographic Information Systems
- Geography and Health
- Global Health
- Global Health Diplomacy
- Global Health Promotion
- Guide to Community Preventive Services, The
- Health Administration
- Health Communication
- Health Disparities
- Health Education
- Health Impact Assessment
- Health in All Policies
- Health in All Policies in European Countries
- Health Literacy
- Health Literacy and Non-Communicable Diseases
- Health Measurement Scales
- Health Planning
- Health Promoting Hospitals
- Health Promotion
- Health Promotion Foundations
- Health Promotion Workforce Capacity
- Health Promotion Workforce Capacity
- Healthy People Initiative
- Hepatitis C
- High Risk Prevention Strategies
- Human Rights, Health and
- Immigrant Populations
- Immunization and Pneumococcal Infection
- Indigenous Peoples, Public Health and
- Indigenous Populations of North America, Australasia, and ...
- Indoor Air Quality Guidelines
- Internet Applications in Promoting Health Behavior
- Intersectoral Strategies in Low - Middle Income Countries ...
- Justice, Social
- Knowledge Translation and Exchange
- Knowledge Utilization and Exchange
- Law of Public Health in the United States
- Media Advocacy
- Mental Health
- Mental Health Promotion
- Migrant Health
- Motor Vehicle Injury Prevention
- Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
- National Association of Local Boards of Health
- National Public Health Institutions
- Needs Assessment
- Obesity Prevention
- Occupational Cancers
- Occupational Exposure to Benzene
- Occupational Exposure to Erionite
- Occupational Safety and Health
- Oral Health Equity for Minority Populations in the United ...
- Ottawa Charter
- Parenting and Work
- Parenting Skills and Capacity
- Participatory Action Research
- Patient Decision Making
- Pesticide Exposure and Pesticide Health Effects
- Physical Activity and Exercise
- Physical Activity Promotion
- Polio Eradication in Pakistan
- Population Aging
- Population Determinants of Unhealthy Foods and Beverages
- Population Health Objectives and Targets
- Precautionary Principle
- Prenatal Health
- Program Evaluation in American Health Education
- Program Planning and Evaluation
- Public Health, History of
- Public Health Surveillance
- Public-Private Partnerships in Public Health Research and ...
- Public-Private Partnerships to Prevent and Manage Obesity ...
- Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
- Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies
- Randomized Controlled Trials
- Real World Evaluation Strategies
- Reducing Obesity-Related Health Disparities in Hispanic an...
- Research Integrity in Public Health
- Resilient Health Systems
- Rural Health in the United States
- Safety, Patient
- School Health Programs in the Pacific Region
- Sex Education in HIV/AIDS Prevention
- Skin Cancer Prevention
- Smoking Cessation
- Social Determinants of Health
- Social Epidemiology
- Social Marketing
- Statistics in Public Health
- STI Networks, Patterns, and Control Strategies
- Systems in the United States, Public Health
- Systems Modeling and Big Data for Non-Communicable Disease...
- Systems Theory in Public Health
- Traditional, Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative M...
- Translation of Science to Practice and Policy
- Traumatic Stress and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
- Tuberculosis among Adults and the Determinants of Health
- Unintentional Injury Prevention
- Urban Health
- Vaccine Hesitancy
- Violence Prevention
- Water Quality
- Water Quality and Water-Related Disease
- Weight Management in US Occupational Settings
- Welfare States, Public Health and Health Inequalities
- Worksite Health Promotion
- World Health Organization (WHO)