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Music Dance
by
Marta Robertson

Introduction

In addressing issues of how music and dance intersect, this article concentrates on three categories: first, dance sources that deal substantively with music or that are of particular interest to musicians; second, musical sources with an emphasis on dance; and third, the intersection between the two arts in dance-music and its contexts. Given that dancing and music making appear to be universal human behaviors, and that virtually all dance is performed to music, or in its absence to “silence,” the literature on dance music, its interrelationships with dance structures, dancers, and the shared cultural context of the two arts is vast. Methodologies for studying these interrelationships also are seemingly endless. They cut across the fields of music and dance and enjoin interdisciplinary considerations involving both, not to mention cultural or area studies. Understanding the relationship between dance and its dance music is fundamental to musicians’ performance as they accompanying dance in the dance studio or on stage. The interconnected structural elements of dance and its corresponding dance music, particularly articulations of time that they share, can be analyzed formally. The conceptual relationship between dance and its dance music, dancer and musician, and the dance-music complex and its cultural context, is culturally constructed. Thus, not only these relationships, but their meanings that also are culturally derived, vary across chronological time and geographical place. In some cultures, dance music can be transmitted without its corresponding dance, but in a majority of world music cultures, dance and music not only function in the same cultural space, they cannot be separated. For many of these cultures, dance can be theorized and analyzed as embodied music. In some cases, the dance and dancer are so fundamental to the music as to become yet another line in the overall texture. Dancing to music or making music for dance can occur simultaneously—sharing, for example, venues, meanings, and modes of transmission. Thus, studies of dance through a music perspective and music through a dance perspective can provide musicians with a richer context for understanding dance music, its formal structures, its contextual meaning, and the performance of these relationships.

General Overviews

Few works attempt to treat dance, including the music that accompanies it and the cultural context music and dance share, across both geographic place and chronological time. One notable exception is the Jonas 1992 text and its accompanying videos, organized thematically for cross-cultural comparison of representative dance cultures and by extension their accompanying music. Ichikawa, et al. 1990 is a very broad overview of global folk and vernacular music traditions, many of which include dance, with only select art traditions. It does not attempt to treat Euro-American theatrical art dance. Both Sachs 1963 and Nettl 1969 (originally 1937 and 1947, respectively) treat primitive and folk dance traditions along an evolutionary scale that culminates in Euro-American art dance and its music, a deeply rooted 19th-century anthropological bias. Early landmark studies, Sachs 1963 and Nettl 1969, continue to be referenced to the present, but should only be used for historiographic purposes. Closely related to general overviews are encyclopedias and dictionaries, which present broad overviews by genres, regions, or individuals (see Encyclopedias and Dictionaries).

  • Ichikawa, Katsumori, Kunihiko Nakagawa, Yuji Ichihashi, and Tomoaki Fujii. The JVC Video Anthology of World Music and Dance. Tokyo: JVC, Victor Co. of Japan/Smithsonian Folkways, 1990.

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    The original thirty volumes (1990), covering world traditions regionally, are supplemented with sets on Africa (three vols.), Europe (two vols.) and the Americas (six vols.). Most segments are brief fieldwork recordings of folk and vernacular traditions. Separate booklets contain explanatory material: contextualizing essays, performance credits, maps, and charts.

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  • Jonas, Gerald. Dancing: The Pleasure, Power, and Art of Movement. New York: Harry N. Abrams in association with Thirteen/WNET, 1992.

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    Synthesizing disciplinary strengths of dance history and anthropology resulted in Dancing, a dynamic survey of global dancing and its cultural continuities, lavishly documented with 260 illustrations and eight videos. Organized thematically and cross-culturally around issues applicable to music: court dance, religion, diaspora, and contemporary and historical traditions.

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  • Nettl, Paul. The Story of Dance Music. New York: Greenwood, 1969.

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    Translated into English (1947) from the original Die Musikgeschichte des Tanzes. Once a landmark study, particularly for 17th- to 19th-century dance music, this text builds on assumptions and biases from its time period and Sachs 1963. Should only be used for historiographic purposes.

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  • Sachs, Curt. World History of the Dance. Translated by Bessie Schönberg. New York: W. W. Norton, 1963.

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    Translated into English (1937) from the original Weltgeschichte des Tanzes (1933). Based on 19th-century anthropological theories, including that the “folk” or “peasant” (and their respective dances) are an evolutionary stage between primitive and civilized cultures. Once a landmark dance text, this source should only be used for historiographic purposes.

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Textbooks

As a relatively recent academic field, dance studies is at least as interdisciplinary as music, encompassing subfields in natural sciences (dance kinesiology, for example), social sciences (dance education), humanities (dance history/theory/criticism), interdisciplinary studies (area studies, women and gender, to name only two), and obviously the arts (from performance to choreography and Labanotation movement analysis). These textbooks were selected for their interdisciplinary potential to supplement musical studies through dance, whether for music educators incorporating movement into music teaching to address national education standards (Brehm and McNett 2008), ethnomusicologists who study cultures that do not separate music and dance into mutually distinct arts (Bakan 2007; Vissicaro 2004), musicologists who are interested in historical dance musics or the intertwined histories of music and dance (Lansdale and Layson 1994; Kassing 2007), pedagogues interested in incorporating dance into music studies (Chazin-Bennahum 2005), and those interested in cultural studies of music for dance and their shared cultural spheres more broadly (see Dils and Albright 2001; Carter and O’Shea 2010).

  • Bakan, Michael B. World Music: Traditions and Transformations. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2007.

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    Bakan, an ethnomusicologist, treats dance as an element of “How Music Lives” in culture, includes a chapter on traditional Egyptian and international belly dance and its music, and also considers Irish, Latin, and Balinese gamelan music for dance. Bakan’s homepage includes annotated YouTube examples of music and dance topics.

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  • Brehm, Mary Ann, and Lynne McNett. Creative Dance for Learning: The Kinesthetic Link. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2008.

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    Textbook supports music educators addressing national standards through the inclusion of movement. The authors present adaptable lesson plans, experiential activities, illustrative photographs, and appendices of teaching resources. They link the elements of dance to kinesthetic objectives, multiple intelligences, and integrated arts curricula.

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  • Carter, Alexandra, and Janet O’Shea. The Routledge Dance Studies Reader. 2d ed. London: Routledge, 2010.

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    The second edition updates “new dance scholarship” since the 1998 first edition, with new introductions, current disciplinary debates, and emphasis on global and contemporary dance genres. As a fundamentally interdisciplinary field, dance studies shares methodologies with interdisciplinary studies in music and models analysis of dances accompanied by music.

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  • Chazin-Bennahum, Judith. Teaching Dance Studies. New York: Routledge, 2005.

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    Collegiate music and dance pedagogy share overlapping materials, methodologies, and challenges, such as self-learning, addressed here. A good introduction for musicians interested in incorporating dance analysis with individual essays on movement analysis, choreography, music for dance (essay by Jeffrey Stolet), dance on film, and dance education, history, and criticism.

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  • Dils, Ann, and Ann Cooper Albright. Moving History / Dancing Cultures: A Dance History Reader. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.

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    Undergraduate dance history text with American perspective. Seminal articles by leading dance scholars thematically grouped to challenge disciplinary axes of the individual in historical Western art dance and communities in contemporary global vernacular and traditional dance. Preferences recent modern dance. Represents the wide variety of interdisciplinary methodologies constituting dance studies.

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  • Kassing, Gayle. History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach. Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics, 2007.

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    Informed by American National Standards in dance, arts education, social studies, and technology education, this text models how music history could similarly address National Standards, teaching across the curriculum, and web-based, interactive pedagogies. Provides a history of Euro-American dance, technology, and cultural history that punctuates the history of dance musics.

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  • Lansdale, Janet, and June Layson. Dance History: An Introduction, 2d ed. London: Routledge, 1994.

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    Classic dance history articles provide authoritative background on ballet and modern dance in their traditional, social, and theatrical contexts. Important for musicians who want to understand the larger artistic context of ballet and modern dance music. An annotated bibliography covers crucial dance history texts, references, and periodicals through 1993.

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  • Vissicaro, Pegge. Studying Dance Cultures around the World: An Introduction to Multicultural Dance Education. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 2004.

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    As a general studies dance appreciation text, this material provides supplemental information on the dance genres and their musics studied by enthnomusicologists. Generously illustrated, with a discovery-based focus, supported by suggested discussion topics and creative projects (many interactive and web-based) for studying dance as a human phenomenon. E-book.

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Electronic Resources

The resources in this section were selected as finding aids particularly in the fields of dance music, dance history/theory/ethnography, and dance education. Many music educators are called on to teach dance as part of national or state standards. In some contexts, music is taught in an art-integrated curriculum that includes not only dance, among other arts, but music taught through or across other disciplines. Dance history and theory are the scholarly corollaries to musicology, providing content and methodologies for understanding the dances and their formal structures on which stylized dance music is based or for understanding the physical movements that music for dance accompanies. Dance ethnography is the scholarly corollary to ethnomusicology. Understanding the movements of dance and their cultural constructions is crucial in many world music cultures that would not conceive of music and dance as distinct artistic disciplines. Some of the resources such as Artslynx International Dance Resources and ThisDance.com are portals that help systematize the immense information available on the Internet. Other resources listed here provide starting points for research in dance history as an allied field to music history (see the “Resources” page on the Society of Dance History Scholars’ webpage, or point toward additional institutional resources in dance history/theory or documentation European Dance Research Information Directory). Kassing 2007 is excellent for providing historical contextualization for chronological eras of dance and, by extension, its music. The National Dance Association provides resources for the teaching and learning of dance primarily in school settings, while the Kennedy Center’s ArtsEdge is a model for arts-integrated teaching and learning, each source applicable to comprehensive music educators. The International Guild of Musicians in Dance is an excellent resource for musicians accompanying dance.

  • Artslynx International Dance Resources

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    Artslynx is an accessibly organized, curated portal to comprehensive web resources on the arts, with particular strengths in music, dance, theater, and visual arts. It provides bibliographies of annotated links, each connecting to existing online resources libraries. Some of these link bibliographies, such as African Dance, are unique to Artslynx.

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    • European Dance Research Information Directory

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      The European Dance Research Information Directory (EURIS) is an “English-language directory of European institutions and individuals engaged in dance research, history, theory, and documentation.” EURIS is searchable by thirty-seven countries with contact information for approximately five hundred individuals and two hundred institutions, including libraries, archives, filmotèques and videotèques.

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      • International Guild of Musicians in Dance

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        While not an exhaustive set of resources, the guild and its webpage are tools for practicing and aspiring dance musicians to find literature, music, and other musicians in the field of dance music.

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      • Kassing, Gayle. History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach. Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics, 2007.

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        An active library of weblinks for dance and its contextualizing musical, intellectual, political, and technological culture. The site follows the outline of another Kassing 2007 (see Textbooks) and prominently features links to chronologies, video clips of dance genres, period clothing, costumes, and dance music examples.

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      • Kennedy Center, ArtsEdge

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        ArtsEdge is the Kennedy Center’s educational outreach to schools, communities, families, and individuals through creative technology. Free digital resources for arts-centered teaching and learning, in formal and informal environments, include lesson plans, audio stories, video clips, and interactive online modules with dance music topics drawn from global cultures.

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        • National Dance Association

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          The website of the National Dance Association (NDA) provides links to resources supporting “quality dance programs in the areas of health, physical education, recreation and dance (HPERD),” which are also useful for music educators teaching dance.

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          • Society of Dance History Scholars, “Resources.”

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            The Society of Dance History Scholars maintains a “Resources” link from its homepage. Links in broad categories lead to additional annotated links: General Interest (including organizations and publishers), Dance History, and Periods and Genres. These resources are of value to musicians seeking a rich understanding of dancing that music accompanies.

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            • ThisDance.com

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              This webpage, with its links to dance directory resources and dance websites, is valuable for musicians interested in the Euro-American dance genres with significant dance music repertoires: ballet, ballroom, modern, folk, jazz, tap, and others. The webpage indexes categories such as colleges, companies, international resources, news/information, and people/organizations.

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              Professional Societies

              Beyond hosting conferences or publishing journals where new research is generated and exchanged among members, professional societies and organizations provide a host of resources and other forms of mutual support for members, and by extension a broader public with similar interests. Many of the societies are listed here because their awards, vetted by society members, help set the current standard in dance music or dance-related research. Thus, the lists of honorees and their works include some of the most vibrant research in the sector represented by the society; see Congress on Research in Dance, Society of Dance History Scholars, and The Society for Ethnomusicology (SEM)). In addition to societies devoted to historical or global dance and/or music, or a specific genre of dance, in some music societies members have formed study groups for dance (see International Council for Traditional Music and The Society for Ethnomusicology). Other societies maintain bibliographies of their members’ works (Conseil International de la Danse CID / International Dance Council) or offer electronic access to their professional journal or newsletter/bulletin, where current ideas may be circulated for the first time (International Guild of Musicians in Dance and Society for Dance Research). Bopp 1994 is included as a reference aid for locating dance associations and organizations around specific dance or dance music genres and topics.

              Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

              Overviews of “Dance” in encyclopedias, such as Sutton, et al. in Grove Music Online, maintain the historical division between Euro-American theatrical art dance and other global dance traditions. Ballet receives the most scholarly attention among categories of dance (American Ballet Theatre’s Online Dictionary, the Grove Music Online article “Ballet” by Rebecca Harris-Warrick et al., and the “Dance” article in Schmidt and Wiley 1992, originally written for the New Grove Dictionary of Opera). Art, popular, and folk traditions outside of Euro-America, in addition to Euro-American popular and folk traditions, are generally treated separately, as in The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music or the “Ethnochoreology.” article by Adrienne L. Kaeppler. The exceptions are most notably the International Encyclopedia of Dance, with entries representing art, popular, and folk genres globally, or treatments of a genre such as jazz (see the New Grove Dictionary of Jazz entry “Dance”), which straddles the academic/popular dividing line. Specific Euro-American genres, composers, choreographers, and compositions or genres and global geographic traditions can be searched individually by subscribers of Grove Music Online and The International Encyclopedia of Dance, in addition to using search terms such as “Music for Dance” and “Dance Music,” the latter also referring to late-20th-century club-dance genres.

              • American Ballet Theatre, Online Library: Ballet Dictionary, Repertoire Archive.

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                The interactive Ballet Dictionary, drawn from Gail Grant’s Technical Manual and Dictionary of Classical Ballet (New York: Grover, 1967), presents definitions and video clips of movements, demonstrated by American Ballet Theatre dancers, unfortunately without music. The company’s extensive Repertory Archive is searchable by ballet, choreographer, or composer and includes synopses, performance histories, and biographies.

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              • Garland Encyclopedia of World Music.

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                Comprehensive nine geographic volumes, plus 10th resource volume, with linked audio examples. Written by distinguished ethnomusicologists, most volumes include an introductory dance article among other music-making processes. Extensive volume indexes searchable in the online version by “Dance” (with subheadings according to country / ethnic group), specific dance genres, choreography, and dance-drama. Editors include Bruno Nettl, Ruth M. Stone, James Porter, and Timothy Rice. New York: Garland, 1997–2002 (10 vols.). Available online by subscription.

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              • Harris-Warrick, Rebecca, et al. “Ballet.” Grove Music Online.

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                An extensive history of Euro-American ballet, written by leading dance music historians Rebecca Harris-Warrick, Noël Goodwin, and John Percival. Organized chronologically with geographic subdivisions, plus entries on Russia / USSR, dance in opera, and modern dance. Excellent bibliography with subdivisions for period and later studies, general studies, and individual artists (20th century). Available online by subscription.

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              • International Encyclopedia of Dance: A Project of Dance Perspectives Foundation, Inc. Founding ed. Selma Jeanne Cohen.

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                Still the definitive dance reference; international in scope, but not comprehensive. The article “Music for Dance” covers four geographic regions and five Western chronological eras, plus bibliographies. Extensive Synoptic Outline cross-references supporting music articles, mostly musicians. Search index for dancers, dance genres, regions, works, social contexts, and methodologies. Hardcopy: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998 (6 vols.) Available online by subscription.

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              • Kaeppler, Adrienne L. “Ethnochoreology.” Grove Music Online.

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                Ethnochoreology or dance ethnology is dance scholarship’s corollary to ethnomusicology. Accordingly, the article is organized around theory and methodology with a strong bibliography of leading works in dance studies, many originating from dance anthropology. Kaeppler traces the historical and philosophical development of ethnochoreology, including an extensive catalogue of ethnochoreological methodologies. Available online by subscription.

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              • Schmidt, Carl B., and Roland John Wiley. “Dance.” In Stanley Sadie, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. London: Macmillan, 1992.

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                Now also available to subscribers to Grove Music Online. Chronologically organized with excellent bibliographies for further study, the article details differences in national approaches to incorporating ballet, and later dance more broadly, into opera. Generally, dance’s relationship to opera, often in the context of shared conventions, developed from incidental insertions to an integral participant in the dramatic continuity.

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              • Spring, Howard. “Dance.” In Barry Kernfeld, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. 2d ed. New York: Grove, 2002.

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                Now also available to subscribers to Grove Music Online Dance. Howard Spring traces the two interrelated categories of staged and social jazz dance. The article calls into question the traditional avoidance of jazz scholars—in an attempt to align jazz with European art music—to discuss the embodiment of jazz and its close association with dancing through World War II.

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              • Sutton, Julia, et al. “Dance.” Grove Music Online.

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                An extensive history of Euro-American theatrical art dance and social dance, written by leading dance music historians Julia Sutton, E. Kerr Borthwick, Ingrid Brainard, Rebecca Harris-Warrick, and Andrew Lamb (with Helen Thomas). The entry is organized into six chronological eras with chronological subdivisions, plus an introduction, each with extensive bibliographies, Available online by subscription.

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              Guides to Literature and Repertory

              Guides seem to exist for practically every genre, discipline, and career in dance, with ballet by far receiving the most attention. The dance music equivalents to opera guides—which present an opera synopsis punctuated by musical themes keyed to the narrative—whether for ballet, modern dance, or dance genres with significant and potentially standalone musical repertoires, are not commonly available. For musicians, the best strategy remains consulting a dance guide associated with the dance music repertoire of interest, then interpolating research on a specific composer or musical composition into the dance guide information. Searle 1973 is unusual in focusing specifically on the music for a genre, in this case ballet. (See Performance Practice for manuals on how to accompany dance or how music and dance should be coordinated in specific eras.) Guides to ballet can be arranged chronologically, as in Au 2002; by broad themes presented chronologically, as in Kant 2007; or alphabetically by composition, as in Balanchine and Mason 1977. Just as there are guides to Euro-American ballet and modern dance, there are guides to global art traditions that assist an outsider in understanding a genre such as Kabuki, as in Gunji and Yoshida 1987. Other types of guides present a “how-to” approach to a facet of dance, such as composition (Smith-Autard 2004) or teaching a genre such as folk dance (Weikart 1997). Such guides are relevant for musicians seeking to understand the interconnections between choreographic and musical structures. Bopp 1994 provides an overview to dance resources, including guides themselves. Again, the strategy for musicians seeking information on a specific dance music repertoire would be to consult sources on the dance genre with which the musical accompaniment is associated.

              • Au, Susan. Ballet and Modern Dance. 2d ed. World of Art. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2002.

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                A historical survey of Western theatrical dance, covering, chronologically, French court ballet to contemporary dance and its offshoots, including vernacular, folk, and global theatrical dance genres. Since ballet and modern dance are collaborative genres involving choreographers and composers, such dance guides provide insights into the choreography the dance music supports.

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              • Balanchine, George, and Francis Mason. Balanchine’s Complete Stories of the Great Ballets. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1977.

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                More than “stories,” the 404 scenarios, constituting the standard ballet and ballet music repertoire, are supplemented with notes on the performance history of the individual ballets. As Igor Stravinsky’s primary collaborator, George Balanchine’s insights on his own choreographies and career, plus an annotated chronology (1469–1976), are historically important.

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              • Bopp, Mary S. Research in Dance: A Guide to Resources. New York: G. K. Hall, 1994.

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                This guide is divided into Sources for Dance Research (covering international collections and archives), Reference Literature (reference sources, serials, indexes / abstracts, sources for reviews), and a bibliography of guides and handbooks. The source is crucial as many research materials pertaining to dance, dancing, and dance music are not catalogued as such.

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              • Gunji, Masakatsu, and Chiaki Yoshida. The Kabuki Guide. Translated by Christopher Holmes. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1987.

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                This guide provides a brief introduction to Kabuki, one of the most integrated art genres, including music, dance, theater, and art. The text and illustrations introduce basic performance elements such as the Kabuki stage, actors, costumes, dances, music, colors, and types of Kabuki plays. Synopses are given for thirty-six plays.

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              • Kant, Marion, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Ballet. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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                This Companion contains twenty-four articles by international authors. Four chronological sections emphasize ballet’s dynamic aesthetic relationship with social history through Baroque-era royalty, 18th-century revolutions, 19th-century feminization, and 20th-century modernization. Especially useful are the sections on chronology, further readings, along with Marian E. Smith’s article on 19th-century French ballet music compositional practice.

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              • Searle, Humphrey. Ballet Music: An Introduction. 2d ed. New York: Dover, 1973.

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                This is a survey of ballet music (Renaissance to 1972) written by a ballet composer. Since 1973, specialized studies have appeared on specific eras, but this book is still useful for its overview, an essay “What Is Ballet Music?” and a carefully researched chronological list of premieres with first performance details.

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              • Smith-Autard, Jacqueline M. Dance Composition. 5th ed. New York: Routledge, 2004.

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                Dance Composition presents the content and form for making dances rather than choreographing, which includes movement and its allied arts. Jacqueline Smith-Autard systematizes the formal guidelines and creative processes used to successfully translate ideas into dances, which by extension pertain to the scores for dance. The 2010 edition (London: Methuen Drama) includes a DVD.

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              • Weikart, Phyllis S. Teaching Folk Dance: Successful Steps. Ypsilanti, MI: High / Scope, 1997.

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                Movement and education specialist Phyllis Weikart provides descriptions, dance steps, and musical resources for more than 215 communal folk dances, organized by level of difficulty. Musicians can teach the movements for folk music using Weikart’s delivery system for instruction, supplemental instructional resources, teaching videos, performance suggestions, and contextualization for the dances.

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              Bibliographies

              The New York Public Library’s Dictionary Catalog of the Dance Collection and Online Catalog to the Collections of the Jerome Robbins Dance Division provide the most comprehensive index to dance materials and, since they are online, remain current and can be searched by both general and very specific terms, including names of composers, compositions, and dance-music genres. International Bibliography of Theatre & Dance with Full Text (formerly International Bibliography of Theatre (1982–1999)), while not quite as comprehensive and accessible (available only by subscription), does provide full text for articles in a strong selection of dance journals with a theater perspective. The remaining bibliographies in this paragraph are useful to musicians interested in dance music repertoires from cultures that do not necessarily treat music and dance as distinct or mutually exclusive traditions. Edsall 2001 is not only selective, but provides a systemization for categories and their terminology. Rust 1996 takes a global approach to dance through the lens of religion. Hadary’s Bibliography of Performing Arts in the East and Mills 1996 are directed toward Eastern and African dance forms, respectively. Southern and Wright 1990 places African American dance in the context of other forms of expressive culture, particularly music, with which it interacts.

              • Edsall, Mary E., ed. A Core Collection in Dance. Chicago: Dance Librarians Committee, Association of College and Research Libraries, 2001.

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                The book, a collaboration between librarians and scholars, identifies essential works for dance research and library collection development. Mary Edsall standardizes terminology across the dance field, which results in a clearly organized classification system with articulated selection criteria. Sources on dance music traditions are accessible by geographic region or Western genres.

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              • Hadary, Alex. Bibliography of Performing Arts in the East (in Western Languages).

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                With more than forty-seven thousand briefly annotated entries, this is a dynamic resource. Nine geographic regions can be browsed separately. Simple text or advanced search capabilities and an exhaustive keyword list provide additional access to dance music. The “exhaustive entries” for dance are drawn from books, chapters, journal articles, and some theses.

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                • International Bibliography of Theatre & Dance with Full Text.

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                  The electronic database (by subscription) includes full text for 100 titles and fifty books from 126 countries. It replaces the printed International Bibliography of Theatre (1982–1999). This comprehensive reference tool indexes journal articles, books, chapters, and dissertation abstracts on ballet, dance, and opera among purely theatrical genres.

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                  • Mills, Glendola Yhema. “A Bibliographic Essay and Selected Bibliography of African Dance.” In African Dance: An Artistic, Historical, and Philosophical Inquiry. Edited by Kariamu Welsh Asante, 221–250. Trenton, NJ: Africa World, 1996.

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                    Glendola Mills’s bibliographic chapter, consisting of citations with varying lengths of annotations, concludes the book. The selected sources support the divisions of the text—tradition, tradition and continuity, tradition transformed, and tradition contextualized—and its focus on dance on the African continent and in the diaspora.

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                  • New York Public Library. Dictionary Catalog of the Dance Collection: A list of Authors, Titles, and Subjects of Multi-Media Materials in the Dance Collection of the Performing Arts Research Center of the New York Public Library. New York: New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations, 1974.

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                    Original ten-volume index to the Dance Collection, New York Public Library at Lincoln Center, with annual supplements (1975–1998), Bibliographic Guide to Dance (1975–), Index to Dance Periodicals (1992–2001), and annual cumulative CD-ROM Dance on Disk (1995–). This information is now folded into the NYPL online catalog for all branches.

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                  • Online Catalog to the Collections of the Jerome Robbins Dance Division of the New York Public Library.

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                    Comprehensive catalogue of a premier dance collection. Inclusive of dance forms and cultures, in many languages, major collection of international dance periodicals. Includes print, visual, audio material, searchable and cross-referenced by subject, choreographer, performer, composer, composition title, or geographic region. See, on this Dance Division homepage, “Major Collections” and “Using the Archives.”

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                  • Rust, Ezra Gardner. The Music and Dance of the World’s Religions: A Comprehensive, Annotated Bibliography of Materials in the English Language. Music Reference Collection 54. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.

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                    Takes a global perspective toward music and dance literature of oral and written religions from international, regional, and local contexts. Similarly, the literature represents broad multidisciplinary perspectives. The information is clearly organized by regions in an expanded table of contents, or searchable in author and subject indexes.

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                  • Southern, Eileen, and Josephine Wright. African-American Traditions in Song, Sermon, Tale, and Dance, 1600s–1920: An Annotated Bibliography of Literature, Collections, and Artworks. Greenwood Encyclopedia of Black Music. New York: Greenwood, 1990.

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                    An annotated guide to the literature and iconographic material chronicling African American folk culture that forms the roots of today’s genres. Clearly organized chronologically, then subdivided (Social Activities, Religious Experience, Song, Tale), with three indexes (name, subject, and song) and a special section on slave materials collected in the 1930s.

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                  Journals

                  Just as in music, there are scores of journals and magazines directed toward segments of the dance community (professional and student dancers, teachers, critics, audiences, and academics) and devoted to virtually every genre of dance. And just as in music, there are no major journals or magazines devoted solely to dance music genres. English Dance & Song is the closest exception, treating both music and dance and their combination. Some scholarly music journals such as Ethnomusicology treat music for dance or the dance-music complex among other topics. Most parallel to Ethnomusicology are Dance Research: The Journal of the Society for Dance Research, Dance Research Journal, and Discourses in Dance. As a relatively recent academic field, dance studies, and its associated journals, are quite interdisciplinary, placing dance within cultural studies, performance studies, and other cognate fields such as music. The most parallel to musicological journals is Dance Chronicle. Nonacademic journals can target highly specialized readers, particularly for ballet and/or modern dance, as in Ballet Review or Choreography and Dance, or a broad trade magazine readership as in Dance Magazine.

                  Primary Sources

                  Depending on the tradition and genre, dance and its music are disseminated in some cases by notation in original manuscripts, but more commonly by a combination of kinesthetic and oral transmission. Dancing manuals document not only steps for individual dances but their accompanying music and frequently coordinate the steps to individual measures of music. Dancing manuals also document larger environment within which the dance music functioned through the era’s social mores, etiquette, fashion, and sometimes even performance practice of the music. Accordingly, this section includes a link to a collection of historical dance manuals in An American Ballroom Companion: Dance Instruction Manuals. Because of the ephemeral nature of dance and its supporting music, especially in unnotated traditions, video documentation is an essential primary source for understanding the relationship between movement and sound. The JVC Video Anthology of World Music and Dance (Ichikawa, et al. 1990) documents traditions outside of Euro-American art dance. Téten 2003 documents social dancing on film from primary sources through the mid-20th century. Spain 1998 is a filmography to assist in locating additional visual primary sources. Another critical primary source for documentation of dance and by extension dance music are source readings from the era in question. Cohen and Matheson 1992 have collected source readings on Euro-American theatrical dance. Gottlieb 2008 has collected source readings primarily on 19th- and 20th-century ballet. Needham 2002 has collected sources readings on a wide variety of American dance genres. Dance in Video is an extensive archive of 20th- and 21st- century Euro-American theatrical dance and documentaries of individual creators and companies. This source is useful to musicians seeking a richer understanding of dance music from the Western art tradition within its intended multidisciplinary and collaborative context.

                  • An American Ballroom Companion: Dance Instruction Manuals, ca. 1600–1920. American Memory. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1998.

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                    More than two hundred social-dance manuals with seventy-five videoclips linked to the corresponding dance manual. This is a comprehensive source for the social history of dancing and its music with searchable chronological (late Middle Ages to 1929), conceptual (Dance Music, Etiquette), and thematic (Antidance Treatises) categories, and introductions by Elizabeth Aldrich.

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                    • Cohen, Selma Jeanne, and Katy Matheson. Dance As a Theatre Art: Source Readings in Dance History from 1581 to the Present. 2d ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Book Co, 1992.

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                      These thirty-three primary source readings—by choreographers, dancers, and theorists—document Euro-American art dance, and by extension the context of its dance music, from late-16th-century Europe to the 1990s. While a new section by Kathy Matheson updates dance to the 1990s, the original 1974 introduction is particularly dated.

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                    • Dance in Video.

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                      An online streaming collection of more than 286 videos of staged dance performances and documentaries, covering the range of 20th-century Euro-American theatrical dance genres, performers, and choreographers. Places dance music within its intended multidisciplinary and collaborative context. Technological capabilities include advanced searching, playlists, citations, and customized clips. Available by institutional subscription. Published by Alexander Street Press.

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                    • Gottlieb, Robert S. Reading Dance: A Gathering of Memoirs, Reportage, Criticism, Profiles, Interviews, and Some Uncategorizable Extras. New York: Pantheon, 2008.

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                      Gathers more than two hundred examples of exemplary dance writing, ranging from essays to reviews, interviews, profiles, and ephemera. Celebrating seminal choreographers, dancers, critics, and teachers dominating late-19th- through 20th-century ballet, and to a lesser extent modern dance and film, these articles contextualize the standard Western classical dance music repertoire.

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                    • Ichikawa, Katsumori, Kunihiko Nakagawa, Yuji Ichihashi, and Tomoaki Fujii. The JVC Video Anthology of World Music and Dance. Tokyo: JVC, Victor Co. of Japan/Smithsonian Folkways, 1990.

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                      Brief ethnomusicological fieldwork recordings of folk and vernacular traditions. The original thirty volumes (1990), covering world traditions regionally, are supplemented by Africa (3 vols.), Europe (2 vols.) and the Americas (6 vols.). Separate booklets contain explanatory essays and supplemental resources to contextualize the dance and its dance music together.

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                    • Needham, Maureen. I See America Dancing: Selected Readings, 1685–2000. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002.

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                      Primary documents represent diverse viewpoints (dancer and observer) on the role of dance, and by extension dance music, in the United States from the colonial era through 2000. The five sections—Native Americans, Other Traditions, Antidance, Theatrical Dance Pioneers, and Visions of America—include substantial scholarly introductions and supplemental bibliographies.

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                    • Spain, Louise. Dance on Camera: A Guide to Dance Films and Videos. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 1998.

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                      Not a primary source itself, this filmography provides access to the primary sources of dance on film. Over fourteen hundred titles are indexed, nearly double the original edition (1991), with thumbnail descriptions and information on distributors, format, and dances included. Composers, directors, choreographers, dancers, and more are cross-referenced in separate indexes.

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                    • Téten, Carol. America Dances! 1897–1948: A Collector’s Edition of Social Dance in Film. Kentfield, CA: Dancetime, 2003.

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                      These original clips of American iconic dances, from newsreels, silent, instructional, and feature films, capture not only the movements, but the music, clothing, behaviors, and mores of American social history through dance. Early and rare footage include African and Anglo Americans dancing cakewalks and an 1897 Thomas Edison clip.

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                    Performance Practice

                    Treatises, manuals, and guides explain the dance-music relationship from the perspective of analyzing and performing musical accompaniment for dance whether historically or in a contemporary dance studio. Arbeau 1967 (originally 1589) codifies the dance-music relationship and its associated mores in 16th-century Europe. (See An American Ballroom Companion: Dance Instruction Manuals in Primary Sources for an entire collection of related historical treatises.) Waxman and Hilton 1992 codify performance practice of Renaissance and Baroque dance accompaniment for the modern keyboardist. Guides for accompanists in contemporary dance studios range from practical to analytical and philosophical. Lishka 1979 and Cavalli 2001 analyze the structure of a ballet class and provide repertoire suggestions, even scores. Toenjes 2009 similarly analyzes the structure of a modern dance class and provides suggestions for improvisation, the mainstay of a modern dance accompanist. Sawyer 1985 provides a more philosophical than structural analysis of the dance-music relationship. Teck 1989 and Teck 1990 presents a broader analysis of the collaborative environment in which dance musicians must function.

                    • Arbeau, Thoinot [Jehan Tabourot]. Orchesography. Translated by Mary Stewart Evans. American Musicological Society, Reprint series. New York: Dover, 1967.

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                      Published in 1589, this treatise catalogues 16th-century European dance genres and their accompanying music with illustrations, description of steps, 16th-century notation of forty-seven dance tunes, and instrumental performance practices. Thoinot Arbeau, a dancing master, offers instruction in courtly social mores. This 1967 edition includes a new introduction and notes by Julia Sutton and a new Labanotation section by Mireille Backer and Julia Sutton.

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                    • Cavalli, Harriet. Dance and Music: A Guide to Dance Accompaniment for Musicians and Dance Teachers. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.

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                      A more accurate title would be Ballet and Its Piano Accompaniment; this manual prepares musicians to communicate effectively in the collaboration with the dance studio teacher and dance company. Harriet Cavalli interprets the dancers’ language, ballet class structures, and movement vocabulary into musical terms, providing more than eighty accompaniment selections, keyed to text explanations.

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                    • Lishka, Gerald R. A Handbook for the Ballet Accompanist. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979.

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                      Because traditional ballet classes are codified, this practical manual is not dated. Drawing examples from the standard piano repertoire, Gerald Lishka catalogues musical selections (including sample excerpts and their emendations for specific steps) appropriate for each exercise in a ballet class. The art of dance accompaniment ultimately supports the dancer.

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                    • Sawyer, Elizabeth. Dance with the Music: The World of the Ballet Musician. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

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                      Still a classic, this addresses the aesthetic, philosophic, and perceptual relationships between music and movement with such insight that it applies well beyond ballet. Technical challenges for integrating the disciplines, whether practical or aesthetic, are articulated in vocabulary accessible to musicians, dancers, and audience members.

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                    • Teck, Katherine. Music for the Dance: Reflections on a Collaborative Art. Contributions to the Study of Music and Dance 15. New York: Greenwood, 1989.

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                      Katherine Teck explores the collaborative process among musicians (composers, conductors, and dance musicians) and dancers (choreographers, dancers, and directors) in creation and theatrical performance. The four sections (Creation, Performance, Silent Artists Speak, and Toward the Future) comprise case studies based on interviews. See also Teck 1990.

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                    • Teck, Katherine. Movement to Music: Musicians in the Dance Studio. Contributions to the Study of Music and Dance 20. New York: Greenwood, 1990.

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                      Katherine Teck, an accompanist herself, explores issues of collaboration in the dance studio between musicians, dance teachers, and students. Practical considerations—from analysis of musical elements and movement patterns, to issues of training and improvisation for dance musicians—reinforce effective communication across disciplines. See also Teck 1989.

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                    • Toenjes, John. “Music Improvisation in the Modern Dance Class: Techniques and Approaches in Fulfilling a Multi-Layered Role.” In Musical Improvisation: Art, Education, and Society. Edited by Gabriel Solis and Bruno Nettl, 221–236. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

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                      Like the modern dance class that it animates, improvisational accompaniment is ethereal, leaving no artifact, but serves a critical educational function. Based on experience, observation, and interviews, John Toenjes codifies improvisational approaches through structural analysis of movement exercises and the shifting interplay among class demands, musical originality, and participants. Originally delivered at a 1996 conference.

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                    • Waxman, Donald, and Wendy Hilton. A Dance Pageant: Renaissance and Baroque Keyboard Dances. Boston: E. C. Schirmer, 1992.

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                      This volume combines performance practice instructions for twelve early dance genres with several keyboard scores suitable for accompanying dances in each genre. Wendy Hilton’s contextualizing historical essay and thorough description of dance steps are aimed at creating a keyboard performance practice informed by historical dance practices and movement.

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                    Ethnographic Studies

                    Until the last decades of the 20th century, Euro-American art dance was studied primarily as an aesthetic product, sometimes through musicological study of its musical accompaniment. (For chronological Western art dance and dance music studies, see Historical Studies.) In contrast, world dance cultures outside of Euro-American theatrical dance were studied initially as a marginalized topic in anthropology, complete with 19th-century evolutionary biases, and only later as part of a music-dance complex through ethnomusicology. More recently, musicology, ethnomusicology, and dance studies have grown more interdisciplinary, increasingly addressing issues of identity and construction of meaning in a globalized postcolonial world as related to the dance and dance music, with their interconnections, whether as arts or through their practitioners, and shared cultural spheres.

                    Methodology

                    William Butler Yeats, in “Among School Children” (The Tower, 1928), famously wondered: “O body swayed to music, O brightening glance, / How can we know the dancer from the dance?” Ethnomusicology and the corollary field in dance, dance studies, generally do not separate the dancer from the dance, nor from its music or the shared cultural context from which dance, dancer, music, musician, and observer derive meaning. Ethnomusicology and dance studies share a focus on contemporary global dance and music cultures, studied through interdisciplinary methodologies, analyzing axes of gender, class, race, ethnicity, and sexuality, frequently influenced by anthropology and ethnographic fieldwork. (Musicology and historical fields of dance studies may also apply these methodologies but, more historically focused, reflect methodologies of history, literary studies, and art history geared toward bibliographic and aesthetic analysis. See Historical Studies.) Dance studies, a relatively new discipline that until recently has been centered in the United Kingdom and United States, has begun to question its own Eurocentric biases. Buckland 2006 is notable for explicitly questioning previous Eurocentric high art biases, selecting essays outside of this tradition that also blur long-held distinctions between historical studies of product and ethnographic studies of contemporary process. The Kealiinohomoku 1983 seminal article (written in 1969) was among the first to document these biases, analyzing ballet as an ethnic form and the formal structures of Hopi dance to prove the point. Buckland 1999 and Kaeppler 1991 present methodological approaches to dance ethnography that parallel similar ethnomusicological methodologies, while Fraleigh and Hanstein 1999 present more comprehensive methodological approaches for researching dance. Desmond 1997 considers the relationship between dance and cultural studies of difference, slicing across former boundaries between Euro-American art and global vernacular traditions. As has been the case in musicology and ethnomusicology, as dance studies expanded in methodology and interdisciplinarity, its scope of subjects similarly broadened to include moving bodies and performativity, as discussed in Foster 1996, or gesture and its transmission, as discussed in Noland and Ness 2008.

                    • Buckland, Theresa, ed. Dance in the Field: Theory, Methods, and Issues in Dance Ethnography. New York: St. Martin’s, 1999.

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                      Dance ethnography, like ethnomusicology, is grounded in fieldwork. These essays survey field practices through various disciplinary lenses and a variety of geographic locations. Authors focus on conceptualization of the field, methodological approaches, individual innovations, influences from adjacent disciplines, and political and ethical issues, more than particularities of specific field sites.

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                    • Buckland, Theresa, ed. Dancing from Past to Present: Nation, Culture, Identities. Studies in Dance History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006.

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                      These top international scholars combine historical and ethnographic inquiry to “investigate dance as embodied cultural practice.” Case studies from Tonga, Java, Bosnia-Herzegovina, New Mexico, India, Korea, Macedonia, and England examine how dance, and by extension its music, participate in creating culture and identity outside of Euro-American concert dance.

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                    • Desmond, Jane, ed. Meaning in Motion: New Cultural Studies of Dance. Post-Contemporary interventions. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.

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                      Much as with cultural studies in music, these essays broaden dance analysis and cultural studies, introducing “key concepts of embodiment, identity, and representation,” extending considerations of “the body” to the three-dimensional lived body. From a variety of disciplinary perspectives and dance genres, cultural meaning is derived from aesthetic practices.

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                    • Foster, Susan Leigh, ed. Corporealities: Dancing, Knowledge, Culture, and Power. New York: Routledge, 1996.

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                      The authors interweave an “interdisciplinary context for dance studies and a bodily presence in cultural studies.” These essays draw on cross-disciplinary studies of text, gender, and power across various bodily motions in pageantry, physical education, festivals, exhibitions, tourism, and social and theatrical dance. Methodologies easily extend to musical analysis.

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                    • Fraleigh, Sondra Horton, and Penelope Hanstein, eds. Researching Dance: Evolving Modes of Inquiry. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1999.

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                      These essays delineate distinct subfields of inquiry for conducting scholarly research across the subfields of dance. Individual chapters address quantitative and qualitative approaches: postpositivism, scientific design, hermeneutic inquiry, aesthetics, historiography, dance ethnography, movement analysis, feminist inquiry, and cultural diversity. Methodologies extend to the analysis of dance within its musical context.

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                    • Kaeppler, Adrienne L. “American Approaches to the Study of Dance.” Yearbook for Traditional Music 23 (1991): 11–21.

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                      Adrienne Kaeppler summarizes the differences between American contextual and European choreological (or product-oriented) methodologies in the branch of dance scholarship that parallels ethnomusicology. Kaeppler then surveys American approaches in three categories: anthopological, ethnographic / ethnological, and other (dance history, performance studies). The bibliography is virtually a historiography of the field

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                    • Kealiinohomoku, Joann. “An Anthropologist Looks at Ballet as a Form of Ethnic Dance.” In What Is Dance? Edited by Roger Copland and Marshall Cohen, 533–549. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

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                      This seminal dance ethnology article (1969), critiques Western categorizations of non-Western dance, by first defamiliarizing ballet as an “ethnic” dance form. Using inadequate historical descriptions of “primitive” dance, Kealiinohomoku debunks misconceptions of Hopi dance as static, uniform, and therefore primitive. Dance music analysis similarly profits from blurred disciplinary perspectives.

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                    • Noland, Carrie, and Sally Ann Ness, eds. Migrations of Gesture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.

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                      Gesture both shapes and is shaped by sociohistorical formations and transnational migrations. Through migrations, gestures, like sound, accrue new or alternative meanings as they recombine, are appropriated, cause different reactions, or provide new experiences. Embodiment and location are central to understanding gesture.

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                    Geography

                    Because the literature of music as it relates to dance in various parts of the globe is so vast, it would be impossible to give full representation here. The enormity of the topic is further complicated by the fact that many global cultures do not separate music, dance, and dance music into distinct artistic areas. Thus, some of the sources treat a significant dance music repertoire through the dance with which it is interconnected. This section highlights various methodological approaches to studies rather than attempting to treat entire geographic regions and their diasporas. For resources and bibliographies on specific genres or regions, see Professional Societies and Encyclopedias and Dictionaries. In the classic study, Thomson 1974, the author studies African art through motion and dancing. Ethnomusicologist-professional jazz saxophonist Austerlitz extends methodologies of participant-observation and “the field” in Austerlitz 1997. Hahn 2007 similarly blurs boundaries between professional performer and participant-observer, while expanding understandings of individual musical elements and their transmission. In addition to Hahn 2007, Ness 1992 and Sklar 2001 model sensitive self-reflexive ethnography and insights into the participant-observer fieldwork process as dance performers. Nieuwkerk 1995 interconnects music and dance through an ethnographic study of professional entertainers in Egypt. Browning 1995, in beautifully written prose, models the interections of literary theory and embodied dance knowledge. Van Zile 2001 combines ethnographic and historical methodologies to study Korean dance at its source and in the diaspora.

                    • Austerlitz, Paul. Merengue: Dominican Music and Dominican Identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997.

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                      Paul Austerlitz analyzes both the historical Ibero-African roots of merengue and the contemporary contexts (local, national, and transnational) in which it is played and danced. A performing saxophonist, he reshapes the understanding of participant-observer analysis and “the field.” A symbol of Dominican identity, merengue is a site for contested identities.

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                    • Browning, Barbara. Samba: Resistance in Motion. Arts and Politics of the Everyday. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

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                      As a literary theorist and Afro-Brazilian dancer, Barbara Browning seamlessly merges “ways of articulating knowledge in two diverse intellectual communities”; through her writing and dancing. Browning focuses on dances with significant music repertoires—samba, candomblé religious practices, capoeira, and carnaval—interconnecting them with Brazilian political, religious, and social life.

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                    • Hahn, Tomie. Sensational Knowledge: Embodying Culture through Japanese Dance. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2007.

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                      Hahn, an ethnomusicologist and classical Japanese dancer, argues that cultural knowledge is communicated through the body’s senses. Analyzing each sense, she expands the analysis of sound (and other sensual inputs) to include not only music’s formal structures, but also sonic elements of transmission such as the teacher’s voice and silence.

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                    • Ness, Sally Ann. Body, Movement, and Culture: Kinesthetic and Visual Symbolism in a Philippine Community. Series in Contemporary Ethnography. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

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                      Sally Ann Ness studies how “visual and kinesthetic symbols interact to create meaning,” through anthropological inquiry and close analysis of movement. She self-consciously interrogates her own Western theatrical dance frameworks as she learns to embody Filipino choreography. The author’s self-reflexive fieldwork provides models for dance music fieldwork.

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                    • Nieuwkerk, Karin van. “A Trade Like Any Other”: Female Singers and Dancers in Egypt. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995.

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                      In an ethnography of the present-day Egyptian entertainment trade, Karin van Nieuwkerk examines the paradoxical treatment of female entertainers and nightclub performers as disreputable, despite the prestige they bring to celebratory occasions. The stigma arises from the social definition of the female body as sexually enticing.

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                    • Sklar, Deidre. Dancing with the Virgin: Body and Faith in the Fiesta of Tortugas, New Mexico. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

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                      Deidre Sklar’s first-person ethnographic writing provides models for dance music fieldwork. Her descriptions of movement combine kinesthetic analysis as a dancer, visual analysis as an observer-fieldworker, and feminist inquiry. Through movement she comes to understand not only the dance but its surrounding context in the fiestas of Totugas.

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                    • Thompson, Robert Farris. African Art in Motion; Icon and Act in the Collection of Katherine Coryton White. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

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                      In Africa, “motion conveys stature to music and art, sculpture deepens motion” as the author notes in this classic text. Since movement blended with various art forms enhances the object’s vitality, Thompson proposes an art history of “danced art,” considering masks, mime, balance, and artistic criticism of dance.

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                    • Van Zile, Judy. Perspectives on Korean Dance. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.

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                      Identity, whether of dance styles, individual people, an ethnic group, or a country is the author’s central focus. Dance cannot be separated from its cultural context, and thus changes in governmental globalization policies, religion, and economics have led variously to preservation and change in Korean dance and by extension its music.

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                    Historical Studies

                    Until the last decades of the twentieth century, Euro-American art dance and its dance music were studied primarily as an aesthetic product, sometimes through musicological analysis of its musical accompaniment without full attention to the interconnections with the choreography or collaborative compositional process. At the same time, dance studies tended to focus on historical narratives of luminary dancers, choreographers, or companies without substantial attention to the supporting music or the shared cultural spheres from patronage to production. Although analyses of dance music have become more integrated, specialized and mutually exclusive notational and formal analysis systems for music and dance have continued to provide challenges. As with many disciplines, musicology, ethnomusicology, and dance studies have become increasingly interdisciplinary, influenced by cultural studies of identity along axes of race, class, gender, and sexuality; postcolonial theorization of power structures, and globalization. Because the historical literature of Euro-American art music as it relates to dance is so vast, it would be impossible to give full representation here. This section highlights various methodological approaches to studies rather than attempting to treat entire chronological eras. Preference has been given to sources that treat dance as a physical and tangible, rather than abstract, influence on the music. For resources and bibliographies on specific genres or eras, or individual composers, dancers, choreographers, patrons, companies, or compositions, see Professional Societies and Encyclopedias and Dictionaries; for overviews of ballet and modern dance, see Guides to Literature and Repertory.

                    Before 1800

                    Despite the long chronological sweep of this section, “early dance” tends to be considered together not only because it precedes the standard repertoire and the codification of classical ballet vocabulary, but because the extent and variety of documentation and subsequently investigatory methods differ. Since historic early dance was a “broken tradition” that did not enjoy a continuous performance history, much scholarly attention had been devoted to reconstructing, in addition to contextualizing, the dance repertoire that the music accompanied. An assumption of this section is that musical performance practice, even of stylized dance genres, benefits from knowledge of the physical dances on which the music is based. A parallel assumption is that scholarship contextualizing the dance is of vital importance to a comprehensive understanding of the music, given their shared aesthetic conventions and cultural contexts. The sources in this section reflect a broad range of approaches to the repertoire—period primary sources, reconstruction, performance practices, historical documentation, and cultural contextualization. Many analogies can be made between the fields of early dance and early music, but a critical difference is the lack of a singular standardized dance notational system comparable to musical notation. Hilton 1997 (reprint of 1981 ed.) is a classic text that helped launch the early dance movement at much the same time as the early music movement rose to the fore. As a teacher, Hilton trained the current generation of prominent Baroque dancer-historians (see Whitley-Bauguess, et al. 2005a and Whitley-Bauguess, et al. 2005b). Little and Jenne 2001 and Waxman and Hilton 1992 instruct musicians on how to make primarily Baroque music “dance” through studies of dance rhythms and temporal structures in music, situating them in a larger cultural context. Through thorough studies of primary sources such as the instructional manuals digitized by the Library of Congress 1998, historian-dancers (see Keller 2007 and Brooks 2007) have created historical studies of early dance genres, dancers, and patrons, and the surrounding cultural contexts that both shaped and were shaped by dance and its music.

                    • An American Ballroom Companion: Dance Instruction Manuals, ca. 1600–1920. American Memory. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1998.

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                      Contains more than two hundred social dance manuals, most with corresponding music, and seventy-five video demonstrations linked to the corresponding dance manual description. A comprehensive source for the social history of dancing and its music, with searchable chronological (late Middle Ages to 1929), conceptual (Dance Music, Etiquette), and thematic (Antidance Treatises) categories.

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                      • Brooks, Lynn Matluck. Women’s Work: Making Dance in Europe before 1800. Studies in Dance History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2007.

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                        Prior to 1800, dance and women’s history, but particularly women’s work in dance, are ephemeral. These international scholars make clear that women danced in highly public contexts, were arbiters of behavior through dance, and that under their patronage dance, and by extension its music, influenced male political and social spheres.

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                      • Hilton, Wendy. Dance and Music of Court and Theater: Selected Writings of Wendy Hilton. Dance and Music series 10. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon, 1997.

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                        Hilton’s definitive work traces the history, social context, and choreographies (using Beauchamp-Feuillet notation) of French Baroque court, ballet, and theater dances and their music. Hilton was an influential founding figure in early dance reconstruction. Reissued, augmented edition of Dance of Court and Theater: The French Noble Style, 1690–1725 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Book Company, 1981).

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                      • Keller, Kate Van Winkle. Dance and Its Music in America, 1528–1789. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon, 2007.

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                        Defining dance as “choreographic activity performed to musical accompaniment,” even a rattle or voice, allows this rich history of colonial era dancing to interweave Native American, black, and European dancing. The author demonstrates how dance and its music participate in the social dynamics of cultural, commercial, and aesthetic life.

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                      • Little, Meredith, and Natalie Jenne. Dance and the Music of J. S. Bach. Music--Scholarship and Performance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

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                        After documenting the French Court dance practices where J. S. Bach lived, the authors articulate a theory of analysis and vocabulary for temporal structure and dance rhythms in his named dance movements. They encourage a visceral feeling for Baroque rhythms. The expanded 2001 edition also addresses larger works without dance titles.

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                      • Waxman, Donald, and Wendy Hilton. A Dance Pageant: Renaissance and Baroque Keyboard Dances. Boston: E.C. Schirmer, 1992.

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                        Includes several keyboard scores for twelve early dance genres, with an introduction to each genre, by early dance expert Hilton, focusing on correct musical performance practice for the genre (notation of characteristic dance rhythms, tempo, and affect). Hilton’s concise historical overview includes period illustrations of dancers and Feuillet dance notation.

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                      • Whitley-Bauguess, Paige, Thomas Baird, Stuart Grasberg, and Barry Bauguess. Introduction to Baroque Dance: Dance Types. New Bern, NC: BaroqueDance.com, 2005a.

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                        Baroque dancer Paige Whitley-Bauguess, with Thomas Baird and musicians of the Baroque Arts Project, demonstrates and explains Baroque dance techniques, supported with fully costumed performances. Whitley-Bauguess demonstrates relationships between period dance genres, meticulously reconstructed from period writings and dance notation, and their musical accompaniments, such as the menuet or Entrée d’Apolon.

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                      • Whitley-Bauguess, Paige, Thomas Baird, and Stuart Grasberg. Dance of the French Baroque Theatre. [S.l.]: BaroqueDance.com, 2005b.

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                        Baroque dancers Paige Whitley-Bauguess and Thomas Baird discuss and stage works by preeminent French dancing masters working in France and England during the early 1700s. In particular, view their period-style Les Folies d’Espagne (Antonio Vivaldi, La Folia) and dramatic entertainment Acis et Galatée (Jean-Baptiste Lully) with original dances and pantomimes.

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                      1800–1900

                      The chronological eras of Romantic music and Romantic ballet do not follow the same periodization. While scholars of Romantic music and dance date the beginning and ending of their respective eras somewhat differently, “Romantic ballet” (roughly the 1830s and 1840s), followed by “Classical ballet” (roughly 1875–1909), definitely do not fully coincide with the Classical to Romantic era in music. The initiation of the Romantic era in ballet coincides with a shift in patronage from the court to the public and the introduction of a step vocabulary that has become codified through the present day. Wiley 1985 and Smith 2000 are musicological studies of works that define the modern standard ballet repertoire. The essays in Garafola 1997 trace the roots of the modern ballet repertoire, and by extension its music, documenting its artistic and cultural conventions that continue their reach into ballet’s repertoire and reception today. Nineteenth-century ballroom dances (see Téten and Shepard 1990) and their contextualizing societal mores (Aldrich 1991) are the basis of dance music genres that form a core of the standard musical repertoire from the 19th century. Aldrich 1991 also demonstrates the interconnections among North and South American ballrooms, with their replications of British social codes and French fashion, and their European ballroom counterparts. Because the vast majority of music in the ballet studio is from the 19th-century standard repertoire, especially for piano, it is treated from the accompanist’s perspective under Performance Practice.

                      • Aldrich, Elizabeth. From the Ballroom to Hell: Grace and Folly in Nineteenth-Century Dance. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1991.

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                        This book consists largely of excerpts, drawn from primarily American etiquette, dance, beauty, and fashion manuals from the 1800s. An introductory chapter establishes how dance and etiquette were inseparable as the middle-class demonstrated its aspirations, among changing gender roles, for membership in genteel society. By extension, the author contextualizes social dance music.

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                      • Garafola, Lynn, ed. Rethinking the Sylph: New Perspectives on the Romantic Ballet. Studies in Dance History. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1997.

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                        International scholars from a variety of disciplines present a revisionist understanding of Romantic ballet. The repercussions of the Romantic decades (1830s and 1840s), their “classical” lexicon, ideologies, and artistic and social conventions—whether nationalism, eroticism, exoticism, social class, or the feminization of ballet—continue to effect ballet and its music.

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                      • Smith, Marian Elizabeth. Ballet and Opera in the Age of Giselle. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.

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                        During the 1830s and 1840s, ballet and opera shared not only the same stage and audiences at the Paris Opéra, but a family resemblance in plots, character types, staging, and even music. In particular, ballet-pantomimes, the best known being Giselle, show that the marriage between ballet and opera continued.

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                      • Téten, Carol, and David Shepard. How to Dance through Time. Kentfield, CA: Dancetime, 1990.

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                        In vols. 1, 5, and 6, 19th-century social dance steps and their variations (waltz, polka, galop, mazurka, schottische, quadrille, and cotillion) are demonstrated and described. The dances are then demonstrated in their entirety with period costumes, including a reconstruction of the opening Grand March of a 19th-century ball.

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                      • Wiley, Roland John. Tchaikovsky’s Ballets: Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, Nutcracker. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

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                        Tchaikovsky’s Ballets is still the definitive musicological study of Tchaikovsky’s three ballets, their original collaborative documents, first productions, and critical receptions. The structural elements of each ballet score are analyzed in relationship to the narrative. The chapter on ballet audiences and collaborative constraints placed on composers is especially illuminating.

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                      1900–Present

                      To an unprecedented extent, the first half of the 20th century saw the intertwining of Euro-American dance (whether theatrical or social) and its music, often as the defining genres of the era. Thus it is not surprising that until recently these dance, music, and dance-music repertoires, their shared cultural context, and the structural relationships between dance and its accompanying music were the most heavily studied and still provide important models for methodological approaches to these categories. (see Dancers and Repertory) By mid-century, formerly new dance genres, such as modern or swing dance, had become firmly established and were forming hybrids with other genres, and in some cases giving way to the next new genre or fad. Each had its own dance music repertoire. By the 21st century, a myriad of dance and dance music genres could be studied from a variety of disciplinary perspectives in music and dance, in addition to the humanities, social sciences, and interdisciplinary fields. (See Context.)

                      Dancers and Repertory

                      Reynolds and McCormick 2003 provide a broad overview of the 20th century, but particularly its first half, through primary-source documents of its luminaries. Dancer-historian Téten 1990 demonstrates the ragtime-era dances and is included here to increase kinesthetic understanding of the genre and its social mores, preferably by doing some steps. Garafola 1998 is the preeminent historical and cultural source on the Ballets Russes, for which many seminal dance music compositions were created. Tabachnik, et al. 1992 is a videorecording of standards reconstructed from the Ballets Russes repertoire. Häger 1990 presents a lavishly illustrated history of the Ballets Suédois repertoire, which subsequently engaged prominent composers and artists after the demise of the Ballets Russes following impresario Serge Diaghilev’s death in 1929. Jordan, et al. 2010, Robertson 1999, and Taruskin 1996 provide musicological models for analysis of music-dance relationships and the cultural context in which they are embedded.

                      • Garafola, Lynn. Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. New York: Da Capo, 1998.

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                        A landmark history of Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes (1909–1929) and his artistic collaborators, including Igor Stravinsky. In a model of dance scholarship, Garafola combines feminist theory, cultural, and social history, examining the interplay among choreographic aesthetics, economic enterprise, and audience reception that ultimately transformed ballet and its musical repertoire.

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                      • Häger, Bengt Nils Richard, Isaac Albéniz, and Alexandre Alexeieff. Ballets Suédois (The Swedish Ballet). New York: H. N. Abrams, 1990.

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                        Ballets Suédois galvanized the Parisian avant-garde arts scene from 1920 to 1925, featuring premieres by Claude Debussy, Cole Porter, Maurice Ravel, and Erick Satie, among others. A chronological analysis of each ballet from the company’s brief history includes lavish reproductions of the sets, costume designs, programs, posters, and performance photographs.

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                      • Jordan, Stephanie, Virginia Brooks, Delia Peters, et al. Music Dances: Balanchine Choreographs Stravinsky. New York, NY: George Balanchine Foundation, 2010.

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                        Jordan analyzes the two masters’ seminal collaboration through the shared compositional element of time. Their sophisticated array of interrelationships, particularly in Agon, are illustrated first independently at the phrase level for music and dance, then simultaneously in performance. Archival footage of George Balanchine and his dancers further illustrates points.

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                      • Reynolds, Nancy, and Malcolm McCormick. No Fixed Points: Dance in the Twentieth Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003.

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                        Nancy Reynolds and Malcolm McCormick, themselves professional dancers, teachers, and writers, trace choreographic innovation in 20th-century Euro-American ballet, modern, and postmodern dance. This massive history situates its aesthetic analysis of choreography, but also dancers, impresarios, critics, artists, and composers, within their cultural contexts.

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                      • Robertson, Marta. “Musical and Choreographic Integration in Copland’s and Graham’s Appalachian Spring.” Musical Quarterly 83.1 (Spring 1999): 6–26.

                        DOI: 10.1093/mq/83.1.6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        Marta Robertson proposes a methodology for integrating the rhythmic analysis of Copland’s score and Martha Graham’s choreography for Appalachian Spring, producing an interdependent and interdisciplinary analysis of how the two arts structure articulations of time. Ethnographic techniques including interviews of former Graham Company dancer Peter Sparling further bridge the two fields.

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                      • Tabachnik, Michel, Hector Berlioz, Michel Fokine, et al. Paris Dances Diaghilev. Elektra Nonesuch Dance Collection. New York: Elektra Entertainment, 1992.

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                        Four Ballets Russes productions are recreated with their original choreography, sets, and costumes, as danced by the Paris Opera Ballet: Petrushka (Igor Stravinsky, Alexander Benois, Michel Fokine), La spectre de la rose (Carl Maria von Weber, Fokine), L’après-midi d’un faune (Claude Debussy, Vaslav Nijinsky), and Les noces (Stravinsky, Bronislava Nijinska).

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                      • Taruskin, Richard. Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works through Mavra. 2 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

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                        Musicologist Richard Taruskin situates Igor Stravinsky’s Russianness in the surrounding cultural, intellectual, and expressive traditions of Russian folklore, music, art, literature, and religion. This monumental text is especially notable for its extensive analyses of Petrushka and The Rite of Spring, connecting cultural context to composition and folklore to modernity.

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                      • Téten, Carol, and David Shepard. How to Dance through Time. Vol. 2, Dances of the Ragtime Era, 1910–1920. Kentfield, CA: Dancetime, 1990.

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                        Ragtime era (1910–1920) steps from ballroom dances (Castle Walk, Tango, Maxixe, and Hesitation Waltz) and the Animal Dance craze (Fox Trot, Horse Trot, Kangaroo Hop, Duck Waddle, Squirrel, Chicken Scratch, Turkey Trot, and Grizzly Bear) are described and demonstrated, then choreographed in their entirety with period music and costumes.

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                      Context

                      The sources in this section highlight methodological approaches for analyzing movement, sound, and their shared cultural contexts in primarily Euro-American theatrical, social, and folk dances of the 20th to 21st century. Many of the authors analyze how meaning is created in the dance-music cultural sphere through issues of identity, representation, power, and migration. As a musicologist-dancer, Jordan surveys 20th-century musical-choreographic practices broadly before turning to specific choreographers (see Jordan 2000). A theorization of spectatorship unites formerly distinct histories of American “Negro” and white modern dance in Manning 2004. Harker 2008 provides a model for musicological studies that integrates dance, tracing the influence of contemporary social dancers on Louis Armstrong’s musical innovations. Gottschild 2003, Delgado and Muñoz 1997, and Wong 2010 study the role of dance, performance, performativity, and globalization in connection to racial / ethnic identity formation in African America, Latin/o America, and Asian America respectively. While these studies are primarily from the dance perspective, they address significant dance music repertoires that literally move people to dance. The essays in Desmond 2001 explore the intersections of sexuality studies and dance studies, with interesting implications for the associated dance music repertoires. The essays in Malnig 2009 provide models for integrating dance studies into popular music studies and vice versa.

                      • Delgado, Celeste Fraser, and José Esteban Muñoz, eds. Everynight Life: Culture and Dance in Latin/o America. Latin America Otherwise. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.

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                        Dances (salsa, merengue, cumbia, tango, samba, or capoeira) accompany migrations across geopolitical, cultural, and economic boundaries, reconfiguring identities, sociopolitical agendas, and national boundaries. Since Latin/o America dance music genres typically evoke dancing, with musicians and dancers sharing contexts, these essays apply not only to migrations of dances but their musics.

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                      • Desmond, Jane, ed. Dancing Desires: Choreographing Sexualities on and off the Stage. Studies in Dance History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2001.

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                        These essays articulate the intersection of dance studies and sexuality studies, and by extension their accompanying music, in ballet, modern and social dance, and films and clubs. Sexual and romantic behaviors in daily life and on stage are given meaning through constructions of gender and sexuality. Music also participates in these constructions.

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                      • Gottschild, Brenda Dixon. The Black Dancing Body: A Geography from Coon to Cool. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

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                        The Africanist presence in dance performance analyzed by the author overlaps with and supports Africanisms in black diasporic dance music. Questioning what black dance is and reasons for its cultural centrality, Gottschild articulates how the “geography” of the black dancing body—feet, butt, skin/hair, spirit, and soul—has been racialized.

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                      • Harker, Brian. “Louis Armstrong, Eccentric Dance, and the Evolution of Jazz on the Eve of Swing.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 61.1 (Spring 2008): 67–122.

                        DOI: 10.1525/jams.2008.61.1.67Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        Brian Harker traces innovations in Louis Armstrong’s rhythmic and melodic technique during 1926–1927 to Armstrong’s collaboration with the dance team Brown and McGraw. Armstrong shared the stage with these eccentric dancers, creating a musical visualization of their acrobatic, fast, and unpredictable steps in a musical style predating Swing.

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                      • Jordan, Stephanie. Moving Music: Dialogues with Music in Twentieth-Century Ballet. London: Dance, 2000.

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                        Jordan argues that individual choreographers and even specific choreographies have distinctive musical-choreographic styles. She proposes an integrated analysis of music and dance as interdependent components. After surveying musical-choreographic practices from the early 20th century, she analyzes specific choreographers’ practices toward music (George Balanchine, Frederick Ashton, and Antony Tudor).

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                      • Malnig, Julie, ed. Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

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                        These interdisciplinary essays, one specifically on music, analyze how identity and community are formed in various social dances. These dance genres, inseparable from their dance musics, share transmission contexts—music video, musical theater, hiphop, ballrooms, nightclubs, the street—and fuse African dance forms and those of African, Latin, and Euro-America.

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                      • Manning, Susan. Modern Dance, Negro Dance: Race in Motion. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004.

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                        Susan Manning interweaves the formerly parallel histories of African-American concert dance, white modern dance, and the left-wing movement from the Depression through 1989. The author reconceptualizes spectatorship as “sociohistorical encounters” crossing and linking not only race, but sexuality and political affiliation.

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                      • Wong, Yutian. Choreographing Asian America. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2010.

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                        Interweaving Asian American cultural studies, dance history, and ethnographic writing, Yutian Wong investigates how Asian American bodies choreograph and perform, and the “entanglements” of Orientalist discourse and modern dance history. Music scholars have pursued Orientalisms in some dance musics, but Asian Americanisms in music are far less understood than Africanisms.

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                      LAST MODIFIED: 06/29/2011

                      DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199757824-0017

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