In This Article Giuseppe Verdi

  • Introduction
  • Reference Works
  • Biographies and Overviews
  • Catalogs and Bibliographies
  • Journals
  • Iconography and Documents
  • Sources and Editions
  • Collections of Essays
  • Creative Process
  • Forms and Conventions
  • Context
  • The Chorus and Politics
  • Censorship
  • Performance Practice
  • Staging, Ballets, and Gesture
  • Reception
  • Conference Proceedings
  • Organizations Devoted to Verdi’s Work

Music Giuseppe Verdi
by
Francesco Izzo
  • LAST MODIFIED: 21 November 2012
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199757824-0029

Introduction

Giuseppe Verdi (b. 1813–d. 1901) was the leading opera composer of 19th-century Italy. During his long and sensationally successful career, many of his operas became permanent fixtures in the repertories of the world’s principal opera houses; Rigoletto, La traviata, Il trovatore, Aida, and Otello are only some of the works by Verdi whose popularity remains undiminished to the present day. His style changed considerably from the early works, which drew significantly on the conventions and formal procedures established during the early part of the century in the operas of Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini, and their contemporaries. By the mid-1840s, he was broadly regarded as the leading Italian composer of his time. His authorial voice developed remarkably during his long career, from the rousing choruses and forceful vocal lines of the early operas to the increasing formal freedom and rich psychological nuances of his middle-period works, and finally to the highly individual works of his late years. As his prestige and influence grew, in the mid-19th century Verdi vigorously asserted his authority on numerous fronts, pressuring librettists, singers, impresarios, and publishers to ensure that his artistic intentions were understood and realized and that his rights were adequately protected. He took the lead in selecting the subject matter for many of his operas and in shaping his librettos through intense epistolary exchanges with the poets who worked for him. The sources he chose included plays by Shakespeare, Schiller, Hugo, Dumas, and Gutiérrez. An eminently public figure in Italian society and culture, he became an icon of the Italian national movement known as the Risorgimento; during the first two decades of his career, his operas were often subjected to censorship, and significant compromises had to be reached to make them performable (including changes of title, locale, time, and character names). In the wake of the unification of Italy, he came to be regarded as a national hero and was invited to serve as a member of the first Italian parliament. The success of countless opera singers from the mid-19th century to the present day is closely associated with Verdi’s music, and their role in the dissemination and enduring success of his operas has been essential. Important textual research and the ongoing publication of the Works of Giuseppe Verdi (Verdi 1983, cited under Sources and Editions), which aims to publish Verdi’s entire opus in critical edition, have sparked renewed interest in some of his lesser-known works, with recent productions of Giovanna d’Arco and I due Foscari at the Verdi Festival in Parma (2008 and 2009, respectively) and Attila at the Metropolitan Opera in New York, conducted by Riccardo Muti (2010).

Reference Works

Virtually all music dictionaries and encyclopedias contain extensive individual entries on Verdi. Parker’s Verdi, Giuseppe and Della Seta 2006 are the most current articles, and Porter 1980 remains a worthwhile read, albeit not reflecting recent bibliography and critical perspectives.

  • Della Seta, Fabrizio. “Verdi, Giuseppe.” In Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Allgemeine Enzyklopädie der Musik. 2d ed. Personenteil 16. Edited by Friedrich Blume, 1438–1483. Kassel, Germany: Barenreiter, 2006.

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    Presents an extraordinarily accessible, thorough, and engaging overview of Verdi’s life, career, compositional methods, and cultural milieu, as well as numerous analytical and interpretive insights. Excellent bibliography.

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    • Parker, Roger. “Verdi, Giuseppe.” In Grove Music Online.

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      An account of Verdi’s life and works in chronological order, with a final section examining the dissemination and reception of the composer’s work in the 20th century. Good list of works. The bibliography was last updated around 2000.

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      • Porter, Andrew. “Verdi, Giuseppe.” In New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Vol. 19. Edited by Stanley Sadie, 635–665. London: Macmillan, 1980.

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        An excellent discussion of Verdi’s life and works. Superseded by Parker’s entry in Grove Music Online, it is still a worthwhile read for various critical insights and for the discussion of periodization. The bibliography is out of date.

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        Biographies and Overviews

        Published biographies are numerous. Accounts of Verdi’s life and career began to appear in print as early as 1846, and some 19th-century resources are still of interest today (particularly Pougin 1881), although the factual information they contain must not be taken at face value. In recent decades, extensive research into correspondence and other biographical evidence has increased the amount and the reliability of information available to us. Not all publications are equally reliable, however. Abbiati 1959 is monumental in size but notoriously unreliable, whereas Walker 1963 is considerably more accurate but often superseded by more recent publications. Phillips-Matz 1993 is filled with detailed information on Verdi’s private life (some of dubious authenticity), Budden 2008 offers an excellent balance of biography and musical commentary, and Rosselli 2000 is a concise but engaging read with an emphasis on historical and cultural context. Reference Works and Critical Studies also provide detailed biographical outlines and discussions of Verdi’s music.

        • Abbiati, Franco. Giuseppe Verdi. 4 vols. Milan: Ricordi, 1959.

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          Once regarded as the standard Verdi biography, it is, however, substantially flawed and unreliable, and largely out of date. Some of the documents it cites are not reproduced elsewhere and can still be useful if not taken at face value.

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          • Budden, Julian. Verdi. 3d ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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            Originally published in 1993, it presents a clear and accessible chronological discussion of Verdi’s life and music. The valuable appendices include a calendar, work list, personalia, bibliography (not properly updated in the last edition), and glossary. Insightful and engaging.

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            • Phillips-Matz, Mary Jane. Verdi: A Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

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              A monumental study filled with information concerning Verdi’s life, based on archival research on privately owned materials and other under-researched sources. It does not concentrate on Verdi’s musical achievements or artistic development, exploring instead a wealth of details of his family life and private relations. Some of the information needs further verification.

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              • Pougin, Arthur. Giuseppe Verdi: Vita aneddotica con note e aggiunte di Folchetto. Milan: Ricordi, 1881.

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                Subsequently issued in French in 1886, it soon circulated also in other languages. The Italian edition contains additions by Folchetto (a pen name for Giacomo Caponi), as well as Verdi’s autobiographical account dictated to Giulio Ricordi in 1879. These materials are also included in the English translation (1887). This biography remains of great interest despite the numerous factual inaccuracies and fanciful anecdotes.

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                • Rosselli, John. Life of Verdi. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

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                  Presents a concise and engaging biographical account, enriched by some musical commentary and a wealth of detail concerning culture and society in 19th-century Italy, opera houses, librettists, singers, and impresarios.

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                  • Walker, Frank. The Man Verdi. London: J. M. Dent, 1963.

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                    An insightful account of Verdi’s life, focusing on the composer’s relations with friends, colleagues, and with his second wife, Giuseppina Strepponi. Continues to be useful, although the bibliography and a number of details are out of date.

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                    Catalogs and Bibliographies

                    For Verdi’s operas, the most detailed catalogue is Chusid 1974. Hopkinson 1973–1978 remains the standard bibliography of Verdi’s works. Harwood 1998 provides the most comprehensive annotated bibliography, albeit in need of updating. Although not a bibliography, Poriss 2001–2002 offers an unusual and engaging overview of the place of Verdi and Italian opera in well-known music history textbooks. Biographies and Overviews, Reference Works, and Critical Studies often contain catalogs or detailed work lists, as well as rich bibliographies of literature about Verdi.

                    • Chusid, Martin. A Catalog of Verdi’s Operas. Hackensack, NJ: Joseph Boonin, 1974.

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                      Thoroughly researched, the catalogue presents detailed information concerning each of Verdi’s operas, including descriptions and references to autograph scores, selected manuscript copies, early editions, and other source materials.

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                      • Harwood, Gregory. Giuseppe Verdi: A Guide to Research. New York: Garland, 1998.

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                        A valuable research tool, it contains a thorough bibliography divided into subject areas and accompanied by authors and subject indexes. Each entry is annotated and provided with an English-language summary.

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                        • Hopkinson, Cecil. A Bibliography of the Works of Giuseppe Verdi, 1813–1901. 2 vols. New York: Broude, 1973–1978.

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                          Vol. 1, Vocal and Instrumental Works; Vol. 2, Operatic Works. Provides a wealth of interesting information on published editions of Verdi’s works, albeit with quite a few omissions, inaccuracies, and some outdated information. Treated with caution, it remains a useful resource.

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                          • Poriss, Hilary. “Testing Textbooks: The Case for Italian Opera.” Verdi Forum 28–29 (2001–2002): 49–58.

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                            Original discussion of the treatment of 19th-century Italian opera in several widely adopted music history textbooks by Mark Evan Bonds, Jon Finson, and others, pointing out strengths as well as common generalizations.

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                            Journals

                            Scholarly articles concerning Verdi appear with some regularity in numerous musicological journals. Studi verdiani, based in Italy, and Verdi Forum, based in the United States, are two annual publications devoted specifically to Verdi scholarship.

                            • Studi verdiani. 1982–.

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                              An annual published by the Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani in Parma, Italy. The articles are in Italian, English, German, or French, and are extended and richly documented studies devoted to individual operas, biographical information, reception, and more. An index of past issues is available at the website.

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                              • Verdi Forum. 1976–.

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                                An annual published by the American Institute for Verdi Studies, formerly under the title Verdi Newsletter. From 1999, it has appeared every other year in double issues. An index of past issues is available at the website.

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                                Correspondence

                                During his long career, Verdi corresponded assiduously with librettists, singers, impresarios, fellow composers, and friends. No single edition of Verdi’s correspondence in chronological order exists. Three general collections are Cesari and Luzio 1913, Luzio 1935–1947, and Oberdorfer 1981.

                                • Cesari, Gaetano, and Alessandro Luzio, eds. I copialettere di Giuseppe Verdi. Milan: n.p., 1913.

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                                  Contains nearly four hundred letter drafts entered by the composer into his copialettere (correspondence notebooks) from 1844 until 1901. The extensive appendix includes additional correspondence not in the copialettere, with cross-references to the materials in the main body of the volume. Despite substantial gaps and errors, this pioneering collection is still useful and represents a fundamental early step in the development of Verdi studies.

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                                  • Luzio, Alessandro, ed. Carteggi verdiani. 4 vols. Rome: Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, 1935–1947.

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                                    A monumental collection of correspondence and documents from the collection of Villa Verdi, Sant’Agata. Some of the contents (especially the correspondence with Boito in Vol. 2) are out of date because the same materials are now available in more recent and accurate editions. Vast portions of this publication are still invaluable, however, including the large sets of correspondence with Cesare and Giuseppe De Santis and Giuseppe Piroli, and portions of the copialettere of Giuseppina Strepponi.

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                                    • Oberdorfer, Aldo, ed. Giuseppe Verdi: Autobiografia dalle lettere. 3d rev. ed. Milan: Rizzoli, 1981.

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                                      Originally published in 1941, includes a large quantity of letters arranged to form a documentary biography. Conati’s revision enriches the volume with detailed information concerning the documents and indexes of names and titles. With annotations and additions by Marcello Conati.

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                                      Friends and Collaborators

                                      Following the approach of Alberti 1931, starting in 1978, the Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani has published excellent editions of epistolary exchanges with important individuals or (in the case of Ricordi) small groups of correspondents (Medici and Conati 1994; Petrobelli, et al. 1988; Cella, et al. 1994; Mossa 2001; Ricciardi 2003; Genesio 2008; Pompilio and Ricordi 2010). Access to correspondence with many of Verdi’s librettists, singers, and other important interlocutors, however, is mostly reliant on publications from the first half of the 20th century, and vast quantities of correspondence of great significance, including many letters in the collection of Verdi’s heirs at Sant’Agata and in other private collections, remain unpublished to date. The availability of Verdi’s correspondence in English is limited (an important exception is Medici and Conati 1994), and the editions are sometimes flawed. Extensive translated passages from Verdi’s letters appear in numerous publications (see Biographies and Overviews). Additional publications containing correspondence are cited under Iconography and Documents and Critical Studies.

                                      • Alberti, Annibale, ed. Verdi intimo: Carteggio di Giuseppe Verdi con il Conte Opprandino Arrivabene (1861–1886). Verona, Italy: Mondadori, 1931.

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                                        Collects some 210 letters between Verdi and his close friend Arrivabene. The valuable collection includes useful annotations and several facsimiles and illustrations.

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                                        • Cella, Franca, Madina Ricordi, and Marisa Di Gregorio Casati, eds. Carteggio Verdi-Ricordi (1882–1885). Parma, Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani, 1994.

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                                          A sequel to Petrobelli, et al. 1988, includes 346 letters to and from members of the Ricordi firm, as well as several additional letters from Emanuele Muzio to Ricordi from Paris. The organization and appendices are analogous to the earlier volume.

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                                          • Genesio, Laura, ed. Carteggio Verdi-Luccardi. Parma, Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani, 2008.

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                                            Verdi’s friendship with the sculptor Vincenzo Luccardi began in the 1840s and lasted until Luccardi’s death in 1876. Their correspondence includes 234 letters and covers a number of works and subjects. Among the carteggi published thus far, this is the only set that spans such an extended period of time and sheds light on the relationship of the composer with someone who was not connected with the opera business.

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                                            • Medici, Mario, and Marcello Conati, eds. The Verdi-Boito Correspondence. Translated by William Weaver. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

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                                              Originally published in Italian in 1978, the set includes 301 letters between Verdi and his collaborator and friend Arrigo Boito. The excellent critical commentary in Vol. 2 provides information on original sources, early publications, and difficult readings and references. The English translation includes an excellent new introduction by Marcello Conati.

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                                              • Mossa, Carlo Matteo, ed. Carteggio Verdi-Cammarano. Parma, Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani, 2001.

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                                                A critical edition of 111 letters spanning the decade of 1843–1852 traces the collaboration of the composer with the Neapolitan librettist, concentrating on Alzira, La battaglia di Legnano, Luisa Miller, Il trovatore, and a few unrealized projects.

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                                                • Petrobelli, Pierluigi, Carlo Matteo Mossa, and Marisa Di Gregorio Casati, eds. Carteggio Verdi-Ricordi (1880–1881). Parma, Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani, 1988.

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                                                  Contains 246 letters between Verdi, Giuseppina Strepponi, and various members of the Milanese publishing firm. Numerous items are previously unpublished, and those that appear elsewhere are substantially corrected. Annotations, appendices, and indexes provide meaningful background information, additional details, and easy consultation of the contents.

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                                                  • Pompilio, Angelo, and Madina Ricordi, eds. Carteggio Verdi-Ricordi (1886–1888). Parma, Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani, 2010.

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                                                    A sequel to Petrobelli, et al. 1988 and to Cella, et al. 1994, contains about 350 letters and other documents concerning the final stages of the composition of Otello, as well as its premiere and additional performances.

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                                                    • Ricciardi, Simonetta, ed. Carteggio Verdi-Somma. Parma, Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani, 2003.

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                                                      Collects 101 letters between Verdi and the Roman poet, outlining their collaboration on the libretto for the unrealized King Lear and on Un ballo in maschera. The critical edition is supported by a useful commentary, appendices, and index.

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                                                      Iconography and Documents

                                                      Interest in Verdian documents and iconography developed rapidly following the composer’s death, resulting not only in published anthologies of correspondence, but also in collections of iconographic materials and other documents. Monaldi 1913 was a pioneering enterprise marking the 100th anniversary of the composer’s birth, and Gatti 1941 rapidly became a classic. Weaver 1977, Pieri 1981, Degrada 2000, and especially Di Gregorio Casati 2001 provide additional materials in good-quality reproductions. Conati 1984 is an important anthology of firsthand accounts from people who met Verdi.

                                                      • Conati, Marcello, ed. Encounters with Verdi. Translated by Richard Stokes. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1984.

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                                                        Translated from the editor’s Interviste e incontri con Verdi (Milan: Il Formichiere, 1980). Collects fifty short publications from the period 1845–1900 reporting interviews or meetings with the composer. Each entry is prefaced and annotated, and offers fascinating insights into Verdi’s personality and views at various points of his life.

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                                                        • Degrada, Francesco, ed. Giuseppe Verdi: L’uomo, l’opera, il mito. Milan: Skira, 2000.

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                                                          Produced as a catalogue and companion volume for a large exhibit held in Milan (2000–2001), it contains numerous concise essays by well-known scholars and performers, as well as a wealth of color images illustrating Verdi’s life and operas. Some of the pictures are regrettably small, but the volume as a whole is admirable.

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                                                          • Di Gregorio Casati, Marisa, Olga Jesurum, Marco Marica, eds. Per amore di Verdi, 1813–1901: Vita, immagini, ritratti. Parma, Italy: Grafiche Step Editrice, 2001.

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                                                            Beautifully crafted volume containing a wealth of high-quality color illustrations arranged chronologically. Concise introductory chapters and quotations from letters introduce each portion of the volume.

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                                                            • Gatti, Carlo. Verdi nelle immagini. Milan: Garzanti, 1941.

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                                                              A rich collection containing black-and-white images of places, stage designs, title pages from printed librettos and scores, highly significant selections from Verdi’s autograph sketches, posters, as well as numerous portraits and photographs of Verdi, librettists, singers, relatives, and friends. A German translation appeared the same year.

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                                                              • Monaldi, Gino. Saggio di iconografia verdiana. Edited by Uberto Visconti di Modrone. Bergamo, Italy: Istituto Italiano d’Arti Grafiche, 1913.

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                                                                The first large-scale iconography of the composer. Includes sections devoted to portraits, caricatures, friends, and librettists. The core of the volume is devoted to performance and staging, and includes set and costume designs and images of performers. Mostly superseded by more recent publications but still useful for the information on singers.

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                                                                • Pieri, Marzio. Verdi: L’immaginario dell’ottocento. Milan: Electa Editrice, 1981.

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                                                                  Richly illustrated biographical study containing a wealth of iconographic materials, including portraits, set and costume designs, playbills, paintings inspired by the subject matter of Verdi’s operas, and facsimile reproductions from scores.

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                                                                  • Weaver, William, ed. Verdi: A Documentary Study. London: Thames and Hudson, 1977.

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                                                                    Presents an excellent collection of almost three hundred color and black-and-white images arranged chronologically and documenting aspects of Verdi’s life and career. The second part presents a selection of letters and documents in English translation.

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                                                                    Sources and Editions

                                                                    All autograph scores of Verdi’s operas (with the exception of Attila, Jérusalem, Les Vêpres siciliennes, and Don Carlos) and of the Requiem are preserved in the Archivio Storico Ricordi at the Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense in Milan. The scores of Otello and Falstaff are available in facsimile (Verdi 1951, Verdi 2002). The autograph sources of shorter compositions are preserved in various other repositories, and facsimile reproductions of some of them are available (Verdi 2000). An abundance of drafts and sketch materials are held in the archive at Villa Verdi, Sant’Agata (near Busseto), and some are available in valuable facsimile editions (Verdi 1941, Della Seta 2001). Descriptions of the opera autograph scores may be found in Chusid 1974 (cited under Catalogs and Bibliographies) and in the volumes of Verdi 1983– available in print, which also reproduce individual pages from the autographs. In addition, numerous studies discuss and partially reproduce sketches and drafts (see Critical Studies, Creative Process). Virtually all of Verdi’s works were published by Ricordi during his lifetime, with a handful of operas and smaller compositions first published by Ricordi’s competitor Lucca, or by French publishers. Most of his early operas appeared in print only in piano-vocal reduction. Full scores of several of his middle- and late-period works were published during the latter half of the 19th century. Numerous old editions by Ricordi and other publishers, many of which are notoriously unreliable, continue to be reprinted to the present day. Substantial research undertaken during the past four decades (see Creative Process) has increased our awareness and understanding of Verdi’s working methods and of the circulation of his works in manuscript copy, print, and performance. In the early 1980s, the University of Chicago Press and Ricordi jointly launched the Works of Giuseppe Verdi (Verdi 1983–), which aims to publish all of Verdi’s music in critical edition.

                                                                    • Archivio Storico Ricordi. Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense.

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                                                                      With a few exceptions, all autograph scores of Verdi’s operas are preserved in the Archivio Storico Ricordi at the Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense in Milan.

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                                                                      • Della Seta, Fabrizio, ed. La traviata: Schizzi e abbozzi autografi. Parma, Italy: Istituto di Studi Verdiani, 2001.

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                                                                        A high-quality facsimile edition of all sketches and continuity drafts for La traviata. The autograph materials are reproduced in color and meticulously replicate fascicle structures and size and shape of individual folios. The materials are described, discussed, and transcribed in Della Seta’s exemplary edition. A separate volume contains a critical and analytical commentary. Exemplary in every respect.

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                                                                        • Verdi, Giuseppe. L’abbozzo del Rigoletto. Rome: Ministero della Cultura Popolare, 1941.

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                                                                          A facsimile reproduction of the autograph continuity draft for Rigoletto, reproducing the gathering structure and size of individual folios. Together with Della Seta 2001, this remains one of the most important publications of Verdi’s drafts preserved at Sant’Agata. A brief introduction by Carlo Gatti describes the source and the purpose of the publication.

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                                                                          • Verdi, Giuseppe. Falstaff. Milan: Ente Autonomo Teatro alla Scala, 1951.

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                                                                            A black-and-white facsimile reproduction of the full autograph score for Falstaff preserved in the Ricordi archive. There is no introduction, description, or other accompanying materials, but the reproduction is extremely valuable.

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                                                                            • Verdi, Giuseppe. Works of Giuseppe Verdi. Edited by Philip Gossett. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983–.

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                                                                              Volumes in print include Nabucco, Ernani, Giovanna d’Arco, Alzira, Macbeth, I masnadieri, Il corsaro, Luisa Miller, Rigoletto, Il trovatore, La traviata, the Messa da Requiem, the hymns, and the chamber music. Each volume provides a detailed historical introduction and a critical edition of the score based on Verdi’s autograph manuscript. Appendices provide additional materials, variants, and alternate readings, and the accompanying critical commentary includes source descriptions and critical notes tracing the compositional steps, revisions, corrections, variants, and dubious readings that punctuate Verdi’s creative process. The edition as a whole is a monumental effort and sets the standard for numerous other editorial projects.

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                                                                              • Verdi, Giuseppe. Gli autografi del Museo Teatrale alla Scala. 8 vols. Milan: Museo Teatrale alla Scala, 2000.

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                                                                                A valuable set containing compositions whose autograph scores are preserved in Milan in the Museo Teatrale alla Scala. Each volume contains a historical introduction, source description, facsimile, and edition. Compositions include Sinfonia (edited by Roberta Montemorra Marvin); Tantum ergo for tenor and orchestra (edited by Dino Rizzo); Notturno for three voices, flute, and piano (edited by Marco Marica); choral arrangements of “Va pensiero” and “Immenso Jeovha from Nabucco (edited by Roger Parker); the romanzas “Cupo è il sepolcro e mutolo” (edited by Antonio Rostagno) and “Oh dolore! ed io vivea” (edited by Emanuele Senici); fragments of a sketch for Il trovatore (edited by Jesse Rosenberg); and notes for the French translation of Otello (edited by Damien Colas).

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                                                                                • Verdi, Giuseppe. Otello. 4 vols. Milan: Ricordi, 2002.

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                                                                                  A luxurious limited edition, printed in one hundred numbered copies. Excellent color facsimile reproduction of Verdi’s autograph manuscript preserved in the Ricordi historical archive. An additional volume contains an introductory essay and a wealth of iconographic material in color.

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                                                                                  Critical Studies

                                                                                  From the publication of Abramo Basevi’s pioneering study (Basevi 1859) to the most recent efforts, broad critical discussions of Verdi’s music are numerous. Detailed discussions of each Verdi opera may be found in Budden 1992. Mila 1978 is dated in some respects but remains an important contribution on Verdi’s career up to La traviata. Written by literature historians, Baldini 1980 and Van 1998 are thoroughly engaging and critically insightful. Kimbell 1985 concentrates primarily on the music and cultural milieu of Verdi’s early period. Gossett 2006 discusses important aspects of Verdi within a broad study of 19th-century Italian opera and its performance. In addition to the citations under this heading, concise discussions of individual operas by Roger Parker appear in Grove Music Online (cited under Reference Works). The extensive historical introductions to the volumes in Verdi 1983– (cited under Sources and Editions) are excellent starting points for any investigation of individual works.

                                                                                  • Baldini, Gabriele. The Story of Giuseppe Verdi: Oberto to Un ballo in maschera. Translated by Roger Parker. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

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                                                                                    Translated from the author’s Abitare la battaglia: La storia di Giuseppe Verdi (Milan: Garzanti, 1970). A leading literary critic and scholar of English literature, Baldini offers individual, provocative, and engaging readings and critical perspectives on Verdi’s life and operas to Un ballo in maschera. The monograph was unfinished when the author died. An appendix includes an incomplete chapter draft on La forza del destino.

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                                                                                    • Basevi, Abramo. Studio sulle opere di Giuseppe Verdi. Florence: Tipografia Tofani, 1859.

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                                                                                      The first full-length analytical discussion of Verdi’s operas, collecting chapters published individually in the Florentine journal L’Armonia. Following the introduction, each chapter is devoted to an individual opera.

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                                                                                      • Budden, Julian. The Operas of Verdi. 2d ed. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1992.

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                                                                                        Originally published in 1973, this remains an essential entry point into Verdi’s operas. Each opera is discussed in an individual chapter containing information on the genesis and production, a discussion of the subject matter, and a detailed examination of the music. The prose is enriched with numerous quotations from correspondence and reviews.

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                                                                                        • Gossett, Philip. Divas and Scholars: Performing Italian Opera. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

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                                                                                          One of the most thorough and engaging monographs on 19th-century Italian opera. Detailed discussions of Verdi are woven throughout the book and concentrate primarily on questions of textual criticism, editing, and performance practice. Rigorous and eminently accessible. Thorough indexes help locate discussions of individual works. Excellent bibliography.

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                                                                                          • Kimbell, David R. B. Verdi in the Age of Italian Romanticism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

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                                                                                            The first part of this study focuses on the period 1839–1849, building up to a discussion of Rigoletto, Il trovatore, and La traviata. Kimbell explores Romantic trends in Italian literature and society, providing a stimulating cultural context for numerous operas and the transformations they enacted at midcentury.

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                                                                                            • Mila, Massimo. La giovinezza di Verdi. 2d ed. Turin, Italy: ERI, 1978.

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                                                                                              A classic discussion of Verdi’s career from the outset to La traviata, partly derived from some earlier publications by the same author. Often outdated but still useful and stimulating for biographical detail and critical insights.

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                                                                                              • Van, Gilles de. Verdi’s Theater. Translated by Gilda Roberts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                Translated from the author’s Verdi: Un théâtre en musique (Paris: Fayard, 1992). Presents an informative and highly individual discussion of Verdi’s operas as theater. Substantial attention is devoted to librettists, cultural milieu, and dramaturgy.

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                                                                                                The First Decade (1839–1849)

                                                                                                Fifteen operas by Verdi (more than half of his output) received their premieres during the first decade of his career (1839–1849). In the past the works that saw the light during this period have sometimes been regarded as inferior to those of the composer’s maturity. The period itself is often referred to as Verdi’s anni di galera (years of the gallows), an expression Verdi used in a famous 1858 letter and which has been misused to suggest that the operas of the 1840s were composed under severe time pressure and other constraints that affected his freedom of choice on numerous levels. Massive research carried out for the volumes of the Works of Giuseppe Verdi (Verdi 1983, cited under Sources and Editions) and other purposes has contributed to rectify this viewpoint. Parker 1989 represents an important moment in the scholarly and critical reassessment of Verdi’s early works. Engelhard 1992 contextualizes several operas of the 1840s against works by Verdi’s contemporaries. Petrobelli 1994, Rosen and Porter 1984, Marvin 1992, Izzo 2001, Greenwald 2009, and Ipson 2011 shed light on individual works from this period, offering new insights into sources, compositional process, style, and cultural milieu of Verdi’s first decade.

                                                                                                • Engelhardt, Markus. Verdi und andere: Un giorno di regno, Ernani, Attila, Il corsaro im Mehrfachvertonungen. Parma, Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani, 1992.

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                                                                                                  Explores the literary and musical context of four early operas by examining works by other librettists and composers based on the same subject. Argues that Verdi’s operas have a more sophisticated dramatic approach than those of his contemporaries, drawing closely on his literary models. Helpful indexes and a summary in Italian are provided.

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                                                                                                  • Greenwald, Helen M., ed. “An Attila Symposium.” Cambridge Opera Journal 21 (2009): 237–289.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/S0954586710000133E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    Convened by the editor, collects five essays offering new insights into the genesis, libretto, politics, and stylistic and dramaturgical aspects of the opera. Brief introduction by Philip Gossett.

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                                                                                                    • Ipson, Douglas. “‘Giuriamo per la patria’: The Operatic Oath Scene in Revolutionary Rome (1846–1849).” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2011.

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                                                                                                      Important study of a widespread musico-dramatic topos in Risorgimento opera, providing a broad and plausible context for La battaglia di Legnano, which is discussed in detail.

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                                                                                                      • Izzo, Francesco. “Verdi’s Un giorno di regno: Two Newly Discovered Movements and Some Questions of Genre.” Acta Musicologica 73 (2001): 165–188.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/932896E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Examines the autograph manuscript in the Ricordi archives, discusses two previously unknown movements contained in the score, and argues that Verdi devoted considerable attention to the composition of this opera, calling into question widespread assumptions concerning its marginality in Verdi’s output.

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                                                                                                        • Marvin, Roberta M. “Verdi’s I masnadieri: Its Genesis and Early Reception.” PhD diss., Brandeis University, 1992.

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                                                                                                          Examines in detail the sources, compositional history, and reception of the opera in London and in Italy. A large documentary appendix includes correspondence, a detailed description of the autograph score, and materials relating to tempo markings and censored versions performed in Italy.

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                                                                                                          • Parker, Roger. Studies in Early Verdi, 1832–1844: New Information and Perspectives on the Milanese Musical Milieu and the Operas from Oberto to Ernani. New York and London: Garland, 1989.

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                                                                                                            A reprint of the author’s doctoral dissertation of the same title (1981), it includes chapters devoted to Verdi and the Milanese press; the circulation of Viennese “classical” music in Milan; the influence of singers on Verdi’s creative process; and aspects of Oberto, conte di San Bonifacio, Un giorno di regno, Nabucco, Ernani, and Il trovatore.

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                                                                                                            • Petrobelli, Pierluigi. “From Rossini’s Mosè to Verdi’s Nabucco.” In Music in the Theater: Essays on Verdi and Other Composers. By Pierluigi Petrobelli, 8–33. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                              Draws a comparison between this opera and Rossini’s Moïse et Pharaon, highlighting similarities in subject matter and musical treatment.

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                                                                                                              • Rosen, David, and Andrew Porter, eds. Verdi’s Macbeth: A Sourcebook. New York: W. W. Norton, 1984.

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                                                                                                                Important collection of essays and materials on Macbeth. Contains a thorough collection of correspondence (in the original language and in English translation), seventeen papers from the Fifth International Congress of Verdi Studies (1977), and a wealth of documents and reviews. Appendices include a list of performances, a glossary, personalia, a reproduction of the 1847 printed libretto, and excerpts from the 1847 score.

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                                                                                                                • Senici, Emanuele. Landscape and Gender in Italian Opera: The Alpine Virgin from Bellini to Puccini. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                  Imaginative and engaging readings of a group of 19th-century Italian operas whose female protagonists embody the ideal of virginal heroine. Chapter 3 (an earlier version of which was published in 1998) examines Luisa Miller in the light of the conventions of the semiseria genre.

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                                                                                                                  The “Middle Period”: (1849–1859)

                                                                                                                  Verdi’s operas composed during the second decade of his career include some of the most loved and widely performed works in the operatic canon. The expression “popular trilogy” (never employed by Verdi himself) sanctions the status of Rigoletto, Il trovatore, and La traviata, which are widely discussed in most biographical and critical studies devoted to the composer. Publications intended for a nonspecialist audience abound, and their scholarly value varies widely (Conati 1992, however, is a noteworthy contribution). All these operas, as well as Luisa Miller and Stiffelio, are available in the Works of Giuseppe Verdi (Verdi 1983, cited under Sources and Editions), and the historical introductions to those volumes provide excellent entry points into individual works. Chusid 1997a collects important contributions on this phase of Verdi’s career and provides a convincing rationale for defining it as a “period.” The other studies listed here include a broad discussion of Rigoletto (Conati 1992) as well as essays devoted to the librettos of Il trovatore and Simon Boccanegra (Goldin 1985, Mossa 1992, Chusid 1997b), questions of genre and musical form in La traviata (Della Seta 1983, Hepokoski 1989), and an abundance of valuable, although not entirely up-to-date, contributions on Stiffelio (Morelli 1987).

                                                                                                                  • Chusid, Martin, ed. Verdi’s Middle Period, 1849–1859: Source Studies, Analysis, and Performance Practice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997a.

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                                                                                                                    Collects thirteen essays originally presented at a conference in Belfast (1993). The editor’s introductory essay provides an excellent entry point into the factors that prompted Verdi’s impressive artistic development during the second decade of his operatic career. The essays shed light on sources, musico-dramatic features, and issues of performance practice.

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                                                                                                                    • Chusid, Martin. “A New Source for El trovador and Its Implications for the Tonal Organization of Il trovatore.” In Verdi’s Middle Period, 1849–1859: Source Studies, Analysis, and Performance Practice. Edited by Martin Chusid, 207–225. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997b.

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                                                                                                                      Identifies in Fromental Halévy’s opera La Juive a source for the play by Garcia Gutiérrez that inspired the libretto of Il trovatore. Suggests that the main dramatic elements derived from La Juive (revenge and the presence of a stolen child) correspond in the score to distinct tonal areas.

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                                                                                                                      • Conati, Marcello. Rigoletto: Un’analisi drammatico-musicale. Venice: Marsilio, 1992.

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                                                                                                                        Intended for a general readership, provides detailed information on the opera, including a descriptive analysis of the entire score. Includes a selection of early reviews and a bibliography.

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                                                                                                                        • Della Seta, Fabrizio. “Il tempo della festa: Su due scene della Traviata e su altri luoghi verdiani.” Studi verdiani 2 (1983): 108–146.

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                                                                                                                          Fascinating analytical discussion of the party music in Act I of La traviata, drawing meaningful comparisons with Rigoletto and Un ballo in maschera.

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                                                                                                                          • Goldin, Daniela. “Il Simon Boccanegra da Piave a Boito e la drammaturgia verdiana.” In La vera Fenice: Librettisti e libretti tra Sette e Ottocento. By Daniela Goldin, 283–334. Turin, Italy: Einaudi, 1985.

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                                                                                                                            Concentrates on the libretto for Simon Boccanegra, tracing the connections between the play by Garcia Gutierrez and Piave’s libretto. The second part argues that Verdi, more than Arrigo Boito, was responsible for the shape of the revised text.

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                                                                                                                            • Hepokoski, James A. “Genre and Content in Mid-Century Verdi: ‘Addio, del passato’ (La traviata, Act III).” Cambridge Opera Journal 1 (1989): 249–276.

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                                                                                                                              Insightful discussion of how conventional forms and procedures had specific dramatic functions in Verdi’s early and middle-period operas. A detailed examination of “Addio, del passato” focuses on poetic structure and meter, instrumentation, and melodic character. Argues that the seeming simplicity of Verdi’s compositional means stems from sophisticated dramaturgical strategies and is intended to produce powerful emotional effects.

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                                                                                                                              • Morelli, Giovanni, ed. Tornando a Stiffelio: Popolarità, rifacimenti, messinscena, effettismo e altre “cure” nella drammaturgia del Verdi romantico; Atti del convegno internazionale di studi (Venezia, 17–20 dicembre 1985). Florence: Olschki, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                Collects seventeen conference papers exploring numerous aspects of Stiffelio and its transformation into Aroldo. Individual studies concentrate on literary sources and libretto, dramaturgy, formal conventions, and style. The materials are now largely superseded by the work toward the critical edition by Gossett and Kathleen K. Hansell.

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                                                                                                                                • Mossa, Carlo Matteo. “La genesi del libretto del Trovatore.” Studi verdiani 8 (1992): 52–103.

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                                                                                                                                  Richly detailed discussion tracing the creation of the opera’s libretto through correspondence, drafts, and the autograph libretto. Shows that following the premature death of librettist Salvadore Cammarano, Verdi obtained significant changes to the poetry, especially in the role of Azucena and in the Act II finale.

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                                                                                                                                  France and the Grand Opéras

                                                                                                                                  Starting with his 1847 sojourn in Paris and the production of Jérusalem at the Opéra, Verdi became deeply involved in French operatic culture. During the late 1840s and the 1850s, he spent considerable time in Paris, where Giuseppina Strepponi lived. For the Parisian Opéra he produced Jérusalem, Les Vêpres siciliennes, a French adaptation of Il trovatore (with the title of Le Trouvère) and Don Carlos. Furthermore, the revised Macbeth received its premiere in Paris in 1865. Gerhard 1998 provides a broad and engaging discussion of the world of grand opéra and places Verdi firmly into that context. Giger 2008 is a fundamental contribution, shedding light on the connection between French poetic structures and the development of Verdi’s melodic style. Kimbell 1979, Quattrocchi 1994–1995, and Lawton 1985 offer useful discussions of French remakes of Italian operas, and Pavarani 1971 collects a wealth of research on Don Carlos.

                                                                                                                                  • Gerhard, Anselm. The Urbanization of Opera: Music Theater in Paris in the Nineteenth Century. Translated by Mary Whittall. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                    Translated from the author’s Die Verstädterung der Oper: Paris und das Musiktheater des 19. Jahrhunderts (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1992). An important study of French grand opéra in the context of the urban development and lifestyle of Paris. Two substantial chapters are devoted to Les Vêpres siciliennes and Un ballo in maschera, and La forza del destino features prominently in the discussion of Meyerbeer’s Le Prophète.

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                                                                                                                                    • Giger, Andreas. Verdi and the French Aesthetic: Verse, Stanza, and Melody in Nineteenth-Century Opera. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511481390E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Concentrating in detail on Jérusalem, Les Vêpres siciliennes, and Don Carlos, this excellent study examines Verdi’s aesthetic and musical development in the light of his approach to French and Italian versification. The useful opening chapter on prosody in Italian and French librettos offers a clear discussion and illustrations of elements of versification in the two languages.

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                                                                                                                                      • Kimbell, David R. B. “Verdi’s First Rifacimento: ‘I lombardi’ and ‘Jérusalem.’” Music and Letters 60 (1979): 1–36.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/ml/60.1.1E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        Explores the transformation of I lombardi alla prima crociata into Verdi’s first French opera. Argues that while some of the changes were intended to fulfill the expectations of Parisian audiences, others reflect Verdi’s increasing musical and dramatic maturity.

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                                                                                                                                        • Lawton, David. “‘Le Trouvère’: Verdi’s Revision of ‘Il trovatore’ for Paris.” Studi verdiani 3 (1985): 79–119.

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                                                                                                                                          Detailed discussion of how Verdi decided to prepare a French version of Il trovatore, partly as a result of concerns for unauthorized productions and matters of copyright. Describes the revisions introduced into the French version and their possible use in performance. Useful documentary appendix.

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                                                                                                                                          • Pavarani, Marcello, ed. Atti del IIo Congresso Internazionale di Studi Verdiani, 30 luglio–5 agosto 1969. Parma, Italy: Istituto di Studi Verdiani, 1971.

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                                                                                                                                            The fifty-eight papers published in these proceedings provide a valuable entry point into the genesis, style, and reception of Don Carlos. Stylistic and analytical discussions are aptly complemented by important contributions focusing on subject matter, the libretto, and questions of staging and reception. Most items are in Italian, several are in English, and a few in French or German.

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                                                                                                                                            • Quattrocchi, Arrigo. “Da Milano a Parigi: ‘Jérusalem,’ la prima revisione di Verdi.” Studi Verdiani 10 (1994–1995): 13–60.

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                                                                                                                                              Thoroughly documented discussion of the transformation of I lombardi alla prima crociata into Verdi’s first grand opéra for Paris. Provides important information and insight into the translation of the libretto and the adaptation of the music. Useful tables at the end outline the structural differences between the two operas.

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                                                                                                                                              La forza del destino and Aida

                                                                                                                                              Perhaps no other Verdi opera underwent a process of revision as complex and multilayered as did La forza del destino. Holmes 1990 and Nádas 1987 present important materials and insights into revisions that preceded and followed the world premiere of the opera in St. Petersburg. The literature on Aida is wide-ranging: The items listed here include an essential documentary history (Busch 1977) as well as a group of essays (Said 1993, Della Seta 1991, Robinson 1994, Locke 2006) that articulate a fascinating debate concerning the presence and meaning of exotic music in the opera.

                                                                                                                                              • Busch, Hans. Verdi’s Aida: The History of an Opera in Letters and Documents. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                Important collection of letters and documents in English translation offers detailed insight into the genesis, premiere, and early revivals of Aida. The documents include various scenarios and synopses, contracts, and sketches by Verdi and Ghislanzoni for portions of the libretto, as well as production notes and the production book published by Ricordi.

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                                                                                                                                                • Della Seta, Fabrizio. “‘O cieli azzurri’: Exoticism and Dramatic Discourse in Aida.” Cambridge Opera Journal 3 (1991): 49–62.

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                                                                                                                                                  Examines Verdi’s exotic music in Aida, identifying significant differences from the post-Romantic musical exoticism that developed later in the century. Concentrates in particular on the music for the female protagonist, in which exoticism defines not only the character’s patriotism but also the imagination of a freer world. A revised version in Italian appears in Della Seta 2008 (cited under Collections of Essays).

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                                                                                                                                                  • Holmes, William C. “The Earliest Revisions of La forza del destino.” Studi verdiani 6 (1990): 55–98.

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                                                                                                                                                    Drawing on sources located in Paris and St. Petersburg, it reconstructs revisions made by Verdi prior to the 1862 world premiere. The most extensive revisions are in Act III and concern cabalettas for Don Alvaro and Don Carlo.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Locke, Ralph. “Aida and Nine Readings of Empire.” Nineteenth-Century Music Review 3 (2006): 45–72.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/S1479409800000343E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Excellent survey and critique of different readings of Aida (including Said 1993 and Robinson 1994). Argues that different readings are not mutually exclusive, but form a continuum of perspectives that shed light on different aspects and functions of exoticism in late-19th-century opera.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Nádas, John. “New Light on Pre-1869 Revisions of La forza del destino.” Verdi Newsletter 15 (1987): 7–29.

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                                                                                                                                                        Shows that revisions following the world premiere of the opera began as early as 1863, partly in view of a possible performance in Paris. Numerous agents corresponded with Verdi until 1868, including Léon Escudier and Antonio Ghislanzoni. A useful chronology is found in the appendix.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Robinson, Paul. “Is Aida an Orientalist Opera?” Cambridge Opera Journal 5 (1994): 133–140.

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                                                                                                                                                          Concise criticism of Said 1993. Argues that in Aida sympathy goes toward the oppressed Ethiopians rather than to the Egyptians. The opera is therefore best viewed as anti-imperialist, and suggests a comparison with Verdi’s Risorgimento operas.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Said, Edward W. “The Empire at Work: Verdi’s Aida.” In Culture and Imperialism. By Edward W. Said, 113–132. New York: Knopf, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                            Originally published in 1987, this fascinating and influential essay places the opera in the context of imperialist politics and economics surrounding the inauguration of the Suez Canal that provided the occasion for the world premiere of Aida in Cairo. The unrealistic and Orientalized views of Egypt portray dominant European views of the time.

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                                                                                                                                                            The Revision of Simon Boccanegra, Otello, and Falstaff

                                                                                                                                                            Verdi’s final masterpieces stand out for their highly individual style and raise fascinating questions concerning subject matter, poetic and musical convention, and operatic traditions. Busch 1988 and Busch 1997 provide comprehensive coverage of correspondence and other documents relating to these works. Hepokoski 1983 and Hepokoski 1987 offer rich general discussions of Otello and Falstaff. Other important studies examine the transformation of procedures and poetic structures in the librettos for Verdi’s late operas (Parker 1988), and the place of Falstaff in the context of comedic tradition (Greenwald 2003) and operatic modernity (Senici 2001).

                                                                                                                                                            • Busch, Hans. Verdi’s Otello and Simon Boccanegra (Revised Version) in Letters and Documents. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                              Important collection of correspondence and documents pertaining to the creation and production of Otello and to the revision of Simon Boccanegra. The first volume includes letters and telegrams. The second contains the original production book published by Ricordi, a number of reviews, and appendices detailing various aspects of the two operas.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Busch, Hans. Verdi’s Falstaff in Letters and Contemporary Reviews. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                Thorough collection of correspondence spanning the period 1889–1894 and detailing the creation, performance, and early reception of Verdi’s last opera. Useful appendices contain an account by Giulio Ricordi on Verdi composing and rehearsing, and reviews by Hanslick, George Bernard Shaw, and Camille Bellaigue.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Greenwald, Helen M. “Decoding Verdi’s Comic Vision: Toward a Theory of Comedy for the Late Nineteenth Century.” In Verdi 2001: Atti del Convegno internazionale, Parma, New York, New Haven, 24 gennaio–1 febbraio 2001 / Proceedings of the International Conference, Parma, New York, New Haven, 24 January–1 February 2001. Edited by Fabrizio Della Seta, Roberta Montemorra Marvin, and Marco Marica, 281–291. Florence: Olschki, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Excellent discussion of Verdi’s views on comedy and the influences at work in Falstaff. Individual aspects of the opera are discussed and connections drawn to earlier conventions of opera buffa and the French vaudeville.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Hepokoski, James A. Giuseppe Verdi: Falstaff. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Thorough handbook presenting a broad historical and analytical discussion of Verdi’s final opera. Individual chapters examine the genesis of the libretto, the composition of the score, issues of musical structure and harmonic language, and questions of performance and criticism. The discography and bibliography are out of date.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Hepokoski, James A. Giuseppe Verdi: Otello. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Excellent handbook, discussing the plot, the genesis, and creative process of the libretto and the music, revisions, and staging in light of important documents. Analyzes in particular Act II of the opera.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Parker, Roger. “On Reading Nineteenth-Century Italian Opera: Verdi through the Looking Glass.” In Reading Opera. Edited by Arthur Groos and Roger Parker, 288–305. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Explores the formal transformation in the librettos of Verdi’s late works, suggesting that the adoption of unconventional and irregular structures slowed down the composer’s creative process.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Senici, Emanuele. “Verdi’s Falstaff at Italy’s Fin de Siècle.” Musical Quarterly 85 (2001): 274–310.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1093/musqtl/85.2.274E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Stimulating reading of Verdi’s last opera in the context of post-Risorgimento Italian culture. Convincingly argues that Falstaff engages in a discourse with opera as a genre and a practice, criticizing both and thus standing out as an example of modernity.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Nonoperatic Works

                                                                                                                                                                          It comes as no surprise that publications exclusively devoted to Verdi’s operas vastly overshadow discussions of his nonoperatic works. Nonetheless, significant work has been done on the Requiem Mass, which is available in a critical edition, and on several other compositions. Marvin 2004 presents an overview of these works. Rosen 1995 offers a detailed discussion of the Requiem, which is also discussed, along with the late sacred pieces, in Basini 2004. Marvin 1999–2000 offers a significant cultural discussion of some of Verdi’s songs, and Speranza 2003 is an admirable study of the string quartet.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Basini, Laura. “Verdi and Sacred Revivalism in Post-unification Italy.” 19th-Centuy Music 28 (2004): 133–159.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1525/ncm.2004.28.2.133E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Discusses the Requiem and the late sacred pieces in the context of late-19th-century Catholic revivalism. Suggests that the revivalist movement had a significant impact on Verdi’s late life as well as in the “canonization” of his figure.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Marvin, Roberta M. “Verdi, Nationalism, and Cultivation of the Folk Idiom: His Stornelli of the 1860s.” Verdi Forum 26–27 (1999–2000): 33–37.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Focuses on the song “Il brigidino,” a setting of a poem depicting a young woman who wears an ornament containing the three colors of the Italian flag. This and the song “Stornello” provide instances of adopting a folk idiom with nationalistic purposes in the wake of Italian unification.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Marvin, Roberta M. “Verdi’s Non-operatic Works.” In The Cambridge Companion to Verdi. Edited by Scott L. Balthazar, 169–181. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/CCOL9780521632287E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                An accessible and informative overview of Verdi’s nonoperatic compositions. Discusses songs and other vocal compositions, instrumental works, and choral works (including the Requiem, the Pezzi sacri, and hymns).

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Rosen, David. Verdi, Requiem. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511620157E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  Handbook entirely devoted Verdi’s only mass. Chapters explore the genesis and compositional history, performance history and practice, and the seven individual movements of the Requiem. A final, useful chapter addresses issues of genre and contextualizes the work in church music of the time.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Speranza, Ennio. “Caratteri e forme di una ‘pianta fuori di clima’: Sul quartetto per archi di Verdi.” Studi verdiani 17 (2003): 110–165.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    This valuable essay provides the most detailed historical and analytical discussion to date of Verdi’s only string quartet, including numerous quotations from contemporary correspondence and reviews and citations of useful bibliography.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Collections of Essays

                                                                                                                                                                                    Large amounts of Verdi research are gathered in multiauthored volumes and collections of essays by individual scholars. Weaver and Chusid 1979 and Balthazar 2004 are companions intended for a general readership, with individual chapters providing entry points into salient aspects of Verdi’s life and work. Abbate and Parker 1989 is a seminal collection of papers exploring compositional process and analytical methods, and Noske 1977 includes several essays in semiotic analysis. Petrobelli 1994, Parker 1997, Parker 2006, and Della Seta 2012 collect writings by leading Verdi scholars, offering critical and analytical insights into specific aspects and works.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Abbate, Carolyn, and Roger Parker, eds. Analyzing Opera: Verdi and Wagner. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Important collection reflecting analytical trends in opera studies of the 1980s. Chapters devoted to Verdi include discussions of sources and their analysis, motivic and harmonic analyses, and the relationship between tonality and structure. Operas under consideration include Ernani, Rigoletto, Aida, and Otello.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Balthazar, Scott, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Verdi. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CCOL9780521632287E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        The chapters in this volume explore Verdi’s life, cultural milieu, working methods, stylistic traits, and selected individual works (including Ernani, Rigoletto, Don Carlos, and Otello). Contributors include numerous established Verdi scholars, who take a variety of approaches to the subject matter. Some of the chapters are eminently interpretative, while others provide an abundance of factual information effectively presented to a general readership.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Della Seta, Fabrizio. Not Without Madness: Perspectives on Opera. Translated by Mark Weir. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          A collection of important and engaging essays exploring various aspects of Italian opera. Six of the twelve chapters are devoted entirely to Verdi, focusing on compositional process, analysis, and cultural context. Operas considered in detail include Ernani, Macbeth, Il trovatore, and Aida. Originally published as “. . . Non senza pazzia”: Prospettive sul teatro musicale (Rome: Carocci Editore, 2008).

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Noske, Frits. The Signifier and the Signified: Studies in the Operas of Mozart and Verdi. The Hague: Martin Nijhoff, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Meaningful collection of studies in semiotic analysis. Chapters devoted to Verdi include discussions of cabalettas, ritual scenes, rhythmic figures associated with death, and essays on Don Carlos, Simon Boccanegra, and Otello.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Parker, Roger. Leonora’s Last Act: Essays in Verdian Discourse. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Collects critical and analytical essays on various aspects of Verdi’s operas, concentrating on Nabucco, Stiffelio, Rigoletto, Il trovatore, La forza del destino, Falstaff, and other works. Engaging, provocative discussions question mainstream approaches in late-20th-century Verdi scholarship and offer new perspectives.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Parker, Roger. Remaking the Song: Operatic Visions and Revisions from Handel to Berio. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520244184.001.0001E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                Based on the Bloch Lectures delivered at the University of California at Berkeley in 2002. Includes six chapters on a variety of works and subjects, including two essays on Verdi: one examines connections between Il trovatore and La traviata, and the other discusses a Wagnerian citation in Falstaff.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Petrobelli, Pierluigi. Music in the Theater: Essays on Verdi and Other Composers. Translated by Roger Parker. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Collects several important articles and essays, some previously published between the 1960s and the 1980s, others presented in print for the first time. Many appear in English translation for the first time. Eight chapters deal with Verdi, including discussions of compositional process and aspects of Nabucco, Alzira, Macbeth, Rigoletto, Il trovatore, La forza del destino, and Aida.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Weaver, William, and Martin Chusid, eds. The Verdi Companion. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    A carefully assembled collection of broadly themed essays, still very useful to a general readership. Twelve essays by musicologists, critics, composers, and performers shed light on numerous aspects of Verdi’s life, works, dramaturgy, cultural context, and performance practice. Includes a chronology of Verdi’s life and a useful annotated list of individuals associated with Verdi.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Creative Process

                                                                                                                                                                                                    The volumes in the Works of Giuseppe Verdi (Verdi 1983, cited under Sources and Editions) and published collections of sketches are the principal source of information on Verdi’s creative process in regard to individual works. Various important publications complement that information with insights of a general nature and consideration of specific works, some of which are not yet available in critical editions. Petrobelli 1994 and Jensen 2004 reflect different moments in the challenges and state of research in this area. Hepokoski 1986–1987 sheds light in particular on the concept of “skeleton score,” whereas Gossett 1989 and Fairtile 1995–1996 provide stimulating insights into the composition and revisions of Ernani and Otello. Lawton and Rosen 1974, finally, explores revisions and new pieces prepared for specific performances or singers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fairtile, Linda B. “Verdi’s First ‘Willow Song’: New Sketches and Drafts for Otello.” 19th-Century Music 19 (1995–1996): 213–230.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Discusses a set of photographs discovered in the New York Public Library and containing sketches and a partial draft for the first part of Otello, Act 4. Examines in detail materials relating to Desdemona’s “Willow Song,” whose text and music bear no resemblance to the final version of the piece. Suggests possible problems that may have led Verdi to request new poetry from Boito.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gossett, Philip. “The Composition of Ernani.” In Analyzing Opera: Verdi and Wagner. Edited by Carolyn Abbate and Roger Parker, 27–55. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Examines the numerous alterations and revisions present in the autograph score of the opera, describing its composition and providing general insights into Verdi’s creative process. Sheds light on aspects of the original version of the final trio based on indications contained in the score and in Verdi’s autograph copy of the libretto.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hepokoski, James A. “Compositional Emendations in Verdi’s Autograph Scores: Il trovatore, Un ballo in maschera, and Aida.” Studi verdiani 4 (1986–1987): 57–78.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Discusses revisions made by Verdi during the composition of individual passages from these three operas. Partly outdated, but still useful for the discussion of the “skeleton score” stage of Verdi’s compositional process.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Jensen, Luke. “An Introduction to Verdi’s Working Methods.” In The Cambridge Companion to Verdi. Edited by Scott L. Balthazar, 257–268. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/CCOL9780521632287E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Concise but highly efficient discussion of Verdi’s creative process from the choice of a subject to the preparation of libretto and music. Punctuated by effective examples and useful references to other studies on the subject.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lawton, David, and David Rosen. “Verdi’s Non-definitive Revisions: The Early Operas.” In Atti del IIIo Congresso Internazionale di Studi Verdiani, 12–17 giugno 1972. Edited by Mario Medici and Marcello Pavarani, 189–237. Parma, Italy: Istituto di Studi Verdiani, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Examines replacement arias, revisions, and transpositions prepared for individual singers in operas from Oberto to Attila. Indicates that the practice of making such revisions for the benefit of individual performers declined in his later operas as Verdi asserted greater control over the production. This important study includes a list of revisions, a descriptive discussion, and a list of relevant sources and documents.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Petrobelli, Pierluigi. “Remarks on Verdi’s Composing Process.” In Music in the Theater: Essays on Verdi and Other Composers. By Pierluigi Petrobelli, 48–74. Translated by Roger Parker. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Translated from the author’s “Osservazioni sul processo compositivo in Verdi” (1971). Focuses on the challenges inherent in the study of Verdi’s creative process, pointing in particular to the difficulty in accessing sketches and drafts (still an issue today, although there has been considerable improvement). Presents readings of a canceled continuity draft for the finale of I due Foscari and the continuity draft for Rigoletto (see Sources and Editions).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Forms and Conventions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Important scholarship from the 1970s through the 1990s explores the widely shared formal patterns and conventions used by Verdi and his librettists, which are intimately connected with the creative process of composers of 19th-century Italian opera. Gossett 1974 is one of the earliest discussions of this aspect and shows that many of those conventions were established at the time of Gioachino Rossini. Moreen 1975 offers a comprehensive discussion of the interconnections of textual and musical procedures. Powers 1987 is an extremely influential study of large-scale formal conventions using terminology drawn from 19th-century writings, and Balthazar 1990, Parker 1997, and Gallarati 2009 offer critiques of some of his conclusions and analyses. Kerman 1982 and Huebner 1992 concentrate on small-scale structures encountered in individual lyrical periods, and Rosen 1988 offers an engaging discussion with good examples and insights on one specific type of number—the “Introduzione” that typically opens a mid-19th-century Italian opera.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Balthazar, Scott L. “Analytic Contexts and Mediated Influences: The Rossinian Convenienze and Verdi’s Middle and Late Duets.” Journal of Musicological Research 10 (1990): 19–45.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/01411899008574626E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Argues for a nuanced approach to formal conventions as they developed over time rather than as models largely established at the time of Rossini. Offers a critique of Powers 1987 and an alternate reading of the Aida-Amonasro duet.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gallarati, Paolo. “Oltre la ‘solita forma’: Morfologia ed ermeneutica nella critica verdiana.” Il saggiatore musicale (2009): 203–244.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Recent overview of complex issues surrounding the use of Basevi’s expression. Presents a detailed discussion of the Violetta-Germont duet in Act 2 of La traviata, proposing a nuanced reading of the structure of the piece that contrasts with that in Powers 1987. Suggests that the notion of solita forma in this and other contexts becomes evanescent and, albeit present, is absorbed into new structures.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gossett, Philip. “Verdi, Ghislanzoni, and Aida: The Uses of Convention.” Critical Inquiry 1 (1974): 291–334.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1086/447789E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Concentrates on the five duets in Aida, discussing how conventional formal procedures established in Rossini’s operas bear on the poetry and music for these scenes. The relation is present also in the ostensibly freer duet for Aida and Amonasro in Act 3.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Huebner, Steven. “Lyric Form in Ottocento Opera.” Journal of the Royal Musical Association 117 (1992): 123–147.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/jrma/117.1.123E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Discusses the four-phrase, sixteen-bar pattern (a-a-b-a) commonly encountered in melodies by the young Verdi and his predecessors. Examines instances in which composers depart from this norm (including examples from Attila, Il trovatore, and Simon Boccanegra) and suggests that functional analysis can effectively complement letter analysis in the study of small-scale forms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kerman, Joseph. “Lyric Form and Flexibility in Simon Boccanegra.” Studi verdiani 1 (1982): 47–62.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Shows how in this opera three-phrase lyric units (a-b-a) often replace the conventional four-phrase forms encountered in earlier works, paving the way for Un ballo in maschera. Also discusses some of the reasons that may have led Verdi to abandon the project to compose an opera on King Lear.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Moreen, Robert. “Integration of Text Forms and Musical Forms in Verdi’s Early Operas.” PhD diss., Princeton University, 1975.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Detailed discussion of the correspondence of poetic and musical formal conventions. Examines small-scale structures (stanzas and melodies) as well as large-scale designs concerning entire scenes and musical numbers. Scrupulous and influential, although now dated in various respects.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Parker, Roger. “‘Insolite forme,’ or Basevi’s Garden Path.” In Verdi’s Middle Period, 1849–1859: Source Studies, Analysis, and Performance Practice. Edited by Martin Chusid, 129–146. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Important discussion of the reception of Abramo Basevi in modern Verdi scholarship. Offering a corrective to Powers 1987, cautions against uncritically adopting Basevi’s description of conventional forms as a model, and places instead Basevi’s work and his terminology in a specific cultural context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Powers, Harold S. “‘La solita forma’ and ‘The Uses of Convention.’” Acta Musicologica 59 (1987): 65–90.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/932865E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The most influential analytical discussion of Verdi in modern scholarship. Drawing on writings by Abramo Basevi and Emanuele Muzio, argues for an analytical approach based of formal conventions used recurrently in individual numbers and widely understood by Verdi’s audiences. Examines instances of arias, duets, and middle finales, and suggests that Verdi manipulated convention to heighten dramatic effect.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rosen, David. “How Verdi’s Operas Begin: An Introduction to the Introduzioni.” Verdi Newsletter 16 (1988): 3–18.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Originally published in 1987. Discusses the use of the term Introduzione in Verdi’s autographs, and identifies meaningful differences between the composer’s treatment of the opening number of his operas and a description by critic Carlo Ritorni, whose treatise is quoted extensively in the appendix.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Context

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Verdi’s cultural milieu and poetic choices are explored in some depth in virtually every study of his operas. Weiss 1982 and Tomlinson 1986–1987 shed light onto the world of Italian Romanticism and the influence of foreign literature on Verdi’s dramaturgy. Goldin Folena 1995 and Della Seta 2008 explore the language (especially the expression parola scenica) employed by Verdi to describe particular aspects and effects of his work. Another group of publications focuses on theaters, impresarios, and publishers that were pivotal in the development of Verdi’s career: Conati 1983 documents his work with La Fenice in Venice, and Degrada 2001 focuses on La Scala in Milan. Rosselli 1984 discusses the role of the impresario, and Jensen 1989 explores the composer’s relationship with his main publisher, Ricordi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Conati, Marcello. La bottega della musica: Verdi e La Fenice. Milan: Il Saggiatore, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Explores Verdi’s relationship with the principal opera house in Venice, drawing on materials from the historical archive of the Teatro La Fenice. Contains extensive correspondence between Verdi, theatrical agents, authorities, singers, and librettists concerning the genesis and premiere of Ernani, Attila, Rigoletto, La traviata, and the first version of Simon Boccanegra.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Degrada, Francesco, ed. Verdi e La Scala. Milan: Rizzoli, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sumptuously illustrated volume providing details on Verdi and the principal opera house in Milan, where his career began in 1839 and ended in 1893. Individual chapters explore Verdi’s relationship with the theater during his lifetime, note 20th-century productions, and provide informed discussions of staging and stage direction. A detailed chronology with performers is included.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Della Seta, Fabrizio. “‘Parola scenica’ in Verdi e nella critica verdiana.” In “. . . Non senza pazzia”: Prospettive sul teatro musicale. By Fabrizio Della Seta, 203–225. Rome: Carocci Editore, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Originally published in 1994 and updated in this edition, this excellent study explores how Verdi scholars came to adopt widely an expression used by Verdi in a specific context. An excellent appendix includes quotations of passages in which parola scenica is used by Verdi and by scholars and critics from the early 20th century to the present.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Goldin Folena, Daniela. “Lessico melodrammatico verdiano.” In Le parole della musica. Vol. 2, Studi sul lessico della letteratura critica del teatro musicale in onore di Gianfranco Folena. Edited by Maria Teresa Muraro, 227–253. Florence: Olschki, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Detailed and insightful discussion of numerous Italian terms used by Verdi. Includes an examination of the expression parola scenica, taking a different approach than Della Seta 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Jensen, Luke. Giuseppe Verdi and Giovanni Ricordi with Notes on Francesco Lucca: From Oberto to La traviata. New York: Garland, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Explores the relationship between Verdi and Ricordi through the death of the firm’s founder, Giulio. The discussion covers the preparation of early editions and performing materials and questions regarding copyright and royalties. Attention is also devoted to the circumstances that led the composer to give the rights of three operas to Ricordi’s main competitor, Lucca. Useful appendices include detailed lists of editions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Rosselli, John. The Opera Industry in Italy from Cimarosa to Verdi: The Role of the Impresario. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Important contextual discussion of the business of opera in 19th-century Italy. Centering on the impresario, sheds light on the role of political authorities, critics, and audiences in shaping the activities of opera composers. References to Verdi and his work abound, as well as important information on Verdi’s first impresario at La Scala, Bartolomeo Merelli.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Tomlinson, Gary. “Italian Romanticism and Italian Opera: An Essay in Their Affinities.” 19th-Century Music 10 (1986–1987): 43–60.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2307/746748E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Overview of the cultural and literary context in which Verdi’s career developed. Examines philosophical writings by Madame de Staël and Giuseppe Mazzini, outlining a progressive development of Romantic elements from Rossini to Verdi. Particular attention is devoted to I due Foscari as a “Mazzinian” opera.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Weiss, Piero. “Verdi and the Fusion of Genres.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 35 (1982): 138–156.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/831289E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Discusses the influence of Victor Hugo and Shakespeare on early and middle-period Verdi, suggesting that the knowledge of their work and aesthetics prompted the composer to introduce comic elements into tragic operas to increase their dramatic intensity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Chorus and Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The myth of Verdi’s involvement in the movement for Italian independence and unification known as the Risorgimento constitutes one of the pillars of Verdi’s biography and critical reception. For a long time the patriotic choruses in many of his early operas and the tales of subjugation and liberation those operas tell were uncritically interpreted as direct metaphors of the political scenario and aspirations of mid-19th-century Italy. Gossett 1990 provides a broad framework for the political functions of the chorus in historical context. Substantial and stimulating revisionist studies (Pauls 1996, Parker 1997) question the ostensible political reception of Verdi’s choruses and have triggered an intense debate surrounding Verdi’s ties to the Risorgimento and the political meanings and reception of his works (especially the early operas). Parakilas 1992–1993 offers a convincing discussion of choruses in some of Verdi’s late works. Critiques of Pauls and Parker (Martin 2005, Gossett 2007) have continued to fuel the discussion, questioning and exploring Verdi’s roles in Risorgimento culture.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gossett, Philip. “Becoming a Citizen: The Chorus in Risorgimento Opera.” Cambridge Opera Journal 2 (1990): 41–64.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Important discussion of the political function of opera choruses during Italy’s struggle for independence and unification. Reads Verdi’s choruses in the context of conventional musical approaches by his predecessors, emphasizing how their music contributes to construct citizenship. Discusses instances of censorship and self-censorship and examples from Nabucco, Ernani, La battaglia di Legnano, and Simon Boccanegra.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gossett, Philip. “‘Edizioni distrutte’ and the Significance of Operatic Choruses during the Risorgimento.” In Opera and Society in Italy and France from Monteverdi to Bourdieu. Edited by Victoria Johnson, Jane F. Fulcher, and Thomas Ertman, 181–242. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511481734E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Translated from the author’s “Le ‘edizioni distrutte’ e il significato dei cori operistici nel Risorgimento” (2005), offers a critique of Parker 1997 and discusses patriotic choruses published by Ricordi during the 1848–1849 revolutions and banned once the Austrians regained control of northern Italy. Argues that these materials provide a context for reading the national discourse of Risorgimento opera.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Martin, George. “Verdi, Politics, and ‘Va, pensiero’: The Scholars Squabble.” Opera Quarterly 21 (2005): 109–132.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/oq/kbi015E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A detailed criticism of the revisionist approach of Pauls 1996 and especially Parker 1997. Pungent and engaging. Includes numerous quotations, useful references to extant literature, and a careful consideration of documentary evidence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Parakilas, James. “Political Representation and the Chorus in Nineteenth-Century Italian Opera.” 19th-Century Music 16 (1992–1993): 181–202.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/746265E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Examines the role of the chorus in portraying political conflicts on the 19th-century stage. Explores the dramatic function of united and divided choruses and includes a close consideration of passages from Don Carlos, Aida, and Simon Boccanegra.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Parker, Roger. “Arpa d’or dei fatidici vati”: The Verdian Patriotic Chorus in the 1840s. Parma, Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Important revisionist study providing new insights into the political meaning and reception of the ostensibly choruses in Verdi’s early operas. Demonstrates that “Va, pensiero” from Nabucco was not as popular from the outset as is commonly believed and challenges the notion that Verdi’s early works were viewed as political metaphors depicting Italy’s oppression under the Austrians.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Pauls, Birgit. Giuseppe Verdi und das Risorgimento: Ein politischer Mythos im Prozeß der Nationenbildung. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Important study devoted to the political role of Verdi and his works against the process of mythmaking that followed the unification of Italy. Adopting interpretive models developed by anthropologists and political sciences and exploring materials pertaining to operas from Luisa Miller to Falstaff, argues that social themes are more relevant than political ones.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Censorship

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Before the unification of Italy in 1861, censorship was one of the central forces in the world of Italian opera, decisively affecting the creation and circulation of old and new works across the politically fragmented peninsula. The pervasive role of the censors is evident in operas by Verdi from I lombardi to La forza del destino, which were often forbidden or allowed to be performed only under different titles, or with heavy alterations to their storylines, characters, and poetry. Fairtile 1997 and Chusid 1998 concentrate on three operas shedding light on censorship patterns in different Italian locales. Lavagetto 2010 shows how Venetian censors shaped the transformation of Hugo’s play into the opera’s libretto. Giger 1999 concentrates on the complex workings of censorship in Rome, Rosen 1999–2000 follows the trail of evidence concerning the complex issues surrounding the creation of Un ballo in maschera, and Izzo 2007 looks at the intersections between politics and religion in the Milanese censorship of two early operas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Chusid, Martin. “On Censored Performances of Les Vêpres siciliennes and Rigoletto: Evidence from the Verdi Archive at New York University.” Verdi Newsletter 25 (1998): 3–19.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ample survey of the forms of censorship that targeted the librettos of two Verdi operas in Italy during the 1850s. Shows how the censors altered the texts differently depending on the locations and on the changing political, moral, and religious priorities of the authorities of various states in preunification Italy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fairtile, Linda B. “Censorship in Verdi’s Attila: Two Case Studies.” Verdi Newsletter 24 (1997): 5–7.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Concise but highly informative discussion of two censored librettos for Verdi’s Attila, one printed in Rome in 1847 and the other (with the title of Gli unni e i romani) in Palermo in 1855. The Roman censors were primarily concerned with religious matters, whereas the radical modifications in Palermo eliminated the theme of regicide and other politically charged themes and passages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Giger, Andreas. “Social Control and the Censorship of Giuseppe Verdi’s Operas in Rome (1844–1859).” Cambridge Opera Journal 11 (1999): 233–265.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scrupulous examination of the censorship of I due Foscari and Un ballo in maschera in light of newly discovered primary sources. Demonstrates that the Roman censors did not endeavor to suppress these works, but sought to achieve compromises that would allow their performance while minimizing the threats they posed to the status quo.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Izzo, Francesco. “Verdi, the Virgin, and the Censor: The Politics of the Cult of Mary in I Lombardi alla prima Crociata and Giovanna d’Arco.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 60 (2007): 557–597.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1525/jams.2007.60.3.557E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Discusses the political context for Marian prayers and themes in two early Verdi operas, suggesting that the Milanese censors operated to sophisticated semantic (rather than lexical criteria) and arguing for a consideration of the politics of Verdi’s pre-1848 works beyond their ostensibly patriotic plots and choruses.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lavagetto, Mario. Un caso di censura: Il Rigoletto. Milan: Bruno Mondadori, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Originally published in 1979, the study surveys the transformation of Victor Hugo’s Le roi s’amuse into Rigoletto under the pressure of Venetian censorship, and follows the vicissitudes of the libretto as it was further transformed according to the demands of the censors of various Italian states.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Rosen, David. “A Tale of Five Cities: The Peregrinations of Somma’s and Verdi’s Gustavo III (and Una vendetta in dominò and Un ballo in maschera) at the Hands of the Neapolitan and Roman Censorship.” Verdi Forum 26–27 (1999–2000): 53–66.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Detailed and engaging discussion of the most famous and complex case of censorship in Verdi. Explores the steps that led to the creation of Un ballo in maschera, concentrating on the requirements and motivations of censors in Naples and in the Papal States.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Performance Practice

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The performance of Verdi’s operas raises a number of complex questions of authenticity, editions, staging, vocal ornamentation, and more, and in recent decades scholars have concentrated increasingly on this aspect. All of these questions are explored in Gossett 2006, a towering achievement and the ideal entry point into theoretical and practical issues relating to the performance of 19th-century Italian opera. Latham and Parker 2001 is a valuable set of essays on various aspects of Verdian performance and Chusid 1979 sheds light onto Verdi’s own views. Fairtile 1997 and Marvin 1997 offer information and insights on matters of tempo and on the role of the violin director at midcentury. Crutchfield 1983–1984, Crutchfield 1985, and Freitas 2002 concentrate on vocal performance practice, relying on recorded evidence.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Chusid, Martin. “Verdi’s Own Words: His Thoughts on Performance, with Special Reference to Don Carlos, Otello, and Falstaff.” In The Verdi Companion. Edited by William Weaver and Martin Chusid, 144–192. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Useful general discussion based on Verdi’s correspondence. Touches on singers, staging, orchestral playing, vocal performance, and dramatic characterization.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Crutchfield, Will. “Vocal Ornamentation in Verdi: The Phonographic Evidence.” 19th-Century Music 7 (1983–1984): 3–54.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/746545E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Important discussion of ornamentation, including interventions by performers who altered or introduced embellishments and cadenzas. Examines Verdi’s attitude toward singers’ liberties and thoroughly explores evidence drawn from more than one thousand recordings. The appendices include transcriptions of hundreds of examples, as well as information on singers and details on recordings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Crutchfield, Will. “Authenticity in Verdi: The Recorded Legacy.” Opera 36 (1985): 858–866.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Draws on recordings by singers associated with Verdi to examine the significance of legato, rhythmic indications, and dynamics (especially the marking pianissimo) in Verdi’s operas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fairtile, Linda B. “The Violin Director and Verdi’s Middle Period Operas.” In Verdi’s Middle Period, 1849–1859: Source Studies, Analysis, and Performance Practice. Edited by Martin Chusid, 413–426. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Important discussion of the role of the violin director in 19th-century Italian opera, drawing on parts for the primo violino in the microfilm collection of the American Institute for Verdi Studies. Includes reproductions of parts from Rigoletto, Il trovatore, and Un ballo in maschera and an appendix with a list of relevant materials in the AIVS collection.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Freitas, Roger. “Towards a Verdian Ideal of Singing: Emancipation from Modern Orthodoxy.” Journal of the Royal Musical Association 127 (2002): 226–257.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1093/jrma/127.2.226E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Draws on singing treatises, Verdi’s correspondence, reviews, and early recordings to present a picture of Verdi’s ideas and expectations concerning singing. Suggests that the evidence consistently points to a model far removed from the sort of Verdian singing commonly taught and heard at the outset of the 21st century. Contains links to downloadable examples in MP3 format.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gossett, Philip. Divas and Scholars: Performing Italian Opera. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Magisterial study of 19th-century Italian opera, centering in particular on issues of performance practice to the present day. Case studies of Verdi’s operas abound.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Latham, Alison, and Roger Parker, eds. Verdi in Performance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Excellent set of essays originally presented at a conference hosted by the Royal Opera House (1995). Divided into four sections, the collection discusses issues of staging, instrumental and vocal performance, ballet, and editions. Contributors include many leading Verdi’s scholars, and the topics debated shed light on the problems inherent in performing Verdi as well as on broader issues of sources and authenticity. Accessible and engaging, although lacking bibliographic references.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Marvin, Roberta M. “Aspects of Tempo in Verdi’s Early and Middle-Period Italian Operas.” In Verdi’s Middle Period, 1849–1859: Source Studies, Analysis, and Performance Practice. Edited by Martin Chusid, 393–411. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Useful investigation of tempo and metronome indications in Verdi’s operas in the light of 19th-century theoretical discussions of tempo. An appendix provides the composer’s tempo indications in the autograph scores from Oberto to Un ballo in maschera.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Staging, Ballets, and Gesture

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The visual dimension of opera is a rapidly developing area of opera studies, and important discussions of this aspect have appeared in recent years. The essays collected in Petrobelli and Della Seta 1996 provide a wealth of stimulating discussions and case studies, and Petrobelli, et al. 1996 is an excellent catalogue with helpful information on stage designers. Levin 2007 is a recent and insightful study of radical stagings. Jürgensen 1995 is an exemplary study of Verdi’s ballets, and Smart 2004 delves into the complex connections between music and bodily movement in 19th-century opera. Parker 1996 and Giger 2010 offer different perspectives on 19th-century staging manuals as historical sources and possible models for modern productions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Giger, Andreas. “Staging and Form in Verdi’s Otello.” In Fashions and Legacies of Nineteenth-Century Italian Opera. Edited by Roberta M. Marvin and Hilary Poriss, 196–218. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Makes a cogent case for the disposizioni sceniche in the face of recent criticism of their practicability. Shows how the blocking in the opening scene of Otello prescribed in the Ricordi staging manual outlines and reinforces essential points of articulation in the musical form of the scene.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Jürgensen, Knud Arne. The Verdi Ballets. Parma, Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Excellent volume providing an in-depth discussion of Verdi’s ballets in Jérusalem, Les Vêpres siciliennes, Le trouvère, Macbeth, Don Carlos, and Aida, as well as in productions of Nabucco and Otello. For each opera the author discusses the ballet music and addresses aspects of staging and choreography. Richly illustrated. Various appendices contain a wealth of documentary materials.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Levin, David J. Unsettling Opera: Staging Mozart, Verdi, Wagner and Zemlinsky. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Explores the recasting of familiar works of the operatic canon into radical stagings, delving into the intrinsic instability of opera as a genre. Chapter 4 is entirely devoted to Verdi’s Don Carlos.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Parker, Roger. “Reading the Livrets, or, The Chimera of Authentic Staging.” In La realizzazione scenica dello spettacolo verdiano: Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Studi, Parma, 28–30 settembre 1994. Edited by Pierluigi Petrobelli and Fabrizio Della Seta, 345–366. Parma, Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Discusses the significance and possible practical uses of the evidence provided by 19th-century staging manuals for Verdi’s operas. Cautions that such evidence is often contradictory, and that modern scholars and producers should not take its authority for granted.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Petrobelli, Pierluigi, and Fabrizio Della Seta, eds. La realizzazione scenica dello spettacolo verdiano: Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Studi, Parma, 28–30 settembre 1994. Parma, Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Valuable collection of papers devoted to numerous aspects of the staging of Verdi’s operas. Topics explored include specific locations and operas (Aida); the work of individual stage designers (Bertoja, Prampolini, Roller); the role of singers; and the significance of 19th-century staging manuals, and staging of ballets.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Petrobelli, Pierluigi, Marisa Di Gregorio Casati, and Olga Jesurum, eds. “Sorgete! Ombre serene!” L’aspetto visivo dello spettacolo verdiano. Parma, Italy: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exhibition catalogue discussing staging and other visual aspects. In addition to a rich body of illustrations, the volume provides biographical data on twenty-nine stage designers and a good (if outdated) bibliography. Excellent introduction by Pierluigi Petrobelli discusses Verdi’s own involvement with the visual dimension of his operas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Smart, Mary Ann. Mimomania: Music and Gesture in Nineteenth-Century Opera. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520239951.001.0001E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Examines the connections between music and movement in a variety of French, German, and Italian operas. Chapter 5 is a close discussion of arias in Verdi’s late operas in which the heroine falls on her knees before or while singing. References to, and insights into, numerous Verdi operas abound throughout the book.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Reception

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Verdi’s works have circulated vastly since the mid-19th century, and the reception of his works in diverse cultural contexts is the object of numerous studies. Some (e.g., Kaufman 1990) present lists of performances with casts; others provide overviews and discussions of specific locations and/or periods (Chusid 1976, Conati 1977, Kreuzer 2010, Marvin 2010, Meloncelli 1993, Pistone 1995), or focus on the responses of individual critics to Verdi’s work (Martin 1993). In addition to the publications listed here, in recent years Opera Quarterly has published a series of articles by George Martin on the reception of individual operas in the United States.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Chusid, Martin. “Casts for the Verdi Premieres in the U.S. (1847–1876).” Verdi Newsletter 2 (1976): 16–18.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Continued in Verdi Newsletter 3 (1977): 11–12. A useful list of Verdi premieres in mid-19th-century North America, with dates, locations, and performers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Conati, Marcello. “Saggio di critiche e cronache verdiane dalla Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung di Lipsia.” In Il melodramma italiano dell’ottocento: Studi e ricerche per Massimo Mila. Edited by Giorgio Pestelli, 13–43. Turin, Italy: Einaudi, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Examines reviews of Verdi’s operas published until 1848, taken as a sample of mostly negative criticism in German publications of the time.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kaufman, Thomas G. Verdi and His Major Contemporaries: A Selected Chronology of Performances with Casts. New York: Garland, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Includes details of performances of operas by Verdi and other Italian composers of his time. The list is not comprehensive and focuses principally on the 19th century. It is, however, extremely valuable to gauge the reception of Verdi’s works in a number of locations in Italy and abroad. An index of titles is included. Composers and librettists are indexed in Linda B. Fairtile, “Two Appendices for Thomas G. Kaufman’s Verdi and His Major Contemporaries,” Verdi Newsletter 20 (1992): 16–21.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kreuzer, Gundula. Verdi and the Germans: From Unification to the Third Reich. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Broad discussion of the reception of Verdi in German-speaking lands. An introductory chapter examines the place of Italian opera in German historiography, followed by discussions of diverse aspects of Verdi reception from the Kaiserreich to the Third Reich (with an epilogue on postwar Verdi). Two appendices document performances of the Requiem from 1875 to 1901 and revivals in German-language theaters during the first half of the 20th century. Thoroughly documented and engaging.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Martin, George. Verdi at the Golden Gate: Opera and San Francisco in the Gold Rush Years. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A detailed exploration of the reception of Verdi’s operas from 1850 to 1860, when eight operas by the composer were performed in San Francisco. Includes several useful documentary appendices and lists of performances.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Marvin, Roberta M. “Verdian Opera in the Victorian Parlor.” In Fashions and Legacies of Nineteenth-Century Italian Opera. Edited by Roberta M. Marvin and Hilary Poriss, 53–75. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Explores the cultural meanings of the widespread practice of preparing and publishing arrangements of excerpts from Verdi operas in Victorian England. Considers examples from Rigoletto, Il trovatore, and La traviata.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Meloncelli, Raoul. “Giuseppe Verdi e la critica francese.” Studi verdiani 9 (1993): 97–122.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Presents an overview of 19th-century French music criticism, concentrating on materials published in the Revue des deux mondes. Includes extensive passages by leading critics (among them Paul Scudo and Arthur Pougin) quoted from reviews published during the second half of the century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Pistone, Danièle. “Verdi et la critique musicale française: Aspects et évolution de 1860 à 1993.” In Le parole della musica. Vol. 2, Studi sul lessico della letteratura critica del teatro musicale in onore di Gianfranco Folena. Edited by Maria Teresa Muraro, 295–305. Florence: Olschki, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Linguistic analysis of a body of five hundred articles and other writings drawn from journals and archives. Identifies terms (including force, passion, and dramatique) that appear regularly in association with Verdi.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Conference Proceedings

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        As Verdi studies began to flourish during the 1960s and 1970s, some of the most innovative scholarship was presented at international conferences held in Italy, whose published proceedings contributed substantially to the circulation of information and ideas about the composer (Pavarani and Petrobelli 1969, Medici and Pavarani 1974). Whereas the contents of these proceedings are not always up to date, they continue to offer meaningful details and insights. Among more recent conferences, the one hosted jointly in 2001 by the Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani and the American Institute for Verdi Studies (Della Seta, et al. 2003) stands out for the range of methodologies and quality of contributions, and the one held at Berkeley the same year (Smart 2002) centers primarily on innovative analytical approaches. Additional conference proceedings devoted to individual operas or special aspects are cited under Critical Studies; Performance Practice; and Staging, Ballets, and Gesture.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Della Seta, Fabrizio, Roberta Montemorra Marvin, and Marco Marica, eds. Verdi 2001: Atti del Convegno internazionale, 24 gennaio–1 febbraio 2001 / Proceedings of the International Conference, Parma, New York, New Haven, 24 January–1 February 2001. Florence: Olschki, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Collects fifty-nine contributions delivered at the “Verdi 2001” conference held in Parma, New York, and New Haven. The essays are either in Italian or in English, with useful English-language abstracts where needed. The range of topics and approaches reflects the thriving state of Verdi scholarship at the outset of the 21st century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Medici, Mario, and Marcello Pavarani, eds. Atti del IIIo Congresso Internazionale di Studi Verdiani, 12–17 giugno 1972. Parma, Italy: Istituto di Studi Verdiani, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The forty-four papers in this volume offer a variety of perspectives on individual works and broad themes in Verdi scholarship, including discussions of literary themes and musical dramaturgy, formal and tonal analyses, questions of reception, and several documentary studies. Essays are in Italian, English, or French.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Pavarani, Marcello, and Pierluigi Petrobelli, eds. Atti del Io Congresso Internazionale di Studi Verdiani, 31 luglio–2 agosto 1966. Parma, Italy: Istituto di Studi Verdiani, 1969.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fifty-nine papers in Italian, English, French, or German offer a fascinating glimpse of the concerns and approaches of Verdi scholarship in the late 1960s. Many of the contributions subsequently developed or gave the impetus to more extensive research in similar areas. In addition to numerous stylistic and analytic discussions, there is a pioneering presence of interdisciplinary discussions, as well as a focus on singers, staging, and reception.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Smart, Mary Ann, et al. Special Issue: Primal Scenes: Proceedings of a Conference Held at the University of California, Berkeley, 30 November–2 December 2001. Cambridge Opera Journal 14.1–2 (2002).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collection of fifteen papers dealing with a variety of analytical and interpretive issues in Verdi’s operas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Organizations Devoted to Verdi’s Work

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Given the immense popularity of Giuseppe Verdi, it is not surprising that societies and organizations devoted to the composer have flourished in numerous countries. Two of these, the Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani and the American Institute for Verdi Studies, are well-established research centers with extensive collections of source materials and a longstanding commitment to publication, support for researchers, and dissemination initiatives.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • American Institute for Verdi Studies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Established in 1976 at New York University and in 2012 codirected by Linda B. Fairtile and Francesco Izzo. Houses a large collection of published and manuscript sources on microfilm. Publishes the Verdi Forum (see Journals). Promotes conferences and research projects, often in close collaboration with the Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani and with the Casa Italiana Zerilli-Marimò at New York University. Provides support and materials for the Works of Giuseppe Verdi (Verdi 1983, cited under Sources and Editions).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Istituto Nazionale di Studi Verdiani.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Established in 1959 in Parma, Italy, and in 2012 directed by Emilio Sala. Promotes research on numerous fronts. Houses an important library with a comprehensive collection of Verdi’s correspondence and vast quantities of books, scores, and librettos. Publishes Studi verdiani (see Journals) and promotes other publications, including the series Premio Internazionale Rotary Club di Parma “Giuseppe Verdi,” devoted to monographs by winners of the international prize.

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