Education Education Reform and School Change
by
Andrew Hargreaves, Corrie Stone-Johnson, Kristin L. Kew
  • LAST REVIEWED: 27 September 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 21 January 2016
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756810-0014

Introduction

Educational change is a central topic of inquiry in education, and also a recognized field of study, as exemplified in the International Handbook of Educational Change, the Journal of Educational Change, a special interest group of the American Educational Research Association devoted to educational change, and widely used texts by founding authors of the field on core concepts such as the meaning of educational change. In the past, eagerness about what to change overlooked the complex processes of how people changed or failed to change in practice. The field therefore addresses and analyzes deliberately designed as well as implicit and unintended processes of educational change, such as innovation, implementation, improvement and resistance; the forces that drive change externally in policy and society and internally within schools and classrooms; the orchestration by and impact of change on its various agents, such as teachers, students, parents, and leaders; the experience and articulation of change across various educational domains such as pedagogy, curriculum, and assessment; and the evolution of change processes and change strategies over time, as well as their geographical distribution and variation across different systems and countries. The movement of research and development activity beyond simply what to change toward how to change, and the causes and consequences of these change processes, started in the post-Sputnik era of the 1960s in the United States, which addressed the problem of diffusion of individual innovations. Difficulties in achieving successful diffusion then prompted an interest in planned educational change, though this approach was criticized in turn for neglecting the various meanings that people attached to the change process as they experienced it. This resulted in an increasing emphasis on creating more collaborative professional cultures and professional communities in schools to develop common purpose and shared meanings. The impact of these changes since 1970 has been waves of reform that have left many educators confused and burned out, many schools with a seemingly haphazard string of unconnected reforms, and still many students not achieving. By the turn of the 21st century, frustration with these successive waves of change efforts ushered in an era of large-scale, administratively and politically coordinated reform initiatives and their uneven effects, as played out in different systems and countries across the globe—especially those that perform the strongest on international tests of educational achievement and those that are increasingly left behind. This entry explores the key literature and research on these processes and patterns of educational change, and their variations across time and space.

Classic Texts

This section includes some of the most influential and classic texts in educational change and reform. Divided into three timeframes—1960–1974, 1975–1989, and 1990–present—these works comprise the first consciously constructed forms of change and demonstrate the growth of thinking in the field of educational reform from its earliest days. The most recent pieces detail modern educational change from multiple perspectives.

1960–1974

These early classic texts also deal with some of the first consciously constructed forms of change, especially innovation, as well as presenting the first ideas about the developmental stages through which change processes pass. To read about the concept of organizational learning, see Argyris and Schon 1974. For a critique of the cultures of silence that surround the notion of banking education and the development of a new pedagogy arising from the concerns of oppressed communities, see Freire 1970. For a discussion of planned educational change, see Gross, et al. 1971 and Havelock 1973. For details on school innovation and planned change, see Hoyle 1969. For a discussion of loss and change, see Marris 1974. To better understand diffusion of innovations, see Rogers 1962. To explore culture and change, see Sarason 1971. To read about educational innovation in a classroom setting, see Griffin, et al. 2012 (cited under Innovation) and Smith and Geoffrey 1968.

  • Argyris, Chris, and Donald A. Schon. 1974. Theory in practice: Increasing professional effectiveness. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    Argyris and Schon launch the concept of organizational learning into the field of organizational change. They distinguish between single-loop learning that leads to refinements in existing practice, and double-loop learning that affects value systems, beliefs, and forms of understanding.

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  • Freire, Paulo. 1970. Pedagogy of the oppressed. Translated by Myra Bergman-Ramos. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.

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    This is probably the single most important book on educational change from the standpoint of critical theory. Based on work with literacy development among peasant communities in Latin America, it critiques the cultures of silence that surround authoritarian and oppressive forms of banking education, and proposes a consciousness-raising curriculum and pedagogy arising out of the cultural concerns of oppressed communities.

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  • Gross, Neil C., Joseph B. Giacquinta, and Marilyn Bernstein. 1971. Implementing organizational innovations: A study of planned change in schools. New York: Basic Books.

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    Based on research conducted at the Center for Research and Development on Educational Differences, this book presents one of the first studies on the trajectories and outcomes of planned educational change.

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  • Havelock, Ronald G. 1973. The change agent’s guide to innovation in education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology.

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    The function and method of change agents have been studied in various cultures and professions, and this book applies those findings to schools. The authors explain six stages of planned change: building a relationship between client and change agent, diagnosing the problem, acquiring relevant resources, choosing the solution, gaining acceptance, and stabilizing the innovation and generating self-renewal.

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  • Hoyle, Eric. 1969. How does the curriculum change? Journal of Curriculum Studies 1.3: 230–239.

    DOI: 10.1080/0022027690010304Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This early article focuses on school innovation and planned educational change. It argues that for any curriculum innovation to become an effective improvement on an existing practice, it must “take” with the school and become fully institutionalized. Genuine innovation does not occur unless teachers become personally committed to ensuring its success.

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  • Marris, Peter. 1974. Loss and change. New York: Pantheon.

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    This book examines people’s experiences of change as ones of loss and bereavement, most obviously in the case of bereavement itself but also in the case of other changes such as innovation that create powerful feelings of loss too.

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  • Rogers, Everett M. 1962. Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.

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    Rogers explains how new ideas spread or are diffused via communication channels over time. Such innovations are initially perceived as uncertain and even risky. Most people seek out others like themselves who have already adopted the new idea. Thus the diffusion process consists of a few individuals who first adopt an innovation, then spread the word among their circle of acquaintances.

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  • Sarason, Seymour B. 1971. The culture of the school and the problem of change. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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    In the field’s first extended discussion of culture and change, Sarason details how change can affect a school’s culturally diverse environment—either through the implementation of new programs or as a result of federally imposed regulations. In this book, Sarason challenges assumptions about institutions and presents evidence that the federal effort to change and improve schools has not succeeded.

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  • Smith, Louis M., and William Geoffrey. 1968. The complexities of an urban classroom. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

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    This is the first of a series of books spanning more than fifteen years on the nature and fate of educational innovation in a classroom setting. It is one of the first books to disclose how clarity about what to change is no substitute for a clear method or strategy of how to bring about desired changes

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1975–1989

These classic pieces, written between 1975 and 1989, demonstrate the growth of thinking in the field of educational reform from its earliest days. For a view on the study of change implementation, see Berman and McLaughlin 1975. To better understand change in teaching practices over a century, see Cuban 1984. To learn about the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM), see Hall and Loucks 1979. For a look at the first analysis of educational change from the technological, political, and cultural perspectives, see House 1979. Huberman and Miles 1984 is one of the first analyses of process and outcomes of innovations, and Lortie 1975 is the foundational book on the culture of teaching.

  • Berman, Paul, and Milbrey Wallin McLaughlin. 1975. Federal programs supporting educational change. Vol. 1, A model of educational change. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

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    This classic report, the first in a series of RAND studies on change agent programs, analyzed the then-current state of knowledge of planned change in education, which proposed a conceptual model of factors affecting change processes within school districts. The literature review revealed the need for a more systematic understanding of the processes of implementation.

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  • Cuban, Larry. 1984. How teachers taught: Constancy and change in American classrooms. New York: Longman.

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    Cuban describes teaching practices in the United States from 1890 to 1980. The author offers explanations for continuity and change in public education, including school as a form of social control, long-held assumptions and beliefs about teaching and learning, and the implementation of reforms.

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  • Hall, Gene E., and Susan Loucks. 1979. Implementing innovations in schools: A concerns-based approach. Austin, TX: Research and Development Center for Teacher Education.

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    Hall and Loucks created their Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) to describe change as it affects individuals and to prompt more successful change efforts. CBAM views the teacher as the focal point in school improvement efforts, yet also acknowledges social and organizational influences. This paper describes the application of the model to a curriculum implementation effort based on an understanding of teachers’ concerns.

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  • House, Ernie 1979. Three perspectives on innovation: The technological, the political and the cultural. Washington, DC: Office for Educational Research and Improvement.

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    This foundational report was the first to analyze educational change from three perspectives, illustrating different aspects of change issues that are raised as each perspective—technological, political, and cultural—is used as a lens to analyze change efforts.

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  • Huberman, Alan M., and Matthew B. Miles. 1984. Innovation up close. New York: Plenum.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4899-0390-7Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This volume represents a distillation and analysis of twelve site reports; it is one of the earliest empirical analyses of processes and outcomes of innovation and school improvement.

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  • Lortie, Dan C. 1975. Schoolteacher: A sociological study. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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    In this foundational book, Lortie draws on survey and interview data to understand and analyze the work and culture of teaching. The unifying theme of this book is a search for the orientations and sentiments unique to teachers, which he characterizes as presentism, conservatism, and individualism.

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1990–present

These important texts detail modern educational change from multiple perspectives. For a better understanding of the three-stage theory of educational change—initiation, implementation, and institutionalization—see Fullan 2007. This book is the most widely cited in the field and is the most recently revised version. To better understand change in urban high schools, see Louis and Miles 1990. For an analysis of learning organizations, see Senge 1990.

  • Fullan, Michael. 2007. The new meaning of educational change. 4th ed. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    This book is the most widely cited in the field of educational change. A fundamentally revised edition of the original 1982 book, it sets out a three stage theory of educational change: initiation, implementation, and institutionalization. Fullan also describes the roles and responsibilities of each member in the change process, including the administrator, teacher, parent, student, consultant, district, and governments.

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  • Louis, Karen Seashore, and Matthew B. Miles. 1990. Improving the urban high school: What works and why. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    This book of multiple case studies on change and non-change in urban high schools points to the need for greater school-level involvement in educational reform processes, especially in terms of leadership.

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  • Senge, Peter M. 1990. The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday.

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    Senge sets out the basic principles of what he calls the learning organization: turning a process of organizational learning into an institutional aspiration. Through basic disciplines that include personal mastery and systems thinking, Senge’s work challenges leaders to face the disabilities in their organizations and to practice the disciplines that will create improved performance through ongoing problem-solving capacity.

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Modes

This section contains pivotal pieces that offer approaches and strategies to bring about and sustain educational change. Included are works on the most current thinking in innovation, policy and program implementation, the sustainability and institutionalism of educational reform, restructuring and reculturing of schools, and building professional learning communities.

Innovation

Some approaches and strategies to bring about change are based on single innovations. The pieces in this section reflect the most current thinking in the area of innovation. For a view of innovation and diffusion theory in the 21st century, see Bentley 2010. To better understand the impact of disruptive innovation in education, see Christensen, et al. 2008.

  • Bentley, Tom. 2010. Innovation and diffusion as a theory of change. In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 29–46. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    Bentley brings innovation and diffusion theory into the 21st century by indicating that in fast-flowing knowledge-based societies, more change will and should take place through processes that are open, networked, and user-driven. In such an increasingly technologically enhanced environment, the task of educational and social reformers, he argues, is to create the open architectures in which innovative processes can flourish.

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  • Christensen, Clayton M., Curtis W. Johnson, and Michael B. Horn. 2008. Disrupting class: How disruptive innovation will change the way the world learns. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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    Christensen takes this book beyond his study of the “Innovator’s Dilemma” in business, to combine with colleagues in order to understand the impact of disruptive (as opposed to incremental) innovation in education. Computer technology in education is bringing about profound transformations in education that public schools are finding hard to accommodate, with the consequence that they may be overtaken by other kinds of educational provision.

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  • Griffin, Patrick, Esther Care, and Barry. McGaw. 2012. “The changing role of education and schools.” In Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills. Edited by Patrick Griffin, Esther Care, and Barry McGaw, 1–15. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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    According to Griffin, Care, and McGaw, educational systems must change in response to the increasing demand for information-technology skilled workers. This chapter discusses the Assessment and Teaching of Twenty-First Century Skills Project (ATC21S), which investigated the methodological and technological barriers to the assessment of Learning Through Digital Networks and Collaborative Problem Solving. The project provides educators, researchers, and policy makers with recommendations to develop learning environments and assessments that support the development of 21st-century skills.

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Implementation

This section explores the complexities and challenges facing schools as they implement various educational reforms. In particular, it focuses on various aspects of implementation, including policy implementation and program implementation. For an overview of policy implementation see Honig 2006 and McLaughlin 1998. To better understand evaluating program implementation, see Leithwood and Montgomery 1980. For an exploration of the implementation of planned change, see McLaughlin 1990. For a definition and in-depth exploration of implementation as it relates to curriculum research, see O’Donnell 2008. For scaling up school reform, see Datnow, et al. 2002.

  • Datnow, Amanda, Lea Hubbard, and Hugh Mehan. 2002. Extending educational reform: From one school to many. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

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    Authors examine data from several nationwide studies in an effort to provide a comprehensive understanding of “scaling up” school reform. This book explores the complex interactions between institutions and individuals and their influence on the implementation of reform. Readers are provided with guidelines for policy and practice.

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  • Honig, Meredith I., ed. 2006. New directions in education policy implementation: Confronting complexity. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

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    This book describes how education policy implementation as a field of research and practice has amounted to a search for “implementable” policies on the one hand—those that in practice resemble policy designs—and “successful” policies on the other, which produce demonstrable improvements in students’ school performance.

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  • Leithwood, Kenneth A., and D. J. Montgomery. 1980. Evaluating program implementation. Evaluation Review 4.2: 193–214.

    DOI: 10.1177/0193841X8000400202Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A methodology for evaluating program implementation is described. Requirements for such a methodology are derived from an analysis of the functions to be performed by implementation evaluation, the nature of the program being implemented, and characteristics of the implementation process.

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  • McLaughlin, Milbrey Wallin. 1990. The RAND change agent study revisited: Macro perspectives and micro realities. Educational Researcher 19.9: 11–16.

    DOI: 10.3102/0013189X019009011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article revisits the classic RAND Change Agent study, undertaken 1973–1978, which indicated a significant shift in the ways people thought about implementing planned change in education. The article reasserts RAND’s finding that effective projects are characterized by mutual adaptation rather than uniform implementation, and underscores the essential contribution of teachers’ perspectives as informants and guides to policy.

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  • McLaughlin, Milbrey Wallin. 1998. Listening and learning from the field: Tales of policy implementation and situated practice. In The international handbook of educational change. Part 1. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins. 70–84. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

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    The “implementation problem” was discovered in the early 1970s as policy analysts took a look at the school level consequences of the Great Society’s sweeping education reforms. Comprehensive intergovernmental initiatives meant that implementation no longer was just primarily a management problem, confined to a single institution, but instead stretched across levels of government and across agents.

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  • O’Donnell, C. L. 2008. Defining, conceptualizing, and measuring fidelity of implementation and its relationship to outcomes in K–12 curriculum intervention research. Review of Educational Research 78.1: 33–84.

    DOI: 10.3102/0034654307313793Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The results of this review indicate that there are too few studies to guide researchers on how fidelity of implementation to core curriculum interventions can be measured and related to outcomes. This review attempts to clarify the definition, conceptualization, and measurement of fidelity of implementation and to guide future researchers in understanding how fidelity of implementation can be used to adjust or interpret outcome measures.

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Sustainability and Institutionalization

In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the sustainability of changes over time and across systems. Anderson 2010 examines the evolution of change over time. Hargreaves and Goodson 2006 details change over a thirty-year period in the United States and Canada and explores the sustainability of change in these contexts. Hargreaves 2002 explores how social geographies contribute to or undermine sustainable improvements. Meyer and Rowan 1977 and Meyer and Rowan 2012 looks at the ways in which organizational structures affect innovation or change in schools.

  • Anderson, Stephen. 2010. Moving change: Evolutionary perspectives of educational change. In The second handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michal Fullan, and David Hopkins, 65–84. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    In this chapter, Anderson revisits some of the taken-for-granted concepts in the field of educational change. The author focuses on some significant areas of debate and suggests areas for further research to think about change as a process that evolves over time.

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  • Hargreaves, Andy. 2002. Sustainability of educational change: The role of social geographies. Journal of Educational Change 3:189–214.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1021218711015Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The paper examines the conceptual and strategic role of social geographies in contributing to or undermining sustainable school improvement. It develops a definition of sustainability as involving improvement over time, within available or achievable resources, that does not negatively affect the surrounding environment and that promotes ecological diversity and capacity more widely. This analysis is then applied to a framework of seven strategic geographies of educational change.

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  • Hargreaves, Andy, and Ivor Goodson. 2006. Educational change over time? The sustainability and non-sustainability of three decades of secondary school change and continuity. Educational Administration Quarterly 42.1: 3–41.

    DOI: 10.1177/0013161X05277975Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article presents the conceptual framework and key research findings from a study of long-term educational change over time. Educational change is shaped by the convergence of large-scale economic and demographic shifts that reaffirm the traditional identities and practices of conventional high schools and pull innovative ones back toward the traditional norm in an age of standardization.

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  • Meyer, John W., and Brian Rowan. 1977. Institutional organizations: Formal structures as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology 83:340–363.

    DOI: 10.1086/226550Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Many formal organizational structures arise as reflections of rationalized institutional rules. These rules function as myths which organizations incorporate, gaining legitimacy, resources, stability, and enhanced survival prospects in the face of efforts to bring about innovation or change.

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  • Meyer, Heinz –Dieter, and Brian Rowan. 2012. The institutionalism in education. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

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    Explores the ways in which education as an institution must be redefined to include new forms of educational organizations. Contributing authors provide conceptual tools and empirical assessments to overcome the challenges this new institutionalism poses to reigning theories. Readers will gain insight into possibilities for institutional reform and innovation.

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Restructuring and Reculturing

Change efforts sometimes try to transform organizations by restructuring them, whereas others concentrate more on alterations of relationships and interactions through “reculturing.” To learn about the role of micropolitics in educational reform, see Blasé and Bjork 2010. To better understand how districts have been restructured, see Brouillette 1996. For a view of the role of trust in school improvement, see Bryk and Schneider 2002. To read more about the role of collaboration as a means of educational reform, see Darling-Hammond 1997. To read about leadership in a culture of change, see Fullan 2001. For a deeper look at school restructuring, see Lieberman 1995 and Newmann and Wehlage 1995. For a better understanding of how prevailing cultural beliefs perpetuate inequality in an urban high school, see McQuillan 1998. For a look at lack of change in teaching pedagogies over time related to educational reform and policy, see Cuban 2013.

  • Blasé, Joseph, and Bjork, Lars. 2010. The micropolitics of educational change and reform: Cracking open the black box. In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michal Fullan, and David Hopkins, 237–258. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    This article builds on and updates Blasé’s past work on the micropolitics of educational change; showing how change at the micro level is affected by the competing and complementary interests of different groups in the educational process as they converge and collide.

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  • Brouillette, Liane. 1996. A geology of school reform: The successive restructuring of a school district. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

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    This book describes a study that focused on how successive waves of reform interacted within a single school district from its beginnings in the early 1950s through the early 1990s. The study examines the multiple misunderstandings that occurred among individuals whose formative experiences with public schools were shaped by widely differing historical circumstances and philosophical perspectives.

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  • Bryk, Anthony S., and Barbara L. Schneider. 2002. Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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    On the basis of a three-year study of reform in twelve different elementary school communities in Chicago, the authors establish the importance of relational trust as one of the key variables that affects student achievement. Developing relational trust among teachers, principals, students, and parents is therefore a key component of the culture of change leading to substantive and sustained school improvement.

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  • Cuban, Larry. 2013. Inside the black box of classroom practice: Change without reform in American education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

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    Cuban discusses the complex and often contradictory relationship between numerous attempts at educational reform by policy makers over the last two centuries and relatively stable teaching practices in the classroom. He examines the interconnectedness of policy and practice from various viewpoints, including changes in medical practice policy.

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  • Darling-Hammond, Linda. 1997. The right to learn: A blueprint for creating schools that work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    Darling-Hammond emphasizes the process of learning rather than testing. She believes that what’s wrong with public schools can be attributed to excessive bureaucratization that leaves teachers with little time for teaching. The American educational system is predicated on a “factory model” that processes students instead of teaching them. She believes teachers must be prepared to collaborate more often and spend more time “teaching for understanding.”

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  • Fullan, Michael. 2001. Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    Bringing together the literature of leadership and change in business and in education, Fullan critiques naïve changes based on transplantation of systemic reforms from one context to another without thought for the local cultures and contexts in which the transposed reforms have to be developed. He then demonstrates how relationships between large-scale transformation and local culture can be pursued through five core competencies.

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  • Lieberman, Ann, ed. 1995. The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    The contributors to this work tell a set of stories about schools, teachers, and administrators who face district and state mandates concerning restructuring. It describes the trials and tribulations that they encounter and offers insight into the lessons that can be learned from these individual experiences.

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  • McQuillan, Patrick J. 1998. Educational opportunity in an urban American high school: A cultural analysis. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

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    This five-year ethnographic study examines issues of educational opportunity at a multiethnic high school. Focusing on the beliefs and values of students, teachers, and administrators, this study reveals how prevailing cultural beliefs, the collective nature of the student population, and the structure of the school system worked in concert to foster inequality. This study considers the implications for promoting educational opportunity more effectively.

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  • Newmann, Fred M., and Gary L. Wehlage. 1995. Successful school restructuring. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools.

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    Since the late 1980s, education reformers in the United States have sought ways to “restructure” schools to boost student performance through such strategies as site-based management, interdisciplinary team teaching, flexible scheduling, and assessment by portfolio. From 1990 to 1995, the Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools examined these questions by analyzing data from more than 1,500 schools throughout the United States.

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Professional Learning Communities

One of the forms of reculturing schools is the development of professional learning communities. The following works describe the evolution of professional learning communities and discuss the challenges to implementation as well as the possibilities for improvement. For a differentiation of professional learning communities from performance-training sects, see Hargreaves 2002. For a definition of professional learning communities and an exploration of what happens when schools develop them, see Hord 1997. To look at the establishment of collaborative cultures, see Lieberman 1990. To see how building professional learning communities can improve student achievement, see McLaughlin and Talbert 2006. To read about creating communities of learning in a context of accountability and standardization, see Meier 2002. To read about some of the challenges of professional learning communities, see Stoll and Louis 2007. To learn about creating successful learning environments through leadership, see Robertson and Timperley 2011.

  • Hargreaves, Andy. 2002. Professional learning communities and performance training sects: The emerging apartheid of school improvement. In Effective leadership for school improvement. Edited by Alma Harris, C. Day, M. Hadfield, D. Hopkins, A. Hargreaves, and C. Chapman. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

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    The original intention of professional learning communities was to develop teacher-based inquiry into student learning and classroom teaching. In this article, Hargreaves compares this original purpose against the political tendency of such so-called communities to become devices of compliance and groupthink where teacher teams are driven to analyze numerical data in order to make swift interventions within mandated programs of curriculum and instruction.

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  • Hord, Shirley M. 1997. Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

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    Inventor of the concept “professional learning communities,” Hord defines what is meant by “professional learning community.” She describes what happens when a school staff studies, works, plans, and takes action collectively on behalf of increased learning for students, and she discusses what is known about creating such communities of professionals in schools. The literature, she notes, indicates that professional learning communities produce positive outcomes for both staff and students.

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  • Lieberman, Ann, ed. 1990. Schools as collaborative cultures. Lewes, UK: Falmer.

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    The contributions in this volume articulate and exemplify the key role played by professional collaboration in school development. The authors show how schools need to establish collaborative cultures as a precondition for their own development.

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  • McLaughlin, Milbrey Wallin, and Joan E. Talbert. 2006. Building school-based teacher learning communities: Professional strategies to improve student achievement. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    This book builds more programmatically from the authors’ earlier work on professional communities in high schools, to examine efforts to establish and develop professional learning communities in schools that enhance student achievement. Its most important contribution is in establishing the stages of development, from novice to mature, through which professional learning communities pass over time.

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  • Meier, Deborah. 2002. In schools we trust: Creating communities of learning in an era of testing and standardization. Boston: Beacon.

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    In contrast to proponents of tests and standardization, this author examines how successful change occurs by building trust in the authority and judgment of those who know children best, so that schools are trustworthy.

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  • Robertson, Jan, and Helen Timperley. 2011. Leadership and learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    DOI: 10.4135/9781446288931Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Contributors to this book examine learning through three themes: empowering relationships, patterns of leadership distribution, and leadership for the improvement of teaching and learning. This book aims to provide a comprehensive view of the elements needed to promote successful learning environments in the educational community through leadership.

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  • Stoll, Louise, and Karen Seashore Louis, eds. 2007. Professional learning communities: Divergence, depth and dilemmas. Maidenhead, UK: McGraw-Hill.

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    This collection of chapters edited by British and US experts Stoll and Louis delves deeper into the concept of professional learning communities, unearthing their challenges and complexities, as well as their many varying possibilities.

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Systemic Educational Reform

Recently, change strategy has concentrated on interrelated changes orchestrated centrally that may depend on pressures and demands or on capacity building and support, and that in turn can provoke organized responses that take the form of social movements. To read about social movements in the United States, see Anyon 2005 and Oakes, et al. 2000. To see an analysis of the impact of poverty on systemic change, see Berliner 2006. For perspectives on the travel of school reform approaches from one system to another, see Datnow, et al. 2002 and Stein, et al. 2010. For a better understanding of large-scale reform efforts, see Elmore 1995 and Hargreaves 2010. To read the insights of some of the leading educational change experts on systemic reform, see Hargreaves and Fullan 2008. For a view of system leadership, see Hopkins 2007. For some ideas on global educational change and reform from leading experts in the field, see Malone 2013.

  • Anyon, Jean. 2005. Radical possibilities: Public policy, urban education, and a new social movement. New York: Routledge.

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    Jean Anyon counters the conventional approach to systemic reform as orchestrated local or national policy intervention by describing five social movements in US cities, which offer insights into securing economic and educational justice for America’s poor families and students.

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  • Berliner, David. 2006. Our impoverished view of educational reform. Teachers College Record 108.6: 949–995

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00682.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This analysis is about the role of poverty in school reform. Data from a number of sources are used to demonstrate that poverty in the United States is greater and of longer duration than in other rich nations, and that poverty is associated with academic performance that is well below international means. It is argued that poverty places severe limits on what can be accomplished through school reform efforts alone.

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  • Datnow, Amanda, Lea Hubbard, and Hugh Mehan. 2002. Extending educational reform from one school to many. London and New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

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    Reform programs that have proved to be a success in one school are often unsuccessful when adopted by other schools. This book looks at why change does not occur on a large-scale basis and how the identified problems can be surmounted.

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  • Elmore, Richard F. 1995. Getting to scale with good educational practice. Harvard Educational Review 66.1: 1–26.

    DOI: 10.17763/haer.66.1.g73266758j348t33Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Elmore analyzes the role of school organization and incentive structures in large-scale adoption of innovative practices. Two previous reform attempts are evaluated to demonstrate that large-scale reform efforts, under current conditions, will be ineffective and transient. The article concludes with recommendations for addressing the issue of scale.

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  • Hargreaves, Andy. 2010. Change from without: Lessons from other countries, systems, and sectors. In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 105–117. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-2660-6_6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article reviews the research, including the author’s own, on how educational systems can learn from other systems and sectors without directly transposing solutions from one to the other.

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  • Hargreaves, Andy, and Michael Fullan, eds. 2008. Change wars. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

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    Change Wars presents the insights and expertise of some of the leading educational thinkers and authors from around the world on system-wide change.

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  • Hopkins, David. 2007. Every school a great school: Realizing the potential of system leadership. Maidenhead, UK: Open Univ. Press.

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    Drawing on his experience in educational research and senior-level policy leadership, David Hopkins argues that in order to achieve systemic, sustainable improvement, it is important not only to continue to raise standards, but also to build capacity within the system through personalized learning, professionalized teaching, networking and innovation, and intelligent accountability.

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  • Malone, Helen Janc. 2013. Leading educational change: Global issues, challenges, and lessons on whole system reform. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    The collection of essays found in this book is organized into five themes: emerging issues in educational change, improving practice, equity and educational justice, accountability and assessment systems, and whole-system change. Contributors to this volume of work address contemporary issues in research, policy, and practice to promote discussions, analysis, and innovations within education reform.

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  • Oakes, Jeannie, Karen Quartz, Steve Ryan, and Martin Lipton. 2000. Becoming good American schools: The struggle for civic virtue in educational reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    This book tells the stories of sixteen US schools that sought to alter their structures and practices and become places fostering innovative ideas, caring people, principles of social justice, and democratic processes. Based on longitudinal, comparative case-study research, these accounts attest to the difficulty of achieving these ends in the face of normative, political and technical barriers to educational equity in schools.

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  • Stein, Mary Kay, Leah Hubbard, and Judith Toure. 2010. Travel of district-wide approaches to instructional improvement: How can districts learn from one another? In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 781–805. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    The chapter is the most recent of a sequence that examines how reform models and practices spread or failed to spread from New York City’s District #2 to San Diego and beyond. It analyzes the range of factors that are present in the common practice of trying to transpose models across systems.

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History

This section encompasses historical perspectives on systemic educational reform. To read about how systemic changes have thus far proven unsuccessful, as well as suggestions for improvement, see Hargreaves and Shirley 2009, Payne 2008, Ravitch 2010, Ravitch 2000, and Sarason 1990. To read about how certain reforms have come to be permanent features of school, see Tyack and Tobin 1994.

  • Hargreaves, Andy, and Dennis Shirley. 2009. The fourth way: The inspiring future for educational change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

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    This book draws on research of thirty years of educational change to describe three ways of change in public policy that have proved unsuccessful: change through innovation and support, markets and standards, and data-driven improvement. It then interprets the authors’ research on successful practice in different countries and systems to describe a fourth way of inspiration and responsibility.

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  • Payne, Charles M. 2008. So much reform, so little change: The persistence of failure in urban schools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

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    This book draws on experiences of educational research and community organizing to argue that most education policy discussions are disconnected from the daily realities of urban schools, especially those in poor and beleaguered neighborhoods. Payne’s book highlights the often dysfunctional organizational environments of urban schools and school systems that undermine reform efforts.

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  • Ravitch, Diane. 2000. Left back: A century of failed school reforms. New York: Simon & Schuster.

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    In this history of education in the 20th century, Diane Ravitch describes the ongoing battle of ideas over educational reform and explains why school reform has so often failed. See especially pp. 405–452.

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  • Ravitch, Diane. 2010. The death and life of the great American school system: How testing and choice are undermining education. New York: Basic Books.

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    In this book, historian and former Washington education leader Diane Ravitch reviews and revises her opinions on education reform over the years to critique contemporary reform efforts for being overly influenced and distorted by corporate interests, excessively hostile to the teaching profession, and fatally supportive of educational testing accountability practices that lower standards and inhibit innovation.

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  • Sarason, Seymour B. 1990. The predictable failure of educational reform: Can we change course before it’s too late? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    Sarason argues that schools have been intractable to change and the attainment of goals set by reformers. The reason is that reformers do not engage with the interconnectedness of what occurs in schools or with power relations in schooling. As a result, each new wave of reform learns nothing from earlier efforts and comes up with recommendations that have failed in the past.

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  • Tyack, David, and William Tobin. 1994. The grammar of schooling: Why is it so hard to change? American Educational Research Journal 31.3: 453–479.

    DOI: 10.3102/00028312031003453Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Why have the established institutional reforms of schooling been so stable, and why did most challenges fade or become marginalized? The authors explain how some reforms, like the graded school and the Carnegie unit, lasted to become part of the grammar of schooling whereas some that attacked the grammar of schooling did not.

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International Perspectives

This section provides international perspectives on systemic education reform, drawing largely from research in the United Kingdom and Canada since 1980. To further understand the challenges to education systems posed by increased globalization, see Arnove, et al. 2012. To read about large-scale reform in the United Kingdom, see Barber 2009; Chapman and Gunter 2009; Earl, et al. 2003; and Gray 2010. To read about Canadian systemic educational reform, see Fullan 2004. For an inclusive educational perspective, see Sahlberg 2006. For large-scale change efforts, see Hopkins 2011.

  • Arnove, Robert F., Carlos Alberto Torres, and Stephen Franz. 2012. Comparative education: The dialectic of the global and the local. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

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    Authors discuss the challenges to education systems posed by increased globalization. Provides readers with a greater understanding of the complex interaction between global and local entities in education reform, particularly comparative education.

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  • Barber, Michael. 2009. From system effectiveness to system improvement: Reform paradigms and relationships. In Change wars. Edited by Andy Hargreaves and Michael Fullan, 71–96. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

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    This article, from Tony Blair’s former education advisor, sets out the benefits and drawbacks of three paradigms for large-scale public service: command and control, quasi-markets, and devolution and transparency.

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  • Chapman, Christopher, and Helen Gunter, eds. 2009. Radical reforms: Perspectives on an era of educational change. London and New York: Routledge.

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    This collection of papers by distinguished British researchers reviews and critiques systemic educational reform in England, and its different components, over the course of the Labour government in the late 1990s and early 2000s.

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  • Earl, Lorna M., Nancy Watson, Benjamin Levin, Kenneth Leithwood, and Michael Fullan. 2003. Watching and learning 3: The final report of the OISE/UT external evaluation of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies. London: Department for Education and Employment.

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    This is the officially commissioned evaluation of the United Kingdom’s influential National Literacy and Numeracy Strategy, which was implemented in system-wide scope and detail across all of England’s primary schools.

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  • Fullan, Michael. 2004. Leadership and sustainability: System thinkers in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

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    Fullan’s book draws on his experiences of advising on large-scale systemic change in Ontario, as well as on reviewing the wider change literature to argue that effective systemic change grasps the interconnectedness of systems and takes moral responsibility for moving them in a positive direction.

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  • Gray, John. 2010. Probing the limits of systemic reform: The English case. In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 293–307. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    Gray undertakes a sober research-based review of the impact of the much-lauded systemic reform strategies in England, especially under its Labour government.

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  • Hopkins, David. 2011. Powerful learning: Taking education reform to scale. Melbourne, Australia: Department of Education and Early Childhood Development.

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    Hopkins explores school reform at scale through the implementation of a system improvement model in Melbourne, Australia. Through his analysis he comments on the necessity to include both “bottom-up” and “top-down” approaches.

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  • Sahlberg, Pasi. 2006. Education reform for raising economic competitiveness. Journal of Education Change 7.4: 259–287.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10833-005-4884-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article argues that what schools are expected to do in order to promote economic competitiveness often contradicts commonly accepted global education reform thinking. The key features of education reform policies that are compatible with competitiveness are those that encourage flexibility in education systems, creativity in schools, and risk-taking without fear on the part of individuals.

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School Improvement and Turnaround

Struggling schools face difficult choices when making decisions about school improvement. This section identifies several school improvement options, including turnaround. To read about turnaround leadership, see Fullan 2006. To read about improving schools in challenging circumstances, see Harris, et al. 2006. To challenge current thinking on leadership, see Harris, et al. 2003. For perspectives on school improvement, see Hopkins 2001. To read about the link between knowledge utilization and school improvement, see Louis 1998. For views on the link between school effectiveness and school improvement see Reynolds, et al. 2000; Stoll and Fink 1996; and Townsend 2007. To read a critique of turnaround strategies, see Mintrop 2004.

  • Fullan, Michael. 2006. Turnaround leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    Foundational change theorist Michael Fullan critiques conventional literature and strategy regarding school turnaround for putting short-term gains ahead of sustainable improvement. Instead, he advocates effective leadership at all levels to combine pressure and support in bringing about effective and lasting change.

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  • Harris, Alma, Christopher Day, David Hopkins, Mark Hadfield, Andy Hargreaves, and Christopher Chapman. 2003. Effective school leadership for school improvement. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

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    Presents leadership of the many as an alternative to conventional theories of leadership from a single individual. The authors consider contemporary theories and issues within four areas of concern: the changing context of leadership, contemporary views of leadership, building leadership capacity, and future directions and implications for leadership and school improvement. Readers are provided with ideas and perspectives on alternative forms of leadership in an effort to promote sustained school improvement.

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  • Harris, Alma, Sue James, Judith Gunraj, Paul Clarke, and Belinda Harris. 2006. Improving schools in exceptionally challenging circumstances. London: Continuum.

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    This research-based investigation of schools working in exceptionally challenging circumstances sets out the issues facing such schools and the success that some can achieve despite significant odds.

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  • Hopkins, David. 2001. School improvement for real. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

    DOI: 10.4324/9780203165799Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Leading school improvement expert David Hopkins reviews the key issues in school improvement in this book, which makes a particularly original contribution to how to differentiate improvement strategies depending on the kind of school and context in which improvement or turnaround efforts are located

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  • Louis, Karen Seashore. 1998. Reconnecting knowledge utilization and school improvement: Two steps forward, one step back. In The international handbook of educational change. Part 2. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 1074–1096. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

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    In this paper, Karen Seashore Louis “reconnects” knowledge utilization with school improvement and develops the relationship further. She reviews the current state of the art in knowledge utilization theory, and discusses how it is connected both to school effectiveness and improvement research.

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  • Mintrop, Heinrich. 2004. Schools on probation. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    In a trenchant critique of school turnaround strategies, Mintrop notes that short-term gains are secured at the expense of long-term sustainability, with the result that teachers in schools on probation are faced with either raising test scores immediately by almost any means, or exiting the schools concerned.

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  • Reynolds, David, Charles Teddlie, David Hopkins, and Sam Stringfield. 2000. Linking school effectiveness and school improvement. In The international handbook of school effectiveness research. Edited by David Reynolds and Charles Teddlie, 206–231. Lewes, UK: Falmer.

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    These four scholars in the fields of school effectiveness and improvement argue that research on school effectiveness and improvement has been separated owing to differences of methodology and perspective—in ways that have not benefited positive change efforts over time. The authors go on to propose an integration of these fields, with examples of where such integrations have been achieved.

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  • Stoll, Louise, and Dean Fink. 1996. Changing our schools: Linking school effectiveness and school improvement. Buckingham, UK: Open Univ. Press.

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    This book advises people inside and outside schools on how to bring about positive change. The authors provide both a theoretical critique and practical advice to assist all those committed to changing and improving schools. The book makes an especially original contribution to distinguishing the different improvement and turnaround strategies that are needed in cruising, moving, struggling, and sinking schools.

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  • Townsend, Tony, ed. 2007. International handbook of school effectiveness and improvement. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-5747-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This fifty-one-chapter handbook provides a state-of-the-art collection by both advocates and critics of school effectiveness and school improvement, and also of their interrelationship, from many different parts of the world.

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Organizational Learning, Inquiry, Networking, and Capacity Building

Organizations can learn and improve by reflecting on their own practices, sharing ideas with individuals both inside and outside the organization through inquiry and networking, and building capacity by learning from within. To read about networking for educational change, see Chapman and Hadfield 2010, Daly 2010, and Lieberman and Wood 2002. For perspectives on inquiry, see Cochran-Smith and Lytle 1992. For perspectives on capacity building, see Elmore 2004 and Hatch 2009. To read about how organizations learn and improve, see Mulford 1998 and Supovitz 2010.

  • Chapman, Christopher, and Mark Hadfield. 2010. School–based networking for educational change. In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 765–780. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    This article, by two of the leading theorists and researchers on school-to-school networks, analyzes how networks can enhance educational change, but also what distinguishes effective from less effective networks.

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  • Cochran-Smith, Marilyn, and Susan L. Lytle. 1992. Inside/outside: Teacher research and Knowledge. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    Cochran-Smith and Lytle argue that teacher research can transform, not simply add to, the present knowledge base in the field, linking research with practice and inquiry with reform. Inquiry, in this sense, is presented as a form of intended change, and is exemplified in the voices of teacher researchers within the book.

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  • Daly, Alan J. 2010. Social network theory and educational change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

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    This book explores how social networks in schools can impede or facilitate the work of education reform. It comprises a series of studies examining networks among teachers and school leaders and shows that the success or failure of education reform is not solely the result of technical plans and blueprints, but of the relational ties that support or constrain the pace, depth, and direction of change.

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  • Elmore, Richard F. 2004. School reform from the inside out: Policy, practice and performance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

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    In this book, Elmore makes the case that external accountability schemes cannot succeed in the absence of internal accountability, defined as the capacity for individual and collective responsibility for improving practice

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  • Hatch, Thomas. 2009. Managing to change: How schools can survive (and sometimes thrive) in turbulent times. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    In contrast to a world of external reform that often undermines positive change efforts within schools, this book argues that schools can and should build their own capacity for change. Hatch makes two original contributions to the capacity debate: that it takes capacity to build capacity, and that increased capacity means reducing excessive demand as well as increasing supply.

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  • Lieberman, Ann, and Diane Wood. 2002. From network learning to classroom teaching. Journal of Educational Change 3.3–4: 315–337.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1021286014650Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This two-year study of the National Writing Project examined what teachers learned from their involvement in various local network activities. Network activities helped teachers gain a set of principles and ways of working that they took back to their classrooms and gave teachers opportunities to lead professional development, explore special interest groups, and become members of a powerful learning community.

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  • Mulford, William. 1998. Organizational learning and educational change. In The international handbook of educational change. Part 1. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 616–641. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

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    This chapter reviews state-of-the-art thinking on organizational learning and its contribution to educational change, and assesses its strengths and limitations.

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  • Supovitz, Jonathan. 2010. Knowledge-based organizational learning for instructional Improvement. In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 707–723. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    This article draws on business literature to argue that system leaders, and especially district leaders in education, can improve effectiveness by accessing the knowledge that is diffused throughout and inexplicit within their organizations, so it is made explicit, accessibly stored, and easily diffused and developed among practitioners and leaders.

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Agents

The works in this section represent multiple perspectives on educational change agents—those who initiate, implement, experience, and respond to educational changes. Included are articles, chapters, and books related to such topics as defining change agents and the skills associated with change agency; the impact of governments, communities, and schools on educational change and the role that each of these bodies has in educational change; and the impact of change on teachers and teachers’ agency in the context of reform. From these pivotal pieces, it is clear that the change both originates and is also felt deeply at all levels, from the macro level of nations down to the micro level of individual schools. It is also clear that the perspective of change agents themselves as they navigate the turbulent waters of complex and often contradictory educational changes must be taken into consideration, both by the communities in which these agents act and at the policy level, where decisions about these agents are typically determined.

Change Agents

This section describes the effects of change on teachers, as well as the skills educators need to become change agents. For an elucidation of the professionalism hypothesis, see Darling-Hammond 2009. To read about the effects of change on teachers’ morale, job satisfaction, and motivation, see Evans 2000. To read about the human meaning of change for educators, see Evans 1996. For a view of the impact of change on teachers’ work in the postmodern age, see Hargreaves 1994. For an examination of the relationship between professionals inside school and agents outside it, see Hargreaves and Fullan 1998. Finally, to better understand the skills educational change agents need, see Miles, et al. 1988.

  • Darling-Hammond, Linda. 2009. Teaching and the change wars: The professionalism hypothesis. In Change wars. Edited by Andy Hargreaves and Michael Fullan, 45–69. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

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    Darling-Hammond argues against market-based and bureaucratically driven approaches to change in favor of a more democratic and professional approach that is essential for the types of goals that now confront education systems. She provides recommendations for pursuing a vision that empowers learners with deep knowledge, problem-solving skills, and the ability to guide their own learning.

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  • Evans, Robert. 1996. The human side of school change: Reform, resistance, and the real-life problems of innovation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    Evans examines educational change from the perspective of its human meaning for educators who feel burdened and conflicted by the change process. He provides a new model of leadership and practical management strategies for building a framework of cooperation that includes educators more effectively in the change process.

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  • Evans, Linda. 2000. The effects of educational change on morale, job satisfaction and motivation. Journal of Educational Change 1.2: 173–192.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1010020008141Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article discusses job satisfaction, morale, and motivation among teachers in the compulsory schooling and higher education sectors in the United Kingdom. The author examines the ways in which individuals respond differently to the impact of change on their working lives depending on their prior experience of change in their work, against which current changes are compared as losses or otherwise.

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  • Hargreaves, Andy. 1994. Changing teachers, changing times: Teachers’ work and culture in the postmodern age. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    Drawing on research with teachers at all levels, Hargreaves describes the impact of educational change on teachers’ work in the postmodern age in terms of their experiences of time, intensification, and guilt. He depicts key cultures of teaching, including individualism, balkanization, collaboration, and contrived collegiality, and he proposes how structures and cultures of teaching need to change.

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  • Hargreaves, Andy, and Michael Fullan. 1998. What’s worth fighting for out there? New York: Teachers College Press.

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    This book examines the relationship between professionals within the school and other agents outside it in order to understand their coordinated impact on educational change efforts. The book argues that if educators are going to bring about significant improvements in teaching and learning within schools, they must forge strong, open, and interactive connections with communities beyond them.

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  • Miles, Matthew, Ellen Rogers Saxl, and Ann Lieberman. 1988. What skills do educational “change agents” need? An empirical view. Curriculum Inquiry 18.2: 157–193.

    DOI: 10.2307/1179456Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Though “change agents” are widely used to help with current school improvement programs, little was known empirically about the skills they need to function effectively, at the time this article was written. This classic article on change agentry reported findings from a study of seventeen change agents. A synthesis of findings resulted in a list of eighteen key skills, including six general and twelve specific skills.

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International Comparisons and Globalization

National governments are among the most common agents, with great power not only to initiate but also to mediate change across the system. For an examination of what high-performing national school systems have in common, see Barber and Mourshed 2007. For a look at Singapore’s school-based curriculum development, see Gopinathan and Deng 2006. To better understand how school systems are improved around the world, see Mourshed, et al. 2010. To understand Finland’s educational change experience, see Sahlberg 2010. For international comparisons of student learning outcomes, see Schleicher 2010. To view the state of curriculum research in a global context, see Pinar 2013. To examine the problems of the American educational system in the context of the demands of the global knowledge economy, see Wagner 2008. Finally, to see China as a case study of systemic educational reform, see Zhao and Qiu 2010.

  • Barber, Michael, and Mona Mourshed. 2007. How the world’s best-performing school systems come out on top. London: McKinsey.

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    This study examined what high-performing school systems have in common. They suggest what matters most is (1) getting the right people to become teachers, (2) developing them into effective instructors, and (3) ensuring that the system is able to deliver the best possible instruction for every child.

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  • Gopinathan, Saravanan, and Zongyi Deng. 2006. Fostering school-based curriculum development in the context of new educational initiatives in Singapore. Planning and Changing 37.1–2: 93–110.

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    The article explores the meanings, challenges, and implications of school-based curriculum development (SBCD) within the context of new educational initiatives in the high-performing nation of Singapore. Challenges in adopting SBCD include inadequate time, expertise, finance, and a threatening school climate.

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  • Mourshed, Mona, Chinezi Chijioke, and Michael Barber. 2010. How the world’s most improved school systems keep getting better. London: McKinsey.

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    This influential report by McKinsey reviews and draws lessons from improving school systems at various stages of development around the world, drawing conclusions about the intervention strategies that are appropriate for countries and systems at different points of development.

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  • Pinar, William F. 2013. International handbook of curriculum research. 2d ed. New York: Routledge.

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    Pinar presents the state of curriculum research in a global context in this collection of thirty-four essays from twenty-eight countries. This book provides a comprehensive report of the school curriculum initiatives and developments occurring worldwide. Countries previously absent from the original publication are included in this second edition.

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  • Sahlberg, Pasi. 2010. Educational change in Finland. In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 323–348. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    Sahlberg argues that Finland’s success on PISA tests of educational achievement is explained by contextual factors—especially sociocultural aspects and other public-sector policies—as well as by professional factors such as engaging highly qualified teachers in collective responsibility for local decision making. These factors serve a common social mission that fosters interdependency among education, other social sectors, and national economic development.

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  • Schleicher, Andreas. 2010. International comparisons of student learning outcomes. In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 485–504. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    Comparative international assessments can extend and enrich the national picture by providing a larger context within which to interpret national performance. International assessments can also provide countries with information that allows them to identify areas of relative strengths and weaknesses, monitor the pace of progress of their education system, and stimulate aspirations by showing what is possible.

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  • Wagner, Tony. 2008. The global achievement gap: Why even our best schools don’t teach the new survival skills our children need—and what we can do about it. New York: Basic Books.

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    This book examines the problems of the American educational system in the context of the demands of the global knowledge economy. It assesses school performance in terms of the skills future workers will need and introduces a new model for schools that will help teach students how to solve problems and communicate effectively.

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  • Zhao, Yong, and Wei Qiu. 2010. China as a case study of systemic educational reform. In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 349–361. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    In this chapter, the authors review the major systemic educational reforms that China has undertaken since 1980 and analyze the reasons behind their different degrees of success. They focus on two major themes, decentralization and marketization, and identify and assess the driving forces of the reforms.

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Parents and Communities

Parents and communities can act as agents of educational reform, spearheading efforts that reflect areas in need of improvement in light of community needs. For an examination of social movement organizing and equity-focused educational change, see Renee, et al. 2010. On the role of community organizing in educational change, see Shirley 1997. To look at educational change through the lens of alternate teacher education programs, see Skinner, et al. 2011.

  • Renee, Michelle, Kevin Welner, and Jeannie Oakes. 2010. Social movement organizing and equity-focused educational change: Shifting the zone of mediation. In The second handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 153–168. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    This chapter is a foundational article on the role of social movements in educational change. It explains the zone of mediation between schools and other domains, the types of forces that shape it, and the potential role of social movement organizations as one of those forces. The authors identify three elements key to the future success of social movement organizations in shifting the zone to make schools more equitable.

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  • Shirley, Dennis. 1997. Community organizing for urban school reform. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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    Most efforts at reform treat schools as isolated institutions, disconnected from their communities and the political realities that surround them. Using case studies, this book is one of the first accounts of the role of community organizing in educational change, where politically empowered low-income communities are at the heart of genuine school improvement and civic renewal.

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  • Skinner, Elizabeth A., Maria Teresa Garreton, and Brain D. Schultz. 2011. Grow your own teachers: Grassroots change for teacher education. Teaching for Social Justice. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    This book uses the rich narratives of students, community leaders, and educators to offer a compelling look at alternative teacher education programs. Authors illustrate the successful collaboration of community-based organizations and local colleges of education in preparing a community’s members to teach local students.

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Schools

Schools are not only places where educational change occurs. Rather, schools themselves can act as change agents by creating, supporting, challenging, or sustaining reform. To see how schools create conditions for change in schools, see Barth 1991, Duke 1995, and Reeves 2009. For a view of the relationship between internally developed and externally imposed change, see Goodson 2002. To see how schools work as professional learning communities to prepare students for a world of creativity and flexibility, see Hargreaves 2003. For a look at how schools have amplified educational conservatism while altering its nature to fit the current culture and political economy of fast capitalism, see Hargreaves and Shirley 2009. To see workplace conditions of school success, see Little 1982. For an analysis of the organizational and political pressures facing non-traditional schools, such as magnet schools, see Metz 1986.

  • Barth, Roland S. 1991. Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    Barth sets out principles and practices for change that are driven by teachers, principals, and schools themselves.

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  • Duke, D. L. 1995. The school that refused to die. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

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    Duke describes the history of a high school and relates it to the larger picture of what is happening in urban education. A culture of academic excellence that had been painstakingly crafted during the school’s first thirty years was affected by court-ordered busing, student unrest, White flight, district-sponsored alternative schools, high school consolidation, budget crises, closure threats, magnet programs, and coexistence with a Governor’s School.

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  • Goodson, Ivor F. 2002. Social histories of educational change. Journal of Educational Change 2.1: 45–63.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1011508128957Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Goodson examines the relationship between internally developed and externally imposed change, arguing that internal change is increasingly being preempted by external agendas and demands. The conclusion sets out a reintegration of internal and external change elements.

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  • Hargreaves, Andy. 2003. Teaching in the knowledge society: Education in the age of insecurity. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    This book defines teaching in the new knowledge society as preparing students for a world of creativity and flexibility. Hargreaves provides examples of schools that operate as learning communities and sets out detailed evidence on how years of “soulless standardization” have driven nonaffluent schools in the opposite direction.

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  • Hargreaves, Andy, and Dennis Shirley. 2009. The persistence of presentism. Teachers College Record 111.11: 2505–2534.

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    This study draws on Dan Lortie’s classic discussion of the role of presentism, individualism and conservatism in teaching and teacher change. The research identifies three kinds of presentism—endemic, adaptive, and addictive—that have amplified educational conservatism while altering its nature to fit the current culture and political economy of fast capitalism.

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  • Little, Judith Warren. 1982. Norms of collegiality and experimentation: Workplace conditions of school success. American Educational Research Journal 19.3: 325–340.

    DOI: 10.3102/00028312019003325Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article is one of the first discussions of the role of collegiality in school change. A focused ethnography of the school as a workplace, it examines organizational characteristics conducive to continued “learning on the job.” More successful schools, particularly those receptive to staff development, were differentiated from less successful (and less receptive) schools by patterned norms of interaction among staff.

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  • Metz, Mary Haywood. 1986. Different by design: The context and character of three magnet schools. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

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    This ethnographic study analyzes the organizational and political pressures that combined to make three magnet schools distinctive social environments—a rare glimpse of the critical processes with which teachers and students in both “regular” schools and schools of choice must struggle.

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  • Reeves, Douglas B. 2009. Leading change in your school: How to conquer myths, build commitment, and get results. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

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    Drawing on his own experience and educational research, Reeves outlines with clear examples how leaders can achieve impressive results in their schools and their districts through a range of change strategies in four stages or processes: creating conditions, planning, implementing, and sustaining.

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Teachers

The impact of educational reform on teachers’ agency is varied. Reform can act as a powerful force on teachers, changing their practice in deep and meaningful ways. It can also have more negative effects, including isolation, attrition, marginalization, and de-professionalism. For an exploration of new teachers’ resistance to change, see Achinstein and Ogawa 2006. To see the impact of mandated change on teachers, see Bailey 2000. For an exploration of how teachers’ career stages, life factors, commitment, and professional working environments affect their efficacy, see Day, et al. 2007. For teacher development viewed through innovative school efforts, see Fullan and Hargreaves 1992. On the realities of change for reform-minded teachers, see Hargreaves, et al. 2001. For an exploration of teachers’ emotional responses to change, see Hargreaves 2004. For the impact of life, career, and generation on teachers’ emotional responses to educational change, see Hargreaves 2005. For an exploration of the constraints and possibilities of educational practice in light of contemporary realities, see Lieberman and Miller 1999. For an examination of conflict in teacher communities as a catalyst for school change, see Avila de Lima 2001. To better understand autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional relations, see Little 1990. To further understand identity, diversity, and educational change, see Skerrett 2011.

  • Achinstein, Betty, and Rodney T. Ogawa. 2006. (In)Fidelity: What the resistance of new teachers reveals about professional principles and prescriptive educational policies. Harvard Educational Review 76.1: 30–63.

    DOI: 10.17763/haer.76.1.e14543458r811864Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this article, Achinstein and Ogawa explain teachers’ resistance to change as informed by professional principles. The authors describe the negative effects of prescriptive and control-oriented educational reforms on teachers, including professional isolation and attrition.

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  • Avila de Lima, Jorge. 2001. Forgetting about friendship: Using conflict in teacher communities as a catalyst for school change. Journal of Educational Change 2.2.

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    It is widely recognized that teacher communities figure among the most vital factors for promoting educational change within schools. Avila discusses the role of friendship and conflict in teacher communities and argues for a rethinking of the way the intermingling of professional and interpersonal ties in schools contributes to change.

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  • Bailey, Beverley. 2000. The impact of mandated change on teachers. In The sharp edge of educational change: Teaching, leading and the realities of reform. Edited by Nina Bascia and Andy Hargreaves, 112–129. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

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    This chapter reports on teachers’ experiences of mandated change. Teachers reported feeling marginalized and deprofessionalized by the mandated change process. Bailey argues that such marginalization contributes to the failure of school restructuring initiatives, as they pay scant attention to the working lives of teachers.

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  • Day, Christopher, Pam Sammons, Gordon Stobart, Alison Kington, and Qing Gu. 2007. Teachers matter: Connecting lives, work and effectiveness. Maidenhead, UK: McGraw-Hill.

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    In this intensive landmark study of three hundred teachers in one hundred schools, Day and his colleagues make a major contribution to documenting how, over time, teachers’ career stages, life factors, forms of commitment, and professional working environments affect their efficacy, their schools’ capacity to improve, and student achievement.

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  • Fullan, Michael, and Andy Hargreaves. 1992. Teacher development and educational change. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

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    This book explores teacher development through innovation-focused efforts and a total-teacher/total-school analysis. Authors maintain that educational transformation must include teacher development.

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  • Hargreaves, Andy. 2004. Inclusive and exclusive educational change: Emotional responses of teachers and implications for leadership. School Leadership and Management 24.3: 287–309.

    DOI: 10.1080/1363243042000266936Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article analyzes teachers’ emotional responses to educational change. More important for the experience and management of change is not whether change is external or internal in its source, but whether it is inclusive or exclusive of teachers in its design and conduct. Implications are drawn for educational leadership.

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  • Hargreaves, Andy. 2005. Educational change takes ages: Life, career and generational factors in teachers’ emotional responses to educational change. Teaching and Teacher Education 21:967–983.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tate.2005.06.007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper examines evidence on the relationship of the emotions of teaching to teachers’ age and career stages, based on experiences of educational change. Hargreaves analyzes how teachers respond emotionally to educational change at different ages and stages of career, and also how they attribute age and career-based responses to their colleagues.

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  • Hargreaves, Andy, Lorna Earl, Shawn Moore, and Susan Manning. 2001. Learning to change: Teaching beyond subjects and standards. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    The success of school reform measures greatly depends on the support and commitment of teachers. This book examines the realities of educational change from the frontline perspective of reform-minded teachers. It charts the perceptions and experiences of twenty-nine teachers in grades 7 and 8 from four school districts, showing how they grappled with such initiatives as integrated curriculum, common learning standards, and alternative assessments.

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  • Lieberman, Ann, and Lynn Miller. 1999. Teachers: Transforming their world and their work. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    Lieberman and Miller address the contemporary realities of schools and teaching, focusing on both the constraints and the possibilities embedded in practice. The words and experiences of teachers and principals are used to show what growth and change look like from the inside—the teacher’s perspective.

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  • Little, Judith Warren. 1990. The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional relations. Teachers College Record 91.4: 509–536.

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    This widely cited paper discusses autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional relations, and both articulates and investigates a continuum of collaborative relations in teachers’ practice.

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  • Skerrett, Allison. 2011. On identity, diversity, and educational change. Journal of Educational Change 12.2: 211–220.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10833-011-9153-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Skerrett discusses those areas most influential to Hargreaves’s work on educational change: teacher identity and biography and educational change between 1960 and 1990. Skerrett explains how she integrates teacher identity in her courses and relates periods of optimism and innovation, complexity and contradiction, and marketization and standardization to policies and practice regarding student diversity.

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Primary

The effects of change can be felt differently for teachers working at the primary and secondary levels. At the primary level, where teachers are not always subject-specific and where departmental cultures are not pervasive, primary teachers struggle with change in ways unique to their environment. For the challenges facing adolescents related to school reform, see Earl, et al. 1996. For a description of how primary teachers see themselves and their work, see Nias 1989. For an examination of primary teachers’ responses to change, see Woods, et al. 1997.

  • Earl, Lorna, Andy Hargreaves, and Jim. Ryan. 1996. Schooling for change: Reinventing education for early adolescents. London: Routledge.

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    Drawing from years of conversations with educators, this book presents educational change and reform with practicality and relevance to teachers and administrators. Authors focus on the challenges facing adolescents in transition and how school reform can take into account their unique experiences.

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  • Nias, Jennifer. 1989. Primary teachers talking. London: Routledge.

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    Drawing on a sample of British primary school teachers, Nias discusses how primary teachers see themselves and their work. She examines the subjective experience of “being a primary teacher,” the different kinds of commitment that these teachers hold, the main factors that contribute to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, and teachers’ relationships with their colleagues.

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  • Woods, Peter, Bob Jeffrey, Geoff Troman, and Mari Boyle. 1997. Restructuring schools, reconstructing teachers: Responding to change in the primary school. Bristol, UK: Open Univ. Press.

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    This study explores how UK policy changes affected primary school teachers and their work in the 1990s. The study’s major contribution is in documenting the different strategies of adaptation that teachers take toward external policy requirements and the reforms that follow from them. The authors argue that teachers’ own active involvement in policy change is required if their creative potential is to be realized.

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Secondary

Change is often difficult at the secondary level, where size, bureaucratic complexity, subject traditions, and identifications factor into relationships and decision making. For an understanding of change at the secondary level in the United States and Canada over a thirty-year period, see Goodson, et al. 2006. To better understand the professional life cycle of teachers, see Huberman 1989. To examine the career trajectories of secondary teachers who have experienced reform, see Little 1996. For a look at teachers’ responses to change in a comprehensive school setting in the United Kingdom, see Riseborough 1981.

  • Goodson, Ivor, Shawn Moore, and Andy Hargreaves. 2006. Teacher nostalgia and the sustainability of reform: The generation and degeneration of teachers’ missions, memory and meaning. Educational Administration Quarterly 42.1: 42–61.

    DOI: 10.1177/0013161X05278180Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Drawing on the findings of a longitudinal study of educational change over time in eight US and Canadian secondary schools, the authors describe the change orientations of teachers in mid to late career depending on their generationally based sense of mission and their experiences of nostalgia for forms of teaching that sustained them in earlier careers.

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  • Huberman, Michael. 1989. The professional life cycle of teachers. Teachers College Record 91.1: 31–57.

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    This article discusses trends in the literature related to phases or stages in the professional life of teachers and their impact on teachers’ orientations to development and change. It then presents the results of a study involving 160 secondary teachers in Switzerland. Findings suggest that four modal sequences are applicable to the professional life cycle of teachers.

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  • Little, Judith Warren. 1996. The emotional contours and career trajectories of (disappointed) reform enthusiasts. Cambridge Journal of Education 26:345–359.

    DOI: 10.1080/0305764960260304Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Little examines the interplay of heightened emotionality and shifting career contours among secondary teachers engaged in reform movements; the nature and extent of reform-related conflict within work groups; the degree of equilibrium among multiple sources of pressure and support; and the capacity to manage the pace, scale and dynamics of reform.

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  • Riseborough, George F. 1981. Teachers’ careers and comprehensive schooling: An empirical study. Sociology 15:325–381.

    DOI: 10.1177/003803858101500303Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This early ethnography of teachers’ careers and educational change in a reorganized comprehensive school explains the role of deviancy amplification among a group of mid-career teachers marginalized by a major organizational change, especially in relation to interactions with the school’s head teacher.

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Domains

This section explores the different domains of activity and organization in which educational change occurs. Through the domains covered here, substantive evolutions of educational change over time are evident, in particular the impact of heightened accountability and standardization.

Curriculum, Teaching and Learning, Standards and Accountability

This section details curriculum and teaching, as well as learning, standards, and accountability, as important domains in which educational change occurs. To see the role of the system in supporting data-driven decision making, see Datnow and Park 2010. For an exploration of the impact of state testing on inquiry-based science, refer to Falk and Drayton 2004. To better understand the historical development and evolution of school subjects, see Goodson 1993. To explore the concept of curriculum and the practice of curriculum theory, see Goodson 1997. For perspectives on the impact of standardized testing, see McNeil 2000. For an analysis of the current state of America’s school system, see Ravitch 2011.

  • Datnow, Amanda, and Vicki Park. 2010. Large-scale reform in the era of accountability: The system role in supporting data-driven decision making. In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 209–220. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    This chapter opens the “black box” of large-scale educational change, specifically focusing on a reform movement that results from the current era of accountability: data-driven decision making. The focus is on the system or school district level, where large-scale efforts to engage educators in the use of data often are initiated.

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  • Falk, Joni K., and Brian Drayton. 2004. State testing and inquiry-based science: Are they complementary or competing reforms? Journal of Educational Change 5.4: 345–387.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10833-004-1069-7Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The effect of district strategies for improving high-stakes test scores on science teachers’ practice is explored. Results suggest that districts chose markedly different strategies for raising test scores, and that the approaches taken by districts influenced the nature of pedagogical and curriculum changes.

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  • Goodson, Ivor F. 1993. School subjects and curriculum change: Studies in curriculum history. 3d ed. London: Taylor & Francis.

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    Goodson investigates the historical development and evolution of school subjects, highlighting the ways in which subjects as we understand them are a result of competing forms of status and power in the development of “worthwhile” knowledge.

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  • Goodson, Ivor F. 1997. The changing curriculum. New York: Peter Lang.

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    Goodson reviews the emergence of the concept of curriculum and the practice of curriculum theory. In doing so, he develops a contextual understanding of curriculum that is the product of change.

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  • McNeil, Linda M. 2000. Contradictions of school reform: The educational costs of standardized testing. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

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    This book examines the reality, for students as well as teachers, of standardized testing. It argues that the preparation of students for standardized tests engenders teaching methods that compromise the quality of education.

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  • Ravitch, Diane. 2011. The death and life of the great American school system: How testing and choice are undermining education. New York: Basic Books.

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    This book is an analysis of the current state of America’s education system. Ravitch critiques popular contemporary reforms including standardized testing, punitive accountability, and privatization using examples from America’s major cities.

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School Organization and Culture

This section explores the different domains of activity and organization in which educational change occurs, focusing on the role and impact of school organization in educational change. In each domain, scholars have looked at school organization and culture to consider their role in promoting, supporting, resisting, achieving, and sustaining meaningful change. For an exploration of the micro-politics of school, see Ball 1987. To better understand politics, markets, and the organization of schools, see Chubb and Moe 1988. For a description of the evolution of innovation strategies and a look at which strategies will most effectively develop the 21st-century school, see Dalin 1998. For a detailed description of whole-school reform focused on the collaboration of educators and politicians, see Fullan 2010. For an exploration of the role of departmental cultures in reform, see McLaughlin and Talbert 2001. To look at the impact of reforms on individuals, classrooms, and schools, and in particular the Coalition of Essential Schools, see McQuillan and Muncey 1996. For an analysis of social, economic, and educational trends worldwide, see Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 1991. To look at the challenges facing the modern American high school, see Powell, et al. 1985. For an analysis of the way contemporary schools run and the impact of these practices on student learning, see Sizer 1984.

  • Ball, Stephen J. 1987. The micro-politics of the school: Towards a theory of school organization. London: Methuen.

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    In this book, Ball explores the interests and concerns of teachers and current problems through the concept of micropolitics in schools. He challenges educators to consider the existing forms of organizational control in schools and whether these forms are adequate or appropriate.

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  • Chubb, John E., and Terry M. Moe. 1988. Politics, markets, and the organization of schools. American Political Science Review 82.4: 1065–1087.

    DOI: 10.2307/1961750Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This analysis found that public and private schools differ in environment and organization, with private schools more likely to possess characteristics believed to produce effectiveness. The key differences lie in social control: public schools are subordinates in a hierarchic system, whereas private schools are autonomous actors “controlled” by the market.

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  • Dalin, Per. 1998. Developing the twenty-first century school: A challenge to reformers. In The international handbook of educational change. Part 2. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Michael Fullan, Ann Lieberman, and David Hopkins, 1059–1073. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

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    Dalin reviews three decades of research on and involvement in educational innovation. He traces the evolution of innovation strategies and describes the range of challenges currently facing educational reformers. Dalin outlines strategies that will assist educational reformers to more effectively develop the 21st-century school.

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  • Fullan, Michael. 2010. All systems go: The change imperative for whole system reform. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

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    Fullan examines whole-system reform at the school, district, and state levels. With relevance to educators and change agents at all levels of schooling, he discusses the need for politicians and professionals in the field to collaborate and share decision making and create policy together.

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  • McLaughlin, Milbrey Wallin, and Joan E. Talbert. 2001. Professional communities and the work of high school teaching. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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    McLaughlin and Talbert argue that it is not the state or district but the most local contexts—schools, departments, and communities—that matter most to teachers’ performance and professional satisfaction. Their findings show that departmental cultures play a crucial role in classroom settings and expectations.

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  • Muncey, Donna E., and Patrick J. McQuillan. 1996. Reform and resistance in schools and classrooms: An ethnographic view of the Coalition of Essential Schools. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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    This book charts the course of reform at eight charter-member schools of the Coalition of Essential Schools. Muncey and McQuillan’s study is the culmination of five years of ethnographic research on the impact of reforms on individuals, classrooms, and the schools themselves.

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  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1991. What schools for the future? Paris: OECD.

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    Drawing on an extensive body of statistical and research evidence, the book analyzes the social, economic, and educational trends of the 21st century. It presents six possible scenarios for school systems over the next ten to twenty years. The analysis is completed by contributions from eight international experts, looking at the challenges facing schools.

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  • Powell, Arthur G., Eleanor Farrar, and David K. Cohen. 1985. The shopping mall high school: Winners and losers in the educational marketplace. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

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    This book suggests the modern high school is like a shopping mall, offering immense variety but virtually no direction. Consequently, all too many students simply “hang out” in school. This situation continues because of teachers’ overwork and apathy, administrative concern with enrollment figures, and the societal attitude that high school is merely a rite of passage to adulthood.

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  • Sizer, Theodore R. 1984. Horace’s compromise. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

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    In this book, Sizer reveals the all too familiar workings of schools: the often ineffective teaching practices, the rushed procession of fifty-two-minute classes, and the mindless, brief tests that do little to enhance students’ understanding. Sizer insists that we do more than compromise for our children’s educational futures.

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Demographics

One of the greatest factors influencing educational change is the demographics of the people who populate the region served. This section explores the role of these demographic factors in educational change. Included are the need to consider race, class, language, and gender in reform and how to create more equitable teaching and learning for urban schools and underserved populations through inclusive education practices.

Race, Class, and Language

This section considers the role of race, class, and language in educational change. For an insightful theory of change through the lens of race, see Connolly and Troyna 1998. To further understand the culture of power and pedagogy in teaching Black and poor students, see Delpit 1988 and Fordham 1996. For a look at how language and culture influence student learning, see Fecho 2003 and Philips 1983. For suggestions on policy reform and teacher preparation in diverse international settings, see Skerret 2008 and Skerret and Hargreaves 2008.

  • Connolly, Paul, and Barry Troyna. 1998. Researching racism in education: Politics, theory and practice. Bristol, UK: Open Univ. Press.

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    A key chapter in this book argues that literature on race has no theory of change and that literature on change has no theory of race or diversity, and Troyna sets out some ways to develop a theory of change that is based on more than guilt or persuasion.

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  • Delpit, Lisa D. 1988. The silenced dialogue: Power and pedagogy in educating other people’s children. Harvard Education Review 58.3: 280–298.

    DOI: 10.17763/haer.58.3.c43481778r528qw4Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Delpit discusses the “culture of power” in society and education in the United States. She provides five complex rules of power that influence the teaching and learning of black and poor students. She suggests that educators must gain an understanding of these power relationships in order to provide more equitable schools.

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  • Fecho, Bob. 2003. Is this English? Race, language, and culture in the classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    This book describes how a white high school English teacher and his students of color used “critical inquiry” in the classroom. This method allowed the students and teacher to take intellectual and social risks by crossing cultural boundaries, and over time, it empowered the students and transformed literacy education in their school.

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  • Fordham, Signithia. 1996. Blacked out: Dilemmas of race, identity, and success at Capitol High. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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    Fordham describes the symbolic role of academic achievement within the black community in an inner-city high school. This ethnography details the struggles of students to construct their identities in the midst of cultural conflicts between a community that encourages egalitarianism and group cohesion and a school that encourages individualism and competition for academic success.

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  • Philips, Susan U. 1983. The invisible culture: Communication in classroom and community on the Warm Springs Indian reservation. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.

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    Philips offers insights for educators on the role of language and culture in educational settings by sharing the experiences of Warm Springs Native American children and their teachers in an American school. She explains that the organization of communication in the classroom places these children in a subordinate position both socially and culturally.

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  • Skerrett, Allison. 2008. “Going the race way”: Biographical influences on multicultural and antiracist English curriculum practices. Teaching and Teacher Education 24.7: 1813–1826.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.tate.2007.11.011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article considers the importance of teacher agency in relation to teaching to student diversity during a time of increased curriculum standardization. Drawing from an international study conducted in the United States and Canada, Skerrett explains how teacher agency in two racially diverse schools was directly related to professional preparation, prior experiences with diversity, and generational status.

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  • Skerrett, Allison, and Andy Hargreaves. 2008. Student diversity and secondary school change in a context of increasingly standardized reform. American Educational Research Journal 45.4: 913–945.

    DOI: 10.3102/0002831208320243Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article analyzes three decades of educational reform strategies pertaining to ethnocultural diversity in the United States and Canada and how they affect the efforts of four secondary schools, two in each context, to respond to increasing student diversity. The authors describe the current effects of increasing standardization on racially diverse schools and offer recommendations for policy reform that embraces post-standardization.

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Culturally Responsive Teaching

Reforms embracing a multicultural perspective help to create more equitable teaching and learning for all students. For practical suggestions and tools to provide inclusive and multicultural teaching, see Banks 2004. For advice on policy development and teaching for empowerment in diverse linguistic and cultural contexts, see Cummins 1996, Nieto 2005, and Nieto 2010. For ideas on community involvement in schools with diverse student populations, see Valdés 1996. To further understand the importance of culturally responsive and socioculturally conscious teaching, see Valenzuela 1999 and Villegas and Lucas 2002. To explore student-centered, critical, and democratic pedagogy, see Shor 2012.

  • Banks, James A. 2004. Multicultural education: Historical developments, dimensions, and practice. In Handbook of research on multicultural education. 2d ed. Edited by James A. Banks and Cherry A. McGee Banks, 3–29. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    This book provides educators with knowledge and tools to become effective practitioners in an increasingly diverse society. Authors discuss the concepts of school culture and the influence of race, class, gender, religion, and exceptionality and how these influence teaching, learning, and student behavior. Suggestions are advanced for educational reform that embraces a multicultural perspective.

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  • Cummins, Jim. 1996. Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society. Ontario: California Association for Bilingual Education.

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    Cummins explains that the current methods of teaching English language learners from diverse cultures and countries are not working. He suggests the need for teachers to create a learning environment for students that encourages them to learn from the diversity of cultures in the classroom, as opposed to pressuring for assimilation.

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  • Nieto, Sonia. 2005. Cultural difference and educational change in a sociopolitical context. In Extending educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, 138–159. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

    DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-4453-4Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Nieto discusses the phenomenon of growing cultural diversity and the challenges it presents for educational change. She explains the benefits of student learning and achievement in reforms that take into account cultural and linguistic diversity and argues for pre-service teacher education that prepares teachers to work effectively in diverse contexts, as well as for policies that are sensitive to diversity issues.

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  • Nieto, Sonia. 2010. The light in their eyes: Creating multicultural learning Communities. 2d ed. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    In this book, Sonia Nieto explains how student learning should be at the center of multicultural education. She describes multicultural education as a transformative process influenced by social context, culture, critical pedagogy, and educational equity.

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  • Shor, Ira. 2012. Empowering education: Critical teaching for social change. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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    Shor explores empowering education as a function of student-centered, critical, and democratic pedagogy. The author argues that through interactive dialogue with teachers, students become proactive in their learning. This book provides strategies to assist students in developing critical thinking skills through an analysis of the obstacles in promoting empowering education.

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  • Valdés, Guadalupe. 1996. Con respeto: Bridging the distances between culturally diverse families and schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    This book is an ethnographic portrait of ten Mexican immigrant families. It describes the challenges of survival and learning in a new country and uncovers common cultural misunderstandings in schools that may have long-term negative consequences on immigrant children. It provides information for educators on creating multicultural learning communities.

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  • Valenzuela, Angela. 1999. Subtractive schooling: U.S.-Mexican youth and the politics of caring. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

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    Valenzuela examines how school is an uncaring place for many students. She describes two conceptions of school: one that embraces the different languages and cultures of students, and one that encourages mainstreaming into the dominant society without consideration of student differences.

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  • Villegas, Ana María, and Tamara Lucas. 2002. Preparing culturally responsive teachers. Journal of Teacher Education 53.1: 20–32.

    DOI: 10.1177/0022487102053001003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this article, Villegas and Lucas discuss the importance of culturally responsive teaching in teacher education programs. They demonstrate the need for programs to move beyond the current fragmented treatment of diversity and create a vision for socioculturally conscious teaching that affirms student differences and promotes equity.

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Urban Schools and Underserved Populations

There is a great need for equity-focused reforms and policies in many urban schools. This section highlights works that consider new paradigms for understanding social and educational injustice (see Anyon 2005) and suggestions for closing the achievement gap in urban schools (see Noguera 2003). For a history of class politics and public schooling in the United States, see Wrigley 1982. For a grounded theory of critical literacy pedagogy, see Morrell 2008. For suggestions on creating more equitable schools using social and political movements outside the field of education, see Oakes and Lipton 2002. For a cultural ecological model of school change, see Ogbu 1974. For a discussion on education reform and social change, see Walsh 1996.

  • Anyon, Jean. 2005. Radical possibilities: Public policy, urban education, and a new social movement. New York: Routledge.

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    This book provides a new paradigm for understanding educational injustice and working toward equity in schools and communities. Anyon explains the many unintended consequences of policies and practices on poor communities. She describes five current social movements in the United States that are demonstrating success and offers suggestions for educators striving to obtain educational justice in struggling schools.

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  • Morrell, Ernest. 2008. Critical literacy and urban youth: Pedagogies of access, dissent, and liberation. New York: Routledge.

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    In this book, Morrell presents a grounded theory of critical literacy pedagogy developed from his own work. The author offers implications for literary research, teacher education, classroom practices, and social and community change.

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  • Noguera, Pedro A. 2003. City schools and the American dream: Reclaiming the promise of public education. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    In this book, Pedro Noguera considers how urban schools can reach the academic standards required by new state and national educational standards. He discusses the role of classroom teachers in helping to close the achievement gap and the need for substantial investment in communities to combat social forces such as poverty, violence, and social inequality.

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  • Oakes, Jeannie, and Martin Lipton. 2002. Struggling for educational equity in diverse communities: School reforms as social movement. Journal of Educational Change 3:383–406.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1021225728762Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Oakes and Lipton present the need for equity-focused school reformers to learn from the logic and strategies of change efforts outside the field of education. The authors suggest using social and political movements as lenses for reform efforts because they may have more success challenging and disrupting the norms and prevailing power structures than do traditional organizational change models.

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  • Ogbu, John. 1974. The next generation. New York: Academic Press.

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    Ogbu, in this foundational article, explains how his theories on minority education developed, including his cultural ecological model. Dialogue between Ogbu and the scholarly community frames the debate on academic achievement, school engagement, and oppositional culture.

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  • Walsh, Catherine E. 1996. Education reform and social change: Multicultural voices, struggles, and visions. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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    This book uses case studies to emphasize multicultural, collaborative, grassroots approaches to education reform. Through firsthand documentation, Walsh gives voice to stakeholders, including students, and their efforts to implement equitable improvements to education. He encourages reflective thought regarding these issues and provides readers with guiding questions for thoughtful engagement.

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  • Wrigley, Julia. 1982. Class politics and public schools: Chicago 1900–1950. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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    In a classic in the field of sociology of education, Wrigley examines how social class struggles and long-term power structures defined educational development in the United States.

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Gender

The works in this section consider the role of gender in educational change and reform. For a historical examination of women in educational administration, see Blackmore 1996 and Shakeshaft 1989. For a discussion on the relationship of gender to micro-politics in secondary schools, see Datnow 2003.

  • Blackmore, Jill. 1996. Doing “emotional labour” in the education market place: Stories from the field of women in management. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 17(3): 337–349.

    DOI: 10.1080/0159630960170304Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Blackmore discusses how the construction of an educational labor market has shaped educational practice. The author considers the difficulties female principals face when dealing with educational quasi-markets and the contradiction of caring and sharing leadership during a time of state-imposed educational reforms based upon market liberalism.

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  • Datnow, Amanda. 2003. The gender politics of educational change. Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis.

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    Datnow contrasts the efforts of two gender-based groups in their efforts to implement school improvements. She details how these improvements quickly became a political match between female-dominated and male-dominated groups. This book gives researchers and practitioners a new perspective from which to view a school’s culture and leadership dynamics.

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  • Shakeshaft, Charol. 1989. Women in educational administration. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

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    This book was one of the first to focus on women in educational administration. This updated edition summarizes and analyzes the history of women in educational leadership and the status of women in the field compared to men. Social barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers are suggested.

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Disability and Inclusion

This works in this section consider the need for sustainable change and fostering inclusive values and practices in schools. For a broader definition of inclusion, including issues of equity, participation, and the role of community in sustaining equitable reform, see Ainscow, et al. 2006. For the role of organizational cultures and leadership in developing inclusive educational practices, see Ainscow and Sandill 2010.

  • Ainscow, Mel, Tony Booth, Alan Dyson, et al. 2006. Improving schools, developing inclusion. London: Routledge.

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    Much of the literature on inclusive practices in schools has been narrowly concerned with the inclusion of pupils with special educational needs. This book takes the view that marginalization, exclusion, and underachievement take many forms and affect many different kinds of children. As such, a definition of inclusion should also touch upon issues of equity, participation, community, entitlement, compassion, respect for diversity, and sustainability.

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  • Ainscow, Mel, and Abha Sandill. 2010. Developing inclusive education systems: The role of organisational cultures and leadership. International Journal of Inclusive Education 14.4: 401–416.

    DOI: 10.1080/13603110802504903Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Drawing on research evidence and ideas from a range of international literature, this paper argues that leadership practice is a crucial element in gearing education systems toward inclusive values and bringing about sustainable change. The paper considers the organizational conditions that are needed in order to bring about such developments, focusing in particular on the role of leadership in fostering inclusive cultures.

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Theories of Change

This section includes key books, articles, and book chapters that discuss theories of educational change. Included are topics on non-change, stage development and institutional theories, concepts of personal, emotional, and psychodynamic reactions to change, and orientations to and responses to change. Pivotal historical works on change theories are also included.

Stage Development Theories

The works in this section consider educational change from the perspective of growth, learning, and stage development. For details on how to use social network theory to enact and sustain educational change, see Daly 2010. For an understanding of the five dimensions of schooling in implementing reform, see Eisner 1992. For a look at how partnerships among educators, communities, and governments can create learning societies and sustain reform, see Fullan 1993 and Senge 2010. To further understand large-scale transformation and complex change, see Fullan 2001. For a synthesis of existing theoretical perspectives on educational change, see Paulson 1977.

  • Daly, Alan J., ed. 2010. Social network theory and educational change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education.

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    Uses case study to explore the networks developed by teachers and school leaders. Daly contrasts informal and formal organizational structures and observes the flow of influence, ideas, and information between both individuals and groups. He emphasizes that school reform must be viewed from the relationships between stakeholders.

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  • Eisner, Elliot W. 1992. Educational reform and the ecology of schooling. Teachers College Record 93.4: 610–627.

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    Eisner discusses the need to consider five dimensions of schooling—the intentional, structural, pedagogical, and evaluative—in implementing meaningful and significant school reform. The author explains the factors that make educational change difficult, including teacher isolation, the persistence of school and teacher norms, and a lack of meaningful professional development for teachers.

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  • Fullan, Michael. 1993. Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. London: Falmer.

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    In this first book in his Change Forces trilogy, Fullan draws on and articulates the principles of chaos theory to explain that transforming the educational system will require partnerships among educators, community agencies, and governments. The author identifies eight basic lessons of a new change paradigm aimed at creating learning societies and sustaining educational change.

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  • Fullan, Michael. 2001. Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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    Drawing on leadership and change theories and examples of large-scale transformation, Fullan addresses how school leaders can deal with complex change. He offers five core competencies for educators: attending to a broader moral purpose, keeping on top of the change process, cultivating relationships, sharing knowledge, and setting a vision and context for creating coherence in organizations.

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  • Paulson, Rolland 1977. Social and educational change: Conceptual frameworks. Comparative Education Review 21.2–3: 370–395.

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    This review provides a synthesis of existing theoretical perspectives on social and educational change. Eight frameworks are examined, including evolutionary, neo-evolutionary, structural-functionist systems, Marxian, neo-Marxian, cultural revitalization, and anarchistic-utopian.

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  • Senge, Peter M. 2010. Education for an interdependent world: Developing systems citizens. In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 131–151. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    In this article, Senge points to the need to create a regenerative society where community leaders from education, business, civil society, and local governments work together to support innovation in public schooling. He stresses the importance of systems thinking in approaching the task of building an education system that encourages and sustains community and global citizenship.

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Personal, Emotional, and Psychodynamic

The success of educational reform depends on those implementing the reform: the teachers and administrators. The works in this section discuss these educators’ emotions and psychodynamic responses to change. For insight into reform behind the scenes and suggestions for those leading and managing change, see James 2010. For details on teachers’ emotions in the context of reform and the implications of change for these individuals, see van Veen and Sleegers 2006 and Zembylas 2010.

  • James, Chris 2010. The psychodynamics of educational change. In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Michael Fullan, Ann Lieberman, and David Hopkins, 47–64. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    This chapter explores the reasons for the high level of affective intensity in educational institutions. It then sets out what may lie behind responses to educational change and, using concepts from systems psychodynamic theory, explores those responses in greater depth. This chapter also seeks to offer pointers for those leading and managing change in schools and colleges.

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  • van Veen, Klaas, and Peter Sleegers. 2006. How does it feel? Teacher’s emotions in a context of change. Journal of Curriculum Studies 38:85–111.

    DOI: 10.1080/00220270500109304Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This paper describes how six Dutch secondary school teachers perceive their work within the current educational reform environment. Using a cognitive social-psychological approach to emotions, Van Keen and Sleegers share how these educators appraised the relations between their perceived role as teachers and their situational demands.

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  • Zembylas, Michalinos. 2010. Teacher emotions in the context of educational reforms. In The second international handbook of educational change. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Michael Fullan, Ann Lieberman, and David Hopkins, 221–236. Springer International Handbooks of Education 23. Berlin: Springer.

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    In this paper, the author explains that although there is a clear need for teachers and administrators to be involved in the educational reform process, the emotions of change for these individuals and the implications of reform for their wellbeing are rarely addressed.

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Institutional Theory

This section includes works that consider the social and organizational behavior of principals and schools as influenced by the wider social structure such as rules, norms, and routines. For consideration of the effects of control-oriented principals on teacher performance, see Blasé 1990. To see how institutional theory may be applied to educational reform initiatives, see Burch 2007. For a framework on how to lead, evaluate, and explain the success or failure of educational reform, see Duke 2004.

  • Blasé, Joseph J. 1990. Some negative effects of principals’ control-oriented and protective political behavior. American Educational Research Journal 27.4: 727–753.

    DOI: 10.3102/00028312027004727Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Blasé describes the use of control-manipulative political behaviors by some principals and the negative effects their actions had on involvement and performance of teachers and on school standards.

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  • Burch, Patricia. 2007. Educational policy and practice from the perspective of institutional theory: Crafting a wider lens. Educational Researcher 36.2: 84–95.

    DOI: 10.3102/0013189X07299792Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this paper, Burch provides a framework that integrates recent institutional theory with current issues in public education in the United States. The author identifies the potential gains from increasing the utility of institutional perspectives in educational reform.

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  • Duke, Daniel Linden. 2004. The challenges of educational change. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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    Using a five-phase model of the change process practical examples as frameworks, Duke helps the reader understand how to lead reform, evaluate process and outcomes, and explain the success and/or failure of educational change initiatives.

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Non-Change

There are many reasons for the lack of change in schools. This works in this section review some of these reasons, including the difficulty of challenging long-held power structures, and the attrition of innovative practices over time. Angus and Mirel 1999 explains some the reasons for the failure and loss of momentum of differentiated curriculum and makes suggestions for future reform efforts. Fink 2000 discusses the “attrition of change” using six conceptual structures.

  • Angus, David L., and Jeffrey Mirel. 1999. The failed promise of the American high school, 1890–1995. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    This book traces the history of schooling in the United States from the professionalization of curriculum planning by elites in the 1890s to the era of standardization, 1975–1995. The authors summarize the failures of the differentiated curriculum at the high school level and make suggestions for promising educational reform.

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  • Fink, Dean. 2000. Good schools, real schools: Why school reform doesn’t last. New York: Teachers College Press.

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    In this book, Fink explains some of the reasons for the failure and loss of momentum of innovative educational practices in many high schools. He uses six conceptual structures to describe this “attrition of change,” including context, meaning, leadership, structure, culture, and the lives and work of teachers.

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Historical

This works in this section offer an examination of the history, role, and controversies of public schooling in American society. For a synopsis of US educational reform, see Miles 1998 and Ravitch 1983. For insight into how economics, community, and power structures have influenced American schooling, see Nespor 1997 and Tyack and Cuban 1995. For a look at the historical development of US curriculum, see Willis, et al. 1994.

  • Miles, M. 1998. Finding keys to school change: A 40-year odyssey. In The international handbook of educational change. Part 1. Edited by Andy Hargreaves, Ann Lieberman, Michael Fullan, and David Hopkins, 37–69. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

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    Miles reflects upon his forty years of work and research on educational change. This book chapter offers a poignant synopsis of reform for researchers and practitioners alike from the perspective of an expert in educational change.

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  • Nespor, Jan. 1997. Tangled up in school: Politics, space, bodies, and signs in the educational process. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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    This book offers a singular examination of the role of schools in American society. Nespor gives insight into how economics, community, power structures, and agendas and culture play out at the school level.

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  • Ravitch, Diane. 1983. The troubled crusade: American education, 1945–1980. New York: Basic Books.

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    Ravitch describes the history and controversies of American schools and universities since World War II.

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  • Tyack, David B., and Larry Cuban. 1995. Tinkering toward utopia: A century of public school reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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    Tyack and Cuban explore the nature of educational reform, including the cyclical nature of reform and the reasons for the difficulty of breaking traditional molds of schooling. The authors propose focusing on improving teacher instruction from the inside out and keeping the democratic purposes of education at the center of any future change efforts.

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  • Willis, George, William Schubert, Robert Bullough, Craig Kridel, and John Holton, eds. 1994. The American curriculum: A documentary history. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

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    This book includes thirty-six primary source documents from the historical development of curriculum in the United States. Materials range in date from 1642 to 1983 and include a short summary of significance prior to each paper.

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