Communication Global Englishes
by
Christopher Jenks
  • LAST MODIFIED: 27 July 2016
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756841-0116

Introduction

The global spread of English—a process set into motion and currently being influenced by colonialism, imperialism, capitalism, neoliberalism, popular culture, and technological advancements, to name a few—has complicated a number of linguistic issues and cultural phenomena. For example, the global spread of English has led to a number of linguistic varieties that complicate what is traditionally understood to be a speaker of English. Although linguistic varieties are a key empirical issue within this body of work, this article demonstrates that the study of global Englishes requires a much more interdisciplinary approach. Put differently, the study of global Englishes extends beyond the investigation of language varieties and includes a number of different linguistic issues. This article provides an overview of some of these issues and establishes how researchers have approached the global spread of English in their scholarly works. The current paper defines a linguistic issue as a social, communicative, or cultural matter that interfaces with language and, more specifically, global Englishes. That is to say, linguistic issues are bound to a number of sociological and cultural phenomena, which shed light on how English spreads, and is contested and reimagined. For example, the global spread of English is largely based on a history of colonialism and imperialism, and these historical developments have formed, and currently shape, how individuals construct their language ideologies. Moving beyond the linguistic-varieties discussion in global Englishes allows researchers to better understand the significance of politics and power in shaping communicative practices, linguistic hierarchies, attitudes and perceptions, and ideological commitments.

General Overviews

Many introductory and state-of-the-art publications on global Englishes exist. A seminal publication within this body of work is Kachru 1992, which helped formalize the area of study with its concentric-circles model of Englishes: inner, outer, and expanding circles. Although many scholars have since added to this body of work, Crystal 2003 helped popularize the study of global Englishes with an engaging and easy-to-follow writing style. In the same vein, Jenkins 2015 offers an introductory overview of global Englishes that has been taken up by many classroom instructors (see also Kirkpatrick 2012). Other works, however, provide a more nuanced and critical account of global Englishes. For instance, Canagarajah 2013 challenges existing notions of language by showing how English is highly adaptable and negotiable. Saxena and Omoniyi 2010 move beyond Western scientific knowledge by providing an account of global Englishes from diverse perspectives. Although the concentric-circles model has been criticized by a number of researchers over the years, it continues to play an important role in how scholars discuss, and even conceptualize (Schneider 2007), the global spread of English—Kachru, et al. 2009, for example, offers a comprehensive, albeit superficial, account of global Englishes. The works cited in this section are underpinned by, or build on, the concentric-circles model.

  • Canagarajah, Suresh. 2013. Translingual practice: Global Englishes and cosmopolitan relations. London: Routledge.

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    The author examines how translingual practices—the intermixing of languages and semiotic resources in contexts that require the management of multiple identities—help capture the fluid ways in which people communicate in these highly globalized and technologically advanced times. The book establishes why English should not be considered a fixed system, but rather a resource that varies in function according to communicative contexts.

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    • Crystal, David. 2003. English as a global language. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511486999Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Crystal considers in this book the meaning of a global language. He investigates the origins of English in the regions that use the language, considers the social and political reasons why English is a global language, and explores the future of English and what that language may look like. First published in 1997.

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      • Jenkins, Jennifer. 2015. World Englishes: A resource book for students. 3d ed. Routledge English Language Introductions. London: Routledge.

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        A key textbook for teachers and students considering the many social, cultural, linguistic, and political issues that shape the global spread of English.

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        • Kachru, Braj B., ed. 1992. The other tongue: English across cultures. 2d ed. English in the Global Context. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

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          This edited collection, which contains six thematic sections, presents a comprehensive account of the forms and functions of world Englishes. Case studies from a number of regions are used to demonstrate the growing and dynamic nature of English. A significant portion of the book deals with the creative and context-dependent nature of English varieties. First published in 1982.

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          • Kachru, Braj B., Yamuna Kachru, and Cecil L. Nelson, eds. 2009. The handbook of world Englishes. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.

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            The book represents one of the most comprehensive publications dealing with the many facets of English as a global language. The handbook is made up of forty-two chapters; contributors to the volume are established scholars in their respective areas of focus, making the collection an essential reference book for any scholar concerned with, directly or tangentially, the global spread of English.

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            • Kirkpatrick, Andy, ed. 2012. The Routledge handbook of world Englishes. Routledge Handbooks in Applied Linguistics. London: Routledge.

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              Contributors to this volume examine English varieties, the contexts in which these varieties are used, and the pedagogical implications of the global spread of English. Thematically, the collection of papers is organized into six sections: historical perspectives and “traditional” Englishes, regional varieties and the “new” Englishes, emerging trends and themes, modern contexts and functions, debates and pedagogical implications, and the future.

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              • Saxena, Mukul, and Tope Omoniyi, eds. 2010. Contending with globalization in world Englishes. Critical Language and Literary Studies. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

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                The editors of this eleven-chapter volume offer a focused account of how globalization shapes several key issues in the global spread of English. Both the editors and most of the contributors represent speech communities and regions that have been historically, both inside and outside academia, linguistically marginalized. Thus, the collection offers unique perspectives to topics that have been discussed primarily by “Western” European and North American scholars.

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                • Schneider, Edgar W. 2007. Postcolonial English: Varieties around the world. Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511618901Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  Schneider uses his “Dynamic Model”—an evolutionary account of the global spread of English—to frame his description of world Englishes. The book is a survey of the different types of English used in postcolonial countries. Although the book provides important insights into the global spread of English, Schneider is primarily concerned with using his survey to test and unpack his evolutionary model.

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                  Evolution and Movement

                  The English language is over 1500 years old and originated in what is now England, as discussed in Crystal 2003 and Mugglestone 2012. However, English has spread throughout the world as a result of exploration, colonization, migration, and globalization. Bauer 1994 demonstrates this evolutionary phenomenon in a study of the linguistic changes that English experienced over the years (see also Fitzmaurice and Minkova 2008 and Lenker and Meurman-Solin 2007). Similarly, van Kemenade and Los 2006 provide a historical account of how English has changed in relation to a number of linguistic and communicative issues. These studies demonstrate that English has moved beyond the borders of England. Indeed, as Graddol 2006 argues, English continues to move and evolve. The studies that make up this section explore the transnational and transcultural flows of English, as well as its social, communicative, linguistic, and political implications. Mufwene 2001, for example, explores the issue of linguistic legitimacy in relation to English varieties and creolization. The cited works demonstrate that the processes involved in English evolution and movement are inextricably connected to a number of social and cultural issues.

                  • Bauer, Laurie. 1994. Watching English change: An introduction to the study of linguistic change in standard Englishes in the twentieth century. Learning about Language. London: Longman.

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                    This introductory text discusses the linguistic changes that English has experienced over the years. The linguistic changes explored in this book include lexis, grammar, sound, and orthography.

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                    • Crystal, David. 2003. The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                      Though this collection addresses a broad range of linguistic issues and topics, the first section of the book contains seven chapters that succinctly review the different evolutionary phases of the English language. A third edition that focuses more generally on language was published in 2010.

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                      • Fitzmaurice, Susan M., and Donka Minkova, eds. 2008. Studies in the history of the English language IV: Empirical and analytical advances in the study of English language change. Topics in English Linguistics 61. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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                        The volume explores the various methods used to investigate linguistic change in English over time and in different contexts. The book is unique in that it incorporates methodological tools employed in historical studies to understand the linguistic consequences of the global spread of English.

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                        • Graddol, David. 2006. English next: Why global English may mean the end of “English as a foreign language.” London: British Council.

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                          A key text in the study of global Englishes. The book examines the state of English, and where the language will be in future.

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                          • Lenker, Ursula, and Anneli Meurman-Solin, eds. 2007. Connectives in the history of English. Papers presented at the 13th International Conference of English Historical Linguistics, held 23–28 August 2004 in Vienna. Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History of Linguistic Science. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                            This edited collection investigates the history of English in relation to connectives. The book contributes to the body of work referred to as English historical linguistics. The articles in the volume shed light on how linguistic features evolve over time.

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                            • Mufwene, Salikoko S. 2001. The ecology of language evolution. Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                              DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511612862Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              The author investigates the development of creoles by looking at the evolution of linguistic topics, such as structure and function. Linguistic issues and themes investigated in this book include the legitimacy of English varieties, creolization, and language change. The book also examines the linguistic landscapes of some African contexts.

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                              • Mugglestone, Lynda, ed. 2012. The Oxford history of English. Updated ed. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                The fourteen chapters that make up this volume, first published in 2006, examine the different historical phases of the English language.

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                                • van Kemenade, Ans, and Bettelou Los, eds. 2006. The handbook of the history of English. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                  This twenty-three-chapter volume examines this history of English. Unlike other similar books, this edited collection is not organized chronologically. The contributors discuss the different approaches to the study of English, examine how words change over time, investigate pragmatic norms, and explore precolonial and postcolonial varieties, to name a few.

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                                  English Varieties

                                  The linguistic description of English varieties predates the formal study of global Englishes. For example, linguistic descriptions of the United States were being made in the early 1900s. Such efforts reflect a desire to understand the ways in which language evolves from one setting to another. In this sense, the formal description of English varieties, including earlier efforts to understand the English(es) of the United States, can be considered a form of global-Englishes scholarship. Furthermore, the formal description of English varieties is an integral part of understanding the social and cultural aspects of language. To this end, researchers have examined the differences in language structure and use to identify distinct speech communities. The studies included in this section build on this body of work by describing the sociolinguistic features of English-speaking communities in Asia, including Singapore (Deterding 2007), China (Gao 2012), South Korea (Hadikin 2014), Hong Kong (Setter, et al. 2010), Japan (Stanlaw 2004), and Malaysia (Tan 2013). Kachru 2005 adds to this area of study by exploring the theoretical and pedagogical implications of the global spread of English. Lim and Gisborne 2011 also contribute to this discussion by exploring the methodological challenges of conducting research on Asian Englishes.

                                  • Deterding, David. 2007. Singapore English. Dialects of English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press.

                                    DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748625444.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    The author presents a comprehensive overview of Singapore English. The book covers a range of topics, including the history of Singapore English, morphological and syntactic features, and historical changes.

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                                    • Gao, Shuang. 2012. The biggest English corner in China. English Today 28.3: 34–39.

                                      DOI: 10.1017/S0266078412000296Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      In this short, but nonetheless important, contribution to varieties, Gao examines how a comparatively small Chinese town transforms itself into an established destination for English-language learning. In so doing, the author contributes to a larger body of work that examines the sociolinguistic issues of English in China.

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                                      • Hadikin, Glenn. 2014. Korean English: A corpus-driven study of a new English. Studies in Corpus Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

                                        DOI: 10.1075/scl.62Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        The author uses corpus-based tools to investigate the linguistic features of Korean English. The study examines how Korean English uses “of,” “have a,” “look,” and “I” in different communicative contexts.

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                                        • Kachru, Braj B. 2005. Asian Englishes: Beyond the canon. Asian Englishes Today. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Univ. Press.

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                                          Kachru examines the historical, linguistic, and sociological aspects of English-language use in Asia, devoting a substantial amount of space to examining South Asian Englishes and Japanese English. The author examines the future of English in Asia and explores the pedagogical implications of the language operating within this region.

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                                          • Lim, Lisa, and Nikolas Gisborne, eds. 2011. The typology of Asian Englishes. Benjamins Current Topics 33. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                            The edited volume begins with a look at the theoretical and methodological aspects of conducting research on Asian Englishes. Contributors analyze Hong Kong English, “New Englishes,” and Thai English.

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                                            • Setter, Jane, Cathy S. P. Wong, and Brian H. S. Chan. 2010. Hong Kong English. Dialects of English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press.

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                                              The authors present a comprehensive overview of Hong Kong English. The book covers a range of topics, including the geographic and demographic characteristics of Hong Kong English, linguistic features of this variety, and the historical evolution of the language. Hong Kong English scholars will find the annotated bibliography at the end of the book very helpful.

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                                              • Stanlaw, James. 2004. Japanese English: Language and culture contact. Asian Englishes Today. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Univ. Press.

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                                                Stanlaw places his investigation of Japanese English in a larger discussion of culture and contact zones. He examines the global spread of English in relation to Japanese popular culture, writing systems, and race and identity.

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                                                • Tan, Siew Imm. 2013. Malaysian English: Language contact and change. Duisburger Arbeiten zur Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaft 98. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

                                                  DOI: 10.3726/978-3-653-03516-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  The author presents a comprehensive overview of Malaysian English. The book covers a range of topics, including the history of Malaysian English, lexical borrowing and creation, and historical changes.

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                                                  Intelligibility

                                                  The global spread of English presents speakers from different sociolinguistic regions with a number of communicative opportunities and challenges. Berns 2008 presents an examination of such challenges by investigating the phonological intelligibility of global Englishes. Coetzee-Van Rooy 2009 similarly investigates how English presents opportunities for different speech communities to interact with each other, but it demonstrates that such encounters can lead to breakdowns in communication. Such opportunities and challenges are a result of speakers from distinct sociolinguistic regions ascribing special meaning to words, adopting unique pragmatic rules, utilizing novel communicative practices, and incorporating community-based norms in the use of English, to name a few. Kirkpatrick, et al. 2008 add to this body of work by examining the international intelligibility of Hong Kong English (for a similar study, see Matsuura 2007). As mentioned in English Varieties, differences in language structure and use are an important part of how speech communities are identified. On the one hand, such differences can lead to breakdowns in communication. On the other hand, these differences promote in-group solidarity and empathy, as well as enhancing communicative efficiency. Nair-Venugopal 2003 and Nelson 2011 explore the theoretical and methodological issues related to the issue of intelligibility, while Nelson 1995 identifies the pedagogical implications of the global spread of English (see also Pickering 2006). The studies discussed in this section explore how interactants from different speech communities deal with the communicative challenges of interacting with different Englishes. Also included are investigations that explore how intelligibility is facilitated during in-group communication.

                                                  • Berns, Margie. 2008. World Englishes, English as a lingua franca, and intelligibility. World Englishes 27.3–4: 327–334.

                                                    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-971X.2008.00571.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    Berns investigates the phonological intelligibility of global Englishes and English as lingua franca encounters.

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                                                    • Coetzee-Van Rooy, Susan. 2009. Intelligibility and perceptions of English proficiency. World Englishes 28.1: 15–34.

                                                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-971X.2008.01567.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      The author examines the communication difficulties faced by Korean speakers of English when communicating with South African users of English. The article examines levels of intelligibility, comprehension, and interpretability.

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                                                      • Kirkpatrick, Andy, David Deterding, and Jennie Wong. 2008. The international intelligibility of Hong Kong English. World Englishes 27.3–4: 359–377.

                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-971X.2008.00573.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        The authors explore the intelligibility of Hong Kong English. The paper uses recordings of Hong Kong speakers of English to examine how university students in Singapore and Australia assess the intelligibility of this particular variety. Listeners/evaluators were also asked to assess speakers according to perceived intelligence and likability.

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                                                        • Matsuura, Hiroko. 2007. Intelligibility and individual learner differences in the EIL context. System 35.3: 293–304.

                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.system.2007.03.003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          Matsuura explores how Japanese learners of English evaluate the intelligibility of American English and Hong Kong English. The author establishes that comprehensibility correlates highly with American English, while Japanese students reported being more familiar with Hong Kong English.

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                                                          • Nair-Venugopal, Shanta. 2003. Intelligibility in English: Of what relevance today to intercultural communication? Language and Intercultural Communication 3.1: 36–47.

                                                            DOI: 10.1080/14708470308668088Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            The author critiques the ways in which speech intelligibility is used as a construct to examine global Englishes.

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                                                            • Nelson, Cecil L. 1995. Intelligibility and world Englishes in the classroom. World Englishes 14.2: 273–279.

                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-971X.1995.tb00356.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                              This short piece considers how notions of intelligibility, comprehensibility, and interpretability shape the research and teaching of global Englishes.

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                                                              • Nelson, Cecil L. 2011. Intelligibility in world Englishes: Theory and application. ESL and Applied Linguistics Professional. London: Routledge.

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                                                                Nelson builds on his earlier work on intelligibility, comprehensibility, and interpretability. He examines in this publication the theoretical and methodological underpinnings of intelligibility.

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                                                                • Pickering, Lucy. 2006. Current research on intelligibility in English as a lingua franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 26:219–233.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/S0267190506000110Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  This state-of-the-art paper reviews the scholarship on intelligibility. The author identifies issues central to advancing the study of intelligibility in global Englishes, and she considers the pedagogical implications of the global spread of English.

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                                                                  Lingua Franca Englishes

                                                                  The global spread of English has created a number of contexts that require communication between speakers from different sociolinguistic regions. The need to engage in such interactions is greater now than ever before, partly as a result of global economic and political forces. However, communication across geographical spaces and between speakers from different sociolinguistic regions does not simply happen; it requires a contact language that bridges the communicative divide between two or more distinct sociolinguistic regions. The contact language that is used in many encounters around the world is English. Lingua franca English encounters involve communication between speakers that do not share the same primary language. The linguistic issues that manifest as a result of such contexts are a focal point of discussion in Jenkins 2007 and Dewey 2007. Jenkins 2006 explores the pedagogical implications of lingua franca interactions. The studies identified in this section are part of a larger empirical project that seeks to understand the sociolinguistic and communicative issues that shape—as well as the implications of participating in—lingua franca encounters. For example, Canagarajah 2006 encourages scholars to reflect on and examine how speakers of English incorporate local norms and practices in lingua franca encounters. The bulk of scholarship on lingua franca Englishes, however, examines patterns or themes that are “unique” to such encounters (see Seidlhofer 2004). For instance, a seminal piece on lingua franca encounters written by Firth 1996 argues that there is a high degree of tolerance for miscommunication (see, however, Jenks 2012). O’Regan 2014 and Prodromou 2007 are critical of such work; both scholars question the utility in conceptualizing lingua franca Englishes as language varieties.

                                                                  • Canagarajah, A. Suresh. 2006. Negotiating the local in English as a lingua franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 26:197–218.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/S0267190506000109Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    This is a seminal paper that is credited for highlighting the importance of understanding local considerations, including cultural norms and practices, in the investigation of English as a lingua franca.

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                                                                    • Dewey, Martin. 2007. English as a lingua franca and globalization: An interconnected perspective. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 17.3: 332–354.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1473-4192.2007.00177.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Dewey establishes several theoretical considerations in the investigation of English as a lingua franca. The paper contributes to the growing body of literature that places English in a larger discussion of societal transformations and developments.

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                                                                      • Firth, Alan. 1996. The discursive accomplishment of normality: On conversation analysis and “lingua franca” English. Journal of Pragmatics 26.2: 237–259.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/0378-2166(96)00014-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        This highly influential paper examines the “let it pass” principle in English as a lingua franca encounters. Firth argues that such encounters exhibit a high degree of tolerance for miscommunication and flexibility in meaning construction. In other words, there are many instances of “letting it pass” in lingua franca encounters.

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                                                                        • Jenkins, Jennifer. 2006. Current perspectives on teaching world Englishes and English as a lingua franca. TESOL Quarterly 40.1: 157–181.

                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/40264515Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          This state-of-the-art paper reviews current perspectives on, and possibilities of, teaching so-called “nonstandard” varieties of English. The author discusses important theoretical and methodological issues in the study of English as a global phenomenon.

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                                                                          • Jenkins, Jennifer. 2007. English as a lingua franca: Attitude and identity. Oxford Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                            This book investigates how speakers of English as an additional language discursively construct their language identities in relation to the false native/non-native dichotomy. The author also spends a considerable amount of time identifying how such speakers come to an understanding of what is “good” and “correct” English.

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                                                                            • Jenks, Christopher Joseph. 2012. Doing being reprehensive: Some interactional features of English as a lingua franca in a chat room. Applied Linguistics 33.4: 386–405.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1093/applin/ams014Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              The author, in this investigation, argues that despite the literature characterizing lingua franca encounters as mutually collaborative and supportive, interactants in online settings can be, at times, exceptionally negative in their comments to each other.

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                                                                              • O’Regan, John P. 2014. English as a lingua franca: An immanent critique. Applied Linguistics 35.5: 533–552.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1093/applin/amt045Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                Drawing from Marxism and post-structuralism, O’Regan provides an immanent critique of lingua franca scholarship. The discussion piece argues that lingua franca scholarship is inherently positivistic and objectivist.

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                                                                                • Prodromou, Luke. 2007. Is ELF a variety of English? English Today 23.2: 47–53.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/S0266078407002088Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  Prodromou examines the validity of conceptualizing English as a lingua franca as a variety. The author explores how the issue of idiomaticity informs such discussions, and he considers the pedagogical implications of the global spread of English.

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                                                                                  • Seidlhofer, Barbara. 2004. Research perspectives on teaching English as a lingua franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24:209–239.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/S0267190504000145Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    This state-of-the-art paper examines how researchers conceptualize English as a lingua franca and what the global status of English means for language instruction; it also explores the ways in which the field of study can advance theory and practice.

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                                                                                    English Ideologies

                                                                                    Belief systems play an important role in how English varieties are formed and used, as argued in Cameron 2012, a seminal study on language ideologies. Ideologies represent unique ways of understanding how the world is organized; according to Besnier 2013, they are also used as resources to manage interactional encounters and to form communities. In some situations, ideological commitments, such as the belief that English should be used according to North American standards, demarcate speech communities into distinct groups with clear linguistic divides (see Bernaisch 2012). Some researchers, including scholars cited in this section, argue that in order for a linguistic variety to be considered a legitimate form of English, its users must possess an overall positive belief system of the language. Park 2009 demonstrates this in a study of English-language ideologies in Korea. In this study, the author shows that although speakers may have an uncomfortable relationship with English, they are committed to learning the language for its neoliberal benefits (see also Ahn 2014). Similarly, Takahashi 2013 establishes the importance of desire in studying English as an additional language in Japan. The research that makes up this section examines the ways in which ideologies intersect with a number of social, economic, political, and educational issues. Lippi-Green 2012, for example, uncovers the many social and political motivations and factors that shape language ideologies in the United States. Holborow 2007 also adds to this excellent work with a study on how language and ideology are connected to a neoliberal logic.

                                                                                    • Ahn, Hyejeong. 2014. Teachers’ attitudes towards Korean English in South Korea. World Englishes 33.2: 195–222.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/weng.12081Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      This questionnaire-based study investigates the perceptions that teachers have of Korean English in Korea. The respondents of the questionnaire overwhelmingly view Korean English positively.

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                                                                                      • Bernaisch, Tobias. 2012. Attitudes towards Englishes in Sri Lanka. World Englishes 31.3: 279–291.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-971X.2012.01753.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        The study explores how the people of Sri Lanka view the different varieties of English that exist in the country. To this end, the author investigates Sri Lankan English, Indian English, British English, and American English. The findings demonstrate that British English is the preferred variety in Sri Lanka, though Sri Lankan English is generally viewed positively.

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                                                                                        • Besnier, Niko. 2013. Language on the edge of the global: Communicative competence, agency, and the complexity of the local. In Special issue: Decentering and recentering communicative competence. Language & Communication 33.4A: 463–471.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.langcom.2013.02.002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          Besnier argues in his paper that language attitudes are shaped by ideologies of wealth, class, education, religion, and gender. He challenges the commonsense understanding that language attitudes are tied strictly to linguistic issues by uncovering how the people of Tonga draw from a number of ideological commitments to manage the use of English and Tongan.

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                                                                                          • Cameron, Deborah. 2012. Verbal hygiene. Routledge Linguistics Classics. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                            A seminal book-length study on the attitudes toward language and linguistic practices. Cameron investigates how speakers discursively construct notions of standardness. The book provides an important theoretical framework for the investigation of English ideologies.

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                                                                                            • Holborow, Marnie. 2007. Language, ideology and neoliberalism. Journal of Language and Politics 6.1: 51–73.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1075/jlp.6.1.05holSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              In this important article, Holborow shows how language and ideology are connected to a neoliberal logic. Although she does not investigate the ideologies of a particular region or speech community, her paper is useful in appreciating how (global) economies dictate the ways in which people view and use language.

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                                                                                              • Lippi-Green, Rosina. 2012. English with an accent: Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States. 2d ed. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                The book, first published in 1997, uncovers the many social and political motivations and factors that shape language ideologies. Lippi-Green draws from US regional dialects and accents to argue that although language ideologies are inherently subjective and tied to historical power struggles, they can be used in positive ways.

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                                                                                                • Park, Joseph Sung-Yul. 2009. The local construction of a global language: Ideologies of English in South Korea. Language, Power, and Social Process 24. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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                                                                                                  Park offers a unique look at the language-related ideological commitments of South Koreans. He argues that English ideologies in South Korea are tied to their somewhat universal commitment to economic advancement, among other issues; he contends, however, that South Koreans have an uncomfortable relationship with English.

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                                                                                                  • Takahashi, Kimie. 2013. Language learning, gender and desire: Japanese women on the move. Critical Language and Literacy Studies. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

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                                                                                                    This book examines the intersections of language, gender, race, and desire in the study-abroad experiences of Japanese women in Australia. The author demonstrates that the learning of English is bound to sexualized ideologies and discourses.

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                                                                                                    Colonialism and Linguistic Imperialism

                                                                                                    Pennycook 1998 argues that the colonial efforts of the British Empire are responsible for, at least initially, the global spread of English. The significance of colonialism to an understanding of global Englishes is not, however, limited to historical events and processes. The varieties that are spoken by many people around the world are a legacy of colonialism. It is thus necessary to examine colonialism in order to understand dialects, accents, and modern English-language usage. This is especially true, as argued in Pennycook 1994, of research that examines the sociopolitical issues that shape how and why individuals formulate attitudes of a particular English variety. Phillipson 2001, for example, investigates how the sociolinguistic landscape of Denmark is shaped by a history of imperial forces, including a political relationship with the United States. Furthermore, English exists within distinct sociolinguistic regions partly as a result of linguistic imperialism, which can be defined broadly speaking as a process that compels or forces individuals, often from an economically or politically weaker nation, to acquire the language spoken by a dominant nation (Phillipson 2007; for a critique of this theoretical view, see Waters 2013). As with colonial discourses, such as Orientalism (Said 1979), linguistic imperialism is rooted in the idea that maintaining power imbalances between two countries requires acquiring and maintaining control over a resource of some kind (Phillipson 1992). In the case of linguistic imperialism, the resource that is controlled is the English language. Controlling a resource such as the English language has many economic and political rewards. The studies in this section examine what these rewards may be, the problems associated with attempts to control English “standards,” and solutions for addressing and resisting linguistic imperialism. The research cited in this section is also devoted to uncovering how early-21st-century social, cultural, political, linguistic, and communicative issues regarding the English language are inextricably connected to histories of struggle and oppression. Both Canagarajah 1999 and Fernández 2004 explore these issues vis-à-vis the English-language-teaching profession.

                                                                                                    • Canagarajah, A. Suresh. 1999. Resisting linguistic imperialism in English teaching. Oxford Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                      Canagarajah challenges the dominant ideology within English-language teaching that norms and standards must be determined by the so-called “West.” He argues that the English-language-teaching profession must realign itself to better reflect the realities of the so-called “East,” “Other,” or “periphery,” as adopted in this book—India and Nigeria, for example.

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                                                                                                      • Fernández, Paula González. 2004. Linguistic imperialism in the ELT profession? VIAL: Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics 1:113–150.

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                                                                                                        The author investigates how speakers of English as an additional language respond to the political aspects of the global spread of English. The paper represents an important contribution to an understanding of linguistic imperialism in that she offers a unique look at what nonacademics think about such issues.

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                                                                                                        • Pennycook, Alastair. 1994. The cultural politics of English as an international language. Language in Social Life. London: Longman.

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                                                                                                          The book examines the cultural and political consequences of the global spread of English. The author critiques the dominant ideology within applied linguistics that English must be understood, conceptualized, researched, and taught in a way that reflects the biases and subjectivities of Western countries.

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                                                                                                          • Pennycook, Alastair. 1998. English and the discourses of colonialism. Politics of Language. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                            The book examines the intersections of English, language teaching, and colonialism. The author argues that the social structures established as a result of colonialism, such as the notion that English should be spoken in a particular way, still exist in modern society. The investigation draws extensively from colonial and postcolonial Hong Kong, Malaysia, and India.

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                                                                                                            • Phillipson, Robert. 1992. Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                              This seminal publication identifies and critiques the many aspects of linguistic imperialism. The book is, by and large, a collection of observations of how British colonialism provides the vehicle for linguistic imperialism; less attention is paid to how the United States contributes to this process.

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                                                                                                              • Phillipson, Robert. 2001. Global English and local language policies: What Denmark needs. Language Problems & Language Planning 25.1: 1–24.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1075/lplp.25.1.02phiSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Phillipson builds on his early work on linguistic imperialism by exploring the language policies of Denmark. He makes a number of provocative but insightful observations regarding Denmark’s relationship with the United States and the European Union.

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                                                                                                                • Phillipson, Robert. 2007. Linguistic imperialism: A conspiracy, or a conspiracy of silence? Language Policy 6.3: 377–383.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1007/s10993-007-9058-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  In this response piece to a critic of linguistic imperialism, Phillipson builds on his earlier work by providing additional statistics and observations that connect political power with the promotion and preservation of the English language.

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                                                                                                                  • Said, Edward W. 1979. Orientalism. New York: Vintage.

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                                                                                                                    Although Edward Said is not primarily concerned with how English evolved alongside colonialism, his seminal book on orientalism sheds light on the underpinning social and political discourses that shape how individuals come to a particular way of seeing the world through the perceived differences that exist as a result of colonial discourses.

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                                                                                                                    • Waters, Alan. 2013. Reviews: Linguistic imperialism continued. ELT Journal 67.1: 126–130.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1093/elt/ccs076Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      This book review is a largely critical review of Phillipson’s influential publication Linguistic Imperialism Continued (New York: Routledge, 2009), which updates Phillipson 1992. Waters identifies several shortcomings of how the publication attempts to establish a better understanding of linguistic imperialism.

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                                                                                                                      Race and Ethnicity

                                                                                                                      The global spread of English is often thought of as a linguistic phenomenon. However, as the section on Colonialism and Linguistic Imperialism demonstrates, global Englishes are bound to cultural struggles, both historical and modern. Within and related to these cultural struggles are racialized discourses and ideologies. In other words, the global spread of English is a racialized process. English is tied to, for example, notions of what a speaker of the language should look and sound like, as demonstrated in Amin 1997. That is to say, race and ethnicity intersect with language in profound ways (Crump 2014) and are thus central to how speech communities form and construct language ideologies (Kubota 2015). Curtis and Romney 2006 demonstrate this in a collection of papers on the English identities of language scholars and practitioners (see also Kubota and Lin 2009 and Motha 2014). Andy Curtis and Mary Romney’s study establishes how individuals use race and ethnicity as important resources in the discursive construction of English-language identities. Although some of the publications included in this section do not directly address issues pertaining to global Englishes, such works examine the social and linguistic issues that inform commonsense understandings of race and ethnicity. For example, Bonilla-Silva 2006 is not centrally concerned with global Englishes, but the author’s work uncovers how Whiteness and White normativity, two issues crucial to the global spread of English (Kubota 2001), shape how individuals use language to construct notions of race and ethnicity. Many of the scholars discussed in this section adopt or build on critical race theory in their investigations of race, ethnicity, and language.

                                                                                                                      • Amin, Nuzhat. 1997. Race and the identity of the nonnative ESL teacher. In Special issue: Language and identity. TESOL Quarterly 31.3: 580–583.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/3587841Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        The author examines the assumptions students have of English, language instructors, and notions of linguistic standardness. The findings show that some students associate English with Whiteness and, more problematically, believe that only White individuals can be considered “real” Canadians.

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                                                                                                                        • Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2006. Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States. 3d ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

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                                                                                                                          Although this book does not examine the global spread of English, the author uncovers how a system of White privilege and colorblind ideologies shapes the ways in which individuals use language to construct race-based observations of culture and cultural practices. Understanding how larger systems of discrimination and privilege operate within societies is important to investigations of linguistic issues in global Englishes.

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                                                                                                                          • Crump, Alison. 2014. Introducing LangCrit: Critical language and race theory. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies 11.3: 207–224.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/15427587.2014.936243Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Crump shows how critical race theory can benefit from a more critical and nuanced understanding of language. In so doing, she provides a theoretical framework for examining race and ethnicity in the global spread of English (though this is not an identified objective).

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                                                                                                                            • Curtis, Andy, and Mary Romney, eds. 2006. Color, race, and English language teaching: Shades of meaning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                              This edited volume presents a collection of critical self-narratives written by English-language teachers and scholars. Each contributor reflects on, and critically examines, the ways in which race and ethnicity shape their world and interactions with others.

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                                                                                                                              • Kubota, Ryuko. 2001. Discursive construction of the images of U.S. classrooms. TESOL Quarterly 35.1: 9–38.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/3587858Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                Kubota uses Orientalism to critically evaluate how the English-language-teaching profession essentializes students who are racially different.

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                                                                                                                                • Kubota, Ryuko. 2015. Race and language learning in multicultural Canada: Towards critical antiracism. In Special issue: Race and language learning in multicultural Canada. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 36.1: 3–12.

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                                                                                                                                  This article reviews the key themes of race and language in Canada as outlined and examined by the contributors of a special issue.

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                                                                                                                                  • Kubota, Ryuko, and Angel Lin, eds. 2009. Race, culture, and identities in second language education: Exploring critically engaged practice. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                    In this sixteen-chapter edited collection, the editors present a body of work that examines Whiteness in the English-language-teaching profession, uncovers how racialized discourses are situated in different pedagogical contexts, and explores what can be learned from critical pedagogy.

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                                                                                                                                    • Motha, Suhanthie. 2014. Race, empire, and English language teaching: Creating responsible and ethical anti-racist practice. Multicultural Education. New York: Teachers College.

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                                                                                                                                      The author uncovers the colonial underpinnings of the English-language-teaching profession by following a small group of teachers in their struggles to deal with how race and ethnicity shape instructional practices. The book is useful in understanding how speech communities and sociolinguistic regions are shaped by the complex interplay of language and race.

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                                                                                                                                      Linguistic Landscapes

                                                                                                                                      One of the most visible consequences of the global spread of English is in the places and spaces of multilingual urban areas. For example, English signs are located in most cities around the world (see, for instance, Pennycook and Otsuji 2014), and close examination of how these spaces are used alongside other languages provides a window into the lives of multilingual citizens—Ben-Rafael, et al. 2006 present an excellent analysis of how multiple languages function as symbolic resources in a single linguistic site (Backhaus 2007 provides a similar analysis of multilingual Tokyo). Further, a special issue of World Englishes (Bolton 2012) offers several examples of how languages function within multilingual spaces. The publications included in this section explore how geographically distinct regions within urban areas can be defined according to language forms and functions. To this end, Lee 2014 argues for a “transnational” approach to linguistic landscapes, which entails examining language in multiple spaces and across geographic boundaries. This line of investigation, as evidenced in Shohamy and Gorter 2009, is concerned primarily with what informational and symbolic signs of urban areas say about speech communities. For example, Lou 2016 examines the linguistic landscape of Chinatown in Washington, DC; this study demonstrates that linguistic landscapes represent a complex interplay of the material environment, spatial representations, and discursive practices. Research on linguistic landscapes, especially the works cited in this section, is helpful in understanding how sociolinguistic communities exist and operate within larger English-speaking areas. Gorter 2013 provides a succinct overview of this body of work.

                                                                                                                                      • Backhaus, Peter. 2007. Linguistic landscapes: A comparative study of urban multilingualism in Tokyo. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

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                                                                                                                                        Backhaus examines the language used in urban spaces. Although the book is centrally concerned with the linguistic landscapes of Tokyo, he makes a number of comparative observations with other major urban areas, including Hong Kong, Paris, and Rome.

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                                                                                                                                        • Ben-Rafael, Eliezer, Elana Shohamy, and Muhammad Hasan. 2006. Linguistic landscape as symbolic construction of the public space: The case of Israel. International Journal of Multilingualism 3.1: 7–30.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/14790710608668383Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          The authors investigate multilingual linguistic landscapes in Israeli cities and East Jerusalem. The study uses several theoretical constructs, including relational considerations and power dynamics, to uncover the ways in which public signs are used as symbolic resources.

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                                                                                                                                          • Bolton, Kingsley. 2012. World Englishes and linguistic landscapes. In Special section: Symposium on world Englishes and linguistic landscapes: Five perspectives. World Englishes 31.1: 30–33.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-971X.2011.01748.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            The paper functions as an editorial introduction to a special issue on different linguistic landscapes: Chinatown in Washington, DC; the Democratic Republic of Congo; Korea; and Thailand. The collection of papers illustrates the many ways Englishes occupy public spaces, shape linguistic ideologies, and influence social practices.

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                                                                                                                                            • Gorter, Durk. 2013. Linguistic landscapes in a multilingual world. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 33:190–212.

                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/S0267190513000020Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              This state-of-the-art article reviews current developments in scholarship on linguistic landscapes. The author also identifies future directions in linguistic-landscape research.

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                                                                                                                                              • Lee, Jerry Won. 2014. Transnational linguistic landscapes and the transgression of metadiscursive regimes of language. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies 11.1: 50–74.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/15427587.2014.871623Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                While scholarship on linguistic landscapes tends to focus on analyzing public-language artifacts within a specific region, Lee argues for a “transnational” approach, which entails examining language in space and across geographic boundaries. Such an approach, argues Lee, symbolically untethers traditional assumptions of language users and uses to a particular place (e.g., the nation-state) and undermines inequitable linguistic taxonomies.

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                                                                                                                                                • Lou, Jackie Jia. 2016. The linguistic landscape of Chinatown: A sociolinguistic ethnography. Encounters 6. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

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                                                                                                                                                  Lou explores the possibility that linguistic landscapes represent a complex interplay of the material environment, spatial representations, and discursive practices. To this end, the book uncovers how urban spaces within Chinatown in the District of Columbia index particular social identities and processes. She employs a number of methodological approaches, including narrative analysis and multimodal discursive tools, to uncover how corporate-driven urban transformations appropriate local language identities and resources.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Pennycook, Alastair, and Emi Otsuji. 2014. Metrolingual multitasking and spatial repertoires: “Pizza mo two minutes coming.” Journal of Sociolinguistics 18.2: 161–184.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/josl.12079Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    The paper examines the public signs of two restaurants in Tokyo and Sydney to uncover how language is embedded in the globalized spaces of urban life. The authors use the term “metrolingual multitasking” to denote the rich interactions among spatial, linguistic, and cultural resources that are used to manage life in a busy, multilingual urban space.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Shohamy, Elana, and Durk Gorter, eds. 2009. Linguistic landscape: Expanding the scenery. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                      The volume examines the complex meanings associated with, and conveyed in, the language of public spaces and places. Examining a range of urban and regional spaces, the contributors consider the theoretical and methodological issues of linguistic-landscape research. Three chapters end the book by identifying what researchers can do to advance linguistic-landscape scholarship.

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