With the emerging global health priorities in the early 21st century, health promotion increasingly has become a more important issue. Great things come with great responsibility. Globalization has created many opportunities for development and interaction, but it also has brought a change in lifestyle and behaviors that encourage an unhealthy lifestyle. Health is not only a matter of the health sector; it also requires more collaboration from other sectors within government and outside government as well as private sectors. The traditional health-care model is very important, and innovative ways are needed to handle emerging and complex health outcome. Risk factors for non-communicable diseases can only be controlled effectively and efficiently through multisectoral collaboration and stakeholder engagement. In order to accomplish that, an effective and efficient infrastructure is essential in health promotion. Health promotion foundations (HPFs) are one of the models for health promotion infrastructure. Three types of foundations, administrations, boards, or funds depend on the governance structure—autonomous, semi-autonomous, and a unit within a government infrastructure. A complete review of the advantages and disadvantages for each type of foundation is recommended. Independent or autonomous foundations are highly recommended because accountability and transparency are achieved in each independent foundation. Detailed information on sources for funding, types of legal documents used, and the type of governance in a country are described in this article. Sustainability is also the major emphasis for health promotion foundations because of the nature of the work that a foundation plans to do. Detailed information on health promotion foundations, including different sources of funding, a step-by-step approach on establishing a foundation, role or functions of a health promotion foundation, lessons learned, and case studies is also provided. It also highlights the need of local, regional, and international support in successful implementation.
In order to understand the nature of health promotion foundations, researchers should explore the difference between health promotion that focuses mainly on the community or population level and the curative or health services that focus more on the individual level (Mouy and Barr 2006; Evans, et al. 1994). It is also important to highlight the significance of leadership and sustainability for health promotion programs (World Health Organization 2005). Although not focusing directly on health promotion foundations, Davies 2013 discusses the overall paradigm shift and the multidisciplinary nature of health promotion. Coe and De Beyer 2014 discusses the importance of prevention and health promotion in the context of universal health coverage and the reasons health promotion is not a priority in many countries. One of the proposed ideas for establishing the Thai Health Promotion Foundation (ThaiHealth) is to reduce expenditure for universal health coverage (Supawongse 2007). In the Philippines, the sin tax was allocated for the use of universal health coverage (Kaiser, et al. 2016); however, advocates in the Philippines are currently trying to propose a health promotion bill following the Thai experience. The Health Promotion Foundation concept was initiated in the 1980s, and the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth) was the pioneer (Victorian Health Promotion Foundation 2006). The reason VicHealth was established is still relevant to global health problems in the early 21st century, which are no longer limited to rich countries. The success of VicHealth has been followed by many other countries around the world. Countries often have their own particular situational context even if they are located in the same region. Health Promotion Foundation 1991 discusses the reasons the Polish Health Promotion Foundation was established. Evidence has shown that health promotion foundations are suitable and can be implemented in low- and middle-income countries as well as wealthy countries. Perez, et al. 2013 provides examples of low- and middle-income countries with health promotion foundations. Different types of health promotion infrastructure are implemented depending on the need of the country. The three main models of health promotion infrastructure are described clearly in Vathesatogkit, et al. 2013.
Coe, G., and J. De Beyer. 2014. The imperative for health promotion in universal health coverage. Global Health: Science and Practice 2.1: 10–22.
The article showcases the need for new skills and expertise for health promotion in the context of universal health coverage. It also emphasizes the importance of health promotion.
Davies, J. K. November 2013. Health promotion: A unique discipline?. In Health promotion forum of New Zealand. HPF Occasional Paper. Newmarket, New Zealand: Health Promotion Forum.
The paper presents the history and concept of health promotion from different perspectives. It explains the basics of health promotion and will be useful for scholars seeking a better understanding of why health promotion foundations are needed due to the nature of health promotion, such as a stronger emphasis on autonomy, participation, and empowerment (elaborated on pp. 7–10).
Evans, R., M. Barer, and T. Marmor. 1994. Why are some people healthy and others not? The determinants of health of populations. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
This book explains the concept of population health and the way in which it has an impact on health care. The authors also explain health in a broader perspective of different social determinants and the way in which policy decisions can have an impact on health. They also differentiate traditional health care from population health, which was quite new during the 1990s.
Health Promotion Foundation. 1991. FUNDACJA. Warsaw, Poland: Health Promotion Foundation.
This fact sheet, prepared by the Health Promotion Foundation (FUNDACJA) in Warsaw, briefly describes why the foundation is established, including the objectives and the function of the foundation.
Kaiser, K., C. Bredenkamp, and R. Iglesias. 2016. Sin tax reform in the Philippines: Transforming public finance, health, and governance for more inclusive development. Washington, DC: World Bank.
This book provides the detailed process of sin tax reform in the Philippines and an evaluation of the implementation. It also provides the background information on the current tobacco tax reform in the East Asia and the Pacific region and acknowledges that earmarked taxes are used for health promotion in other countries.
Mouy, B., and A. Barr. 2006. The social determinants of health: Is there a role for health promotion foundations? Health Promotion Journal of Australia 17.3: 189–195.
This article analyzes health promotion from the perspective of structural determinants of health. It illustrates the bigger picture of health through social, cultural, political, and economic perspectives. The change in paradigm is demonstrated clearly in this article.
Perez, A., O. Ayo-Yusuf, K. Hofman, et al. 2013. Establishing a health promotion and development foundation in South Africa. South African Medical Journal 103.3: 147–149.
This article explains why South Africa needs a health promotion and development foundation as a middle-income country bearing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. This article also mentions the existing models of health promotion foundations around the world.
Supawongse, C. 2007. Two decades of tobacco-consumption control in Thailand: Success and challenges. Translated by Atchara Shayakul. Bangkok: Mahidol Univ.
This book explains the tough journey of tobacco control in Thailand in the 1990s and how the Thai Health Promotion Foundation was created. It is one of the most resourceful books for those interested in the journey of ThaiHealth. One of the important messages that the tobacco control advocates were utilizing during the advocacy of surcharge tax for health promotion was to reduce the expenses of universal health insurance.
Vathesatogkit, P., T. Y. Lian, and B. Ritthiphakdee. 2013. Health promotion fund: Sustainable financing and governance. Bangkok: Thai Health Promotion Foundation.
This resource provides an overview of health promotion foundations with various sources of funding. However, it needs to be updated because of changes since 2013. Because very few books provide an overview of health promotion foundations, this is a valuable resource and is published by the Thai Health Promotion Foundation in collaboration with the Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance and the International Network for Health Promotion Foundation.
Victorian Health Promotion Foundation. 2006. Factsheet 1: VicHealth funding model. Carlton, Australia: VicHealth.
This overview of the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation provides a good explanation of its source of funding. In addition, it briefly explains how tobacco taxes are levied in Victoria.
World Health Organization 2005. Global health promotion scaling up for 2015: A brief review of major impacts and developments over the past 20 years and challenges for 2015. WHO Secretariat Background Document for the 6th Global Conference on Health Promotion in Bangkok, Thailand, 7–11 August 2005.
This paper is the unedited version of a working paper prepared as the background document for the World Health Organization 6th Global Conference on Health Promotion in Bangkok. The paper discusses the lessons learned from since the 1980s and the way forward in the 21st century. It emphasizes that stewardship and sustainability are important for health (p. 15). These two factors are also important criteria for health promotion foundations.
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- Access to Health Care
- Action Research
- Active Aging
- Active Living
- Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior in the United States
- Advocacy, Public Health
- Agricultural Safety and Public Health
- Air Quality: Health Effects
- Air Quality: Indoor Health Effects
- Alcohol Availability and Violence
- Alternative Research Designs
- Ambient Air Quality Standards and Guidelines
- American Perspectives on Chronic Disease and Control
- Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
- Asthma in Children
- Attachment as a Health Determinant
- Behavior Change Theory in Health Education and Promotion
- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
- Bicycling and Cycling Safety
- Birth and Death Registration
- Birth Cohort Studies
- Board of Health
- Built Environment and Health, The
- Business and Corporate Practices
- Cancer Communication Strategies in North America
- Cancer Prevention
- Cancer Screening
- Capacity Building
- Capacity Building for NCDs in LMICs
- Capacity-Building for Applied Public Health in LMIC: A US ...
- Cardiovascular Health and Disease
- Child Maltreatment
- Children, Air Pollution and
- Children, Injury Risk-Taking Behaviors in
- Children, Obesity in
- Citizen Advisory Boards
- Climate Change and Human Health
- Climate Change: Institutional Response
- Clinical Preventive Medicine
- Community Air Pollution
- Community Development
- Community Gardens
- Community Health Assessment
- Community Partnerships and Coalitions
- Community-Based Participatory Research
- Complexity and Systems Theory
- Culture and Public Health
- Definition of Health
- Dental Public Health
- Design and Health
- Dietary Guidelines
- Ecological Approaches
- Enabling Factors
- Environmental Laws
- Environmental Protection Agency
- Ethics of Public Health
- Evidence-Based Public Health Practice
- Family Planning Services and Birth Control
- Food Safety
- Food Security and Food Banks
- Food Systems
- Frail Elderly
- Functional Literacy
- Genomics, Public Health
- Geographic Information Systems
- Geography and Health
- Global Health
- Global Health Diplomacy
- Global Health Promotion
- Guide to Community Preventive Services, The
- Health Administration
- Health Communication
- Health Disparities
- Health Education
- Health Impact Assessment
- Health in All Policies
- Health in All Policies in European Countries
- Health Literacy
- Health Literacy and Non-Communicable Diseases
- Health Measurement Scales
- Health Planning
- Health Promoting Hospitals
- Health Promotion
- Health Promotion Foundations
- Health Promotion Workforce Capacity
- Health Promotion Workforce Capacity
- Healthy People Initiative
- Hepatitis C
- High Risk Prevention Strategies
- Human Rights, Health and
- Immigrant Populations
- Immunization and Pneumococcal Infection
- Indigenous Peoples, Public Health and
- Indigenous Populations of North America, Australasia, and ...
- Indoor Air Quality Guidelines
- Internet Applications in Promoting Health Behavior
- Intersectoral Strategies in Low - Middle Income Countries ...
- Justice, Social
- Knowledge Translation and Exchange
- Knowledge Utilization and Exchange
- Law of Public Health in the United States
- Media Advocacy
- Mental Health
- Mental Health Promotion
- Migrant Health
- Motor Vehicle Injury Prevention
- Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
- National Association of Local Boards of Health
- National Public Health Institutions
- Needs Assessment
- Needs Assessments in International Disasters and Emergenci...
- Obesity Prevention
- Occupational Cancers
- Occupational Exposure to Benzene
- Occupational Exposure to Erionite
- Occupational Safety and Health
- Oral Health Equity for Minority Populations in the United ...
- Ottawa Charter
- Parenting and Work
- Parenting Skills and Capacity
- Participatory Action Research
- Patient Decision Making
- Pesticide Exposure and Pesticide Health Effects
- Physical Activity and Exercise
- Physical Activity Promotion
- Polio Eradication in Pakistan
- Population Aging
- Population Determinants of Unhealthy Foods and Beverages
- Population Health Objectives and Targets
- Precautionary Principle
- Prenatal Health
- Program Evaluation in American Health Education
- Program Planning and Evaluation
- Public Health, History of
- Public Health Surveillance
- Public-Private Partnerships in Public Health Research and ...
- Public-Private Partnerships to Prevent and Manage Obesity ...
- Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
- Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies
- Randomized Controlled Trials
- Real World Evaluation Strategies
- Reducing Obesity-Related Health Disparities in Hispanic an...
- Research Integrity in Public Health
- Resilient Health Systems
- Rural Health in the United States
- Safety, Patient
- School Health Programs in the Pacific Region
- Sex Education in HIV/AIDS Prevention
- Skin Cancer Prevention
- Smoking Cessation
- Social Determinants of Health
- Social Epidemiology
- Social Marketing
- Statistics in Public Health
- STI Networks, Patterns, and Control Strategies
- Systems in the United States, Public Health
- Systems Modeling and Big Data for Non-Communicable Disease...
- Systems Theory in Public Health
- Traditional, Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative M...
- Translation of Science to Practice and Policy
- Traumatic Stress and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
- Tuberculosis among Adults and the Determinants of Health
- Unintentional Injury Prevention
- Urban Health
- Vaccine Hesitancy
- Violence Prevention
- Water Quality
- Water Quality and Water-Related Disease
- Weight Management in US Occupational Settings
- Welfare States, Public Health and Health Inequalities
- Worksite Health Promotion
- World Health Organization (WHO)