In This Article Art Education

  • Introduction
  • Aesthetic Development and Critique
  • Art Integration
  • Avatars and Video Games
  • Mode of Content Delivery
  • Arts-Based Research
  • Art Teacher Training
  • Art Teaching by Generalist Teachers and Teaching Artists
  • Assessment and Evaluation in the Arts
  • Cognition and Art Education
  • Community-Based Art Education/Art Education Partnerships
  • Creativity
  • Ecological and Environmental Concerns
  • Female Perspectives
  • Historical Perspectives
  • Multicultural Art Education
  • Museum-Based Art Education
  • Semiotics and Metaphor
  • Social Justice and Social Theory
  • Special Needs
  • Visual Culture Art Education
  • Visual Literacy

Education Art Education
by
Cathy Smilan
  • LAST MODIFIED: 15 December 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756810-0004

Introduction

This bibliography contains a selection of papers and volumes on themes under discussion in the field of art education. The topics presented here are but a sampling of issues that noted scholars consider to be essential to the progress of art, design, and aesthetics education as core curricula. As art educators teach art technique and process along with artistic analysis, gaining an understanding of the historical development of the field as well as a foundation in aesthetic theory and methods of critique is essential. The literature discussed delves into aesthetic inquiry, guiding readers to develop a transformative analysis of art. The literature also offers a historical foundation of art education, providing the basis for teaching art processes and techniques as well as the ability to appreciate and interpret art in and out of school. Historical perspectives on art education, from its beginning in public schools in which drawing and drafting are taught, to the development of expressive media and children’s natural artistic development, to the focus on discipline-based art education, through contemporary art education and visual-culture studies, have pervaded the arts education literature. With the ever-increasing call for measuring learning to justify expenditures, assessment and evaluation in art education have become important topics of concern and debate. Art educators advocate for a holistic review of learning, and the field acknowledges the pressure to measure learning objectives in the arts based on content standards. Many other disciplines within education are looking to the arts to guide in the development of process-folio and portfolio assessments. Literature and commentary in the field of art education consider the pros and cons of teachers who are also artists, teaching artists, and the advocacy for having certified art teachers in schools. The potential goals and conflicts of interest make for interesting discussion; the reports of student engagement and advancement suggest the need to continue with such discussions. Teaching art and art research from the female perspective is another important topic in art education literature. Because an overwhelming percentage of art educators are women, it is all the more salient that art education considers the perspectives of women in the development of the field. As an often-disenfranchised group, female artists and art educators give voice to issues of gender inequities as well as social and political issues that affect women and others who are placed in real or perceived minority situations. Students with special needs is one such category in the literature, as in life. Finally, the study of visual literacy and visual culture is permeating the literature; perhaps, this field is essentially arriving back at where it started—learning to see, translate, and communicate the visual stimulus of our world.

Aesthetic Development and Critique

An important aspect of art education is the development of an aesthetic philosophy and the ability to critique one’s own artwork as well as that of other artists. Discipline-based art education, no longer prescriptive practice in Western schools, included aesthetics and critique as essential components. The field of art education continues to recognize these aspects as priorities and strives to include them in a complete art-learning experience. Barrett 2008, Bresler 2006, and Greene and Lincoln Center Institute 2001 consider the importance of learning to see and translating the experience of seeing to make connections with one’s life and one’s world.

  • Barrett, Terry. 2008. Why is that art? Aesthetics and criticism of contemporary art. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    Barrett introduces readers to multiple philosophical perspectives on art, particularly addressing aesthetic concerns about contemporary works and the rationale behind art creation, viewing, and critique. He applies philosophical questions and aesthetic measures to challenge various works and to discuss triumphs and shortcomings in concepts, techniques, and artistic vision. Criteria for evaluating artwork and exploring content, context, and meaning to challenge assumptions are presented.

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    • Bresler, Liora. 2006. Toward connectedness: Aesthetically based research studies in art education. Studies in Art Education 48.1 (Fall): 52–69.

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      Core relationships among aesthetics, art making, and qualitative research, including the space in which each occur, are fueled by the artist/researcher’s ability to perceive, translate, and transform work and self. Artistic process and research practice become aesthetic encounters in this “tri-directional relationship.” Available online for purchase.

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      • Doren, Mariah. 2010. Re-thinking critique: Questioning the standards, rethinking the format, engaging meanings constructed in context. In 20Under40: Re-Inventing the Arts and Arts Education for the 21st Century. Edited by Edward P. Clapp, 126–141. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

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        Discussion of the cross purposes of traditional critique techniques and the transformative discovery of individual and contextual meaning in artwork.

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        • Greene, Maxine, and Lincoln Center Institute. 2001. Variations on a blue guitar: The Lincoln Center Institute lectures on aesthetic education. New York: Teachers College Press.

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          A collection of lectures from the Lincoln Center Institute share insights on aesthetic development and educational renewal through imagination and transformation. Concepts include new ways of seeing and experiencing the arts, embodied meaning, and multiple visions of the aesthetic. Personal transactions with works of art and performances are considered contextually with respect to the move away from formalist approaches to arts and aesthetics education.

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          • Lankford, E. Louis. 1992. Aesthetics: Issues and inquiry. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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            A handbook of strategies for applying aesthetic theory in art classes. Issues include introductory aesthetic development and progress through complex forms of aesthetic inquiry.

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            • Sandell, Renee. 2009. Using form+theme+context (FTC) for rebalancing 21st-century art education. Studies in Art Education 50.3 (Spring): 287–299.

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              The need to expand art-curricular experiences to fully engage with the visual world is presented, using form+theme+context as an approach to the integration and creation of visual imagery. Available online for purchase.

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              • Smith, Ralph Alexander, ed. 2001. Aesthetics and criticism in art education: Problems in defining, explaining, and evaluating art. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                Seminal work introducing the essential nature of teaching for the development of aesthetic sensibilities and critical abilities in the art education classroom. An early precursor to the inclusion of art history, aesthetics, and critique in discipline-based art education, Smith’s work details the interrelationships of these aspects of art with the art-making process. Reprinted in 2001.

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                • Tavin, Kevin. 2007. Eyes wide shut: The use and uselessness of the discourse of aesthetics in art education. Art Education, o.s. 60.2 (March): 40–45.

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                  Discusses issues of how aesthetics are considered and taught as a delivery system for teacher-generated content rather than cultural/psychological investment on the part of the learner/viewer. Tavin suggests that aesthetic discourse, with presuppositions and established values, detracts from the work of teachers and students in viewing, interpreting, and finding meaning in art. Available online for purchase.

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                  Art Integration

                  Art integration theory and process is another important concept in the field of art education. Dating back to John Dewey in his 1934 book, Art as Experience, arts-based constructivist learning has been simultaneously embraced and viewed with contempt in the field. This type of learning is often lauded as the quick fix of public education, and many art educators fear that what they see as its utilization of the arts as a subservient handmaiden (see Keifer-Boyd and Smith-Shank 2006, cited under Female Perspectives) will compromise the validity of arts in the schools and jeopardize the position of the certified art teacher (see Bresler 1995). The selections in this section include an overview of definitions of art integration (AI)—what it is and what it is not, as well as the often-interchangeably misused terminology of interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, arts-infused, and art-integrated curriculum. Commentary on studies about using AI and theoretical models for using it are provided by the respective authors, most of whom present reports of art-integrated frameworks, studies, and lived exemplars. Bresler 1995 provides an overview of the various applications of arts integration, and Smilan and Miraglia 2009 suggests a model for school-wide implication, utilizing an arts liaison as leader and coordinator in the AI process.

                  • Bachar, Pnina, and Rivka Glaubman. 2006. Policy and practice of art teaching in schools as perceived by educators and artists. Arts Education Policy Review 108.1 (September): 3–13.

                    DOI: 10.3200/AEPR.108.1.3-13E-mail Citation »

                    Art education policy and practice from art and other teacher perspectives are presented. Theory by Parks, Efland, Eisner, and Goodman is presented regarding teacher knowledge in integrating art into the curriculum and the significant role of art teachers in developing knowledge of art history, art technique, meaning making, and critique. Available online for purchase.

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                    • Bresler, Liora. 1995. The subservient, co-equal, affective, and social integration styles and their implications for the arts. Arts Education Policy Review 96.5 (May): 31–37.

                      DOI: 10.1080/10632913.1995.9934564E-mail Citation »

                      In this seminal manuscript on arts integration theory, the author discusses various approaches to incorporating the arts within other subject area curricula. The approaches span the continuum, from designing and delivering curricula based on parallel concepts in multiple disciplines, to using the arts as an add-on or motivational tool for other subject-area-based learning activity. Implications for art education practice are discussed. Available online for purchase.

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                      • Dorfman, Dorinne. 2008. Arts integration as a catalyst for high school renewal. Studies in Art Education, o.s. 50.1 (Fall): 51–66.

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                        The author discusses the disconnect between interest-based education, including the arts in the curriculum, and the current trend toward compulsory learning that threatens arts programs in schools. He advocates for student-centered learning that embraces the arts as core to the educational experience.

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                        • Parsons, Michael. 2004. Art and integrated curriculum. In Handbook of research and policy in art education. Edited by Elliot W. Eisner and Michael D. Day, 775–794. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                          Overview of the renewed interest in art-integrated curriculum is presented. Rationales for current attitudes, including about democracy of schooling and added-value learning, are also presented. Multiple approaches to parallel concepts in student art development are discussed, providing sample art-integrated curricula.

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                          • Rabkin, Nick, and Robin Redmond, eds. 2004. Putting the arts in the picture: Reframing education in the 21st century. Chicago: Center for Arts Policy at Columbia College Chicago.

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                            This collection of reports of and testimonials for arts-integrated learning provides an overview of programs and processes that are based on the theoretical framework of designing multidisciplinary curricular experiences through the arts. The perspective of community artists in schools is presented.

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                            • Russell, Joan, and Michalinos Zembylas. 2007. Arts integration in the curriculum: A review of research and implications for teaching and learning. In The international handbook of research in arts education. Vol. 16. Edited by Liora Bresler, 287–312. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

                              DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-3052-9_18E-mail Citation »

                              Overview of research focused on arts-integrated curriculum and its impact on students, teachers, pedagogy, and schools. International commentary provided by Anri Herbst (South Africa) and Smaragda Chrysostomou (Greece).

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                              • Smilan, Cathy, and Kathy Miraglia. 2009. Art teachers as leaders of authentic art integration. Art Education 62.6 (November): 39–45.

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                                Authentic Art Integration (AAI) is defined and discussed as a strategy for engaging learners to explore conceptual parallels in multidisciplinary content. The role of the art teacher as a central liaison is presented in this theoretical model for AAI teaching and learning.

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                                • Stokrocki, Mary, ed. 2005. Interdisciplinary art education: Building bridges to connect disciplines and cultures. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                  A collection of writings on interdisciplinary arts-based learning that provides examples of connecting concepts and cultures through authentic learning activities in the arts. Various research methodologies, including global case studies as well as samples of effective arts-based programs and integrated curricula, are provided.

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                                  • Taylor, Pamela G., B. Stephen Carpenter II, Christine Ballengee-Morris, and Billie Sessions. 2006. Interdisciplinary approaches to teaching art in the high school. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                    Skills for art making and art knowing are presented as a methodology for conceptual learning across disciplinary boundaries in secondary schools. Theory specifically related to the segmented learning traditionally practiced in contemporary high schools is addressed, with respect to interdisciplinary and integrated thinking, teaching, and learning.

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                                    Avatars and Video Games

                                    Perhaps the most actively debated issue in art education is the need to include technology both as a tool for teaching and content delivery as well as an art and design medium that is essential to include in K–12 education to prepare students for the creative economy. The selection of articles in this section addresses the art/design medium of creative technology, focusing on the development and use of video games, avatars, and virtual worlds in the art education classroom. Consideration is given to the need for technology instruction in preservice and in-service teacher training, as well as to technology as a platform for course work and artistry. Please note that the fusion of art education and design education is a topic of interest in the art education field, as noted by its inclusion in the annual National Art Education Association 2011 National Convention.

                                    • Liao, C. L. 20008. Avatars, Second Life®, and new media art: The challenge for contemporary art education. Art Education 61.2 (March): 87–92.

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                                      The author discusses using virtual environments such as Second Life for art creation, online exhibitions, and designing, and experiences three-dimensional spaces for art education students. Issues of identity, visual culture, and capitalism in exploring new media and new visual languages are considered, as is the need for expanding technological offerings for future art students

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                                      • Parks, Nancy S. 2008. Videogames as reconstructionist sites of learning in art education. Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research 49.3 (Spring): 235–250.

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                                        Technological developments and economic and political climates have transformed the nature of art education. Popular culture, including film, music videos, advertisements, and video games, have further influenced the face of art teaching in schools. Parks discusses video games as multisensory entre to complex cognitive processing and situational learning. The video games Peacemaker (2006) and Darfur is Dying (2006) are examined from a social reconstructionist context in art education.

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                                        • Peppler, Kylie A. 2010. Media arts: Arts education for a digital age. Teachers College Record 112.8: 2118–2153.

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                                          The emerging field of media arts and the use of new technologies for communication used to design a 21st-century K–12 arts education curriculum are examined in this study of underprivileged youths’ learning of graphics, video, and programming at a digital design studio. Available online for registered users.

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                                          • Stokrocki, Mary. 2007. Art education avatars in cyberspaces: Research in computer-based technology and visual arts education. In International handbook of research in arts education. Vol. 2. Edited by Liora Bresler, 1361–1380. New York: Springer.

                                            DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-3052-9E-mail Citation »

                                            An overview of avatars, from smiley faces to user-created personas, is presented, as the author considers the social and educational significance of virtual technologies in reviewing research involving electronic examples of new media application in art education curricula.

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                                            • Sweeny, Robert W. 2004. Lines of sight in the “network society”: Simulation, art education, and digital visual culture. Studies in Art Education 46.1 (Fall): 74–87.

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                                              Sweeny suggests that contemporary societies are transformed through the development of networks and digital-technology processes. He discusses the aesthetics of networked and digital forms of vision or “lines of sight,” suggesting possible adaptations of these new spaces and perspectives to transform art education curriculum and pedagogy.

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                                              • Sweeny, Robert W. 2010. Pixellated play: Practical and theoretical issues regarding videogames in art education. Studies in Art Education 51.3 (Spring): 262–274.

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                                                Sweeny suggests that contemporary visual culture challenges art educators to understand and engage learners in ways that are authentic to their lived experiences. Video games and other new media are among the visual stimuli they use. The author discusses aspects of video games that relate to art and design, including “perspective, interactivity, interface, narrative, and time and movement” and theoretical and practical applications of these games, as well as cautions for the classroom.

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                                                Mode of Content Delivery

                                                As indicated in Avatars and Video Games, the use of technology as a content delivery system is of concern in the art education field, both from the standpoint of meaningful student engagement and the standpoint of the teachers’ ability to connect technology with standards-based art content. The articles and essays described in this section provide examples of using art and technology, as a somewhat subservient integrative method of narrative storytelling, to enhance other nonart content learning (see Bresler 1995, cited under Art Integration and Chung 2007). Colman 2004, Eisenhauer 2006, and Taylor and Carpenter 2002 describe various aspects of technology that can be accessed and employed as integral components of content delivery in art education and art process.

                                                • Chung, Sheng Kuan. 2007. Art education technology: Digital storytelling. Art Education 60.2 (March): 17–22.

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                                                  Concepts of visual culture and artistic literacy that use computer technology are explored through a discussion of digital storytelling. The author demonstrates how digital narratives offer students opportunities for in-depth inquiry and critique as well as the ability to learn about world cultures over the World Wide Web.

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                                                  • Colman, Alison. 2004. Net.art and net.pedagogy: Introducing Internet art to the digital art curriculum. Studies in Art Education 46.1 (Fall): 61–73.

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                                                    Colman discusses pedagogical strategies that incorporate the use of the Internet to explore, create, and analyze art forms, which indicate that secondary students require knowledge scaffolding in order to translate their knowledge of media and the Internet to meaningfully apply tools for art-based inquiry. Through sequenced instruction, students in this study were able to develop critical analysis and studio production using the World Wide Web.

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                                                    • Eisenhauer, Jennifer F. 2006. Next slide please: The magical, scientific, and corporate discourses of visual projection technologies. Studies in Art Education 47.3 (Spring): 198–214.

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                                                      The cultural context of technologies is considered in this overview of slide technologies and the social context in which slide projection has developed through illusion to scientific/educational impact to capitalist commodity. The historical impact and perception of this visual cultural phenomenon are explored.

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                                                      • Taylor, Pamela G., and B. Stephen Carpenter II. 2002. Inventively linking: Teaching and learning with computer hypertext. Art Education 55.4 (July): 6–12.

                                                        DOI: 10.2307/3193962E-mail Citation »

                                                        The effects of interactive computer technology in art education teaching and learning are considered in this article, which explores the use of hypertext as an intertextual approach to the practice of creating and teaching thematic units of instruction in K–12 art classrooms.

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                                                        Arts-Based Research

                                                        As artist/researcher/teachers strive to balance their equally important trifactorial roles, the focus on a methodology by which art process and product analysis can be investigated and documented as recognized research has permeated the field of art education. Many states recognize the importance of advancing content area skills for teachers; in the visual arts, this means dedicated inquiry into a teacher’s studio practice. The methodology by which artist/researcher/teachers come to investigate a self-identified problem in their studio practice, or in that of their students, is discussed in the various articles and essays that follow. The focus of the work is the exploration of the self as an artist/researcher/teacher who is engaged in studio practice in order to inform classroom practice (e.g., Irwin and de Cosson 2004, Leavy 2009, Sullivan 2005).

                                                        • Cahnmann-Taylor, Melissa, and Richard Siegesmund, eds. 2008. Arts-based research in education: Foundations for practice. New York: Routledge Taylor-Francis Group.

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                                                          A primer for arts-based research (ABR), the text includes definitions of terminology associated with the educational research paradigm as well as examples of ABR studies. The authors discuss questions regarding the research paradigm and offer guides to conducting ABR.

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                                                          • Irwin, Rita L., and Alex de Cosson, eds. 2004. A/r/tography: Rendering self through arts-based living enquiry. Vancouver, BC: Pacific Educational.

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                                                            The role of artist/researcher/teacher is explored by twelve authors involved in the profession, who apply their artist practice to educational research dealing with theory, practice, art and text, artist and teacher, and self with world. The approach to gaining understanding through art is twofold: using art as an object/product and using art as research method/process.

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                                                            • Leavy, Patricia. 2009. Method meets art: Arts-based research practice. New York: Guilford.

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                                                              Delineates six genres of arts-based research: narrative inquiry, poetry, music, performance, dance/movement, and visual arts. Theory and application to research design are described, as are study exemplars.

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                                                              • O’Donoghue, Donal. 2009. Are we asking the wrong questions in arts-based research? Studies in Art Education 50.4 (Summer): 352–369.

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                                                                Unlike other research paradigms, arts-based researchers use arts processes and products in their inquiry, analysis, and reports. Questions related to the continually evolving nature of art processes, and thus data sets of arts-based research, are explored by the author.

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                                                                • Rolling, James Haywood, Jr. 2010. A paradigm analysis of arts-based research and implications for education. Studies in Art Education 51.2 (Winter): 102–115.

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                                                                  A paradigm analysis of the characteristics of arts-based research, the article proposes new possibilities for pedagogical shifts by exploring “art for scholarship’s sake.”

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                                                                  • Sinner, Anita. 2010. Arts research as a triptych installation: A framework for interpreting and rendering enquiry. International Journal of Education through Art 6.2 (Winter): 127–144.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1386/eta.6.2.127_1E-mail Citation »

                                                                    The author explores use of the triptych format as a platform for applying arts-based inquiry. The question of framing, literally and metaphorically, is explored with regard to art and research paradigms. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                    • Sinner, Anita, Carl Leggo, Rita L. Irwin, Peter Gouzouasis, and Kit Grauer. 2006. Arts-based dissertations: Reviewing the practices of new scholars. Canadian Journal of Education 29.4: 1223–1270.

                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/20054216E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Practices of arts-based educational research are explored through the review of dissertations from the past ten years in the Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia. More than thirty dissertations employing various methods of inquiry are described, and three themes of arts-based practice—literary, visual, and performative—are identified.

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                                                                      • Sullivan, Graeme. 2005. Art practice as research: Inquiry in the visual arts. Thousand Oaks: CA: SAGE.

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                                                                        Visual arts as a form of inquiry is examined with regard to theory, practice, and context. Written from the perspective of the visual artist as researcher, the author discusses artistic knowing, visual knowing, artist as theorist, and the communication of conceptual understanding. Reprinted in 2009.

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                                                                        • White, John Howell, Charles R. Garoian, and Elizabeth Garber. 2010. Speaking in tongues: The uncommon ground of arts-based research. Studies in Art Education 51.2 (Winter): 134–147.

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                                                                          Definitions of art as fine art, design, and craft are explored to determine the effect of perceptions about art on arts-based research. The authors propose a flexible framework for the art education classroom, in which the identities of student artists can shift in the arts-based research process, allowing for a comprehensive art education program.

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                                                                          Art Teacher Training

                                                                          Of considerable merit in the field of art education is the concept of how we are preparing art teachers to be leaders ready to educate the next generation of aesthetically aware, creatively engaged artists and visual thinkers. Reflective practice is an area of concern, as are the influences of art teachers. The articles and essays in this section provide insights into art teacher training from the perspective of novice art teachers, veteran art teachers, and higher-education art educators. Berghoff, et al. 2005 and Beudert 2006 offer texts on pedagogy and practical application of theory; designed for the preservice teacher, these volumes remain valuable resources for the professional art educator. Bain, et al. 2010 and Klein 2003 provide case studies from practicing teachers. Clark and Zimmerman 2004 singularly addresses the needs of talented learners in the visual arts, and Milbrandt and Klein 2008 reports on teachers’ responses to a national art educator survey.

                                                                          • Bain, Christina, Connie Newton, Deborah Kuster, and Melody Milbrandt. 2010. How do novice art teachers define and implement meaningful curriculum? Studies in Art Education 51.3 (Spring): 233–248.

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                                                                            Using cross-site analysis, researchers collaboratively analyzed eleven first-year art teachers across multiple demographic settings to ascertain the teachers’ understanding and implementation of meaningful curriculum. Results suggest teachers believe meaningful art curriculum must resonate with students. Concerns regarding quality of the art product and the need to build trusting relationships were identified.

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                                                                            • Berghoff, Beth, Cindy Bixler Borgmann, and N. Carlotta Parr. 2005. Arts together: Steps toward transformative teacher education. Reston, VA: National Arts Education Association.

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                                                                              The arts, aesthetic ways of knowing, and opportunities for individual instruction models supporting democratic classroom community are presented.

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                                                                              • Beudert, Lynn. 2006. Work, pedagogy and change: Foundations for the art teacher educator. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                Issues of artistic practice, ethical concerns, and intellectual and pedagogical philosophies, along with institutional and curricular constraints, are discussed. Authentic examples of the world and the work of an art educator are shared at all levels of practice through personal narrative; self-reflective practice is recommended.

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                                                                                • Clark, Gilbert, and Enid Zimmerman. 2004. Teaching talented art students: Principles and practices. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                  Contemporary issues and theories related to educating artistically talented students are explored from the perspective of over twenty-five years of practice. Practical guides for designing curriculum and programs for talented students in the visual arts are offered for teachers and administrators.

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                                                                                  • Klein, Sheri, ed. 2003. Teaching art in context: Case studies for preservice art education. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                    The forty-two case studies in this anthology present actual accounts of art-teaching experiences, addressing a variety of issues for the preservice art educator, bridging theory and practice.

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                                                                                    • Milbrandt, Melody K., and Sheri R. Klein. 2008. Survey of art teacher educators: Qualifications, identity, and practice. Studies in Art Education 49.4 (Summer): 343–358.

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                                                                                      Report of data from one hundred volunteer participant art teachers from a survey conducted in the fall of 2006 on the National Art Education Association listserv. Comparisons are made between perceptions of professional identity, including time invested in professional activities and professional priorities, and perceptions of institutional priorities. Critical issues to art teacher preparation, as highlighted by participants, are discussed.

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                                                                                      Art Teaching by Generalist Teachers and Teaching Artists

                                                                                      There has been much discussion about the role of the artist in teaching; about the focus of the trained, certified teacher who is an artist, and about the trained artists who work in the classroom. Somewhat related to the concerns regarding integrating the arts into the school-wide curriculum, the field of art education is addressing the role of the studio-trained artist as a resident artist or a teaching artist in the classroom. Yet another issue to consider is the perception and utilization of art by the general art teacher in the classroom. The selections that follow address these three foci. Graham and Zwirn 2010 and Hall 2010 consider the impact of being a practicing artist on teaching in the K–12 classroom. Miraglia 2008 and Oreck 2006 consider generalist teachers’ use of art in their classrooms. The seminal work on the topic, from the inaugural issue of Studies in Art Education, is Hausman 1959.

                                                                                      • Graham, Mark A., and Susan Goetz Zwirn. 2010. How being a teaching artist can influence K–12 art education. Studies in Art Education 51.3 (Spring): 219–234.

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                                                                                        Art teachers are experienced, practicing artists who continue to engage in art practice in addition to their teaching careers. This article reports on a research project investigating the educational dynamic of teachers who are also artists.

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                                                                                        • Hall, James. 2010. Making art, teaching art, learning art: Exploring the concept of the artist teacher. International Journal of Art and Design Education 29.2 (June): 103–110.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-8070.2010.01636.xE-mail Citation »

                                                                                          The concept of artist teacher is investigated through comparison of the Artist Teacher Scheme (ATS) and MA in Art Education practice-based coursework at Roehampton University in London. Contrasts and similarities in perceptions and practices between the two groups of art educators are discussed. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                          • Hausman, Jerome. 1959. Editorial. Studies in Art Education 1.1: 3–8.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.2307/1319946E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Editorial from the inaugural issue of Studies in Art Education, addressing the role of teacher/researcher/artist. Hausman’s commentary can be viewed as the seminal theory on the topic of the role and priorities of the art teacher, as well as of arts-based research paradigms.

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                                                                                            • Miraglia, Kathy Marzilli. 2008. Attitudes of preservice general education teachers toward art. Visual Arts Research 34.1: 13–22.

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                                                                                              Miraglia presents histories, perceptions, and attitudes of eighteen preservice generalist teachers regarding making and teaching art. Seven themes are identified that are involved with the concept of low confidence or anxiety in teachers: teaching art, fear of drawing, understanding art, unrealistic expectations, judgments, making the grade, and teacher expectations. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                              • Oreck, Barry. 2006. Artistic choices: A study of teachers who use the arts in the classroom. International Journal of Education & the Arts 7.8 (December): 1–27.

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                                                                                                Oreck investigates arts-based lessons taught by generalist teachers in six New York City elementary schools. Results suggest that teacher attitudes toward art and art making are more-significant indicators of use than specific artistic ability. The ability of arts-based learning to engage diverse students and to address a variety of learning styles is the most powerful motivation for including the arts.

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                                                                                                Assessment and Evaluation in the Arts

                                                                                                With the move toward objectives-based assessment across curricula in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, art education has been at the intersection of much of the discussion. From concerns that the arts would be compromised by reducing student access to high-quality art programming, to concerns about quantitative measures, to concerns about other subject areas following the long-practiced art portfolio methodology of qualitatively measuring progress, arts educators have watched the discussion and debated, providing commentary, cautions, and solutions. Boughton 2004 provides a somewhat historical overview and commentary on the changing face of arts assessment. Dorn, et al. 2004 and Gruber 2008 comment on research-based strategies for assessing expressive learning. Soep 2004 provides strategies for student self-assessment, and the selections from Murphy and Espeland 2007 and Pistone, et al. 2002 address evaluation. European and US program frameworks are also provided for consideration, such as Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe (see Education, Audiovisual & Culture Executive Agency 2009), a white paper on the state of art and culture education in the United Kingdom.

                                                                                                • Boughton, Doug. 2004. Assessing art learning in changing contexts: High-stakes accountability, international standards and changing conceptions of artistic development. In Handbook of research and policy in art education. Edited by Elliott W. Eisner and Michael Day, 585–605. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                  Boughton discusses the current accountability climate in the United States and considers assessment processes, highlighting those used by the International Baccalaureate. The author also discusses issues of moderation, media choice, benchmarking, criteria choice and digital portfolios, and the benefits of student self-assessment.

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                                                                                                  • Dorn, Charles M., Stanley S. Madeja, and F. Robert Sabol. 2004. Assessing expressive learning: A practical guide for teacher-directed authentic assessment in K–12 visual arts education. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                    Research-based assessment strategies supporting the notion that creative process and product can be quantitatively measured, based on the consensus of authentic teaching and learning and clearly delineated criteria and outcomes. The authors contend that these same techniques/instruments can be used to accurately measure and quantify student growth. The text provides application of theoretical assumptions tested through a year-long study.

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                                                                                                    • Gruber, Donald D. 2008. Measuring student learning in art education. Art Education 61.5 (September): 40–45.

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                                                                                                      The article provides a historical perspective on assessing creative development, from the virtual absence of assessment of expressive output, to the recent call for accountability and quantifiable measures of all public-school curricula. Current-need reliability and validity of assessment and evaluation in support of innovative arts-based learning and program funding is addressed. Avalble online for purchase.

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                                                                                                      • Education, Audiovisual & Culture Executive Agency. 2009. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. September. Brussels: EACEA P9 Eurydice.

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                                                                                                        The role of education in enhancing creativity and innovation in youth is discussed in this report on art and cultural education in European schools. Contains programs and objectives for art programming and curricular standards.

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                                                                                                        • Murphy, Regina, and Magne Espeland. 2007. Prelude: Making connections in assessment and evaluation in arts education. In The international handbook of research in arts education. Vol. 1. Edited by Liora Bresler, 337–340. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-3052-9E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          Discussion of the possible cross purposes of arts assessment from the perspective of arts educators and those in the public arena who may or may not have any formal art or education training. Connections between process and product, or “the show” and the “behind the scenes work,” as well as student evaluation are presented.

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                                                                                                          • Pistone, Nancy Rainsford, Deb Brzoska, Arts Education Partnership (US), and Council of Chief State School Officers. 2002. Envisioning arts assessment: A process guide for assessing arts education in school districts and states. Washington, DC: Arts Education Partnership.

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                                                                                                            A practical tool and reference guide to designing arts assessment, including background on the standards and assessment movement; a three-phase plan for district or state arts assessment; flexible steps for planning, developing, and implementing programs; activities addressing key issues; and concrete examples from existing state arts assessments and the National Assessment of Educational Progress Arts Assessment.

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                                                                                                            • Soep, Elisabeth. 2004. Assessment and visual arts education. In Handbook of research and policy in art education. Edited by Elliot W. Eisner and Michael Day, 667–687. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                              The author theorizes about the need for preparing students to assess their work and that of others, by educating through developing sites of and strategies for critical assessment as a part of the art world in and out of school.

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                                                                                                              Cognition and Art Education

                                                                                                              The study of the cognitive benefits of study and production in the arts is a pertinent topic in art education. Research from studio arts research, art education research, and neuroscience brain research suggests that the arts activate brain development and cognitive functioning in ways that other learning activities may not. Arguments based on this research have led to strong advocacy for including art in our public schools. The articles in this section provide evidence and support of such advocacy.

                                                                                                              • Efland, Arthur. 2002. Art and cognition. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                Efland describes how the arts can be used to develop cognitive ability in children and identifies implications for art curricula, teaching practices, and reforms in general education.

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                                                                                                                • Efland, Arthur. 2004. Art education as imaginative cognition. In Handbook of research and policy in art education. Edited by Elliot W. Eisner and Michael D. Day, 751–774. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                  Efland discusses the progressivist assumption that imagination unfolds in learners, suggesting that carefully planned and delivered instruction is required to combat the current trend toward developing a compliancy in learners if opportunities for imaginative cognition are to be fostered. Three imaginative processes are presented.

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                                                                                                                  • Eisner, Elliot W. 2002. The arts and the creation of mind. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                    Eisner discusses the cognitive demands and development associated with a meaningfully applied art curriculum. Dealing with ambiguities and making informed choices are but two of the attributes addressed. The author presents the lessons that art teaches and how this knowledge becomes evident, further indicating how evaluation of these gains has implications for all of education.

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                                                                                                                    • Groff, Jennifer S. 2010. The conflicted brain: The impact of modern technologies on our cognition and how arts education can be the keystone to wholemindedness. In 20under40: Re-inventing the arts and arts education for the 21st century. Edited by Edward P. Clapp, 272–293. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

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                                                                                                                      The author discusses current literature in neuroscience that indicates the relationship between cognitive development and the critical need for emphasis on arts engagement in K–12 education, including digital media and communication.

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                                                                                                                      • Hetland, Lois, Ellen Winner, Shirley Veenema, and Kimberly M. Sheridan. 2007. Studio thinking: The real benefits of visual arts education. New York: Teachers College Press.

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                                                                                                                        The text discusses the added value of a studio-thinking framework for teachers, researchers, and especially for students. The team suggests that specifically designed and implemented studio curricula lead to various desired outcomes, discussing the underlying cognitive and social-affective skills developed. Features voices of teachers and students, and a variety of critique.

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                                                                                                                        • Jensen, Eric. 2001. Arts with the brain in mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

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                                                                                                                          Central to the thesis is the notion that study of the arts develops cognitive capacities in ways that other disciplines may not. As a cognitive researcher, Jensen argues that beyond art for art’s sake, arts learning has unique implications for brain development.

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                                                                                                                          Community-Based Art Education/Art Education Partnerships

                                                                                                                          Art educators, including K–12 art teachers, teaching artists, and higher-education art educators, are increasingly moving their practices outside of classrooms and into community settings. Increased interest in service learning and community service has energized activities in community-based partnerships, and non-school-based partners are equally interested in expanding their services beyond their organizations. The selections that follow provide commentary on and examples of community-based art education partnerships, including history, theory, and examples of practice.

                                                                                                                          • Bastos, Flávia M. C. 2002. Making the familiar strange: A community-based art education framework. In Contemporary issues in art education. Edited by Yvonne Gaudelius and Peg Speirs, 70–83. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

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                                                                                                                            Bastos approaches Community-Based Art Education (CBAE) and community partnership from the perspective of local art and culture as a means for teachers and students to reconnect with the identity of a community. An author-developed framework embracing this empowerment approach guides teachers and students toward the opportunity to engage in community revitalization through arts-based learning.

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                                                                                                                            • Congdon, Kristin G., Douglas Emerson Blandy, and Paul Erik Bolin. 2001. Histories of community-based art education. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                              The unique implications for arts-based community partnerships as catalysts for dialogue about the individual in the community, mutual concerns and aspirations, and the quest for democratic education in the arts are presented in this text through personal narratives and reports of histories and collaborations.

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                                                                                                                              • Irwin, Rita L., and Anna M. Kindler, eds. 1999. Beyond the school: Community and institutional partnerships in art education. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                                Collaboration, partnership, and community are the focal themes of this collection of reflections on community partnerships. The editors have compiled descriptions of arts-based learning collaboratives that start at school and move beyond the classroom, with the goal of continuing learning in and with the community. Examples are presented of how resources are extended and expertise is shared with outside organizations and individuals.

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                                                                                                                                • Jeffers, Carol S. 2005. Spheres of possibility: Linking service-learning and the visual arts. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                                  Service learning, although not necessarily the same as community partnership, is another iteration of student involvement with community. The author strives to engender a sense of empathy and connectedness to the diverse community and a sense of social responsibility for university students through the service learning course described in this text.

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                                                                                                                                  • Ulbricht, J. 2005. What is community-based art education? Art Education 58.2 (March): 6–12.

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                                                                                                                                    Various definitions of community-based art education are explored to envision ideas for meaningful projects and programs that enrich students’ educational experience as well as the experiences of community organizations

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                                                                                                                                    • Villeneuve, Pat, and Donald Sheppard. 2009. Close to home: Studying art and your community. Art Education 62.1 (January): 6–13.

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                                                                                                                                      The authors present the notion of community as a learning partner, in this variation of community-based art education (CBAE) involving art teachers, formally trained artists, and self-taught artists. Recommendations for working with the community-of-artists model are made for teachers wishing to develop interdisciplinary study through CBAE

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                                                                                                                                      Creativity

                                                                                                                                      Renewed interest in creativity, imagination, and innovation has once again shifted the focus to art education, as many schools and administrators believe that creativity is best developed in art education classrooms. However, the field is questioning the degree to which creativity can be and is being taught and which pedagogical approach best serves this goal. Freedman 2006, Freedman 2007, and Smilan 2007 provide philosophical debate on the role of art education in the development of creative, innovated youth. Clark and Zimmerman 2001 offers practical suggestions for expanding programming for artistically talented students. Clark 1993 and Kim 2006 discuss instrumentation for measuring creativity and art ability. Zimmerman 2009 provides an overview of the past and future role of creativity in art education.

                                                                                                                                      • Clark, Gilbert A. 1993. Judging children’s drawings as measures of art abilities. Studies in Art Education 34.2 (Winter): 72–81.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/1320444E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Clark’s Drawing Abilities Test (CDAT) is presented, and the use of the instrument to identify highly able art students is examined in relation to students’ scores on the Children’s Embedded Figures Test (CEFT) and to teachers’ rankings of students’ abilities.

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                                                                                                                                        • Clark G., and E. Zimmerman. 2001. Art talent development, creativity, and enrichment programs for artistically talented students in grades K–8. In Fostering creativity in children, K–8: Theory and practice. Edited by Mervin D. Lynch and Carole R. Harris, 211–226. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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                                                                                                                                          Clark and Zimmerman provide commentary on expanding opportunities for artistically talented students, offering a theoretical overview and practical applications for program development and implementation.

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                                                                                                                                          • Freedman, Kerry. 2006. Leading creativity: Responding to policy in art education. Paper presented at the UNESCO First World Conference on Arts Education, Lisbon, 6–9 March 2006.

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                                                                                                                                            Freedman discusses the role of art education in developing policy for engaging learners in creative and innovative processing in order to make them active participants in the global creative economy.

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                                                                                                                                            • Freedman, Kerry. 2007. Artmaking/troublemaking: Creativity, policy, and leadership in art education. Studies in Art Education 48.2 (Winter): 204–217.

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                                                                                                                                              In contemporary policy that influences art teaching and learning, art educators are positioned as troublemakers through a redefinition and extension of professional responsibility. Educational leadership moving beyond traditional art learning is discussed in response to negative impacts of policy.

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                                                                                                                                              • Kim, Kyung Hee. 2006. Is creativity unidimensional or multidimensional? Analyses of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Creativity Research Journal 18.3: 251–259.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1207/s15326934crj1803_2E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Data from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking support the question of the potential for developing creative attributes in grade 6 learners, indicating the need for multidimensional pedagogical approaches to scaffold creativity. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                • Smilan, Cathy. 2007. [The] creative art [of] education. International Journal of Social Sciences 2.4 (Winter): 242–249.

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                                                                                                                                                  In an age of accountability initiatives, we are failing to prepare our children for a participatory role in the creative economy, even in art education. This paper addresses the need for divergent thinking and conceptualization in our schools, exploring the role of art education in the development of a creatively literate citizenry.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Zimmerman, Enid. 2009. Reconceptualizing the role of creativity in art education theory and practice. Studies in Art Education 50.4 (Summer): 382–399.

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                                                                                                                                                    Zimmerman suggests art education is a site for creativity development in which students can emphasize individual process and honor cultural practice. The author discusses definitions, assessment, dispositions, history, and cultural variances of creativity in art education.

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                                                                                                                                                    Ecological and Environmental Concerns

                                                                                                                                                    Interaction with and restoration of the environment are concerns of many artists and art educators. As we become more and more reliant on technology, many researchers and educators are concerned about the lack of interaction with our natural world. The selections that follow address issues related to integrating nature and the environment into the art education curriculum (Coutts and Jokela 2008). Gradle 2008, Graham 2007, and London 2007 conduct inquiries into our natural surroundings. Song 2009 studies artists who focus on ecological concerns. Bequette 2007; Miraglia and Smilan 2009; and Taieb, et al. 2010 integrate art and environmental-science concepts. Blandy, et al. 1998 creates art as a restorative process.

                                                                                                                                                    • Bequette, James W. 2007. Traditional arts knowledge, traditional ecological lore: The intersection of art education and environmental education. Studies in Art Education 48.4 (Summer): 360–374.

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                                                                                                                                                      The author describes the lived experiences of Native American basket makers, highlighting the group’s spiritual connectedness with the materials, process, and artifacts produced. Students learn the cultural importance of the basket-making process, which utilizes local ecosystems for utilitarian art and craft forms, and consider ecological responsibility and ecological management.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Blandy, Doug, Kristin G. Congdon, and Don H. Krug. 1998. Art, ecological restoration, and art education. Studies in Art Education 39.3 (Spring): 230–243.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/1320366E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        The role of artists as collaborators with nature, engaged in art making for ecological awareness and restoration, is presented. Methods for curriculum design based on work by ecological artists are discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Coutts, Glen, and Timo Jokela, eds. 2008. Art, community and environment: Educational perspectives. Bristol, UK, and Chicago: Intellect.

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                                                                                                                                                          Collection of articles and essays addressing incorporating community-based environmental issues in art education curriculum. Manuscripts originally published in The International Journal of Art & Design Education.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Gradle, Sally Armstrong. 2008. When vines talk: Community, art, and ecology. Art Education 61.6 (November): 6–12.

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                                                                                                                                                            The author considers ways to reverse the student estrangement from the natural environment, by foraging and using invasive vines as an art medium

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                                                                                                                                                            • Graham, Mark A. 2007. Art, ecology, and art education: Locating art education in a critical place-based pedagogy. Studies in Art Education 48.4 (Summer): 375–391.

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                                                                                                                                                              Critical place-based pedagogy is suggested as a framework for art education theory and practice that is concerned with ecological issues and awareness of human and natural communities.

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                                                                                                                                                              • London, Peter. 2007. Drawing closer to nature: Making art in dialogue with the natural world. Boston: Shambhala.

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                                                                                                                                                                Observation of nature and engagement with the environment through the process of art making and art learning are highlighted in the text, which stresses the spiritual importance of reconnecting with our natural world.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Miraglia, Kathy, and Cathy Smilan. 2009. Lessons from the landscape. International Journal of Education through Art 5.2–3 (Summer/Fall): 169–185.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1386/eta.5.2and3.169/1E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Miraglia and Smilan discuss multidisciplinary experiences that integrate art curriculum and expeditionary principles, using the landscape as an environmental resource. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Song, Young Imm Kang. 2009. Community participatory ecological art and education. International Journal of Art and Design Education 28.1 (February): 4–13.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-8070.2009.01588.xE-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Phenomenological case study of ecological artist Lynne Hull investigates connections between ecological art, nature, and education. This artist attempts to inspire changes in human behavior through her conceptualization of wildlife habitats as art forms. Curricular connections to the work are shared. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Taieb, Amine Hadj, Manel Hammami, Slah Msahli, and Faouzi Sakli. 2010. Sensitising children to ecological issues through textile eco-design. International Journal of Art & Design Education 29.3 (October): 313–320.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-8070.2010.01648.xE-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      An exploration of the role that art and design education plays in improving the environment through textile design and environmentally friendly technology for sustainable materials. Sensitizing art students to ecological techniques using raw materials such as plant dyes is an important step in the process. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Female Perspectives

                                                                                                                                                                      Women are in the majority when it comes to being employed as teachers of art in public schools; however, art education curricula often focus on the accomplishments of white male artists. Students are largely unaware of the innovations and contributions made by female artists, let alone the conceptually based work addressing feminist perspectives and gender issues in general. The collection of articles and essays presented here provides an overview of images and dialogue related to involving feminist perspectives and gender sensitivity in art education and criticism (Ament 1998, Garber 1992, Keifer-Boyd 2003, Keifer-Boyd and Smith-Shank 2006). Grauer, et al. 2003 offers a collection of essays on various women’s issues, and Lai 2009 presents images of women.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Ament, Elizabeth A. 1998. Using feminist perspectives in art education. Art Education 51.5 (September): 56–61.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/3193720E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        The article explores the need for inclusion of artwork by women in the art education curriculum. The author notes that reliance on mainstream Western traditions inadvertently teaches students that society values work only by those artists, in particular women artists, who are nonexistent or unvalued

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Garber, Elizabeth. 1992. Feminism, aesthetics, and art education. Studies in Art Education 33.4 (Summer): 210–225.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/1320667E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Feminist aesthetic issues and arguments are presented as a framework for philosophical dialogue organized around female sensibility, feminist aesthetics, evaluation criteria, and viewer response in art education classes.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Grauer, Kit, Rita L. Irwin, and Enid Zimmerman. 2003. Women art educators V: Conversations across time. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Text and illustrations by thirty-three art educators are organized around the concepts of remembering, reenvisioning, and reconsidering issues of women artists and teachers as art makers, mentors, healers, and friends, and as empowered and spiritual beings.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Keifer-Boyd, Karen. 2003. A pedagogy to expose and critique gendered cultural stereotypes embedded in art interpretations. Studies in Art Education 44.4 (Summer): 315–334.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Keifer-Boyd discusses the disconnect between ingrained gender perceptions and the reality of the lived experience of women. The author employs feminist pedagogy to expose gender stereotypes, with the goal of raising self-awareness about the inscription of the gender of artists when viewing work, seeking to dislodge the embedded discourse and signifiers.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Keifer-Boyd, Karen, and Deborah L. Smith-Shank. 2006. Speculative fiction’s contribution to contemporary understanding: The handmaid art tale. Studies in Art Education 47.2 (Winter): 139–154.

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                                                                                                                                                                                The authors explore the metaphor of art as handmaiden in integrated curriculum and partnership, drawing upon popular culture, specifically the film The Handmaid’s Tale. Various iterations of the role of art in collaborative and interdisciplinary teaching and learning are discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Lai, Alice. 2009. Images of women in visual culture. Art Education 62.1 (January): 14–19.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Women’s self-perception is affected by the visual culture that permeates their daily lives. Lai investigates the impact of images of women on self-concept and identity

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Historical Perspectives

                                                                                                                                                                                  The emergence of art education in public schools, and the subsequent development of the field of study, is an important aspect of the discipline. Noted scholars have devoted their research efforts to chronicling the progression of the visual arts as a core discipline in schools. The following historical perspectives and imbedded philosophies serve as guides to further development of art education programs, as well as resources for states and countries that are forming arts-programming policy.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Efland, Arthur D. 1990. A history of art education: Intellectual and social currents in teaching the visual arts. New York: Teachers College Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    A chronological history of the development of art education as a field of study in the United States. Includes important developments in European art education, as these developments influence the American structure of art education and are framed by international macrocosms and state and local microcosms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Freedman, Kerry J., ed. 2009. Looking back: From 50 years of studies in art education. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      A collection of essays by the senior editors of Studies in Art Education, the text spans the first fifty years of the publication. Themes addressed include creative intelligence, feminist art education, multiculturalism, interdisciplinarity, visual culture, and digital visual culture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Stankiewicz, Mary Ann. 2000. Discipline and the future of art education. Studies in Art Education 41.4 (Summer): 301–313.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/1320675E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        A history of events leading to the four discrete aspects of the visual arts that are incorporated into discipline-based art education. Cautions are given regarding the compartmentalization that may result in decontextualization of art education from the inquiry processes of the visual arts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Stankiewicz, Mary Ann. 2001. Roots of art education practice. Worcester, MA: Davis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Stankiewicz presents an overview of 20th-century art education practices in the United States. The author considers how the century’s philosophies about child development and education affected curricular design and pedagogical practices in the visual arts. Art education philosophers and their impact on the field are discussed, with a focus on engaging all children in art processes and aesthetic development.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Stankiewicz, Mary Ann, Patricia M. Amburgy, and Paul E. Bolin. 2004. Questioning the past: Contexts, functions, and stakeholders in 19th century art education. In Handbook of research and policy in art education. Edited by Elliot W. Eisner and Michael D. Day, 33–53. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            The authors examine the perspectives from which prior histographs of the discipline have been written, questioning the social functions, the theoretical and rhetorical foundations, and the introduction to the public school system.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • White, John Howell. 2004. 20th-century art education: A historical perspective. In Handbook of research and policy in art education. Edited by Elliot W. Eisner and Michael D. Day, 55–84. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              White examines the interest in arts-and-crafts education during the 20th century, from the pragmatic concerns to those of self-expression to the organization of a community for artistic and educational inquiry.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Multicultural Art Education

                                                                                                                                                                                              Similar to feminist concerns for art education, an important focus of the field of multicultural art education is including work that reflects the perspectives of multiple cultures. The articles and essays in this section guide readers to a deeper understanding of the needs for and benefits of expanding curriculum offerings and inquiries, to include the art and aesthetic philosophies of the diversity of people who share the world and its interpretation.

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ballengee-Morris, Christine, and Patricia L. Stuhr. 2001. Multicultural art and visual culture education in a changing world. Art Education 54.4 (July): 6–13.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/3193897E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                The authors discuss the need for multicultural school reform to enable students to develop awareness of complex issues of personal, national, and global cultural identities. They argue that art educators must consider and question how to apply this reform movement to authentic instruction in art classes

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Blocker, H. Gene. 2004. Varieties of multicultural art education: Some policy issues. In Handbook of research and policy in art education. Edited by Elliot W. Eisner and Michael D. Day, 187–200. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Review of the decade-long debate regarding multicultural art education, discussing the various perceptions and definitions of multiculturalism and to what extent minority art and culture should be included or separated from the dominant culture toward the goals of establish social equity and awareness.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Davenport, Melanie. 2000. Culture and education: Polishing the lenses. Studies in Art Education 41.4 (Summer): 361–375.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/1320679E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Confusion regarding the lenses through or perspectives from which education views and applies culture studies to art education curriculum is discussed. Suggestions for developing comprehensive curricula based on four approaches, including international-comparative, global, multicultural, and community-based education, are explained

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Davenport, Melanie G., and Karin Gunn. 2009. Collaboration in animation: Working together to empower indigenous youth. Art Education 62.5 (September): 6–12.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Report of multiyear animation workshops with high-school and college students on the campus of Centro Rural de Educación Estipac in Mexico

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Erickson, Mary, and Bernard Young, eds. 2002. Multicultural artworlds: Enduring, evolving, and overlapping traditions. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        The authors present multicultural art education within the scope of alternative art worlds and maintaining and expanding art traditions. Inclusive curricula, sensitive to culture and addressing art education standards, are provided.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Museum-Based Art Education

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Museum-based art education is gaining increasing attention in the art education field, as many museum education departments are working to provide site-based opportunities, virtual exhibits, and curriculum for art educators. The selections in this section consider the use of museums and collections as an integral part of any art education curriculum. A crossover of art education with visual literacy, technology, and aesthetic/critique naturally occurs; in this section, the perspective of the museum educator working in tandem with the art teacher is developed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bonner, Jeffrey P. 1985. Museums in the classroom and classrooms in the museum. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 16.4 (Winter): 288–293.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1525/aeq.1985.16.4.04x0402lE-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Using museum resources in teaching is discussed, as well as using the museum as an off-site classroom for teaching, internships, and training programs. Foundational information applicable to contemporary art-education practices is provided. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Burnham, Rika, and Elliot Kai-Kee. 2005. The art of teaching in the museum. Journal of Aesthetic Education 39.1 (Spring): 65–76.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1353/jae.2005.0002E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Strategies in guiding a class toward a deeper understanding of visual artwork are given, and the rationale for studying the work is presented. Museum visitors share observations and make contextual speculations about the work, deepening their observational and communication skills in the process. Suggestions are made for the application of art education. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Henry, Carole. 2010. The museum experience: The discovery of meaning. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Approaches to art exhibitions and education are discussed, focusing on the museum visitor/learner, with the goal of making connections to personal experiences, other artwork, and the world beyond the gallery in this “user-friendly” guide to learning in the museum. Implications for practice are provided in each chapter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Jeffers, Carol S. 2003. Museum as process. Journal of Aesthetic Education 37.1 (Spring): 107–119.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/3527425E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Jeffers examines the relationship between museum mission statements and the often-augmented undertakings of the “socializing institution” that occur through choices regarding “representation (re-presentation), socialization, institutionalization, and commodification.” Implications of the way in which culture is presented and represented are discussed with regard to art education. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lankford, E. Louis, and Kelly Scheffer. 2004. Museum education and controversial art: Living on a fault line. In Handbook of research and policy in art education. Edited by Elliot W. Eisner and Michael Day, 201–223. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Issues of censorship and controversial objects in museums are discussed from the perspective of the art educator. Museum educators share insights into policy and procedures as well as the need for educating learners about all art objects. Practical suggestions are offered for preparing students, administrators, and parents.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Vallance, Elizabeth. 2004. Museum education as curriculum: Four models, leading to a fifth. Studies in Art Education 45.4 (Summer): 343–358.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The missions and goals of museum educators are contrasted with those of art educators, who share similar educational backgrounds but work within very different parameters. In forming collaborations between museums and schools, the missions, objectives, and goals of both must be considered. Vallance discusses four such models and proposes a fifth

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Villeneuve, Pat, ed. 2007. From periphery to center: Art museum education in the 21st century. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A collective vision of museum education from the perspective of thirty-three authors working in the field. The text provides theory and examples of practical application.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Semiotics and Metaphor

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Noted both in the Visual Culture Art Education and Visual Literacy sections, semiotics and metaphor are important concepts in reading and creating images. A field of study closely related to art education, semiotics is the study and interpretation of signs and symbols. The compiled selections offer thoughts on various applications of the role of symbolism and metaphor in the viewing, making, teaching, and learning of art.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Marshall, Julia. 2008. Visible thinking: Using contemporary art to teach conceptual skills. Art Education 61.2 (March): 38–46.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Knowledge application through metaphor is the central theme of this teaching. This is done through materials, techniques, design principles, and concepts, all of which are goals of art education

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Parsons, Michael. 2010. Interpreting art through metaphors. International Journal of Art & Design Education 29.3 (October): 228–235.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-8070.2010.01621.xE-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Meaning is integrally connected to metaphor; with visual metaphors, multiple meanings are plausible, based on the experiences of the viewer/learner. Art educators are cautioned to consider “mixed metaphors” when interpreting visual images with students. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Serig, Daniel. 2008. Understanding the conceptual landscape of visual metaphors. Teaching Artist Journal 6.1 (January): 41–50.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/15411790701678408E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Conceptual reorganization is essential for thinking metaphorically. The author discusses the need for the teaching artist and art teachers to understand this critical pedagogy in order to help students develop cognitive flexibility.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Smith-Shank, Deborah Lee, ed. 2004. Semiotics and visual culture: Sights, signs, and significance. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This anthology of articles focuses on the signs and symbols that compose our visual culture. The author presents a discussion of semiotics, the study of signs, and assigned meanings across disciplines and contexts in order to further the awareness of the fluid nature of symbolic understandings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Stokrocki, Mary. 2010. An intergenerational and semiotic exploration of hair combs as material culture. International Journal of Education through Art 6.2 (Winter): 163–179.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1386/eta.6.2.163_1E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hair combs are explored as objects of material culture, based on intergenerational perspectives and traditions. The value assigned to objects is explored through semiotic analysis, revealing that precious items are not always those displayed in museums and galleries; rather, value is assigned on an emotional basis in our material culture. The author suggests the fostering of intergenerational questioning and valuing in art classrooms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Social Justice and Social Theory

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The focus on educational-equity and social-justice theory has recently led to calls for papers on the topic. The National Art Education Association adopted issues of social justice in art education as the 2010 conference theme, and several journals came into existence to focus on issues of social theory in art education in the first decade of the 21st century. The articles and collections in this section consider the role of art education as a site for social activism and the development of empathy. These texts are resources for art teachers and higher-education art educators who wish to develop inclusive curricula for art and social advocacy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Anderson, Tom, David Gussak, Kara Kelley Hallmark, and Alison Paul, eds. 2010. Art education for social justice. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Resource illustrating the role of art educators as developers of curriculum engendering social activism and advocacy for issues of social justice. Action-oriented lessons teaching tolerance and equity are promoted.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hubbard, Kathy. 2010. A cross-cultural collaboration: Using visual culture for the creation of a socially relevant mural in Mexico. Art Education 63.5 (September): 68–75.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Discussion of a cross-cultural experience and the use of popular culture to create artwork of social value, and the ways in which diverse cultural groups came together around the artwork to effectively communicate visually, verbally, and socially

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Keifer-Boyd, Karen, Michael J. Emme, and Jan Jagodzinski, eds. 2008. InCITE, inSIGHT, inSITE: Journal of Social Theory in Art Education: The first 25 years. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A collection of historically significant articles in art education highlight the struggles and triumphs of activists who challenged the social norms and fought for social justice in art education theory, policy, and practice. Social theory, visual culture, and several disciplines are integrated, with application to shape curricula for 21st-century art education practice.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sosin, Adrienne Andi, Elsa Bekkala, and Miriam Pepper-Sanello. 2010. Visual arts as a lever for social justice education: Labor studies in the high school art curriculum. Journal for Learning through the Arts 6.1.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The authors examine the impact of incorporating labor studies in art-based curriculum and the relevance of art as a powerful vehicle for social commentary, in this study of high-school-aged participants.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Special Needs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An issue of great concern to practicing art teachers and preservice teacher educators is learning about special-needs accommodations and modifications in the art classroom and curriculum. In order to address the needs of all students, art teachers are increasingly challenged to learn strategies to change their teaching and lessons for students with a variety of learning abilities and physical and emotional strengths. Until recently, such teacher training was minimal, as was specific literature addressing the needs of art teachers in helping students with varying exceptionalities. The articles and books selected here provide resources for teachers regarding laws related to students with disabilities and special needs, curriculum adaptations, and classroom management strategies (Gerber and Guay 2006, Gerber and Kellman 2010). Causton-Theoharis and Burdick 2008 and Guay 2003 address the role of the paraprofessional educator in the art room.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Causton-Theoharis, Julie, and Corrie Burdick. 2008. Paraprofessionals: Gatekeepers of authentic art production. Studies in Art Education 49.3 (Spring): 167–182.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Eighteen paraprofessionals in K–12 classrooms were observed in order to ascertain their roles in the art classroom. Results suggest that the adult teacher serves as gatekeeper, determining if and the extent to which the learner meaningfully participates in art lessons. Authors provide suggestions for art teachers and art-teacher-training programs

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gerber, Beverly Levett, and Doris M. Guay, eds. 2006. Reaching and teaching students with special needs through art. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Reference for art teachers, providing current definitions for special-needs groups, teaching strategies, lesson adaptations and modifications, and behavior management techniques.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Gerber, Beverly Levett, and Julia Kellman. 2010. Understanding students with autism through art. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Reference for preservice teachers and practitioners, with strategies for teaching students in the art classroom who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Definitions, behavior management, and teaching strategies are provided.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Guay, Doris M. 2003. Paraeducators in art classrooms: Issues of culture, leadership, and special needs. Studies in Art Education 45.1 (Fall): 20–39.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Multisite research examining instruction and management of students in segregated, inclusive, and integrated classrooms. The role of the paraeducator is examined in classrooms in which teachers instruct students with varying abilities, and arguments are made suggesting that teachers should take a more active role in supervision and leadership of these often-untrained yet well-meaning staff members

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Visual Culture Art Education

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A close relative of semiotics and visual literacy, visual culture art education (VCAE) is the current paradigm of focus in the field of art education. Moving away from the segmented, structured, discipline-based art education, art educators now embrace the visual world in which their students live, developing lessons that include rather than ignore the ever-present visual culture, including new media, print media, and environmental images. The articles in this section consider the new aesthetic philosophy of our visual culture (see Carter 2008, Eça and Mason 2008, Freedman 2003, and Szekely 2008). Duncum 2001 and Duncum 2009 provide definitions and historical overviews of trends toward VCAE. Freedman and Stuhr 2004 and Wilson 2003 offer pedagogical and curricular critique.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Carter, Mary C. 2008. Volitional aesthetics: A philosophy for the use of visual culture in art education. Studies in Art Education 49.2 (Winter): 87–102.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Carter makes a philosophical argument that justifies a different aesthetic philosophy that supports the use of visual culture in art education. The author proposes the role of aesthetic experience and an integrated view of culture and society in order to refocus art worlds so that they are devoid of culturally biased hierarchies, and people become active participants in creating culture

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Duncum, Paul. 2001. Visual culture: Developments, definitions, and directions for art education. Studies in Art Education 42.2: 101–112.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/1321027E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Duncum describes the paradigm shift from discipline-based art education (DBAE) to visual culture art education (VCAE). A theoretical basis from the literature on visual culture and the effects of popular culture and contemporary life are presented

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Duncum, Paul. 2009. Visual culture in art education, circa 2009. Visual Arts Research 35.1 (Summer): 64–75.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Reports from teachers on a variety of learning activities informed by visual-culture studies. Theoretical ideas are reconsidered from the perspective of the scope and purpose of art education goals and objectives. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Eça, Teresa Torres Pereira de, and Rachel Mason, eds. 2008. International dialogues about visual culture, education and art. Bristol, UK, and Chicago: Intellect.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Selected papers from the 2006 International Society for Education through Art (InSEA) conference on arts education in Viseu, Portugal, are compiled in this international dialogue about popular culture, multiple perspectives, and art-and-design education that was initiated by the anthology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Freedman, Kerry. 2003. Teaching visual culture: Curriculum, aesthetics, and the social life of art. New York: Teachers College Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The first book to focus on utilizing popular images and artifacts in teaching visual culture. Freedman discusses social, cognitive, and curriculum theories, creating a conceptual framework for art educators concerned with the role of fine arts, technology, television, new media, and more.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Freedman, Kerry, and Patricia Stuhr. 2004. Curriculum change for the 21st century: Visual culture in art education. In Handbook of research and policy in art education. Edited by Elliot W. Eisner and Michael D. Day, 815–828. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Freedman and Stuhr address the move from a focus on historical roots in the traditional fine-arts disciplines to an art education policy grounded in the acknowledgment of the lived experience and the authentic culture of the learner. The authors examine social issues, cultural identities, and authentic curriculum development, including visual technologies, new media, and creative and critical inquiry through art.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Szekely, Ilona. 2008. Art at the mall: A look at the aesthetics of popular mall art culture. International Journal of Art & Design Education 27.2 (June): 192–201.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-8070.2008.00574.xE-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Szekely examines the determination of economic and social value ascribed to art and the role of art educators in developing a standard of taste that leads to an awareness of art consumption. The author visits four mall stores to study the aesthetics of art purchase and discusses the implications for art teaching. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wilson, B. 2003. Of diagrams and rhizomes: Visual culture, contemporary art, and the impossibility of mapping the content of art education. Studies in Art Education 44.3 (Spring): 214–229.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wilson discusses the complications of adding popular visual culture and contemporary artwork to the art education curriculum, and whether or not this is a valid endeavor for the field

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Visual Literacy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Becoming a literate member of society is said by many to be a major goal of education. Since the late 20th century, and most significantly fueled by the technological revolution, the definition of literacy has been expanded to encompass one’s ability to read and interpret visual cues and images. Because art education is largely grounded in the theory and practice of interpreting and creating the visual, visual literacy has long been an integral part of the work in the field of art education. The selection of articles and essays presented here addresses the need for students to develop visual-thinking skills in order to participate fully in their world. All of the texts consider various aspects of teaching with visual imagery/culture and for expanding visual literacy skills in and through art education.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Danko-McGhee, Katherina, and Ruslan Slutsky. 2007. The impact of early art experiences on literacy development. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Danko-McGhee and Slutsky explore making a connection between children’s artwork and early literacy development and provide strategies for teachers to develop young children’s critical observational skills and thinking techniques through image-based visual literacy. The authors call for pedagogical reform regarding the ways that teachers engage students in seeing, reading, and interpreting through image and text.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hsiao, Ching-Yuan. 2010. Enhancing children’s artistic and creative thinking and drawing performance through appreciating picture books. International Journal of Art & Design Education 29.2 (June): 143–152.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-8070.2010.01642.xE-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This report of a study conducted with kindergarten children in Taiwan explores creative thinking and communication through pictorial rendering and discussions. Implications for reading readiness support teaching and using descriptive art-based vocabulary and involving students in analysis and interpretation of artwork. Available online for purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Piro, Joseph M. 2002. The picture of reading: Deriving meaning in literacy through image. The Reading Teacher 56.2 (October): 126–134.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Teaching students to read images, not merely to look at pictures, is the focus of this article. Directed primarily at the reading and English language arts (ELA) teacher audience, Piro presents strategies for reading and interpreting images to develop cues for textual reading as well as for enhancing student observational and visual literacy skills, which are important insights for art and museum educators interested in visual literacy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Smilan, Cathy. 2010. Teaching literacy in and through the visual arts. In Hooked on books: Language arts and literature in elementary classrooms. Edited by Janet L. Towell, 127–158. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Written from the perspective of the arts educator, this chapter focuses on theory and practice in teaching for visual literacy in the reading language arts (RLA) curriculum. Reading theory is adapted to focus on intersecting concepts in art and RLA, including transformative viewing and analysis, authentic meaning making, and art processes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Stankiewicz, Mary Ann. 2004. Notions of technology and visual literacy. Studies in Art Education 46.1 (Fall): 88–91.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Stankiewicz provides an overview of the impact of technology on visual literacy, stressing potential additional dialects of our visual language that might be provided by technical innovations. The social, functional, and generational implications for education and art education are discussed

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