Music Fugue
by
Paul Walker
  • LAST REVIEWED: 05 May 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 June 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199757824-0023

Introduction

The word fugue (fuga in Latin, Fuge in German) has been applied to music continuously since the late Middle Ages, and so has inevitably undergone a great number of transformations in aning. In broad outline, the word has referred to, (1) in the 14th and 15th centuries, the technique that we today call canon (and thus, the Latin synonym for chace and caccia), as well as pieces based on that technique; (2) in the 16th century, the technique of pervasive imitation as found in vocal music and the imitative ricercar; (3) in the 17th century, pieces or movements (predominantly instrumental but also vocal) based on one or another manifestation of imitative counterpoint, variously designated (if instrumental) ricercar, canzona, fantasy, or fugue; 4) beginning with the era of Bach and Handel, a piece of music based on the contrapuntal handling of a theme (subject) and constructed according to certain principles about which it is possible to find unanimous agreement. The article begins with the two primary Reference Works for music, Grove Music Online for English speakers and Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart for German speakers. The section Theory and Terminology in Historical Context comprises scholarship on the etymological history of the word fugue in music and the way musicians have understood it over time. The next two sections bring together writings about how to compose a fugue (see Composition) and how to analyze one (see Analysis). The final and longest section, Fugal Composition in Historical Context, organizes writings that consider fugue as a genre in one or another historical era, including a few that attempt a broad sweep rather like that found in the two primary reference works. This final section omits source material on the earliest use of the word fugue with the meaning of “canon” and begins with fugue in Renaissance vocal music and the instrumental ricercar; additional sections discuss the 17th century, Bach, Handel, the Classic era, the 19th century, and the 20th and 21st centuries.

Reference Works

Grove Music Online and Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart are the principal music encyclopedias in English and German, respectively. Both offer a comprehensive guide to fugue. Each encyclopedia also offers articles on terminology related to fugue, such as subject answer, exposition, etc.

  • Platen, Emil. “Fuge.” In Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Sachteil. 2d ed. Edited by Friedrich Blume. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1995.

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    The territory is subdivided into four sections: 1) A general definition, 2) a technical description of fugue as a compositional technique, 3) the history of fugue, and 4) the theory of fugue. The article is concise and relatively brief.

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    • Walker, Paul.“Fugue.” Grove Music Online.

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      The article in Grove Music Online begins with an analysis of Bach’s C-sharp Minor Fugue from book 1 of the WTC (Well-Tempered Clavicord) as a paradigm of what a fugue is, then proceeds to examine the history of fugal composition from the earliest use of the word to designate canons in the late Middle Ages to today.

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      Theory and Terminology in Historical Context

      These three entries attempt to sort out the complex thicket of terminology that results from more than 700 years of fugue as a musical phenomenon. Beiche 1990 is comprehensive; Walker 2000 and Krumbholz 1995 focus on the meanings of fugue before the middle of the 18th century.

      • Beiche, Michael. “Fuga/Fuge.” In Handwörterbuch der musikalischen Terminologie. Edited by H. H. Eggebrecht. Wiesbaden, Germany: Steiner, 1990.

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        A thorough etymological study of the word fugue and its myriad musical uses throughout history.

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        • Krumbholz, Gerald Antone. “Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurgs Abhandlung von der Fuge (1753–1754).” PhD diss., University of Rochester, 1995.

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          An extended examination of this treatise and its historical roots. Krumbholz explores at length Marpurg’s use of terminology and his understanding of the source of those terms.

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          • Walker, Paul. Theories of Fugue from the Age of Josquin to the Age of Bach. Eastman Studies in Music 13. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2000.

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            A study of writings about fugue c. 1500–1740. Emphasis on Italian and German writers, as well as on the relationship of the writings to the music that they were meant to describe.

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            Composition

            This list comprises, with one exception, books that include the word fugue in the title and thus to which the topic is central. Although they are far too numerous to list here, books on 18th-century counterpoint generally include fugue as a primary goal of study, and many texts devoted to “form” also incorporate a chapter addressing fugue in some way. There are two primary ways to approach the teaching and composing of fugue: through a prescriptive “programme” that leads the student step-by-step, beginning with the phenomenon known as species counterpoint; and the composition-based method that takes existing music, most commonly by Bach, as the basis for rules and precepts. Exponents of the former include Fux and Gédalge (see The “Prescriptive” Model); of the latter, Marpurg, Prout, and most writers since that time (see The Approach Based on Bach’s Fugues). Also included is one book that focuses on the less-cultivated genre of vocal fugue (see Writing Vocal Fugue).

            The “Prescriptive” Model

            Fux 1966 set the standard for all later “prescriptive” models for teaching fugue. Gédalge 1901 and Gédalge 1964 are probably the most famous later manifestations of this approach.

            • Fux, Johann Joseph. Gradus ad Parnassum. Monuments of Music and Music Literature. New York: Broude, 1966.

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              Facsimile of original 1725 publication (Vienna: Johann Peter van Ghelen). Perhaps the first important book-length treatise to focus on fugue as the culmination of the study of species counterpoint. In Latin. An English translation of the chapters on species counterpoint (book 2, exercitia 1, 2, and 3) can be found in Alfred Mann, The Study of Counterpoint from Johann Joseph Fux’s “Gradus ad Parnassum,” rev. ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1965), pp. 17–148. An English translation of the portions on fugue and invertible counterpoint (book 2, exercitia 4 and 5) is found in Alfred Mann, The Study of Fugue (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1958), pp. 78–138.

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              • Gédalge, André. Traité de la fugue. Part 1, De la fugue d’école. Paris: Enoch & Companie, 1901.

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                This is the classic formulation of the teaching of fugue as practiced at the Paris Conservatory from the time of its founding. The approach emphasizes a fixed structure with most details carefully prescribed and relies only somewhat on examples from the works of Bach and other composers.

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                • Gédalge, André. Treatise on the Fugue. Translated and edited by Ferdinand Davis. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964.

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                  Despite its title page, this book is not precisely a translation of Gédalge’s text. As the translator describes it, “[m]any modifications have been made in this translation in accordance with the instructions of Louis Vierneº.º.º. [who] found it advisable to rearrange the order of the chapters, [etc.]” Also, on the initiative of the translator himself, “[t]he text .º.º. has been simplified in places to avoid needless repetition, and comments have been interspersed throughout.”

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                  The Approach Based on Bach’s Fugues

                  Marpurg 1970 is not only the first monograph-length treatment of fugue, but it is also written by someone who knew J. S. Bach personally. While French musicians have tended to follow Fux’s example (see The “Prescriptive” Model) in their teaching of fugue, the English have been particularly eager to base their teaching on Bach’s music, as Prout 1969 and Oldroyd 1986 show.

                  • Marpurg, Friedrich Wilhelm. Abhandlung von der Fuge. 2 vols. Hildesheim, Germany: Georg Olms Verlag, 1970.

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                    Originally published 1753–1754 (Berlin: A. Haude & J. C. Spener). The first monograph-length treatise devoted entirely to the composition of fugue. Marpurg was an acquaintance of the Bach family, and his book is understood to reflect in significant ways the teachings of Johann Sebastian Bach. For an English translation of the first six chapters, the heart of the book, see Alfred Mann, The Study of Fugue (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1958), pp. 142–212.

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                    • Oldroyd, George. The Technique and Spirit of Fugue. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1986.

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                      Originally published in 1948 (New York: Oxford University Press). Another text in the tradition of Prout 1969; that is, the teaching of fugal composition based entirely on Bach’s works, in this case almost exclusively the fugues of the Well-Tempered Clavier. The book is filled with a great many examples from the WTC.

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                      • Prout, Ebenezer. Fugue. Augener’s Edition 9185. New York: Greenwood, 1969.

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                        Originally published 1891 (London: Augener). One of the classic texts on teaching fugue from the premise that “whatever [Johann Sebastian] Bach does systematically, and not merely exceptionally, is the correct thing for the student to do.”

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                        Writing Vocal Fugue

                        Vocal fugue is rarely the focus of attention in fugal writing, which makes Gissel 1987 unusual.

                        • Gissel, Siegfried. Die Chorfuge im strengen Satz: Ein Lehrbuch der Chorfugenkomposition. Musikpädagogische Bibliothek (1959) 34. Wilhelmshaven, Germany: Florian Noetzel Verlag, Heinrichshofen Bücher, 1987.

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                          The author focuses to a considerable extent on the use of German chorales and some German folk songs (in both cases mostly modal) as fugue subjects.

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                          Textbooks

                          In the United States today, fugue is generally taught in the context of books on 18th-century counterpoint. These are generally laid out according to the model established by Fux’s Gradus ad Parnassum (see The “Prescriptive” Model); that is, they begin with species counterpoint and conclude with fugue. Bach’s works generally form the core of examples for study and emulation, including two- and three-part inventions, invertible counterpoint, and canon. Later editions of these textbooks are generally only modestly revised, if at all. Fugue is also treated, although in a much more cursory fashion, in textbooks on “form in music.”

                          • Gauldin, Robert. A Practical Approach to Eighteenth-Century Counterpoint. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988.

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                            Gauldin’s book is a more recent version of the standard. The musical examples are rather more wide-ranging than Kennan’s and include works by Buxtehude, Handel, D. Scarlatti, and other, lesser-known composers.

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                            • Kennan, Kent. Counterpoint Based on Eighteenth-Century Practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1959.

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                              A classic of the genre that is still in print. Bach’s music provides the lion’s share of musical examples.

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                              Analysis

                              This section begins with some of the earliest attempts at fugal analysis in the modern sense, done in the earlier 19th century. A great many of the later approaches to analysis have begun (and sometimes ended) with the music of Bach, especially the fugues of the Well-Tempered Clavier (see Analyses Based on Bach’s Music). Several newer strands have entered the dialogue on analysis in more recent years, including, most notably, Analysis Based on the Application of Classical Rhetoric and more graphic approaches derived most commonly from the ideas of Heinrich Schenker. A particular strain of analysis in England and America is that of Music Criticism, tracing its roots back principally to Donald Francis Tovey. Many of these look strikingly similar to analyses of movements in sonata form; indeed, all those of Joseph Groocock (see Analyses Based on Bach’s Music) are explicitly fit into the tripartite structure of exposition, development, and (in place of recapitulation) final section. Some of these also hug the line between analysis and the study of fugue in historical context. Butler 1977 (see Analysis Based on the Application of Classical Rhetoric) opened a thread attempting to link the analysis of Baroque fugue to the contemporary study of rhetoric, and this thread included a number of contributions by W. and U. Kirkendale, Harrison, and Walker. The tradition of music criticism, a more discursive and verbal approach to musical analysis made prominent by D. F. Tovey in England and Theodor Adorno in Germany, has in recent years made considerable contributions to our understanding of fugue. Joseph Kerman is the principal exponent of this approach. In America, members of the Society for Music Theory have also applied analytical tools developed in other contexts (e.g., Schenkerian anaylsis) to fugue. The contributions by Renwick, Lewin, Harrison, and others belong to this category. Boomgarten and Nelson elucidate the approach to fugue of a writer from the late 17th century as a potential model for fugal analysis of that era.

                              The Earliest Analyses from the 19th Century

                              Bent 1994 and Tomita 2004 explore some of the earliest attempts at fugal analysis in the 19th century, the first through translations of significant writings of the period, the second by exploring the work of one of the first champions of Bach’s music outside of Germany.

                              • Bent, Ian, ed. Music Analysis in the Nineteenth Century. Vol. 1, Fugue, Form, and Style. Cambridge Readings in the Literature of Music. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

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                                The purpose of this series is to present in translation essays and analyses by 19th-century musicians in order to explore “how [they] thought about and described music.” This, the first volume in the series, consists of three major sections, the first of which is devoted to fugue and includes six analyses—by Momigny, Reicha, Hauptmann, Riemann, and others—of fugues by Handel, Bach, and Mozart.

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                                • Tomita, Yo. “Samuel Wesley as Analyst of Bach’s Fugues.” In The English Bach Awakening: Knowledge of J. S. Bach and His Music in England, 1750–1830. Edited by Michael Kassler, 379–402. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004.

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                                  Samuel Wesley, in collaboration with Charles Frederick Horn, produced in 1810 the first volume of the first edition of the Well-Tempered Clavier to include detailed analytical indications for every fugue. The article focuses on how it was that Wesley and Horn decided to take this analytical approach and charts the development of Wesley’s analytical acumen. Some details of the specific analyses are also explored. Available online to patrons of subscribing institutions.

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                                  Analyses Based on Bach’s Music

                                  Prout 1892 and Groocock 2003 show two different ways to approach the analysis of Bach’s fugues. Prout’s tends to take the fugues as they come, whereas Groocock exemplifies the once-common penchant, now somewhat discredited, for fitting them into a pseudo-sonata form model.

                                  • Groocock, Joseph. Fugal Composition: A Guide to the Study of Bach’s “48.” Edited by Yo Tomita. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2003.

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                                    Groocock taught composition for many years in Dublin, Ireland, and this book was published after his death from the typewritten notes from which he taught. The book is devoted primarily to close analyses of all forty-eight of Bach’s WTC fugues, all laid out according to the tripartite model of “exposition,” development,” and “final section.” Available online to patrons of subscribing institutions.

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                                    • Prout, Ebenezer: Fugal Analysis. London: Augener, 1892.

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                                      Prout explicity called this book “A Companion to [his book] ‘Fugue.’” It consists of twenty-three close analyses of fugues by Bach and a great many other composers, including Handel, Haydn, Mozart, Mendelssohn, and Schumann. Most notable, perhaps, is the preponderance of vocal fugues, especially by Handel, Haydn, and Mozart, as well as less frequently encountered composers, including Graun, Cherubini, and Leonardo Leo.

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                                      Analysis Based on the Application of Classical Rhetoric

                                      In the 1970s and 1980s, a great deal of scholarly attention was focused on the influence of classical rhetoric (Quintilian in particular) on musical composition of the Renaissance and Baroque. Butler 1977 brought the focus to rhetoric and fugue. This work engendered responses by Harrison 1990 and Walker 1995. More recently Peters has revisited this topic (Peters 2003a and Peters 2003b).

                                      • Butler, Gregory. “Fugue and Rhetoric.” Journal of Music Theory 21.1 (Spring 1977): 49–109.

                                        DOI: 10.2307/843479Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        Using primarily writings from the Baroque era, Butler lays out a very detailed mapping of the ideas of rhetoric as a structural model onto fugue and argues that composers of the time frequently conceived their fugues in rhetorical terms.

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                                        • Harrison, Daniel. “Rhetoric and Fugue: An Analytical Application.” Music Theory Spectrum 12.1 (1990): 1–42.

                                          DOI: 10.1525/mts.1990.12.1.02a00010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          Harrison takes a different approach to the links between rhetoric and fugue in the Baroque from Butler’s by focusing, not on the specific figures of rhetoric/music (as most notably enumerated in Joachim Burmeister’s several treatises c. 1600), but on the aspect of rhetoric having to do with persuasion in the art of delivery. He applies his theories to a thorough analysis of the Fugue from Bach’s Toccata, BWV 915.

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                                          • Peters, Manfred. “Das Zeugnis des Johann Abraham Birnbaum oder Die Form der Instrumentalfuge bei J. S. Bach.” Musik-Konzepte 119 (January 2003a): 5–28.

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                                            The author argues that Bach used “the standard 6-part dispositio of Roman rhetoric” for the structural design of his fugues.

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                                            • Peters, Manfred. “Zwei Fugen Bachs als instrumentale Klangreden über sein christliches Verständnis des Menschen.” Musik-Konzepte 119 (January 2003b): 29–66.

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                                              A second article with the same thesis as Peters 2003a. Available online to patrons of subscribing institutions.

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                                              • Walker, Paul. “Fugue in the Music-Rhetorical Analogy and Rhetoric in the Development of Fugue.” In Bach Perspectives 4 (1999): 159–179.

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                                                This article argues for a much more cautious approach to the linking of fugue with principles of rhetoric than that exemplified in Butler’s “Fugue and Rhetoric” article.

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                                                Rhetoric, Ricercar, and Bach’s Musical Offering

                                                In 1979–1980, Warren and Ursula Kirkendale presented two articles that together argued the case for ties between the word ricercar and rhetorical principles (Kirkendale 1979 and Kirkendale 1980). In particular, Kirkendale 1979 concluded that the word should generally be understood to have a preludial function, with particular ramifications for the ordering of the various parts of Bach’s Musical Offering. This conclusion has remained somewhat controversial: it is not reflected in the edition of this piece in the Neue Bach Ausgabe, and Walker 1995 takes issue with some of its premises. Warren Kirkendale has written a lengthy response (Kirkendale 2007).

                                                • Kirkendale, Ursula. “The Source for Bach’s Musical Offering: The Institutio oratoria of Quintilian.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 33 (1980): 88–141.

                                                  DOI: 10.1525/jams.1980.33.1.03a00030Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  This follow-up to Warren Kirkendale’s article of the previous year uses his conclusions about the ricercar as exordium to suggest Bach’s intended ordering for the various parts of the Musical Offering.

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                                                  • Kirkendale, Warren. “Ciceronians versus Aristotelians on the Ricercar as Exordium, from Bembo to Bach.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 32.1 (Spring 1979): 1–44.

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                                                    Kirkendale’s article marshalls considerable evidence from Renaissance and Baroque writers to argue that the word “ricercar” was understood in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries to serve a preludial or “opening section” function in music. A later version is in Music and Meaning: Studies in Music History and the Neighbouring Disciplines (Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 2007), pp. 33–85.

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                                                    • Kirkendale, Warren. “On the Rhetorical Interpretation of the Ricercar and J. S. Bach’s Musical Offering.” In Music and Meaning: Studies in Music History and the Neighbouring Disciplines. By Ursula Kirkendale and Warren Kirkendale, 87–124. Historiae Musicae Cultores 113. Florence, Italy: Leo S. Olschki, 2007.

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                                                      This article is Kirkendale’s rebuttal to Christoph Wolff’s remarks in his edition of Bach’s Musical Offering and Walker’s article in Bach Studies 2 critiquing Kirkendale’s original “Circeronians versus Aristotelians” article (Kirkendale 1979).

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                                                      • Walker, Paul. “Rhetoric, the Ricercar, and Bach’s Musical Offering.” In Bach Studies 2. Edited by Daniel Melamed and Don O. Franklin, 175–191. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

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                                                        A response to the two articles by the Kirkendales on the ricercar and Bach’s Musical Offering arguing that the ties between ricercar and exordium were considerably less pervasive than suggested in the article, and that Bach’s use of the word ricercar in the Musical Offering has essentially nothing to do with a preludial function.

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                                                        Analyses Based on the English Tradition of Music Criticism

                                                        English musicology includes an important element of music criticism, a more discursive approach to analysis of which Donald Francis Tovey is often seen as the most seminal figure. Two of Tovey’s original contributions appear below (Tovey 1931 and Bach 1989). More recently Joseph Kerman has once again brought this type of writing about music to bear on the fugues of Bach in a monograph and a subsequent article (Kerman 2005 and Kerman 2008).

                                                        • Bach, J. S. The Well-Tempered Clavier, Parts I and II. 2 vols. Edited by Richard Jones, with commentaries by Donald Francis Tovey. London: Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, 1989.

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                                                          This edition of Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier incorporates commentary by Tovey, sometimes relatively lengthy, for each of the forty-eight fugues. Tovey originally wrote these commentaries to accompany his own edition of the collection published in 1924.

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                                                          • Kerman, Joseph. The Art of Fugue: Bach Fugues for Keyboard, 1715–1750. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

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                                                            Kerman may be the leading advocate today for the writing of “music criticism” in the great English tradition of Donald Francis Tovey. Here he applies those methods to a somewhat idiosyncratic collection of fugues (not, despite the title, primarily from The Art of Fugue) by J. S. Bach. The book is conceived primarily for gifted musical amateurs.

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                                                            • Kerman, Joseph. “Fugue and Its Discontents.” In Variations on the Canon: Essays on Music from Bach to Boulez in Honor of Charles Rosen on His Eightieth Birthday. Edited by Robert Curry, David Gable, and Robert L. Marshall, 5–13. Eastman Studies in Music 58. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2008.

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                                                              This article is something of a follow-up to Kerman’s book The Art of Fugue and treats several fugues from Bach’s WTC and The Art of Fugue, BWV 1080 in Kerman’s characteristic style of music criticism. Available online to patrons of subscribing institutions.

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                                                              • Tovey, Donald Francis. A Companion to “The Art of Fugue” [of] J. S. Bach. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1931.

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                                                                A classic analysis of the piece by the “dean” of English music criticism. Tovey dispenses with any historical background and dives straight into the analysis. The prose is illustrated through many musical examples from the piece.

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                                                                Adorno

                                                                The mid-20th-century German theorist and critic Theodor Adorno has in recent years been the subject of considerable interest and study. Recently an entire article, McClary 2009, has been devoted to his ideas concerning Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier.

                                                                • McClary, Susan. “Adorno Plays the WTC: On Political Theory and Performance.” Indiana Theory Review 27.2 (Fall 2009): 97–112.

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                                                                  McClary elucidates Adorno’s sometimes difficult prose to try to understand the older critic’s insights into Bach’s fugues and how to approach their analysis and performance.

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                                                                  Theoretical and Graphic Approaches to Analysis

                                                                  The early-20th-century German theorist Heinrich Schenker pioneered a methodology for analysis that was more purely theoretical and that emphasized the graphic and visual while de-emphasizing the verbal. Two of his fugal analyses are included below: Schenker 1984 and Schenker 1973. Schenker’s ideas play a large role in much analysis done today, although fugue has until recently been a central part of that work. Renwick 1995 helps to fill that lacuna. Lewin 1998 and Reed and Bain 2007 take the graphic approach to fugal analysis a couple of steps farther, with the help of computers and the Internet. Roberts 2004 attempts to develop the author’s own theoretical methodology for fugal analysis, and Harrison 2008 focuses on a particular aspect of fugal writing.

                                                                  • Harrison, Daniel. “Heads and Tails: Subject Play in Bach’s Fugues.” Music Theory Spectrum 30.1 (Spring 2008): 152–163.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1525/mts.2008.30.1.152Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Although this article follows up on the author’s earlier article on fugue and rhetoric, the approach here is more purely analytical, with a focus on the ways in which the beginnings and endings of fugue subjects affect the working out of the fugue.

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                                                                    • Lewin, David. “Notes on the Opening of the F♯ Minor Fugue from WTC I.” Journal of Music Theory 42.2 (Fall 1998): 235–239.

                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/843876Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      An extremely close analysis using the kinds of methods and vocabulary found in contemporary writings by members of the Society for Music Theory. Neo-Riemannian Theory is the title of this particular volume of Journal of Music Theory.

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                                                                      • Reed, Jacob, and Matthew Bain. “A Tetrahelix Animates Bach: Revisualization of David Lewin’s Analysis of the Opening of the F♯-Minor Fugue from WTC I.” Music Theory Online 13.4 (December 2007).

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                                                                        This online article follows up Lewin’s analysis of the F# Minor Fugue with a brief text and a number of illustrations inspired by it, including several visual images that move in a three-dimensional simulation as the opening of the fugue is played on piano.

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                                                                        • Renwick, William. Analyzing Fugue: A Schenkerian Approach. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon, 1995.

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                                                                          This book is, as its title informs us, a systematic study of fugue using the tools of Schenkerian analysis. Although other composers—from Palestrina, Frescobaldi, and Gibbons to Mozart, Brahms, and Reger—are included, Bach is by far the principal object of study. Three of Bach’s fugues from the Well-Tempered Clavier are given complete Schenkerian analyses.

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                                                                          • Roberts, Scott. Toward a Methodology for the Analysis of Fugue: An Examination of Selected Bach Organ Works. PhD diss., Florida State University, 2004.

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                                                                            This dissertation focuses on four organ fugues of Bach as a means, as the author states it, to “develop a methodology for the analysis of fugue more generally.” The approach owes much to methodologies associated with the Society for Music Theory and more particularly to the article by Daniel Harrison on “Rhetoric and Fugue.”

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                                                                            • Schenker, Heinrich. “The Organic Aspect of the Fugue: Illustrated in the Fugue in C Minor from the Well-Tempered Clavier I by J. S. Bach.” Translated by Sylvan Kalib. In Thirteen Essays from the Three Yearbooks Das Meisterwerk in der Musik by Heinrich Schenker: An Annotated Translation. Vol. 2. By Sylvan Kalib, 246–320. PhD diss., Northwestern University, 1973.

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                                                                              This essay by Schenker first appeared in 1926 in vol. 2 of Das Meisterwerk in der Musik. It includes two different “Schenkerian graphs” of this fugue, found in vol. 2 of the translation on the pages immediately following p. 540.

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                                                                              • Schenker, Heinrich. J. S. Bach’s Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue: Critical Edition with Commentary. Translated and edited by Hedi Siegel. New York: Longman, 1984.

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                                                                                This work by Schenker, originally published in 1909, includes for the fugue no characteristic Schenkerian graph of foreground, middle ground, and background, but rather a measure-by-measure analysis (pp. 43–62).

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                                                                                Analysis using Theoretical Sources from the Baroque

                                                                                Writing about fugue before Marpurg’s Abhandlung von der Fuge of 1753–54 often fails to offer the kind of specific guide to fugal writing that modern scholars seek. Boomgaarden and Nelson 1991 takes advantage of a notable exception: a treatise by J. B. Samber from around 1700 that offers detailed guidelines for the writing of fugue and promises useful guidance in analysis of fugues before Bach.

                                                                                • Boomgaarden, Donald R., and Richard B. Nelson. “Johann Baptist Samber’s (1654–1717) Manuductio ad organum: The First Modern Discussion of Fugue in German.” Journal of Musicological Research 11 (1991): 93–126.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/01411899108574642Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  An informative summary of Samber’s chapter on fugue from his book. Samber’s work offers the most thorough description of fugue and how to write it before the writings of Johann Mattheson and F. W. Marpurg and offers the best guide to the analysis of pre-Bach Baroque fugue.

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                                                                                  Fugal Composition in Historical Context

                                                                                  Not many writers outside of contributors to reference works have attempted to survey the entire history of fugue. Müller-Blattau 1963 and Horsley 1966 do just that, while Mann 1965 offers only a brief overview but proves more valuable for its translations of key theory texts.

                                                                                  • Horsley, Imogene. Fugue: History and Practice. New York: Free Press, 1966.

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                                                                                    This book offers a rare combination of the teaching of fugal composition and a historical survey of the genre. The musical examples are drawn from a wide variety of periods and composers, including Palestrina, Sweelinck, Frescobaldi, Corelli, Mozart, Mendelssohn, and Reger, in addition to Bach and Handel.

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                                                                                    • Mann, Alfred. The Study of Fugue. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1965.

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                                                                                      Despite its title, this book includes only a relatively brief consideration of the history of fugal composition and instead devotes most of its pages to a valuable English translation of portions of the seminal writings on fugue by Fux, Marpurg, Albrechtsberger, and Padre Martini. Originally published in 1958.

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                                                                                      • Müller-Blattau, Joseph. Geschichte der Fuge. 3d ed. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1963.

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                                                                                        Although rather dated now, Müller-Blattau’s book was a pioneering attempt to survey the entire history of fugal composition from medieval canon and Stimmtausch to Bartok and Schoenberg. It served for many years as the standard work on this subject. Originally published in 1923 as Grundzüge einer Geschichte der Fuge (Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter).

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                                                                                        Renaissance Fugue and Ricercar

                                                                                        Until relatively recently, most of the interest in 16th-century fugue focused on the instrumental ricercar while fugue in vocal music lay neglected. This imbalance began to change in the 1990s, and vocal fugue (or fuga, as some authors prefer to call it to keep it straight from the later, more traditional meaning of fugue) has attracted considerable attention in recent years.

                                                                                        Fugue in Renaissance Vocal Music

                                                                                        Kerman 1994 is seminal in some respects, but the most important recent work has been Milsom’s on Crecquillon and Clemens (Milsom 2005) and Schubert 2007 on Palestrina.

                                                                                        • Grimshaw, Julian. “Sixteenth-Century English ‘Fuga’: Sequential and Peak-Note Subjects.” Musical Times 148 (Fall 2007): 61–78.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/25434478Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          This article follows up on Milsom 2005 by examining the use of imitative counterpoint in English vocal music of the 16th century, including works of Tye, Tallis, and others.

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                                                                                          • Grimshaw, Julian. “Fuga in Early Byrd.” Early Music 37.2 (May 2009): 251–265.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1093/em/cap017Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Grimshaw follows up on Kerman 1994 with examination of Byrd’s use of imitative counterpoint in several of his motets.

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                                                                                            • Kerman, Joseph. “Byrd, Tallis, and the Art of Imitation.” In Write All These Down: Essays on Music. By Joseph Kerman, 90–105. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

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                                                                                              This article was something of a groundbreaker in its exploration of the use of imitative counterpoint (fuga) in several motets of Byrd and Tallis. Originally appeared in 1966 in Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: A Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese, edited by Jean LaRue (New York: W. W. Norton, 1966), pp. 519–537.

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                                                                                              • Milsom, John. “Crecquillon, Clemens, and Four-Voice Fuga.” In Beyond Contemporary Fame: Reassessing the Art of Clemens non Papa and Thomas Crecquillon: Colloquium Proceedings, Utrecht, April 24–26, 2003. Edited by Eric Jas, 293–345. Collection “Épitome musical.” Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2005.

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                                                                                                In a very real way, the history of fugue begins with the music of these two composers plus Nicolas Gombert. Milsom’s long and detailed article takes a single motet with attribution to both Clemens and Crecquillon as its focus for the purpose of exploring how to analyze the use of “pervasive imitation” or fuga in 16th-century vocal music.

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                                                                                                • Schubert, Peter N. “Hidden Forms in Palestrina’s First Book of Four-Voice Motets.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 60.3 (Fall 2007): 483–556.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1525/jams.2007.60.3.483Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Schubert’s approach to the analysis of 16th-century motets is similar in some ways to that of Milsom 2005. Schubert focuses more directly on what he perceives as the two-voice basis of Palestrina’s imitative counterpoint and Palestrina’s reliance on such two-voice “cells” to construct his points of imitation. The article includes a great deal of close analysis.

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                                                                                                  The 16th-Century Ricercar

                                                                                                  The dissertations Sutherland 1942 and Swenson 1971 attempted thorough surveys of all or part of this repertory. Another burst of activity took place in the 1980s with the work of Newcomb 1987 and Ladewig 1987, and more recently Van Damme 2009 focuses on the ricercars of Willaert.

                                                                                                  • Ladewig, James. “The Origins of Frescobaldi’s Variation Canzonas Reappraised.” In Frescobaldi Studies. Edited by Alexander Silbiger, 235–268. Sources of Music and Their Interpretations. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1987.

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                                                                                                    Ladewig surveys pre-Frescobaldi instances of “variation canzonas,” sectional pieces in which the same subject forms the basis for each section but in a different rhythmic guise. Composers include Macque, Trabaci, and Gesualdo, among others.

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                                                                                                    • Newcomb, Anthony. “The Anonymous Ricercars of the Bourdeney Codex.” In Frescobaldi Studies. Edited by Alexander Silbiger, 97–123. Sources of Music and Their Interpretation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1987.

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                                                                                                      This is the most important of several contributions by Newcomb to his study of a manuscript collection of late-16th-century ricercars that represent the most important precursors to Frescobaldi’s fugal works for keyboard.

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                                                                                                      • Sutherland, Gordon. “Studies in the Development of the Keyboard and Ensemble Ricercar from Willaert to Frescobaldi.” PhD diss., Harvard University, 1942.

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                                                                                                        The seminal study of this body of works.

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                                                                                                        • Swenson, Milton A. “The Four-Part Italian Ensemble: Ricercar from 1540–1619.” PhD diss., Indiana University, 1971.

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                                                                                                          Swenson’s dissertation was an updating of Sutherland’s earlier work on the ricercar. It assumed a clear distinction between ricercars for keyboard and those for ensemble based on an original formatting in, respectively, keyboard score or partbooks. This distinction is no longer widely accepted, but the dissertation value lies in part in its inclusion of complete scores of ricercar collections that are otherwise available only in their original parts.

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                                                                                                          • Van Damme, Simon. “Willaert’s Ricercares and Their Use of Inganno.” Tijdschrift van de Koninklijke Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis 59.1 (December 2009): 45–63.

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                                                                                                            The author identifies early uses of the Italian word inganno in both musical and non-musical contexts, then investigates the use of musical inganno in the ricercars of one of the first composers to introduce it, Adrian Willaert.

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                                                                                                            The 17th Century

                                                                                                            A significant complication with respect to fugues of this era is the relative infrequency of the word fugue as a genre designation. Instead, we find pieces designated ricercar, canzona, fantasie, and even capriccio that play significant roles in the history of fugue. The century began with a widespread repudiation of fugue as a proper technique for texted music outside of the old stile antico (primarily because it made the text difficult to apprehend). As a result, vocal fugue largely fell from use and was only revived toward the end of the century, predominantly in Germany. The works Reidel 1980 and Synofzik and Rampe 2007 provide an overview of fugue in the 17th century.

                                                                                                            • Reidel, Friedrich Wilhelm. “Die zyklische Fugen-Komposition von Froberger bis Albrechtsberger.” In Die Süddeutsch-Österreichische Orgelmusik im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert: Orgelsymposium. Innsbruck, August 26–28, 1979. Edited by Walter Salmen, 154–167. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft 6. Innsbruck, Austria: Helbling, 1980.

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                                                                                                              Despite its title, Riedel’s article focuses primarily on music of the 17th century. Also touched upon are Bach’s Art of Fugue and fugal works by Albrechtsberger. A symposium volume subtitled Orgelsymposium. Innsbruck, August 26–28, 1979.

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                                                                                                              • Synofzik, Thomas, and Siegbert Rampe. “Ricercar, Canzone oder Fantasie? Zur Entwicklung der Fuge.” In Bachs Klavier- und Orgelwerke: Das Handbuch. Vol. 2. Edited by Michael Heinemann, and Stephan Franke, 80–91. Bach-Handbuch 4. Laaber, Germany: Laaber-Verlag, 2007.

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                                                                                                                This article offers a brief overview of the history of fugue up to the time of Bach and Marpurg, with emphasis on primary sources. The authors place particular emphasis on the phenomenon of “fugue in ritornello form.”

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                                                                                                                Ricercar in the Early 17th Century

                                                                                                                These four studies focus on the ricercar and its characteristics in the early 17th century. Charteris 2004 and Hammond 2004 address Italian contributions from this period. Siegele 2006 shines a light on an important but little-studied set of ricercars from Germany. Felici 2005 is a study of an important collection of keyboard tablatures that now reside in Turin, Italy, but contain a mixed Italian/German repertory.

                                                                                                                • Charteris, Richard. “A New Keyboard Work by Giovanni Gabrieli and the Relevance of Its Compositional Technique.” Music & Letters 85.1 (February 2004): 1–21.

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                                                                                                                  This article concerns a newly identified ricercar by G. Gabrieli (formerly anonymous) and discusses its handling of fugal procedures as compared to contemporary ricercars by Gabrieli and others.

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                                                                                                                  • Felici, Candida. Musica italiana nella Germania del Seicento: I ricercari dell’intavolatura d’organo tedesca di Torino. Historiae Musicae Cultores 107. Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 2005.

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                                                                                                                    The Torino manuscripts of c. 1640 represent perhaps the single largest collection of keyboard music from the first half of the century. The individual manuscripts are organized by genre, and this dissertation focuses on those dedicated to ricercars.

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                                                                                                                    • Hammond, Frederick. “Bernardo Storace Reads Frescobaldi Reads Luzzaschi: Three Little Ricercars and How They Grew.” In Music Observed: Studies in Memory of William C. Holmes. Edited by Colleen Reardon and Susan Helen Parisi, 147–162. Detroit Monographs in Musicology/Studies in Music 42. Warren, MI: Harmonie Park, 2004.

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                                                                                                                      The rare instance of a study of Italian fugues for keyboard after Frescobaldi. The focus is on a collection published by Bernardo Storace in 1664.

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                                                                                                                      • Siegele, Ulrich. “Johann Ulrich Steigleders Ricercar Tabulatura (1624) als Kunstbuch: Eine Einführung in Formprinzipien imitatorischer Tastenmusik.” Schütz-Jahrbuch 28 (2006): 157–206.

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                                                                                                                        A thorough study of this important collection of ricercars from early-17th-century Germany, including detailed consideration of each piece.

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                                                                                                                        Canzona

                                                                                                                        In the early 17th century, the canzona came into its own as a genre, and although later the genre largely evolved into the sonata, the word continued to be applied by German musicians to a particular kind of fugue. Heidlberger 2000 explores the early years of the canzona, Kämper 1982 its ongoing cultivation and uses in German organ music throughout the century.

                                                                                                                        • Heidlberger, Frank. Canzon da sonar: Studien zur Terminologie, Gattungsproblematik und Stilwandel in der Instrumentalmusik Oberitaliens um 1600. Vol. 2, Anhang, Verzeichnisse und Editionen. Würzburger Musikhistorische Beiträge 19. Tutzing, Germany: Hans Schneider, 2000.

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                                                                                                                          A Habilitationsschrift (postdoctoral thesis) that offers a thorough and extensive examination of this body of music in the early stage of its development after the Renaissance.

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                                                                                                                          • Kämper, Dietrich. “Die Kanzone in der norddeutschen Orgelmusik des 17. Jahrhunderts.” In Gattungen und Werk in der Musikgeschichte Norddeutschlands und Skandinaviens: Referate der Kieler Tagung 1980. Edited by Friedhelm Krummacher and Heinrich W. Schwab, 62–78. Kieler Schriften zur Musikwissenschaft 26. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1982.

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                                                                                                                            Kämper argues that in the 17th century north German organists used the canzona largely as a teaching tool, especially to show pupils how one might improvise such fugues.

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                                                                                                                            Fugue as a Genre Designation

                                                                                                                            In the early 17th century, the word fugue finally began to emerge as the genre designation that we recognize today. Walker 2006 takes a closer look at this moment in music history, while Sachs 1991 and Wohlers 2008 focus on two early bodies of music designated as “fugues” in their sources.

                                                                                                                            • Sachs, Klaus-Jürgen. “Das Fugenkorpus des Simon Lohet in Johannes Woltz’ Tabulaturbuch von 1617.” In Von Isaac bis Bach—Studien zur älteren deutschen Musikgeschichte: Festschrift Martin Just zum 60. Geburtstag. Edited by Frank Heidlberger, Wolfgang Osthoff, and Reinhard Wiesend, 155–168. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1991.

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                                                                                                                              Although Lohet’s pieces are modest, they represent the first “set” of noncanonic pieces designated “fugue” by a named composer. Sach’s article is a thorough study of these twenty pieces.

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                                                                                                                              • Walker, Paul. “‘Fugue’ as a Genre Designation in the Early Seventeenth Century.” Schütz Jahrbuch 28 (2006): 207–230.

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                                                                                                                                This article explores the first uses of the word “fugue” as genre designation for non-canonic pieces, including in the works of Hans Leo Hassler, Samuel Scheidt, Christian Erbach, and Simon Lohet.

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                                                                                                                                • Wohlers, Jonathan. “The Fugues of British Library Additional Manuscript 29486: A Transcription of Folios 54–81 with Commentary.” MA diss., University of Houston, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                  This is a study of fifty-two anonymous fugues from c. 1618 that together with the twenty fugues of Simon Lohet represent among the earliest non-canonic pieces to be called “fugue.” The author includes complete transcriptions of all of the fugues.

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                                                                                                                                  Fugue toward the End of the 17th Century

                                                                                                                                  Pauly 1964, Walker 2002, Walker 1992, and Talbot 2009 explore the fugal writings of particular composers—Buxtehude, Bruhns, and Vivaldi—as well as late-17th-century studies in counterpoint that led to the phenomenon known today as the permutation fugue, a prominent technique in Bach’s music.

                                                                                                                                  • Pauly, Hans-Jakob. Die Fuge in den Orgelwerken Dietrich Buxtehudes. Kölner Beiträge zur Musikforschung 31. Regensburg, Germany: Gustav Bosse, 1964.

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                                                                                                                                    Pauly works through Buxtehude’s use of fugue in the organ works by systematic category rather than piece by piece to consider the composer’s themes, fugal answers, expositions, and other technical features.

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                                                                                                                                    • Talbot, Michael. Vivaldi and Fugue. Quaderni Vivaldiani 15. Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                      It is rare indeed to encounter a monograph-length book on fugue by any other composer than J. S. Bach, rarer still when this focuses on a composer not primarily known for fugal writing. After a historical survey of fugue before Vivaldi, Talbot includes an overview of Vivaldi as a composer of fugues and a list of all of the fugal movements, after which he considers each in turn, sometimes with detailed analytical diagrams.

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                                                                                                                                      • Walker, Paul. “Compositional Process: The Origin of the Permutation Fugue.” In Studies in the History of Music. Vol. 3, The Creative Process. 51–91. New York: Broude, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                        This article traces the beginnings of the permutation fugue to the studies of fugue and invertible counterpoint undertaken by Buxtehude, Reinken, Weckmann, Bernhard, and Theile in Hamburg and Lübeck in the 1670s and the later dissemination of these ideas by Theile in central Germany. Originally published as “Die Entstehung der Permutationsfuge,” Bach Jahrbuch 75 (1989), pp. 21–42.

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                                                                                                                                        • Walker, Paul. “Die Fuge in den Vokalwerken von Dieterich Buxtehude und Nicolaus Bruhns.” In Bach, Lübeck und die norddeutsche Musiktradition: Bericht über das Internationale Symposion der Musikhochschule Lübeck April 2000. Edited by Wolfgang Sandberger, 256–271. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                          Discusses the changing attitudes toward vocal fugue as exemplified in the works of Buxtehude and Bruhns and shows that the cautious attitude toward the application of fugue to pieces with text had begun to fade c. 1700.

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                                                                                                                                          Bach

                                                                                                                                          Writings on Bach and fugue are legion, far too many to include here. The writings in the list below tend to avoid small-scale topics, such as a particular use of fugue in a particular piece, in favor of larger-scale issues (i.e., Bach’s handling of fugue more generally) or significant corpuses of Bach fugue, especially the Well-Tempered Clavier, the fugues for organ, or Bach’s earliest or latest fugues. Topics include how to understand what fugue is (Dreyfus 1996), the relationship between fugue and ritornello form (Rampe 2007), and the relationship between fugue and figured bass exercises (Renwick 2000 and Gingras 2008).

                                                                                                                                          • Dreyfus, Laurence. “Matters of Kind.” In Bach and the Patterns of Invention. By Laurence Dreyfus, 135–168. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                            Dreyfus argues here that fugue is neither a form nor a “process,” but simply a genre. He uses categories of fugue found in Marpurg’s Abhandlung von der Fuge to categorize the various fugues in Bach’s WTC 1.

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                                                                                                                                            • Gingras, Bruno. “Partimento Fugue in Eighteenth-Century Germany: A Bridge between Thoroughbass Lessons and Fugal Counterpoint.” Eighteenth-Century Music 5.1 (March 2008): 51–74.

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                                                                                                                                              This article follows up on William Renwick’s work on the partimento fugue. The focus is on Bach’s principles for figured bass, teaching Handel’s Lessons for Princess Anne, the Langloz manuscript, and Heinichen’s thoroughbass treatise.

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                                                                                                                                              • Rampe, Siegbert. “Die Ritornellform als Kompositionsschema.” In Bachs Klavier- und Orgelwerke: Das Handbuch. Edited by Reinmar Emans and Sven Hiemke, 194–207. Bach-Handbuch 4.1. Laaber, Germany: Laaber-Verlag, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                The last section of this article, titled “Ritornellform und Fuge,” focuses on the first attempts to bring the idea of ritornello and tonal harmony into fugue. In addition to Bach, Rampe focuses on the Italians Albinoni and Corelli.

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                                                                                                                                                • Renwick, William. The Langloz Manuscript: Fugal Improvisation through Figured Bass. Early Music series. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                  C. P. E. Bach informs us that Bach had no interest in teaching fugue according to the methodology of species counterpoint that lies at the heart of Fux’s Gradus ad Parnassum (Fux 1966; see The Prescriptive Model) and instead created a methodology that began with the teaching of figured bass. Renwick’s monograph takes as its focal point a manuscript from the later 18th century that appears to embody this approach.

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                                                                                                                                                  Bach’s Earliest Fugues and His Fugues for Organ

                                                                                                                                                  Hill 2000, Hill 2002, and Breig 1992 look at ways in which Bach experimented with structure in the fugues written before his encounter with Italian ritornello and tonal harmony. Stauffer 1986 attempts to organize the organ fugues into subcategories.

                                                                                                                                                  • Breig, Werner. “Formprobleme in Bachs frühen Orgelfugen.” Bach-Jahrbuch 78 (1992): 7–21.

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                                                                                                                                                    See comments accompanying citation of Breig 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Breig, Werner. “Form Problems in Bach’s Early Organ Fugues.” In A Bach Tribute: Essays in Honor of William H. Scheide. Edited by Paul Brainard and Ray Robinson, 45–56. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                      A translation of Breig 1992. Breig examines seventeen early Bach organ fugues, which he defines as those written before the composer’s encounter c. 1713–1714 with the Italian solo concerto as exemplified by the music of Vivaldi. Each fugue is given a brief description.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Hill, Robert. “The Role of Variation in the Architecture of the Early Organ Fugues of J. S. Bach.” In Musicus doctus: Festschrift für Hans Musch zum 65. Geburtstag. Edited by Kay Johannsen, 23–32. Veröffentlichungen der Gesellschaft der Orgelfreunde 173. Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany: Freiburger Musik Forum, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                        Hill argues that Bach’s early fugues, before his absorption of tonal harmony as a structural tool, make use of the principle of variation, not in the way of the so-called Variation Canzona with its changing meters and recast subjects, but through the varying of successive “expositions.” Each fugue is given a diagram, and the fugues from BWV 566 and 533 are examined in greater detail.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Hill, Robert. “‘Streng’ versus ‘Frei.’ Ein Beitrag zur Analyse der frühen Tastenfugen von Johann Sebastian Bach.” In Bach, Lübeck und die norddeutsche Musiktradition: Bericht über das Internationale Symposion der Musikhochschule Lübeck April 2000. Edited by Wolfgang Sandberger, 176–184. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                          This article follows up on Hill 2000 with a close examination of Bach’s Fugue in B Minor after Corelli, BWV 579.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Stauffer, George. “Fugue Types in Bach’s Free Organ Works.” In J. S. Bach as Organist: His Instruments, Music, and Performance Practices. Edited by George Stauffer and Ernest May, 133–156. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                            Stauffer’s article is something of a follow-up to Kunze’s on fugal genres in the WTC. Like Kunze, Stauffer identifies Spiel-fugen and Tanz-fugen, but he also includes “allabreve fugues” and “art fugues” (the latter from Marpurg’s “strict fugue”).

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                                                                                                                                                            The Well-Tempered Clavier

                                                                                                                                                            The centrality of Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier for the study and understanding of fugue cannot be overstated. Both Dürr 1998 and Ledbetter 2002 are recent contributions to this topic, with Dürr’s the more traditional in its approach and Ledbetter’s the more discursive. Kunze 1969 attempts to categorize the various fugues by subgenre, Siegele 2002 and Siegele 2006, to describe it through consideration of the handling of technical features.

                                                                                                                                                            • Dürr, Alfred. Johann Sebastian Bach: Das wohltemperierte Klavier. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                              This book does for the preludes and fugues of the WTC what Dürr’s book on Bach’s cantatas does for that body of works. It begins with a concise history of the prelude and of the fugue, but most of the text is a piece-by-piece consideration of all forty-eight works, including copious musical examples and diagrams.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Kunze, Stefan. “Gattungen der Fuge in Bachs Wohltemperierten Klavier.” In Bach-Interpretationen: Walter Blankenburg zum 65. Geburtstag. Edited by Martin Geck, 74–93. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1969.

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                                                                                                                                                                The “genres” of fugue that Kunze identifies in this article include the “fuga pathetica,” the ricercar-fugue, the dance-fugue (Tanz-fuge), the “player’s fugue” (Spiel-fuge), and the choral or motet fugue.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Ledbetter, David. Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier: The 48 Preludes and Fugues. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                  This book includes both a chapter on fugue and a piece-by-piece consideration of each of the preludes and fugues in the two books of the WTC. The descriptions of the individual fugues are not close analyses of the sort found elsewhere, but offer instead four to six paragraphs that give a general characterization of each fugue, a bit about its overall construction and principal contrapuntal devices, and other points of note, including remarks about it made by other writers.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Siegele, Ulrich. “Kategorien formaler Konstruktion in den Fugen des Wohltemperierten Klaviers.” In Bach: Das Wohltemperierte Klavier I: Tradition, Entstehung, Funktion, Analyse: Ulrich Siegele zum 70. Geburtstag. Edited by Siegbert Rampe, 321–471. Musikwissenschaftliche Schriften 38. Munich: Katzbichler, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                    This extended article looks at the fugues of the WTC through the lens of various technical features of fugue writing to bring order and understanding to the whole collection. These features include key, meter, number of voices, relationship of subject to key, number of subject entries, etc. The author incorporates a great many diagrams.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Siegele, Ulrich. “Von zwei Kulturen der Fuge: Ritornellform und kontrapunktische Definition im Wohltemperierten Klavier von J. S. Bach.” Musik & Ästhetik 10.40 (October 2006): 63–69.

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                                                                                                                                                                      A brief consideration of the question of fugue and form, with emphasis on the writings of Marpurg.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Late Fugal Writing

                                                                                                                                                                      Demeyere 2005 and Butler 1983 look more closely at Bach’s late fugues, in particular ways in which theoretical writing of the time did or did not influence his handling of these somewhat theoretical works.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Butler, Gregory G. “Der vollkommene Capellmeister as a Stimulus to J. S. Bach’s Late Fugal Writing.” In New Mattheson Studies. Edited by George J. Buelow and Hans Joachim Marx, 293–305. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Butler argues that Bach almost certainly read Mattheson’s Vollkommene Capellmeister, which was printed in Leipzig, and was influenced by it in his own late fugues, especially the “St. Anne” fugue from Clavier-Übung III and the Contrapuncti from The Art of Fugue.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Demeyere, Ewald. “Die Kunst der Fuge: Exemplarisch of Experimenteel?” Dutch Journal of Music Theory/Tijdschrift voor muziektheorie 10.2 (May 2005): 174–189.

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                                                                                                                                                                          The author makes his case that Bach did not base his approach to fugue on specific theoretical writings such as Fux’s Gradus ad Parnassum (Fux 1966; see The Prescriptive Model), but on his own explorations of the genre.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Fugues in Vocal Music

                                                                                                                                                                          Neumann 1953 remains the single most important contribution to this topic. Schulze 2002 is one of the few follow-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Neumann, Werner. J. S. Bachs Chorfuge: Ein Beitrag zur Kompositions-technik Bachs. 3d ed. Bach-Studien 3. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1953.

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                                                                                                                                                                            The seminal study of Bach’s vocal fugues at a time when almost all interest in fugue was focused on instrumental and especially keyboard music. Particularly important is Neumann’s identification of the technique of permutation fugue. Originally published in 1938.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Schulze, Hans-Joachim. “Johann Sebastian Bach und die norddeutsche Fugenkunst.” In Bach, Lübeck und die norddeutsche Musiktradition: Bericht über das Internationale Symposion der Musikhochschule Lübeck April 2000. Edited by Wolfgang Sandberger, 272–279. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Despite its title, which would lead most to expect a focus on organ music, Schulze delves into Bach’s vocal fugues, with particular emphasis on Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis and Sie werden aus Saba alle kommen. Schulze cautions against what he sees as Neumann’s overemphasis on permutation fugue in Bach’s vocal music.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Handel

                                                                                                                                                                              Although Handel’s fugues had their proponents in the 18th century, most musicians since then have expressed greater admiration for those of Bach and often all but dismissed Handel’s. Only since the early 1960s have scholars begun to show greater interest in Handel’s fugal writing. In contrast to the preceding list for Bach, this list is fairly complete. The first two of these, Dietz 1961 and Pauly 1961, treat in relatively thorough fashion the vocal and keyboard fugues, respectively. Müller 1987 focuses on the fugues for instrumental ensemble, but in much more cursory fashion. Hill 2002 and Rampe 2010 weigh the various arguments in the Bach-versus-Handel fugue debate. Poulin 2008 and Ledbetter 1990 explicate Handel’s teaching of fugue as we have in a manuscript of musical examples.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Dietz, Hanns-Bertold. Die Chorfuge bei G. F. Händel: Ein Beitrag zur Kompositionstechnik des Barock. Tutzing, Germany: Hans Schneider, 1961.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Still the only monograph-length study of Handel’s vocal fugues. It is a revised version of the author’s doctoral dissertation of 1956. The book includes a list of Handel vocal fugues organized according to the major works in which they are found.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Hill, Robert. “‘Indessen führet er das Hauptthema galant ein’: Handel’s Keyboard Fugues and Their 18th-Century Audience.” Göttinger Händel-Beiträge 9 (2002): 73–85.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  A review of arguments concerning the relative merits of the fugal writing of Handel and Bach as promulgated by Johann Mattheson, Charles Burney, Johann Forkel, and C. P. E. Bach.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ledbetter, David. Continuo Playing According to Handel: His Figured Bass Exercises. Early Music series 12. Oxford: Clarendon, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    This is a complete edition of the manuscript discussed by Poulin but with extensive commentary by the editor throughout. Ledbetter’s commentaries are intended to serve as the sort of verbal instruction and explanation that Handel would no doubt have given orally to the student.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Müller, Theodor. “Die Fuge in Händels Instrumentalmusik.” In Bericht über die internationale wissenschaftliche Konferenz “Georg Friedrich Händel—Persönlichkeit, Werk, Nachleben” anlässlich der 34: Händelfestspiele der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik in Halle (Saale) vom 25. bis 27. Februar 1985. Edited by Walter Siegmund-Schultze and Bernd Baselt, 125–128. Leipzig: VEB Deutscher Verlag für Musik, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      A cursory overview of fugue in Handel’s instrumental music.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Pauly, Paul Gerhard. “G. Fr. Händels Klavierfugen: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Fuge in der ersten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts.” PhD diss., Universität des Saarlandes, 1961.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        This dissertation forms a complement to Dietz’s work on Handel’s vocal fugues. Pauly works through his topic by fugal component rather than work by work.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Poulin, Pamela. “Teaching Fugue à la Handel: Lessons for Princess Anne.” Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy 22 (2008): 119–128.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Handel, in contrast to Bach, showed little interest in teaching, but we do have one manuscript that represents lessons given to Princess Anne involving basso continuo and fugue. A critical edition of the manuscript is found in vol. 1 of the supplement to the Hallische Händel-Ausgabe, and Poulin’s article offers a guide to each of the several examples of fugal writing offered. (The manuscript itself has little to say about them.)

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rampe, Siegbert. “Die andere ‘Kunst der Fuge?’: Zur Bedeutung von Händels Instrumentalfugen.” Göttinger Händel-Beiträge 13 (2010): 79–96.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            As Rampe shows through several quotations from the 18th century, disagreement concerning the relative merits of the fugal writing of Bach and Handel goes all the way back to their lifetimes. Rampe concludes that the two composers’ fugues stand as equals, although written from very different perspectives. A complete list of Handel’s fugues for instrumental ensemble is included, although with little detailed investigation of individual pieces.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            The Classical Era

                                                                                                                                                                                            Kirkendale 1979 is a seminal book on the use of fugue in late-18th-century chamber music that has revived interest in the fugues of this era and spawned a number of studies. Burton 2004 and Tomita 2000 focus on two important figures for the ongoing interest in and cultivation of fugue after 1750: Padre Martini in Italy and the Baron van Swieten in Vienna.

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Burton, Deborah. “Padre Martini’s Preface to His Esemplare, Part II: An Original Translation.” Theoria: Historical Aspects of Music Theory 11 (2004): 35–108.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              This is a complete English translation of the portion of Padre Martini’s treatise devoted to fugue. It replaces the earlier translation by Alfred Mann in his Study of Fugue (Mann 1965; see Fugal Composition in Historical Context), which was only a partial one.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Jacob, Tobias. “Aspekte der Satztechnik in Fugen der Wiener Klassik.” In Melodie und Harmonie: Festschrift für Christoph Hohlfeld zum 80. Geburtstag. Edited by Reinhard Bahr, 105–118. Berlin: Weidler, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                This article examines the relationship between melody and harmony in the fugues of this period. No mention of Kirkendale 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kirkendale, Warren. Fugue and Fugato in Rococo and Classical Chamber Music. 2d ed. Translated by Margaret Bent and Warren Kirkendale. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  The classic study of its subject. The principal composers studied are, as one might expect, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, but many others are covered as well, including Pleyel, Hummel, Anton Reicha, and Luigi Cherubini. First published in 1966.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Tomita, Yo. “Bach Reception in Pre-Classical Vienna: Baron von Swieten’s Circle Edits the Well-Tempered Clavier II.” Music & Letters 81.3 (August 2000): 364–391.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1093/ml/81.3.364Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    A lengthy study of a collection of manuscripts from late-18th-century Vienna that comprise some or all of the fugues from Bach’s WTC II in various states of editing and adapting. The study is used to elucidate Mozart’s arrangements of some of these fugues (especially K. 404a and 405).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Haydn

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Haydn’s considerable use of fugue in both instrumental and vocal music is reflected in the presence of several significant studies. Among them they divide up Haydn’s works neatly and cover much of the territory: Grier 2010 looks at the Op. 20 String Quartets, Grossman 1993 at the symphonies, and Town 1986 at the Masses.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Grier, James. “The Reinstatement of Polyphony in Musical Construction: Fugal Finales in Haydn’s Op. 20 String Quartets.” Journal of Musicology 27.1 (Winter 2010): 55–83.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1525/jm.2010.27.1.55Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      The bulk of this article comprises a detailed analysis of each of the fugal finales in Haydn’s Op. 20 quartets.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Grossman, E. Lary. “Fugal Procedures in the Symphonies of Joseph Haydn.” PhD diss., Northwestern University, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        A look at the five movements in Haydn’s symphonies that incorporate fugue: the finales of Symphonies no. 3, 40, 70, 95, and 101.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Town, Stephen. “Toward an Understanding of Fugue and Fugato in the Masses of Joseph Haydn.” Journal of Musicological Research 6 (1986): 311–351.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/01411898608574571Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          An overview of the topic that includes a list of all such movements as well as close analysis of two, including an early and a late example.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mozart

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Compared to Haydn’s fugues, Mozart’s have received less attention. Croll 1992 describes Mozart’s important encounter with fugue in 1782, but Wollny 1992 and Sühring 2008 call for more research and some rethinking on the topic. McGahie 2006 is a somewhat disappointing dissertation on a very important topic.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Croll, Gerhard. “Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Bach- und Händel-Studien 1782.” Händel-Jahrbuch 38 (1992): 79–93.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            An article focusing on the important year of 1782, when Mozart engaged with the fugues of Bach under the inspiration of the Baron van Swieten.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • McGahie, Paul D. “The Choral Fugue: A Comparative Study of Style and Procedure in Works by J. S. Bach and W. A. Mozart.” PhD diss., University of Cincinnati, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              The topic is of considerable interest, but the analyses are discursive and superficial, and the historical portions suffer from reliance on rather outdated secondary sources.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sühring, Peter. “Bachischer Geist aus Mozarts Händen? Mozarts vier neue Streichtrio-Einleitungen zu vier dreistimmigen Fugen von Johann Sebastian und Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (KV 404a), aus ihrem Kontext heraus erklärt.” Acta Mozartiana 55.3–4 (December 2008): 101–110.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sühring makes the same case, in greater detail, as does Wollny 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Wollny, Peter. “Mozarts Fugen und der fugierte Stil in seinem Spätwerk.” In Mozart-Jahrbuch 1991: Bericht über den Internationalen Mozart-Kongreß Salzburg 1991. Edited by Rudolf Angermüller, Dietrich Berke, Ulrike Hofmann, and Wolfgang Rehm, 86–92. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This brief article urges more nuanced study of Mozart’s later fugal writing by arguing that there is more to the story than just the composer’s encounter with the fugues of Bach through the agency of the Baron van Swieten in 1782.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Beethoven

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kerman 1967 is a classic study of the Beethoven string quartets that includes an entire chapter on the Grosse Fuge. Ormeshner 1988, Breig 2001, and Kirkendale 2007 make Beethoven’s exploration of fugue in his later works their primary focus. Kahn 2010 offers context for the Great Fugue.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Breig, Werner. “Die cis-Moll-Fuge op. 131/1 als Dokument von Beethovens später Bach-Rezeption.” In Rezeption als Innovation: Untersuchungen zu einem Grundmodell der europäischen Kompositionsgeschichte—Festschrift für Friedhelm Krummacher zum 65. Geburtstag. Edited by Bernd Sponheuer, Siegfried Oechsle, and Helmut Well, 205–215. Kieler Schriften zur Musikwissenschaft 46. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Breig argues that the first movement of Beethoven’s C-sharp Minor String Quartet owes much to the fugues of Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier, including the theme itself and aspects of the overall structure.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kahn, Robert S. Beethoven and the Grosse Fuge: Music, Meaning, and Beethoven’s Most Difficult Work. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Despite its title, this monograph offers much more background and context to the Great Fugue than focus on the piece itself.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kerman, Joseph. The Beethoven Quartets. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1967.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chapter 9 (pp. 269–302) is titled “Fugue: The Great Fugue, Op. 133.” The analysis is thorough and mostly given in prose.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kirkendale, Warren. “The Great Fugue Op. 133: Beethoven’s Art of the Fugue.” In Music and Meaning: Studies in Music History and the Neighbouring Disciplines. Edited by Warren Kirkendale and Ursula Kirkendale, 545–561. Biblioteca degli Historiae Musicae Cultores 113. Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kirkendale finds Beethoven’s inspiration for this difficult fugue in the treatises of Beethoven’s teacher Albrechtsberger and F. W. Marpurg, as well as Bach’s Art of Fugue, which Beethoven knew. An earlier version of this article appeared in Acta Musicologica 35.1 (1963), 14–24.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ormesher, Richard. “Beethoven’s Instrumental Fugal Style: An Investigation of Tonal and Thematic Characteristics in the Late-Period Fugues.” PhD diss., University of Sheffield, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            After a relatively brief introduction, most of the text is devoted to detailed analysis of six late works of Beethoven: the Cello Sonata, Op. 102, no. 2; the Piano Sonata, Op. 110; the Diabelli Variations; the “Hammerklavier” Sonata, Op. 106; the C-sharp Minor String Quartet, Op. 131; and the Grosse Fuge. The analyses are almost entirely in prose.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The 19th Century

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Almost all of the major 19th-century composers (except for, most prominently, Chopin) grappled with fugue, either through the revival of Bach’s music given considerable impetus by Mendelssohn or the study of contemporary treatises such as that of Cherubini. Most of the writings in this section, therefore, focus on individual composers and their fugues. Trapp 1958 and Kramer 1987 look at the bigger picture of fugue as cultivated by 19th-century composers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kramer, Richard. “Gradus ad Parnassum: Beethoven, Schubert, and the Romance of Counterpoint.” 19th-Century Music 11.2 (1987): 107–120.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1525/ncm.1987.11.2.02a00010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kramer discusses the influences on the two composers that led to their experiments in fugal writing: Fux (as transmitted by Haydn) and Albrechtsberger for Beethoven, and the music of Handel for Schubert. Several fugues by the two are given closer scrutiny.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Trapp, Klaus. “Die Fuge in der deutschen Romantik von Schubert bis Reger: Studien zu ihrer Entwicklung und Bedeutung.” PhD diss., Frankfurt am Main, 1958.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This is a typewritten dissertation from 1958 for which Helmuth Osthoff and Theodor Adorno served as faculty advisors. After a relatively brief historical introduction to fugue and to Romantic musical style, the study is organized by composer and individual piece. Included are, in addition to the expected 19th-century masters, Mahler, Richard Strauss, Busoni, and Pfitzner.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Theorists

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Federhofer 2002 and Kunze 1968 describe some of the most important theoretical work of the earlier part of the 19th century.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Federhofer, Helmut. “Luigi Cherubini: Cours de Contre-Point et de Fugue in Deutschland und Österreich.” Acta Musicologica 74.2 (2002): 129–139.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/932717Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This article came about in conjunction with the appearance in the Neue Schumann-Gesamtausgabe of Schumann’s manuscript copy, with annotations, of Cherubini’s treatise, published in Germany in a bilingual edition in 1835. The treatise played a central role in Schumann’s interest in fugue, and Federhofer devotes most of the article to two later musicians, Gustav Jensen and Richard Heuberger, who provided their own translations and somewhat modified the treatise’s contents.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kunze, Stefan. “Anton Reichas ‘Entwurf einer phrasirten Fuge’: Zum Kompositionsbegriff im frühen 19. Jahrhundert.” Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 25.4 (1968): 289–307.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A brief article exploring Reicha’s ideas about the updating of fugue to take into account innovations in harmony in the early 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The First Half of the 19th Century

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Composers from these decades who explored fugue and incorporated it into their compositions include Schubert (Seidel 2000), Mendelssohn (Hinrichsen 2007), Schumann (Keil 1973), and Berlioz (Hirshberg 1974).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hinrichsen, Hans-Joachim. “Jenseits des Historismus: Fuge und Choral in der Instrumentalmusik Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdys.” In Zu gross, zu unerreichbar”: Bach-Rezeption im Zeitalter Mendelssohns und Schumanns. Edited by Anselm Hartinger, Christoph Wolff, and Peter Wollny, 99–119. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The author explores not just how Mendelssohn treats fugue and chorale in his instrumental music, but ways in which he brings the two together. Particular attention is paid to the Fugue I in E Minor from the Six Preludes and Fugues for Piano, Op. 35; Sonata I in F Minor from the Six Sonatas for Organ, Op. 65; and the Piano Trio in C Minor, Op. 66.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hirshberg, Jehoash. “Berlioz and the Fugue.” Journal of Music Theory 18.1 (Spring 1974): 152–188.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The author takes issue with the perception that Berlioz was hostile to fugue and considers at length fugues and fugatos by Berlioz in the Symphonie Fantastique, Harold in Italy, Romeo and Juliette, The Damnation of Faust, and the three large-scale vocal works: Requiem, Te Deum, and L’enfance du Christ.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Keil, Siegmar. Untersuchungen zur Fugentechnik in Robert Schumanns Instrumentalschaffen. Hamburger Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft 11. Hamburg, Germany: Wagner, 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This typewritten 200-page monograph offers a thorough study of the topic, including both an overview of Schumann’s study of and recorded remarks about fugue and a consideration of each fugue in chronological order. The book concludes with an overview of the history and 19th-century understanding of fugue and its various types, a chart placing each of Schumann’s instrumental fugues into one of the categories, and a brief description of all of Schumann’s surviving fugal sketches.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Seidel, Elmar. “Schubert und die Fuge: Erwägungen über die Fugen in Franz Schuberts Missa solemnis.” Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 83 (2000): 109–136.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Although Schubert is scarcely known as a composer of fugues, Seidel identifies twenty-six (including sketches and exercises) and finds the most important of these to be in his mass compositions. The focus is not on analyses of individual fugues but on the kinds of compositional problems posed by fugue and how Schubert handled them. A great many musical examples are included by Schubert but also by a wide array of other composers, including Josquin des Prez.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Later 19th Century

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Composers whose cultivation of fugue has been studied include Liszt (Heinemann 1993), Franck (Malvano 2008), Brahms (Kratzer 1939 and Smith 2001), Reger (Kaufmann 2004), Grieg (Dorfmüller 1999), and Bruckner (Boss 1997).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Boss, Rainer. Gestalt und Funktion von Fuge und Fugato bei Bruckner. Tutzing, Germany: Hans Schneider, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Boss explores Bruckner’s use of fugue in his entire oeuvre, from his organ music to his vocal compositions and finally to his symphonies, with particular emphasis on Bruckner’s fugal finales.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Dorfmüller, Joachim. “Edvard Grieg und die Fuge.” Studia Musicologica Norvegica 25 (1999): 144–156.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The focus of this article is on Grieg’s study of fugue while he was a student at the Leipzig Conservatory 1858–1862, where he learned counterpoint and fugue from Ernst Friedrich Eduard Richter, the author of a much-admired treatise on the subject. The author describes Grieg’s surviving sketchbooks from that study.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Heinemann, Michael. “Liszts Fugen und Rejcha.” Musiktheorie 8 (1993): 241–247.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Heinemann’s purpose is to argue that Liszt did, in fact, despite many naysayers over the decades, know how to write a fugue. The composer’s model for a piece such as the Prelude and Fugue on Bach was not modeled on Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier but on ideas about fugue developed and promulated by his teacher Anton Reicha.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kaufmann, Michael Gerhard. “Max Reger und seine Fugen: Sehnsucht nach einer gefügten Weltordnung.” In Reger-Studien no. 7: Festschrift für Susanne Popp. Edited by Siegfried Schmalzriedt and Jürgen Schaarwächter, 111–122. Schriftenreihe des Max-Reger-Instituts Bonn-Bad Godesberg 17. Stuttgart: Carus Verlag, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Reger was of course a prolific composer of fugues. This article provides merely a brief overview of the topic, including his study with Hugo Riemann, the influence of Mendelssohn, and Reger’s own fugue in his Bach-Variationen, Op. 81.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kratzer, Rudolf. “Die Kontrapunkt bei Joh. Brahms mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der großkontrapunktischen Formen.” PhD diss., University of Vienna, 1939.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The central section of this dissertation (pp. 51–127) remains the single most thorough consideration of Brahms’s fugal writing. The author offers detailed analyses of the A-flat Minor Fugue for organ, the fugue from the Op. 24 Variations on a Theme of Handel, the two fugues from the German Requiem, and the two in the motet “Es ist das Heil uns kommen her,” Op. 29, no. 1.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Malvano, Andrea. “‘La fenice inattesa:’ Franck, Liszt e il rinnovamento del preludio e fuga per pianoforte.” Studi musicali 37.1 (2008): 143–175.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Articles in Italian on fugue-related topics are rare. This one focuses on the piano version of Liszt’s Fantasy and Fugue on the Name of BACH and Franck’s Prelude, Fugue, and Chorale, with particular focus on a comparison of the two composers’ handling of fugue.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Smith, Peter H. “Brahms and Subject/Answer Rhetoric.” Music Analysis 20.2 (July 2001): 193–236.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/1468-2249.00136Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The author focuses on this most important of fugal techniques but looks at its importance not strictly in Brahms’s writing of fugue but in Brahms’s “practice of developing a motivic idea through subject/answer rhetoric.” In other words, although the technique comes from fugue, Brahms used it as a replacement for earlier composers’ reliance on antecedent/consequent phrases.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fugue Since 1900

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Because fugue has remained—despite attempts in the early 19th century to “update” it—firmly tied to tonal harmony, modern and postmodern music have not proven to be the most hospitable ground for the genre. The contrapuntal focus of Schoenberg and the twelve-tone composers helped, nevertheless, to provide some opportunity for the cultivation of fugue early in the 20th century, and neo-classicism brought about a return to older, premodern genres and various, often updated, versions of tonal harmony. Since World War II, a surprising number of prominent composers have put together their own collections of preludes and fugues most often inspired by Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Overviews and the Earliest Fugues

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Debruyn 1975 proposes a methodology for analyzing fugue in the post-tonal era. Ra 2003 looks at keyboard fugues influenced by Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier. Boss 1999 and Gonnard 2001 analyze important early fugues by Mahler and Ravel, respectively.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Boss, Rainer. “Symphonische Gestaltung und Fuge: Analytische Bemerkungen zu Form und Struktur in Gustav Mahlers ‘Fünfter Symphonie’.” Nachrichten zur Mahler-Forschung 41 (October 1999): 3–26.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A detailed analysis, entirely in prose, of the last movement of Mahler’s Fifth Symphony.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Debruyn, Randall Keith. “Contrapuntal Structure in Contemporary Tonal Music: A Preliminary Study of Tonality in the Twentieth Century.” MA diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Despite its title, the focus of the article is on fugue. The author develops his own methodology for analyzing fugue derived from, but also distinct from, that of Schenker. He then applies this methodology to five 20th-century works: Bartók, Piano Concerto no. 3; Ives, Symphony no. 4; Hindemith, Third Piano Sonata; Stravinsky, Symphony of Psalms; and Hovhaness, Prelude and Quadruple Fugue for Orchestra, Op. 128.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Gonnard, Henri. “Maurice Ravel, Le tombeau de Couperin: Approche analytique de la fugue.” Musurgia: Analyse et pratique musicales 8.2 (2001): 49–58.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The article is devoted almost entirely to a close, almost measure-by-measure analysis of this fugue.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ra, Julie. Rückblick und Erneuerung: Bachs Fuge in Klaviermusik von Reger, Busoni und Hindemith. Quellen und Studien zur Musikgeschichte von der Antike bis in die Gegenwart 40. Franfurt-am-Main, Germany: P. Lang, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The emphasis is on the role played by Bach fugue in works of these three early-20th-century composers. Reger’s Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Bach, Op. 81; Busoni’s Fantasia Contrappuntistica, Op. 256; and Hindemith’s Ludus Tonalis receive particular attention.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Early 20th Century Masters

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This section bring together studies of the fugues written by the most significant composers of the first half of the century: Bartók (Hawthorne 1949), Stravinsky (Fuss 1994, Taylor 1995, and Vona 1996), Schoenberg (Peles 2000 and Neff 2002), and Berg (Chittum 1967).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Chittum, Donald. “The Triple Fugue in Berg’s Wozzeck.” Music Review 28 (1967): 52–62.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chittum examines in detail this rare example of a fugue from the first half of the 20th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fuss, Hans-Ulrich. “Igor Strawinsky: Symphonie de Psaumes.” In Große Chorwerke: Werkanalyse in Beispielen. Edited by Siegmund Helms and Reinhard Schneider, 164–187. Kassel, Germany: Gustav Bosse, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pages 171–174 offer a relatively detailed analysis of the second, fugal movement of this piece.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hawthorne, Robin. “The Fugal Technique of Béla Bartók.” Music Review 10 (1949): 277–285.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The author argues that Bartók’s fugues “carry on the tradition of Beethoven rather than that of Bach.” The two pieces discussed in depth are String Quartet no. 5 and Piano Concerto no. 3.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Neff, Severine. “Schoenberg’s Kristallnacht Fugue: Contrapuntal Exercise or Unknown Piece?” Musical Quarterly 86.1 (Spring 2002): 117–148.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1093/musqtl/gdg005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Although Schoenberg was known to produce contrapuntal exercises during much of his career as a way of sharpening his compositional skills, the author argues that an incomplete fugue begun by the composer on the day he learned of Kristallnacht was not one of these but was intended to be a true composition. The article surveys Schoenberg’s various explorations of counterpoint and fugue and offers a detailed examination of the Kristallnacht fugue itself. Available online to patrons of subscribing institutions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Peles, Stephen. “Schoenberg and the Tradition of Imitative Counterpoint: Remarks on the Third and Fourth Quartets and the Trio.” In Music of My Future: The Schoenberg Quartets and Trio. Edited by Reinhold Brinkman and Christoph Wolff, 117–138. Isham Library Papers 5. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Department of Music, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This article focuses not so much on Schoenberg’s handling of fugue per se as on the ideals that Schoenberg brought to his handling of counterpoint—in particular, imitative and invertible counterpoint—and what motivated these ideals.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Taylor, Robert. “An Examination of Stravinsky’s Fugal Writing in the Second Movement of Symphony of Psalms.” Choral Journal 36.3 (October 1995): 17–20.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This brief article offers a detailed analysis of the middle movement of the Symphony of Psalms as a double fugue.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Vona, George. “A Stylistic Analysis of Stravinsky’s Concerto per due pianoforti-soli.” MA diss., University of Hartford, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Stravinsky’s Concerto for Two Pianos includes in its final movement one of Stravinsky’s most important fugues, but this fugue receives much less attention than that in the Symphony of Psalms. Chapter 9, entitled “Stravinsky and the Beethoven Model: Fugue,” pp. 140–196, offers an extended discussion of its topic along with a thorough analysis of the fugue of this concerto.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fugue after World War II

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Seo 2003 and Khalatova 2000 examine cycles of preludes and fugues inspired by Bach’s WTC. Morgan 1999 focuses on preludes and fugues for organ by the French organist Marcel Dupré. Ravenscroft 2000 looks at a fugue for percussion ensemble by Lou Harrison.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Khalatova, Karina. “Polyphonic Innovations in the Piano Music of Dmitry Shostakovich: Twenty-Four Preludes and Fugues”. PhD diss., University of Cincinnati, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Includes a summary chapter on Shostakovich’s entire cycle plus closer study of four of the preludes and fugues, comprising a musical incipit and several sentences of verbal description.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Morgan, Robert. “The Preludes and Fugues (op. 36) of Marcel Dupré and Their Relationship to the Harmonic and Melodic Processes as Set Forth in the Traité d’improvisation à l’orgue”. PhD diss., University of Washington, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The three preludes and fugues of Marcel Dupré’s Op. 36 are discussed in detail and shown to relate closely to Dupré’s treatise on improvisation. Little historical context is offered.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ravenscroft, Brenda. “Working Out the ‘Is-Tos’ and ‘As-Tos’: Lou Harrison’s Fugue for Percussion.” Perspectives of New Music 38.1 (Winter 2000): 25–43.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/833587Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A thorough analysis of one of the few fugues written for percussion ensemble.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Seo, Yun-Jin. “Three Cycles of 24 Preludes and Fugues by Russian Composers: D. Shostakovich, R. Shchedrin and S. Slonimsky”. PhD diss., University of Texas at Austin, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This dissertation focuses with only cursory historical context on the works of the three composers, whose published cycles span almost the entire second half of the 20th century. Two preludes and fugues by each composer are selected for closer analysis.

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