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Music Guillaume de Machaut
by
Lawrence Earp

Introduction

Guillaume de Machaut (b. c. 1300–d. 1377) was the leading poet and composer of the period from about 1340 to 1375 in France. He may be regarded as the culminating figure in the tradition of the cleric poet-musician, a professional proficient with the most subtle and complex forms of poetry as well as music, whose works served the amusement and edification of the aristocratic court. Machaut cultivated an enormously broad spectrum of genres: narrative poetry, lyrical poetry (some of it set to music), hybrid narratives (incorporating lyrics, music, and even prose letters), long and complex lyric lais (most with music), intricate motets that interlock textual and musical planes, a polyphonic setting of the Mass ordinary, a textless hocket, and numerous polyphonic songs in the fixed forms: ballade, rondeau, and virelai. Some of these genres served to consolidate new directions established earlier in the 14th century; others founded new directions that remained points of departure for more than a hundred years. In addition, many of the manuscript sources, which transmit Machaut’s works exclusively, are masterpieces of the art of late medieval book illumination. Because of the diversity of Machaut’s achievement, readers may come to this bibliography with very different needs in mind. While for the sake of convenience the aspects of poetry, art, and music have been separated, readers are encouraged to range widely, for the different disciplines cumulate their effects in Machaut, and after all, broad reception and accessibility—of course, always within the restricted bounds of an elite courtly culture—was his artistic goal.

General Overviews

Scholarship on Machaut is largely split between specialists in literary matters and specialists in musical matters. The general overviews are subdivided accordingly, although Machaut, as a figure equally adept in both areas, is best served by an interdisciplinary approach.

Literature

Among the many brief overviews in literary encyclopedias, the most recent, McGrady 2008, is singled out. For a thoughtful and comprehensive book-length introduction, English readers will find Calin 1974, a pioneering treatment, hard to beat. Brownlee’s 1984 book is more selective, considering each of the longer narratives in terms of the all-important author figure, since Machaut himself, in various sophisticated senses, is a character in his own poems. In fact, the complexity of the authorial persona was a primary factor that brought Machaut to the attention of late- 20th-century literary scholars. For a quick overview of the current directions of research and scholarship, see Palmer 1999, an important collection with chapters contributed by a variety of scholars. Hüe 2001 (in French) is a collection that provides a conspectus of scholarship focused on the single work that has proven to be the most interesting to our own time, the Voir dit. Taylor 2007 and Taylor 2008 provide recent overviews of literary issues relating to the late medieval lyric, Machaut’s lyrics among them. The single most important online source of information for Machaut is the Archives de littérature du Moyen Age (ARLIMA), directed by Laurent Brun at the University of Ottawa. A website maintained by Robert D. Peckham at the University of Tennessee at Martin, TennesseeBob’s Famous French Links, is indispensable for its links accessing the broader resources of the Internet.

  • Archives de littérature du Moyen Age (ARLIMA)

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    A vast database for medieval French literature; can be searched by author, genre, or theme. Includes links to numerous online databases of texts, periodicals, and doctoral theses. Maintained by Laurent Brun (University of Ottawa), with further contributions to segments on Machaut by Mattia Cavagna (Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium), and Evelis Miñana (Universitat de València, Spain).

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    • Brownlee, Kevin. Poetic Identity in Guillaume de Machaut. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

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      Machaut’s first-person poet-narrator persona combines the clerkly narrator and first-person lyric voice of the Roman de la rose with Machaut the professional writer. The poet-narrator is “lover-protagonist” in the Dit dou vergier, Remède de fortune, Dit de l’alerion, Jugement dou roy de Navarre, and Voir dit; the poet-narrator is “witness-participant” in the Jugement dou roy de Behaigne, Dit dou lyon, and Fontaine amoureuse. Confort d’ami and Prise d’Alexandre stand apart.

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    • Calin, William. A Poet at the Fountain: Essays on the Narrative Verse of Guillaume de Machaut. Studies in Romance Languages 9. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1974.

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      Remains the most broadly based introduction to Machaut’s narrative corpus, among the first to treat the works as literary works of art.

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    • Hüe, Denis, ed. Preface by Jacqueline Cerquiglini-Toulet. “Comme mon cœur désire”: Guillaume de Machaut, Le livre du voir dit. Medievalia 38. Orléans, France: Paradigme, 2001.

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      Mostly reprints (in French) of important articles by Catherine Attwood, Maureen Boulton, Kevin Brownlee, William Calin, Jacqueline Cerquiglini-Toulet (four articles), G. B. Gybbon-Monnypenny, Georg Hanf, Nicole Elise Lassahn, Daniel Poirion, Sarah Jane Williams (two articles), and Friedrich Wolfzettel.

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    • McGrady, Deborah. “Guillaume de Machaut.” In The Cambridge Companion to Medieval French Literature. Edited by Simon Gaunt and Sarah Kay, 109–122. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

      DOI: 10.1017/CCOL9780521861755Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Studies Machaut’s use of sources (Roman de la rose, the Consolation of Philosophy, scripture, and Ovidian mythology) and Machaut the author figure, as projected in individual works, in his complete works manuscripts, and in posthumous collections. Posthumous collections established the poet’s subservience to the patron, as opposed to the different self-portrait that Machaut cultivated in his lifetime.

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    • Palmer, R. Barton, ed. Chaucer’s French Contemporaries: The Poetry/Poetics of Self and Tradition. Georgia State Literary Studies Series 10. New York: AMS, 1999.

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      Mostly reprints of articles; concerning Machaut, they include work by Barbara Altmann, William Calin, Margaret Ehrhart, Steven R. Guthrie, Constance B. Hyatt, Sylvia Huot, Douglas Kelly, William W. Kibler and James I. Wimsatt, and R. Barton Palmer.

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    • Taylor, Jane H. M. “Etat présent: Research on the French Medieval Lyric.” French Studies 61 (2007): 69–83.

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      Useful recent overview of research on medieval French lyric poetry, including Machaut’s.

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    • Taylor, Jane H. M. “Lyric Poetry of the Later Middle Ages.” In The Cambridge Companion to Medieval French Literature. Edited by Simon Gaunt and Sarah Kay, 153–166. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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      Recent survey of lyrical poetry in the late Middle Ages, including works of Machaut.

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    • TennesseeBob’s Famous French Links.

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      A site replete with links to all aspects of French language, history, and culture. Included are links to two additional useful sites, which also contain many useful links: “French Medieval History & Culture,” and “Medieval French Lyric Poetry.”

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    Music

    For music, Leech-Wilkinson 1990 provides a fine overview of the entire 14th century. A longer account, placing Machaut in the larger context of medieval music, may be found in Hoppin 1978. A more detailed treatment of Machaut, with full bibliography, is Arlt 2001 and, more recently, Arlt 2004 (in German). For a quick overview of the diverse current directions of research and scholarship, see Leach 2003, an important collection with chapters contributed by a variety of scholars. A vast website developed by John Stinson, Medieval Music Database: An Integration of Electronic Sources, has been on hold since 2004 but is still well worth consulting. There are also some useful articles and links in The ORB: On-Line Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Material on Machaut at the Archives de littérature du Moyen Age (ARLIMA), directed by Laurent Brun at the University of Ottawa, includes Machaut’s music.

    Reference Works

    In addition to the bibliographies in the general works discussed in Literature and Music, there are two recommended guides to scholarship. Earp 1995, although written by a musicologist, covers all aspects relating to Machaut: biography, legacy in literature and music, manuscripts, art historical studies, studies of individual literary and musical works, and a discography of the music. Switten 1995 surveys the broad field of medieval lyric from the point of view of a literary scholar.

    • Earp, Lawrence M. Guillaume de Machaut: A Guide to Research. Garland Composer Resource Manuals 36; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 996. New York and London: Garland, 1995.

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      Thorough bibliographical guide to Machaut up to approximately 1995. Devotes individual chapters to biography, Machaut’s literary and musical legacy, the manuscripts, the miniatures, the narrative dits, the lyrical poetry, the music, a discography, and concludes with an annotated bibliography.

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    • Switten, Margaret. Music and Poetry in the Middle Ages: A Guide to Research on French and Occitan Song, 1100–1400. Garland Medieval Bibliographies 19; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1102. New York and London: Garland, 1995.

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      Bibliographical guide to the medieval French and Occitan lyric, referencing manuscripts, texts, and music, with a fine introductory essay on the historiography of scholarship in this field.

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    Narrative Poems (Dits)

    Machaut’s narrative love poems are often termed “dits” or “dits amoureux,” in which the poet, cast in the role of a first-person narrator figure, recounts a love story. For more on the characteristics of the dit, see Cerquiglini-Toulet 1988 (in French); Calin 1974 and Brownlee 1984 are also fine introductions to the dits. Although Machaut cultivates verisimilitude, a variety of allegorical characters make their appearances, the most important of which is Esperance (Lady Hope) (see Kelly 1978). The normal form for narrative poetry in this period is octosyllabic rhyming couplets; nevertheless, many dits in late-medieval France incorporate lyrical insertions, in which lyrical poems or fragments, some set to music, disrupt the narrative flow (such works are now often dubbed “hybrid narratives”). With few exceptions, these insertions are also by Machaut. Such hybrid narratives include Remède de fortune (with musical insertions), Fontaine amoureuse, and Voir dit (with musical insertions). There are also longer or shorter narratives that retain the orthodox rhyming couplets throughout. Longer narratives include Dit dou vergier, Dit dou lyon, and Dit de l’alerion. Shorter narratives poems include Dit de la harpe, Dit de la marguerite, Dit de la rose, and Dit de la fleur de lis et de la marguerite. Machaut also cultivated other genres of narrative: among his long poems are two examples of the debate poem, dealing with some question of love casuistry (Jugement dou roy de Behaigne and Jugement dou roy de Navarre), a poem in the advice to a prince tradition (Confort d’ami), and a verse chronicle (Prise d’Alexandre). In late manuscripts, a Prologue, part lyrical and part narrative, introduces the complete works collection.

    • Brownlee, Kevin. Poetic Identity in Guillaume de Machaut. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

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      Machaut’s first-person poet-narrator persona combines the clerkly narrator and first-person lyric voice of the Roman de la rose with Machaut the professional writer. The poet-narrator is “lover-protagonist” in the Dit dou vergier, Remède de fortune, Dit de l’alerion, Jugement dou roy de Navarre, and Voir dit; the poet-narrator is “witness-participant” in the Jugement dou roy de Behaigne, Dit dou lyon, and Fontaine amoureuse. Confort d’ami and Prise d’Alexandre stand apart.

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    • Calin, William. A Poet at the Fountain: Essays on the Narrative Verse of Guillaume de Machaut. Studies in Romance Languages 9. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1974.

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      Remains the most broadly based introduction to Machaut’s narrative corpus, among the first to treat the works as literary works of art.

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    • Cerquiglini-Toulet, Jacqueline. “Le dit.” In La littérature française aux XIVe et XVe siècles. Vol. 1, Partie historique. Edited by Daniel Poirion, 86–94. Grundriss der romanischen Literatur des Mittelalters 8/1. Heidelberg, Germany: C. Winter, 1988.

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      The first-person narrator, an increased textuality, and especially discontinuity occasioned by lyrical insertions are characteristics of the 14th-century dit. Examples are drawn from many authors.

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    • Kelly, Douglas. Medieval Imagination: Rhetoric and the Poetry of Courtly Love. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978.

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      Chapter 6, “Guillaume de Machaut and the Sublimation of Courtly Love in Imagination” (pp. 121–154) notes that Machaut’s treatment of fin’amors changed beginning with Remède de fortune, when Hope is sufficient for the perfect lover.

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    Prologue

    Machaut’s introduction to his life’s work, written at the end of his career, and found only in late manuscripts (see Manuscript Studies). Critical edition in Hoepffner 1965, Vol. 1 (see Editions) and Palmer 1993. Lukitsch 1983 gives a fine analysis. The most recent discussion is Leach 2011.

    • Leach, Elizabeth Eva. Guillaume de Machaut: Secretary, Poet, Musician. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 2011.

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      The most recent book on Machaut, considering both music and poetry as essential and co-equal aspects of his artistic program, and including the most up-to-date treatment of biography and reception. On the Prologue, see pp. 87–103.

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    • Lukitsch, Shirley. “The Poetics of the Prologue: Machaut’s Conception of the Purpose of His Art.” Medium Ævum 52 (1983): 258–271.

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      Machaut’s view of music and poetry as expressed in the Prologue.

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    • Palmer, R. Barton, ed. and trans. Guillaume de Machaut: The Fountain of Love (La fonteinne amoureuse) and Two Other Love Vision Poems. Garland Library of Medieval Literature 54A. New York and London: Garland, 1993.

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      Includes a new edition and English translations of Machaut’s Prologue.

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    Hybrid Narratives

    Machaut’s hybrid narratives (narratives with lyrical insertions) have long been a focus of interest. Important book-length studies of hybrid narratives include Cerquiglini 1985, Huot 1987, Boulton 1993, Cerquiglini 1997, and Butterfield 2002.

    • Boulton, Maureen Barry McCann. The Song in the Story: Lyric Insertions in French Narrative Fiction, 1200–1400. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993.

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      Analyzes the literary functions of lyrical insertions in hybrid narratives. Machaut discussed especially in chapter 5, “The Song as Message,” and chapter 6, “The Song and the Dit: the Poet as Hero.”

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    • Butterfield, Ardis. Poetry and Music in Medieval France: From Jean Renart to Guillaume de Machaut. Studies in Medieval Literature 49. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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      A study of the written contexts for French vernacular song, from the early 13th century hybrid narrative of Jean Renart, Roman de la rose ou de Guillaume de Dole, through the epochs of Adam de la Halle, the Roman de Fauvel, and finally Machaut.

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    • Cerquiglini, Jacqueline. “Un engine si soutil”: Guillaume de Machaut et l’écriture au XIVe siècle. Bibliothèque du XVe Siècle 47. Geneva, Switzerland: Slatkine, 1985.

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      Important analysis of Machaut’s narrative poetry, focusing on Voir dit, but considering other works as well.

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    • Cerquiglini, Jacqueline. The Color of Melancholy: The Uses of Books in the Fourteenth Century. Translated by Lydia G. Cochrane. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

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      A study of French literature from c. 1328 to c. 1415, developing a number of characteristic topics. Machaut figures throughout, especially the Fontaine amoureuse and Voir dit. Originally published as La couleur de la mélancolie. La fréquentation des livres au XIVe siècle, 1300–1415 (Collection Braves Littérature; Paris: Hastier, 1993).

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    • Huot, Sylvia. From Song to Book: The Poetics of Writing in Old French Lyric and Lyrical Narrative Poetry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.

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      A study of the presentation and staging of medieval French poetry in the manuscripts. Documents a progression from oral performance of texts (early 13th century) to texts as professional written artifacts (14th century). Machaut’s single-author complete works manuscripts of course figure prominently.

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    Remède de fortune

    The critical edition of Remède de fortune is in Hoepffner 1965, Vol. 2 (see Editions), with musical insertions edited by Friedrich Ludwig. Wimsatt and Kibler 1988 is a new critical edition with musical pieces edited by Rebecca Baltzer. Studies include Gallo 1999 (in Italian) and numerous articles. A recent discussion that considers aspects of both poetry and music in Remède de fortune is Leach 2011.

    • Leach, Elizabeth Eva. Guillaume de Machaut: Secretary, Poet, Musician. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 2011.

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      The most recent book on Machaut, considering both music and poetry as essential and co-equal aspects of his artistic program, and including the most up-to-date treatment of biography and reception. See especially pp. 220–231 on Fortune.

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    • Gallo, Franco Alberto. Trascrizione di Machaut: Remède de fortune, Ecru bleu, Remède d’Amour. Memorial del tempo 16. Ravenna, Italy: Longo, 1999.

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      Context of Remède de fortune in literature and music; the work supplies both sentimental and musical education for the courtier. Just as the protagonist of Remède de fortune is seen to progress and mature as the work progresses, so should the audience.

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    • Wimsatt, James I., ed., William W. Kibler, trans.; music edited by Rebecca A. Baltzer. Le Jugement du Roy de Behaigne and Remède de fortune. The Chaucer Library. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988.

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      Editions and English translations of Jugement dou roy de Behaigne and Remède de fortune, with important introductory essays.

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    Fontaine amoureuse

    The critical edition of Fontaine amoureuse is in Hoepffner 1965, Vol. 3 (see Editions), translated in Palmer 1993. Cerquiglini 1993 is a new edition and translation into modern French. Studies include the introductions to the editions, and Huot 2006.

    • Cerquiglini, Jacqueline, ed. and trans. Guillaume de Machaut. La Fontaine Amoureuse. Moyen Age. Paris: Stock, 1993.

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      New edition and translation into modern French, with an important introductory essay.

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    • Huot, Sylvia. “Reading the Lies of Poets: The Literal and the Allegorical in Machaut’s Fonteinne amoureuse.” Philological Quarterly 85.1–2 (Winter 2006): 25–48.

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      Machaut’s positioning of his authorial identity, drawing on the example of the Fontaine amoureuse. Here the poet figure is paired with an aristocratic lover and patron (presumably John, Duke of Berry), and these characters “receive” the text in different ways as it is being written, especially in their interpretation of the many mythological exempla from the Ovid moralisé incorporated into the work.

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    • Palmer, R. Barton, ed. and trans. Guillaume de Machaut: The Fountain of Love (La fonteinne amoureuse) and Two Other Love Vision Poems. Garland Library of Medieval Literature 54A. New York and London: Garland, 1993.

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      Includes a new edition and English translations of Fontaine amoureuse.

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    Voir dit

    The Voir dit has received more scholarly attention than any other literary work of Machaut, first because the complete poem has only recently been edited, and thus only now is the full scope of the work in view, but also because of the curious multivalent nature of the work: there is a lot to study. There are two recent editions: the critical edition and modern French translation in Imbs and Cerquiglini-Toulet 1999, and the diplomatic edition (after manuscript “A”, see Manuscript Studies) and English translation in Leech-Wilkinson and Palmer 1998. Among the book-length studies are Imbs 1991, Cerquiglini 1985, Quéruel 2001, Hüe 2001, Lachat 2006, and McGrady 2006.

    • Cerquiglini, Jacqueline. “Un engine si soutil”: Guillaume de Machaut et l’écriture au XIVe siècle. Bibliothèque du XVe Siècle 47. Geneva, Switzerland: Slatkine; Paris: Champion, 1985.

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      Important analysis of Machaut’s narrative poetry, focusing on Voir dit, but considering other works as well.

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    • Hüe, Denis, ed. Preface by Jacqueline Cerquiglini-Toulet. “Comme mon cœur désire”: Guillaume de Machaut, Le livre du voir dit. Medievalia 38. Orléans: Paradigme, 2001.

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      Mostly reprints (in French) of important articles by Catherine Attwood, Maureen Boulton, Kevin Brownlee, William Calin, Jacqueline Cerquiglini-Toulet (four articles), G.B. Gybbon-Monnypenny, Georg Hanf, Nicole Elise Lassahn, Daniel Poirion, Sarah Jane Williams (two articles), and Friedrich Wolfzettel.

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    • Imbs, Paul. Le Voir-dit de Guillaume de Machaut: Étude littéraire. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Institute National de la Langue Française. Paris: Klincksieck, 1991.

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      Literary study of the Voir dit, published posthumously. Includes consideration of earlier narratives of Machaut that prepare the way for Voir dit.

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    • Imbs, Paul, and Jacqueline Cerquiglini-Toulet, eds. Guillaume de Machaut: Le livre du voir dit (Le dit véridique). Lettres Gothiques 4557. Le Livre de Poche 20. Paris: Librairie Générale Française, 1999.

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      Complete edition and translation into modern French, with important introductory essays.

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    • Lachet, Claude. “Les lettres dans Le livre du voir dit de Guillaume de Machaut: Une recherche esthétique.” In La lettre et les lettres, entre deux: Cours de séminaires 2003–2006. Edited by Claude Lachet and Laurence Richer, 65–81. Lyon: C.E.D.I.C., 2006.

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      Study of the prose letters inserted into the Voir dit.

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    • Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel, ed., and R. Barton Palmer, trans. Guillaume de Machaut: Le livre dou voir dit (The Book of the True Poem). Garland Library of Medieval Literature 106A; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1732. New York and London: Garland, 1998.

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      A diplomatic edition after Manuscript “A” (see Manuscript Studies) and English translation, with important introductory essays, including a consideration of art-historical aspects by Domenic Leo.

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    • McGrady, Deborah. Controlling Readers: Guillaume de Machaut and His Late Medieval Audience. Toronto, Buffalo, and London: University of Toronto Press, 2006.

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      The role of the audience in the reception of the Voir dit, and the staging of the work in the manuscripts. Also considers the mediating role of the table of contents in manuscript A (see Manuscript Studies), and the changing presence of the author in the posthumous manuscript tradition.

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    • Quéruel, Danielle, ed. Le livre du “voir dit,” Guillaume de Machaut. CAPES-agrégation lettres. Paris: Ellipses, 2001.

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      Articles on diverse aspects of Voir dit, by Isabelle Bétemps, Jean Devaux, Gérard Gros, Laurence Hélix, Denis Hüe, Miren Lacassagne, and Isabelle Ragnard.

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    Longer Narrative Poems

    The Dit dou vergier is considered Machaut’s earliest narrative dit, strongly influenced by the Roman de la rose of Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun. Critical edition is in Hoepffner 1965, Vol. 1 (see Editions). Palmer 1993 is a translation. Hoepffner 1965 (see Editions) also includes a critical edition of Dit dou lyon (Vol. 2) and Dit de l’alerion (Vol. 2). The Dit de l’alerion is translated in Gaudet and Hieatt 1994.

    Shorter Narrative Poems

    Shorter narratives include the Dit de la harpe (Young 1943), the Dit de la marguerite (Fourrier 1979, modern French translation Bétemps 2008), the Dit de la rose (Fourrier 1979, modern French translation Bétemps 2008), the Dit de la fleur de lis et de la marguerite (Fourrier 1979, modern French translation Bétemps 2008), and the Dit du cerf blanc, which appears in Fourrier 1979 as a work of Machaut. (A modern French translation appears in Bétemps 2008.) This work, however, is found in none of the central Machaut complete-works manuscripts, and cannot be regarded as an authentic work of Machaut.

    • Bétemps, Isabelle, trans. and commentary. Guillaume de Machaut. Quatre dits. Traductions des Classiques du Moyen Âge 82. Paris: Champion, 2008.

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      Includes modern French translations of Dit de la marguerite, Dit de la rose, Dit de la fleur de lis et de la marguerite, and Dit du cerf blanc (opus dubium).

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    • Fourrier, Anthime, ed. Jean Froissart: “Dits” et “Débats.” Introduction, édition, notes, glossaire. Avec en appendice quelques poèmes de Guillaume de Machaut. Textes Littéraires Français 274. Geneva, Switzerland: Droz, 1979.

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      Critical editions with commentary, for Dit de la marguerite, Dit de la rose, Dit de la fleur de lis et de la marguerite, and Dit du cerf blanc (opus dubium).

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    • Young, Karl, ed. “The Dit de la harpe of Guillaume de Machaut.” In Essays in Honor of Albert Feuillerat. Edited by Henri M. Pyre, 1–20. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1943.

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      Critical edition of Dit de la harpe.

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    Debate Poems

    In addition to the hybrid narratives, Machaut’s judgment poems have received ample attention, particularly by scholars interested in Chaucer. See the introductions to Wimsatt and Kibler 1988, Altmann and Palmer 2006, and Kay 2007. Critical editions of Jugement dou roy de Behaigne and Jugement dou roy de Navarre are available in Hoepffner 1965 (see Editions) and translated in Palmer 1984 and Altmann and Palmer 2006. New critical editions and translations can be found in Wimsatt and Kibler 1988.

    • Altmann, Barbara K., and R. Barton Palmer. An Anthology of Medieval Love Debate Poetry. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2006.

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      An introduction on the love debate tradition, with translations of Machaut’s Jugement dou roy de Behaigne and Jugement dou roy de Navarre, as well as works by Geoffrey Chaucer, Christine de Pizan, and Alain Chartier.

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    • Kay, Sarah. The Place of Thought: The Complexity of One in Late Medieval French Didactic Poetry. The Middle Ages Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

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      See especially chapter 4, “Universality on Trial in Machaut’s Jugement Poems.”

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    • Palmer, R. Barton, ed. and trans. Guillaume de Machaut: The Judgment of the King of Bohemia (Le Jugement dou Roy de Behaingne). Garland Library of Medieval Literature 9A. New York and London: Garland, 1984.

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      Edition and English translation of Jugement dou roy de Behaigne, with list of borrowings in Chaucer’s Book of the Duchess (pp. 97–104), and an introduction to Machaut’s dits.

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    • Palmer, R. Barton, ed. and trans. Guillaume de Machaut: The Judgment of the King of Navarre. Garland Library of Medieval Literature 45A. New York and London: Garland, 1988.

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      Edition and English translation of Jugement dou roy de Navarre, with an introduction concerning the Jugement dou roy de Navarre as a response to the Jugement dou roy de Behaigne.

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    • Wimsatt, James I., ed., William W. Kibler, trans.; music edited by Rebecca A. Baltzer. Le Jugement du Roy de Behaigne and Remède de fortune. The Chaucer Library. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988.

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      Editions and English translations of Jugement dou roy de Behaingne and Remède de fortune, with important introductory essays.

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    Advice to Prince and Chronicle

    Confort d’ami can be found in Hoepffner 1965, vol. 3 (see Editions) and is translated in Palmer 1992; see the introduction for historical circumstances relating to Charles of Navarre. The Prise d’Alexandre, Machaut’s verse chronicle on King Peter I of Cyprus, is available in Mas Latrie 1968 and translated in Shirley 2001 and Palmer 2002.

    • Mas Latrie, [Jacques Marie Joseph] Louis de, ed. La Prise d’Alexandrie ou chronique du roi Pierre Ier de Lusignan par Guillaume de Machaut. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1968.

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      Critical edition of Prise d’Alexandre. The introduction, particularly the biography, is no longer reliable. Originally published 1877 (Publications de la Société de l’Orient latin, série historique 1; Geneva, Switzerland: Fick).

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    • Palmer, R. Barton, ed. and trans. Guillaume de Machaut: Le Confort d’Ami (Comfort for a Friend). Garland Library of Medieval Literature 67A. New York and London: Garland, 1992.

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      Edition and English translation of Confort d’ami, with an introduction that discusses historical circumstances and sources.

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    • Palmer, R. Barton, ed. and trans. Guillaume de Machaut: La prise d’Alixandre (The Taking of Alexandria). New York: Routledge, 2002.

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      Edition and English translation of Prise d’Alexandre, with an introduction that discusses historical circumstances and sources.

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    • Shirley, Janet, trans. Guillaume de Machaut: The Capture of Alexandria. Introduction and notes by Peter W. Edbury. Aldershot, UK, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2001.

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      English translation of Prise d’Alexandre into blank verse with an important historical introduction.

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    Lyrical Poetry

    The most inclusive collection is that of Chichmaref 1973, which publishes the large collection of Machaut’s lyrics left without music (ballades, rondeaux, chansons royales and complaintes), labeled the Louange des dames (Praise of Ladies) in Machaut manuscript “F-G” (see Manuscript Studies). In addition, Chichmaref also prints several opera dubia that are found in a second-level Machaut manuscript, Paris, Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, MS 5203. Wilkins 1973 presents the poems of the Louange des dames in alphabetical order. Chichmaref 1973 also includes all of the lyrics set to music (lais, motets, ballades, rondeaux, and virelais). These French and Latin texts can also be accessed online through a link on Todd Michel McComb’s medieval website, Complete Lyrics of Guillaume de Machaut and at The Lied, Art Song, and Choral Texts Page. See also the website developed by John Stinson, Medieval Music Database: An Integration of Electronic Sources, which includes texts and translations of musical works. English translations of the motets are in 2002, better for the Latin texts than the French, which are less literal. Of course many recordings of the music include translations of individual works. Poirion 1978 is the pioneering study of Machaut’s lyrical poems and their context. Johnson 1990 has been influential, a literary study that has been found to be particularly congenial to musicologists.

    Editions

    There are two complete editions of Machaut’s music, Ludwig 1954 and Schrade 1956. Of these, Ludwig’s edition is better overall, with a more comprehensive listing of variants (though still far from complete), and generally presenting better text underlay. Nevertheless, Schrade’s edition, with its modern clefs and a generally more modern appearance, is more practical for performers. Both editions contain inaccurate transcriptions of certain individual works (see Works Inaccurate in the Musical Editions). The Mass has received a new critical edition in Leech-Wilkinson 1990 and Leech-Wilkinson 1992. Cross 1998 is a readily available Peters edition.

    • Cross, Lucy E., ed. Guillaume de Machaut: Messe de Nostre Dame [for] Mixed Voices. New York: Peters, 1998.

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      Edition of the Mass for performance.

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    • Hoepffner, Ernest, ed. Œuvres de Guillaume de Machaut. 3 vols. Société des Anciens Textes Français 57. New York: Johnson, 1965.

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      Vol. 1 originally published 1908 (Paris: Firmin-Didot); vol. 2 originally published 1911 (Paris: Firmin-Didot); vol. 3 originally published 1921 (Paris: Champion). Standard critical edition, includes most of the longer dits. The introductions (in French) remain fine starting places for further study.

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    • Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel, ed. Guillaume de Machaut: La Messe de Nostre Dame. Oxford Choral Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

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      Separate edition of the score published with Leech-Wilkinson 1992.

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    • Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. Machaut’s Mass: An Introduction. Rev. ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1992.

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      New edition of the Mass, with an extensive scholarly introduction that includes a discussion of the date and function of the Mass, and musical analysis of each movement, attempting to reconstruct Machaut’s compositional procedures and choices. Extensive discussion of several aspects of performance practice.

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    • Ludwig, Friedrich, ed. Guillaume de Machaut: Musikalische Werke. 4 vols. Leipzig: VEB Breitkopf & Härtel, 1954.

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      The first edition of Machaut’s music, still valuable for analytical purposes (the original clefs are less congenial to performers). Original publication details: Vol. 1, Ballade, Rondeaux und Virelais (Publikationen altered Musik 1/1, Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1926); Vol. 2, Einleitung (Publikationen älterer Musik 3/1, Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1928); Vol. 3, Motetten (Publikationen älterer Musik 4/2, Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1929); Vol. 4, Messe und Lais, edited by Heinrich Besseler from the Nachlass Ludwig (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1943 [destroyed]).

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    • Schrade, Leo, ed. The Works of Guillaume de Machaut. 2 vols. Polyphonic Music of the Fourteenth Century 2–3. Les Remparts, Monaco: L’Oiseau-Lyre, 1956.

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      Standard edition of Machaut’s music. Also available in Guillaume de Machaut, Œuvres complètes. Uncorrected reprint with introductions by Stanley Boorman. Vol. 1, Les lays. Complainte. Chanson royale. Vol. 2, Les motets. Vol. 3, La Messe de Nostre-Dame. Double hoquet. Remède de fortune. Vol. 4, Les ballades. Vol. 5, Les rondeaux. Les virelais. Les Remparts, Monaco: L’Oiseau-Lyre, 1977.

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    Works Inaccurate in the Musical Editions

    Ludwig 1954 (cited under Manuscript Studies) and Schrade 1956 (cited under Editions) do not contain accurate transcriptions of several musical works. A more exact understanding of the notation has led to several revisions of individual works, especially among the lais (Hasselman and Walker 1970, Hoppin 1958, Hoppin 1960), motets (Hoppin 1960), ballades (Arlt 1982, Hoppin 1960, Hoppin 1978, Keitel 1977, Marrocco and Sandon 1977), and rondeaux (Hoppin 1960, Leech-Wilkinson 1984).

    • Arlt, Wulf. “Aspekte der Chronologie und des Stilwandels im französischen Lied des 14. Jahrhunderts.” In Aktuelle Fragen der musikbezogenen Mittelalterforschung: Texte zu einem Basler Colloquium des Jahres 1975. By Wulf Arlt, et al., 193–280. Forum Musicologicum: Basler Beiträge zur Musikgeschichte 3. Winterthur, Switzerland: Amadeus, 1982.

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      Musical style in the early-to-mid-14th-century French chanson. Offers corrections to the transcription of Esperance qui m’asseüre (ballade 13).

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    • Hasselman, Margaret, and Thomas Walker. “More Hidden Polyphony in a Machaut Manuscript.” Musica Disciplina 24 (1970): 7–16.

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      Corrected edition, with commentary, of En demantant (lai 24/18).

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    • Hoppin, Richard H. “An Unrecognized Polyphonic Lai of Machaut.” Musica Disciplina 12 (1958): 93–104.

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      Corrected edition, with commentary, of Pour ce que plus (lai 23/17).

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    • Hoppin, Richard H. “Notational Licenses of Guillaume de Machaut.” Musica Disciplina 14 (1960): 13–27.

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      Discussion of errors in the transcriptions in the standard musical editions, offering emendations to Donnez, signeurs (ballade 26), Dous amis, oy (ballade 6), Je puis trop (ballade 28), Rose, lis (rondeau 10), Trop plus / Biauté (motet 20), Un mortel lay (lai 12/8), and Une vipere (ballade 27), and discussion of how projections of medieval concepts of modus and tempus generally affect barring in modern editions.

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    • Hoppin, Richard, ed. Anthology of Medieval Music. Norton Introduction to Music History 1. New York: Norton, 1978.

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      New editions of De bonté (virelai 10), Dous amis (ballade 6), Qui es promesses / Ha! Fortune / Et non est (motet 8), and Se vous n’estes (rondeau 7; with two optional contratenors from late manuscripts), all based on manuscript “A” (see Manuscript Studies). The edition of Dous amis corrects the editions of Ludwig and Schrade.

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    • Keitel, Elizabeth A., ed. Seur Toute Creature Humeinne. Early Music Series EM31. London: Oxford University Press, 1977.

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      New edition of Pas de tor (ballade 30), suggesting an emendation to the corrupt tenor.

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    • Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. “Machaut’s Rose, lis and the Problem of Early Music Analysis.” Music Analysis 3 (1984): 9–28.

      DOI: 10.2307/854035Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Broad discussion of the application of modern analytical techniques to early music, with several approaches to an analysis of Rose lis (rondeau 10), emphasizing strategies of prolongation and directed progression. Includes a corrected transcription of the rondeau.

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    • Marrocco, W. Thomas, and Nicholas Sandon, eds. Medieval Music. The Oxford Anthology of Music. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.

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      Anthology with text translations; includes Machaut’s J’aim la flour (lai 2), a corrected edition of Sans cuer m’en / Amis / Dame (ballade 17), Se je souspir (virelai 36/30), and Tant doucement me sens (rondeau 9).

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    Studies of the Music

    This section divides the great richness of scholarship on musical analysis into seven areas of research that have been prominent over the last several years. These include the issue of the modern approach to the musical structure of Machaut’s time (Sonority and Counterpoint), analytical studies of motets (Motets), analytical studies of secular songs (Songs), musical and textual citations in Machaut’s music (Citation and Intertextuality), some studies of text setting and meter in Machaut’s music (Text Setting and Musical Meter), studies concerning the realization of medieval music in sound (Performance Practice), and finally indexes of recordings (Discography). The most recent consideration of the music is Leach 2011.

    • Leach, Elizabeth Eva. Guillaume de Machaut: Secretary, Poet, Musician. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 2011.

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      The most recent book on Machaut, considering both music and poetry as essential and co-equal aspects of his artistic program, and including the most up-to-date treatment of biography and reception.

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    Sonority and Counterpoint

    Much of what fuels scholarship on the technical analysis of Machaut’s music in recent years reflects a desire to discuss the music in its own terms, without resorting to anachronistic models more suitable to tonal music. One way to parse the scholarship is to note an emphasis on counterpoint or an emphasis on sonority (“chords” is the anachronistic term). At its most polemic, the debate has scholars in two different camps, the one favoring a view that medieval composers such as Machaut adapted a “successive” approach to composition (beginning with a two-voice core that was expanded and elaborated), the other favoring a “simultaneous” conception (having the capability of “hearing” and working with more than two voices at a time). The conflict has been particularly acute in English-speaking scholarship, because “successive” and “simultaneous” are loaded words in the historiography of music: a “successive” conception has characterized “medieval” music, while a “simultaneous” conception has characterized the “Renaissance.” For a sample of the debate, see Leech-Wilkinson 1992 and the response in Bent 2003. Leach 2000 and Leach 2006 also take counterpoint as the author’s point of departure (Leach was a student of Bent). Fuller 1986 and Fuller 1992 succeeded in constructing a vocabulary to describe sonorities in the music, one in tune with medieval conceptions. The “directed progression”—in which the succession of two or more sonorities takes on a strong goal-oriented flavor is now well recognized as an aspect of this music. Bain 2003 and Bain 2005 have further refined this approach (Bain was a student of Fuller). Moll 2000 derives some typical contrapuntal models of three- and four-part composition.

    • Bain, Jennifer. “Theorizing the Cadence in the Music of Machaut.” Journal of Music Theory 47 (2003): 325–362.

      DOI: 10.1215/00222909-47-2-325Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      A broad overview of what constitutes a cadence in Machaut. Discusses issues of counterpoint and directed progressions, with many examples and much engagement with the work of Fuller, Moll, and Bent.

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    • Bain, Jennifer. “Tonal Structure and the Melodic Role of Chromatic Inflections in the Music of Machaut.” Plainsong and Medieval Music 14 (2005): 59–88.

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      Chromatic inflections in the music of Machaut can serve tonal focus or play a melodic role, as opposed to the usual analysis of such inflections for contrapuntal exigencies. Many examples, both polyphonic and monophonic.

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    • Bent, Margaret. “The ‘Harmony’ of the Machaut Mass.” In Machaut’s Music: New Interpretations. Edited by Elizabeth Eva Leach, 75–94. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer, 2003.

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      Challenges the harmonic conception of the Gloria and Credo of the Machaut Mass presented in Leech-Wilkinson 1992, showing Machaut’s dependence on traditional “dyadic grammar” (a two-voice core that observes the normal rules of counterpoint).

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    • Fuller, Sarah. “On Sonority in Fourteenth-Century Polyphony: Some Preliminary Reflections.” Journal of Music Theory 30 (1986): 35–70.

      DOI: 10.2307/843408Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      A powerful new theory, with historical foundations, for the classification of sonorities and progressions in 14th-century music. Fuller has elaborated and illustrated her theory in many subsequent articles.

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    • Fuller, Sarah. “Tendencies and Resolutions: The Directed Progression in Ars Nova Music.” Journal of Music Theory 36 (1992): 229–258.

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      Development of Fuller 1986, with numerous examples of directed progressions that are linked to text setting.

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    • Leach, Elizabeth Eva. “Counterpoint and Analysis in Fourteenth-Century Song.” Journal of Music Theory 44 (2000): 45–79.

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      Argues the fundamental importance of simple underlying counterpoint in the analysis of 14th-century chansons. Many examples, with useful voice-leading reductions.

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    • Leach, Elizabeth Eva. “Gendering the Semitone, Sexing the Leading Tone: Fourteenth-Century Music Theory and the Directed Progression.” Music Theory Spectrum 28 (2006): 1–21.

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      Gendered discourse in early writings discussing intervals, moving from ancient Greece to the Middle Ages through Boethius to 14th-century theorists such as Johannes Boen.

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    • Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel, ed. Guillaume de Machaut: La Messe de Nostre Dame. Rev. ed. Oxford Choral Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

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      New edition of the Mass, with an extensive scholarly introduction that includes musical analysis of each movement, attempting to reconstruct Machaut’s compositional procedures and choices. Great emphasis is placed on sonority and simultaneous conception.

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    • Moll, Kevin N. “Voice Function, Sonority, and Contrapuntal Procedure in Late Medieval Polyphony.” Current Musicology 64 (2000): 26–72.

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      The role of the voices (e.g., discant and tenor), cadences, directed progressions in late medieval counterpoint. Compositions are categorized according to some archetypes that derive from the work of Ernst Apfel.

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    Motets

    It is particularly difficult to epitomize a great deal of recent scholarly activity devoted to the analysis of the ars nova motet. Leech-Wilkinson 1989 provides a great wealth of analytical approaches to the music. Bent 2003 provides an analytical model in approaching a single motet. Fuller 1990 argues against facile employment of the church modes in discussing the tonal aspect of Machaut’s motets. Clark 2004 works toward identifying compositional conventions at work in the motet repertory. Two literary scholars (Huot 1994 and Brownlee 2005) show that these highly complex and multivalent works are not just concerned with musical processes; they are in dialogue with literary traditions as well as musical ones. Robertson 2002 argues that the first seventeen of Machaut’s twenty-three motets trace and comment on the steps of a spiritual journey of the sort outlined in a contemporary work of the mystic Henry Suso. Finally, Bent 2008 is broadly conceived, dealing with the historiography and terminology that musicologists have employed since the first rediscovery of the ars nova motet in the early 20th century. See also Citation and Intertextuality.

    • Bent, Margaret. “Words and Music in Machaut’s Motet 9.” Early Music 31 (2003): 363–388.

      DOI: 10.1093/em/31.3.363Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      A model analysis of a Machaut motet.

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    • Bent, Margaret. “What Is Isorhythm?” In Quomodo cantabimus canticum? Studies in Honor of Edward H. Roesner. Edited by David Butler Cannata, et al., 121–143. Miscellanea 7. Middleton, WI: American Institute of Musicology, 2008.

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      The 20th-century term “isorhythm” has hampered recognition of the variety of compositional types in the ars nova motet. Bent discusses the historiography of this issue, and provides examples of the full range of motet types.

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    • Brownlee, Kevin. “Fire, Desire, Duration, Death: Machaut’s Motet 10.” In Citation and Authority in Medieval and Renaissance Musical Culture: Learning from the Learned. Edited by Suzannah Clark and Elizabeth Eva Leach, 79–93. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer, 2005.

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      Literary analysis of intertextuality in Hareu! / Helas! Obediens (M10).

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    • Clark, Alice V. “Listening to Machaut’s Motets.” Journal of Musicology 21 (2004): 487–513.

      DOI: 10.1525/jm.2004.21.4.487Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Conventions of motet composition in Machaut and his contemporaries, necessary preliminary work to detailed musical analysis, with ramifications for the reception history of late medieval motets.

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    • Fuller, Sarah. “Modal Tenors and Tonal Orientation in Motets of Guillaume de Machaut.” In Specal Issue: Studies in Medieval Music: Festschrift for Ernest H. Sanders. Edited by Peter M. Lefferts and Brian Seirup. Current Musicology 45–47 (1990): 199–245.

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      Analysis of Machaut’s tenors is the background for a discussion of tonal control in 14th-century polyphony. The composer can emphasize certain pitches and sonorities; thus, the tonal structure is as controlled as the rhythmic structure in the ars nova motet.

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    • Huot, Sylvia. “Patience in Adversity: The Courtly Lover and Job in Machaut’s Motets 2 and 3.” Medium Ævum 63 (1994): 222–238.

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      The motet allows a juxtaposition of courtly love lyric in triplum and motetus with the scriptural and liturgical context of the tenor. Huot discusses the interplay of these two realms in two Machaut motets.

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    • Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. Compositional Techniques in the Four-Part Isorhythmic Motets of Philippe de Vitry and His Contemporaries. 2 vols. Outstanding Dissertations in Music from British Universities. New York and London: Garland, 1989.

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      Analysis of four-part ars nova motets, including the four by Machaut. Leech-Wilkinson emphasizes compositional procedures and compositional choices that may lead to certain infelicities in the final composition.

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    • Robertson, Anne Walters. Guillaume de Machaut and Reims: Context and Meaning in His Musical Works. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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      The influence on the traditions and context of Reims the city and cathedral for Machaut’s works, and a discussion of the motets, hocket, and Mass. Robertson finds a coherent program to the first seventeen motets.

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    Songs

    There are numerous recent approaches to the songs, some dealing with motivic analysis (Kügle 2003, Maw 2001), some with mode (Berger 2003), others taking an eclectic approach to specific works (Bain 2003, Fuller 1992, Leach 2000, Leech-Wilkinson 1984). Leech-Wilkinson 1993 finds some common musical aspects of works in different genres. See also Citation and Intertextuality and Text Setting and Musical Meter.

    • Bain, Jennifer. “Balades 32 and 33 and the ‘res dalemangne.’” In Machaut’s Music: New Interpretations. Edited by Elizabeth Eva Leach, 205–219. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer, 2003.

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      Analysis of two ballades inserted in Voir dit, Plourez, dames (ballade 32) and Nes qu’on porroit (ballade 33), considering sonorities (building on the work of Fuller), tonal focus, and motivic content. Ballade 33 displays an unusual motivic density which may relate to Machaut’s tantalizing comment that this work is composed in a German style.

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    • Berger, Christian. “Machaut’s Balade Ploures dames (B32) in the Light of Real Modality.” In Machaut’s Music: New Interpretations. Edited by Elizabeth Eva Leach, 193–204. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer, 2003.

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      Analysis of Plourés dames (ballade 32) according to principles of the church modes.

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    • Fuller, Sarah. “Guillaume de Machaut: De toutes flours.” In Music Before 1600. Edited by Mark Everist, 41–65. Models of Musical Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.

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      Exhaustive analysis of musical aspects of De toutes flours (ballade 31) in relation to the articulation of the text. Includes voice-leading and harmonic reductions.

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    • Kügle, Karl. “Some Observations Regarding Musico-Textual Interrelationships in Late Rondeaux by Machaut.” In Machaut’s Music: New Interpretations. Edited by Elizabeth Eva Leach, 263–276. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer, 2003.

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      Analysis of a stock musical motif that is common to several Machaut rondeaux.

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    • Leach, Elizabeth Eva. “Interpretation and Counterpoint: The Case of Guillaume de Machaut’s De toutes flours (B31).” Music Analysis 19 (2000): 321–351.

      DOI: 10.1111/1468-2249.00123Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Leach engages with problematic spots in previous analyses of this ballade.

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    • Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. “Machaut’s Rose, lis and the Problem of Early Music Analysis.” Music Analysis 3 (1984): 9–28.

      DOI: 10.2307/854035Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Broad discussion of the application of modern analytical techniques to early music, with several approaches to an analysis of Rose, lis (rondeau 10), emphasizing strategies of prolongation and directed progression in this work.

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    • Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. “Le voir dit and La Messe de Nostre Dame: Aspects of Genre and Style in Late Works of Machaut.” Plainsong and Medieval Music 2 (1993): 43–73.

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      Analysis of the musical works interpolated in Voir dit, showing musical parallels—abstract musical ideas—that cross genres and which are also characteristic of the Machaut Mass, a work contemporary to the Voir dit.

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    • Maw, David. “Machaut’s ‘Parody’ Technique.” Context 21 (Autumn 2001): 5–20.

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      Broadening the normal sense of “parody” in early music (direct modeling of a composition on a preexisting work), Maw finds “formal parody” may operate within a work. Particularly in rondeaux, Machaut may spin out a small amount of material to generate new musical phrases.

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    Citation and Intertextuality

    Ludwig’s edition of the ballade De Fortune (ballade 23) gives an example of an anonymous composition that quotes parts Machaut’s music to construct a new work. More recently scholars have discovered many more examples of connections between works, whether through quotation, allusion, or modeling, both within Machaut’s poetic oeuvre and in the broader repertory of the 14th century. The examples cited here provide samples of this area of inquiry, from the point of view of literary scholars (Brownlee 1998a, Brownlee 1998b, and Butterfield 2003) and from the point of view of musical scholars (Boogaart 2001, Leach 2000, and Plumley 2003). Both motets (Boogaart 2001) and songs (Brownlee 1998a, Butterfield 2003, Leach 2000, and Plumley 2003) have been studied in this regard.

    • Boogaart, Jacques. “Encompassing Past and Present: Quotations and Their Function in Machaut’s Motets.” Early Music History 20 (2001): 1–86.

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      Intertextuality in Machaut’s motets. Boogaart discussed Machaut’s use of Biblical texts and trouvère songs, the strategic placement of quoted material within the motet, and how a quotation may affect the music itself.

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    • Brownlee, Kevin. “Literary Intertextualities in 14th-Century French Song.” In Musik als Text: Bericht über den Internationalen Kongress der Gesellschaft für Musikforschung, Freiburg im Breisgau 1993. Vol. 1. Edited by Hermann Danuser and Tobias Plebuch, 295–299. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1998a.

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      Discussion of textual borrowing among chansons from a literary standpoint.

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    • Brownlee, Kevin. “Literary Intertextualities in the Esperance Series: Machaut’s Esperance qui m’asseüre, the Anonymous Rondeau Esperance qui en mon cuer s’embat, Senleches’ En attendant esperance conforte.” In Musik als Text: Bericht über den Internationalen Kongress der Gesellschaft für Musikforschung, Freiburg im Breisgau 1993. Vol. 1. Edited by Hermann Dannuser and Tobias Plebuch, 311–313. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1998b.

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      Some specific instances of textual borrowing in chansons from a literary standpoint.

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    • Butterfield, Ardis. “The Art of Repetition: Machaut’s Ballade 33, Nes qu’on porroit.” Early Music 31 (2003): 346–360.

      DOI: 10.1093/em/31.3.346Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      A study of resonances and cross-references that Machaut’s Nes qu’on porroit (ballade 33) has with the Voir dit. Includes an important discussion of the aesthetic of the lyric in the period of Machaut.

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    • Leach, Elizabeth Eva. “Fortune’s Demesne: The Interrelation of Text and Music in Machaut’s Il mest avis (B22) and Two Related Anonymous Balades.” Early Music History 19 (2000): 47–79.

      DOI: 10.1017/S0261127900001960Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Discussion of two Machaut ballades, Il m’est avis (ballade 22) and De Fortune (ballade 23) and their relationship to two anonymous ballades.

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    • Plumley, Yolanda. “Intertextuality in the Fourteenth-Century Chanson” Music & Letters 84 (2003): 355–377.

      DOI: 10.1093/ml/84.3.355Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Examples of the continuation of the 13th-century practice of citation and allusion in the 14th century, including self-borrowing in groups of Machaut ballades not set to music, the example of Machaut’s De Fortune (ballade 23) and a work by Matteo de Perugia, and the example of the En attendant complex of works, a kind of citation “contest” that has links to Machaut.

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    Text Setting and Musical Meter

    Scholarly discussion of late-medieval music has occupied itself much more with issues of sonority and counterpoint than with issues of text setting and text articulation through rhythm and meter. Brown 1987 provides an example of an analysis that broaches these issues, albeit in terms that are no longer generally accepted today. Maw 2002 and Maw 2004 start from an appreciation of 14th-century rhythmic theory, finding that a play of different rhythmic levels informs text projection. Earp 2005 applies a general model text setting that lies behind a variety of surface expressions.

    • Brown, Howard Mayer. “A Ballade for Mathieu de Foix: Style and Structure in a Composition by Trebor.” Musica Disciplina 41 (1987): 75–107.

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      Strategies for the analysis of 14th-century chansons, including text setting. Brown’s approach seems anachronistic today.

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    • Earp, Lawrence M. “Declamatory Dissonance in Machaut.” In Citation and Authority in Medieval and Renaissance Musical Culture: Learning from the Learned. Edited by Suzannah Clark and Elizabeth Eva Leach, 102–122. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer, 2005.

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      The musical setting of poetic lines in Machaut’s music displays a restricted number of patterns, first established by Graeme M. Boone for early chansons of Dufay. Instances when Machaut departs from an expected pattern often serves to heighten text expression or suggests instances of text painting. Considers examples in all musical genres.

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    • Maw, David. “Meter and Word Setting: Revising Machaut’s Monophonic Virelais. Current Musicology 74 (2002): 69–102.

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      The role of modus (organization by long note values), is important to text-setting in the monophonic virelais. Maw discusses the articulation of rhymes, metrical irregularities, and readings that revise the editions of Machaut’s music.

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    • Maw, David. “‘Trespasser mesure’: Meter in Machaut’s Polyphonic Songs.” Journal of Musicology 21 (2004): 46–126.

      DOI: 10.1525/jm.2004.21.1.46Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      A study of mensuration in Machaut’s works showing that the level of modus—the level of long notes—is more important than previously thought. It operates as a background horizon subject to contractions and extensions.

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    Performance Practice

    Discussions of performance practice of Machaut’s music in recent years have turned on the question of the participation of instruments. Leech-Wilkinson 2002 is largely devoted to this question, which saw a fundamental redirection in light of the research of Christopher Page (Page 1990, Page 1992), and was realized in sound in recordings of the Gothic Voices, directed by Page himself until the year 2000. Now that Page is no longer directing the group, there is less central guidance; even though performing members of Gothic Voices have released two additional discs, Page’s scholarly guidance is missed. In general, performing groups currently recording maintain eclectic approaches to performance practice, sometimes using instrumental accompaniment in the manner of David Munrow’s recordings of the 1970s, other times presenting vocalized accompaniment in the manner advocated by Page in the 1990s.

    • Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. The Modern Invention of Medieval Music: Scholarship, Ideology, Performance. Musical Performance and Reception. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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      Historiographical study of the performance practice of medieval music in the 19th and 20th centuries, marking radical changes of conception of the evidence for vocal and instrumental forces. Polemically concludes that the workings of scholars have had less to do with interpretation of evidence than with personal agendas.

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    • Page, Christopher. “Polyphony before 1400.” In Performance Practice: Music before 1600. Edited by Howard Mayer Brown and Stanley Sadie, 79–104. The Norton/Grove Handbooks in Music. New York and London: Norton, 1990.

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      Survey of a variety of concerns to the performance of medieval polyphony, including tuning, rhythm, ornamentation, instrumentation, and vocalization of untexted passages.

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    • Page, Christopher. “Going Beyond the Limits: Experiments with Vocalization in the French Chanson, 1340–1440.” Early Music 20 (1992): 446–459.

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      Discussion of the practical experiments that led to the vocalization of textless voices in several recordings of the Gothic Voices directed by Page.

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    Discography

    Recordings of Machaut’s music are kept up to date on Pierre-F. Roberge’s comprehensive discography on Todd Michel McComb’s website Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300–1377): Discography, Biography, Lyrics. Earp 1995 (see Reference Works) provides a critical discography that judges recorded performances from a scholarly standpoint. Today numerous performances of individual works of Machaut, some of them fully professional, others of them translated into English, and still others with outrageous and even humorous performing forces, can be heard on the Internet; search individual titles and refer to YouTube links.

    Manuscript Studies

    Characteristic of the Machaut manuscript tradition is the production of large manuscripts devoted exclusively to Machaut, containing his complete works at different stages of his career. These are almost universally referenced by the following sigla: “A” Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS fr. 1584; “B” Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS fr. 1585; “C” Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS fr. 1586; “D” Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS fr. 1587; “E” Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS fr. 9221; “F-G” Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS fr. 22545–22546; “Vg” (Ferrell-Vogüé). Kansas City, MO, collection of James E. and Elizabeth R. Ferrell, on loan to the Parker Library, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (formerly owned by the marquis Melchior de Vogüé). Hoepffner 1965 (see Editions) and Ludwig 1954 carried out the basic work on the chronology and relationships of the manuscripts; Ludwig’s charts of the concordances of musical works among the sources remain useful. Later work has refined details of this picture. For example, after Ludwig established that manuscript “B” was almost entirely copied from manuscript “Vg”, Bent 1983 demonstrated that many musical works in manuscript “E” were copied from manuscript “B”. Huot 1987 discusses the nature of manuscript transmission in this period from a literary perspective, further developed by Butterfield 2002. Earp 1989 considers the question of Machaut’s potential role in the “supervision” of the manuscripts, and Earp 1995 (see Reference Works) gives bibliographical details on the full manuscript tradition, nearly seventy-five sources.

    • Bent, Margaret. “The Machaut Manuscripts Vg, B and E.” Musica Disciplina 37 (1983): 53–82.

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      Confirms Ludwig’s analysis that manuscript “B” derives from manuscript “Vg”, except for the Prise d’Alexandre, for which the opposite relationship obtains. Quite a bit of the music of manuscript “E” derives from manuscript “B”, based on conjunctive variants between these sources.

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    • Butterfield, Ardis. Poetry and Music in Medieval France: From Jean Renart to Guillaume de Machaut. Studies in Medieval Literature 49. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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      A study of the written contexts for French vernacular song, from the early-13th-century hybrid narrative of Jean Renart, Roman de la rose ou de Guillaume de Dole, through the epochs of Adam de la Halle, the Roman de Fauvel, and finally Machaut.

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    • Earp, Lawrence. “Machaut’s Role in the Production of Manuscripts of His Works.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 42 (1989): 461–503.

      DOI: 10.1525/jams.1989.42.3.03a00020Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Assembles the current knowledge of Machaut’s “supervision” of his manuscripts. Chronology of the manuscripts, and the importance of the original index to manuscript “A” for the ordering of the works.

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    • Huot, Sylvia. From Song to Book: The Poetics of Writing in Old French Lyric and Lyrical Narrative Poetry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.

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      Focuses on the manuscript presentation of lyrical and narrative works. Machaut’s manuscript collections discussed especially on pp. 232–238.

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    • Ludwig, Friedrich, ed. Guillaume de Machaut: Musikalische Werke. 4 vols. Leipzig: VEB Breitkopf & Härtel, 1954.

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      The first edition of Machaut’s musical works. The commentary volume (vol. 2) remains important for its discussion of the range of sources for Machaut’s music. Ludwig’s charts of works by genre and manuscript is the foundation of subsequent studies of the chronology of Machaut’s music. Original publication details: Vol. 1, Ballade, Rondeaux und Virelais (Publikationen altered Musik 1/1, Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1926); Vol. 2, Einleitung (Publikationen älterer Musik 3/1, Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1928); Vol. 3, Motetten (Publikationen älterer Musik 4/2, Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1929). Vol. 4, Messe und Lais, edited by Heinrich Besseler from the Nachlass Ludwig (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1943 [destroyed]).

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    Images of Machaut Manuscripts

    Images the Machaut manuscripts (sometimes a miniature in isolation, sometimes a whole page) are starting to become available online. The Mandragore site, maintained by the Bibliothèque nationale de France, has images from manuscript “A”(fr. 1584), manuscript “D” (fr. 1587), manuscript “E” (fr. 9221), and manuscript “F-G” (fr. 22545–22546) (see Manuscript Studies). It appears that manuscript “C” (fr. 1586) will be available soon—the site gives descriptions of the miniatures, but as yet no images. The complete Ferrell-Vogüé manuscript “Vg” is posted on DIAMM (Digital Images of Medieval Manuscripts). An important text chansonnier containing Machaut lyrics (manuscript “Pa” Philadelphia, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania, Ms. Codex 902) is available complete at the Penn in Hand: Selected Manuscripts site.

    Art Historical Studies

    The fundamental study focusing on the artists of the Machaut manuscripts is Avril 1978 (with several beautiful color images), further developed in Avril 1982. Avril’s identifications of the several artists involved in the illustration of the works in the Machaut manuscripts is the basis of the manuscript-by-manuscript and work-by-work tables in Earp 1995 (see Reference Works). Domenic Leo’s recent comprehensive art bibliography focusing on Machaut is available from a link at the International Machaut Societywebsite. The oft-reproduced author portraits at the beginning of manuscript “A” (see Manuscript Studies) are the subject of Ferrand 1987 and Leo 2011. On the art historical aspect of Remède, see Buettner 2001 and Drobinsky 2004; on Fontaine amoureuse, see Drobinsky 2003.

    • Avril, François. Manuscript Painting at the Court of France: The Fourteenth Century (1310–1380). New York: Braziller, 1978.

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      Color facsimiles of some miniatures from manuscripts “C” and “A” (see Manuscript Studies). The introduction and commentary on the individual plates serves to orient the work of the miniaturists in the context of 14th-century manuscript painting.

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    • Avril, François. “Les Manuscrits enluminés de Guillaume de Machaut: Essai de chronologie.” In Guillaume de Machaut: Poète et compositeur. Colloque-table ronde organisé par l’Université de Reims (19–22 avril 1978), 117–134. Actes et Colloques 23. Paris: Klincksieck, 1982.

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      The fundamental study of the artists who illustrated manuscripts “C,” “Vg,” “A,” “E,” “F-G” (see Manuscript Studies), and others. Avril’s work has changed views of the chronology of the manuscripts.

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    • Buettner, Brigitte. “Machaut’s Remède de fortune: Some Art Historical Observations.” Vol. 5 of Teaching Medieval Lyric with Modern Technology: New Windows on the Medieval World. CD-ROM. Edited by Margaret Switten. South Hadley, MA: Mount Holyoke College, 2001.

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      Places images from Remède de fortune in manuscript “C” and the Prologue in manuscript “A” (see Manuscript Studies) into the context of contemporary art and society. Color images are included in this resource.

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    • Drobinsky, Julia. “Effets de miroir dans La fontaine amoureuse de Guillaume de Machaut: texte et iconographie.” In Miroirs et jeux de miroirs dans la littérature médiévale. Edited by Fabienne Pomel, 265–282. Collection “Interférences.” Rennes, France: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2003.

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      Relationship of the miniatures in Fonteinne amoureuse to the text, analyzing miniatures in manuscripts “A” and “F” (see Manuscript Studies).

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    • Drobinsky, Julia. “La polyphonie énonciative et lyrique dans le Remède de fortune de Guillaume de Machaut. Inscription textuelle, rubrication et illustration.” PRIS-MA: Bulletin de liaison de l’Equipe de recherche sur la littérature d’imagination du moyen âge 39–40 (2004): 49–64.

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      Relationship of the miniatures in Remède de fortune to the text.

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    • Ferrand, Françoise. “Les portraits de Guillaume de Machaut à l’entrée du Prologue à ses oeuvres, signes iconiques de la nouvelle function de l’artiste, en France, à la fin du XIVe siècle.” In Le portrait. Edited by J. M. Bailbé, 11–20. Rouen, France: Publication de l’Université de Rouen, 1987.

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      Discussion of the literary and art-historical context of the Prologue to manuscript “A” (see Manuscript Studies) and the author portraits that accompany it.

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    • Leo, Domenic. “The Beginning is the End: Machaut’s Illuminated Prologue.” In Citation, Intertextuality and Memory in the Middle Ages and Renaissance: Text, Music and Image from Machaut to Ariosto. Vol. 1. Edited by Yolanda Plumley, Giuliano Di Bacco and Stefano Jossa. Exeter Studies in Medieval Europe. Exeter, UK: University of Exeter Press, 2011.

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      Detailed study of the two Prologue miniatures from manuscript “A” (see Manuscript Studies).

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    • Machaut Bibliography—Art Overview and Bibliography.

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      Domenic Leo’s up-to-date bibliography (partially annotated) of art-historical books and articles of interest to Machaut studies.

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    Biography

    The biography supplied in the preface to the first volume of Hoepffner 1965 (see Editions) provides a well-written overview in French. The biography in Earp 1995 (see Reference Works) lays out the evidence from documents and literary works, but does not purport to offer an easy-to-read narrative. Arlt 2001 and Arlt 2004 each supply a good brief overview. Robertson 2002 fleshes out the situation in Reims during Machaut’s period of activity there, though the author is at odds with the argument presented in Bowers 2004, which argues for a relatively late settlement of Machaut in Reims (c. 1360), and, controversially, suggests that Machaut actively served King Charles of Navarre in the south in the 1350s. Earp 1995 (cited under Reference Works) suggests that Machaut was at Reims at least by the late 1350s, surly there during the siege of Reims in the winter of 1359–60 and for treaty negotiations with the Dauphin Charles, the future Charles V. Recent studies that flesh out further details Machaut’s biography include Leach 2009 (Thomas Paien and the double ballade Quant Theseüs / Ne quier veoir [ballade 34]) and Leach 2010 (Machaut’s early service as an almoner to King John of Bohemia). The most recent treatment of aspects of Machaut’s biography is Leach 2011.

    • Arlt, Wulf. “Machaut [Machau, Machault], Guillaume de [Guillelmus de Machaudio].” In New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Vol. 15. 2d rev. ed. Edited by Stanley Sadie, 478–490. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

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      A fine recent overview of Machaut and his music.

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    • Arlt, Wulf. “Machaut, Machault, Machau, Guillaume de.” In Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Personenteil. Vol. 11. 2d rev. ed. Edited by Ludwig Finscher, 719–749. Stuttgart: Metzler, 2004.

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      The most recent overview of Machaut and his music (in German).

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    • Bowers, Roger. “Guillaume de Machaut and His Canonry of Reims, 1338–1377.” Early Music History 23 (2004): 1–48.

      DOI: 10.1017/S0261127904000038Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Argues that there is little evidence of Machaut’s residence at Reims, despite his holding a cannonry there, until about 1360. During this time Machaut was in the active service of Charles, king of Navarre. Machaut may have been born at Cauroy de les Machaut, a village some twenty-five miles to the east of Reims, under the lordship of Jean de Chastillon. While agreeing with Robertson 2002 that Machaut’s mass was sung weekly in the cathedral, Bowers’s interpretation of the details is different.

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    • Leach, Elizabeth Eva. “Machaut’s Peer, Thomas Paien.” Plainsong and Medieval Music 18 (2009): 91–112.

      DOI: 10.1017/S0961137109990027Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Details concerning the Thomas Paien who wrote the “Quant Theseus” Quant Theseus / Ne quier veoir (ballade 34).

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    • Leach, Elizabeth Eva. “Guillaume de Machaut, Royal Almoner: Honte, paour (B25) and Donnez, signeurs (B26) in Context.” Early Music 38 (2010): 21–42.

      DOI: 10.1093/em/caq006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Machaut’s role in his early years as an almoner to John, king of Bohemia sheds new light on two later ballades.

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    • Leach, Elizabeth Eva. Guillaume de Machaut: Secretary, Poet, Musician. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 2011.

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      The most recent book on Machaut, considering both music and poetry as essential and co-equal aspects of his artistic program, and including the most up-to-date treatment of biography and reception.

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    • Robertson, Anne Walters. Guillaume de Machaut and Reims: Context and Meaning in His Musical Works. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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      The influence of Machaut’s local context, the city and cathedral of Reims. A new interpretation of the order of Machaut’s motets, and the original context of the hocket (for the coronation of Charles V) and the Mass (for a votive Mass for the Virgin performed on Saturdays).

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    Machaut’s Forerunners

    One fascinating aspect of Machaut’s creative work is the manner in which he built on the past, synthesizing new forms that remained current for many generations.

    Manuscript Organization, Hybrid Narratives

    On Machaut’s forerunners in a literary sense, see Huot 1987 and Butterfield 2002 (Adam de la Halle), Wimsatt 1991 and Dembowski 2001 (Jean de le Mote), and Meulen 1992 (Nicole de Margival, now identified as Nicole de Gavrelle).

    • Butterfield, Ardis. Poetry and Music in Medieval France: From Jean Renart to Guillaume de Machaut. Studies in Medieval Literature 49. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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      A study of the written contexts for French vernacular song, from the early 13th century hybrid narrative of Jean Renart, Roman de la Rose ou de Guillaume de Dole, through the epochs of Adam de la Halle, the Roman de Fauvel, and finally Machaut.

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    • Dembowski, Peter F. “Jehan de Le Mote et ses Regret Guillaume, comte de Hainaut.” In Convergences médiévales. Epopée, lyrique, roman. Mélanges offerts à Madeleine Tyssens. Edited by Nadine Henrard, Paola Moreno, and Martine Thiry-Stassin, 139–147. Bibliothèque du Moyen Age 19. Brussels: De Boeck Université, 2001.

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      An appreciation of Regret Guillaume (1339) by Jehan de Le Mote, a hybrid narrative that influenced Machaut.

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    • Huot, Sylvia. From Song to Book: The Poetics of Writing in Old French Lyric and Lyrical Narrative Poetry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.

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      A study of the presentation and staging of medieval French poetry in the manuscripts. Documents a progression from oral performance of texts (early 13th century) to texts as professional written artifacts (14th century). Machaut’s single-author complete works manuscripts of course figure prominently.

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    • Meulen, Janet F. van der. “De panter en de aalmoezenier. Dichtkunst rond het Hollands-Henegouwse hof.” In Een Zoet akkoord. Middeleeuwse lyriek in de Lage Landen. Edited by Frank Willaert, 93–108. Nederlandse literature en cultuur in de middeleeuwen 7. Amsterdam: Prometheus, 1992.

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      The influence of the Nicole de Margival’s Dit de la panthère on Machaut and others. Meulen identifies the author as one Nicole de Gavrelle.

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    • Wimsatt, James I. Chaucer and His French Contemporaries: Natural Music in the Fourteenth Century. Toronto, Buffalo, and London: University of Toronto Press, 1991.

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      Rehabilitating treatment of the importance of Jean de le Mote for Machaut.

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    Fixed Forms, Motets

    The development of the fixed forms in music (ballade, virelai, and rondeau) has received attention since Arlt 1982 and Earp 1991, from a literary emphasis in Jung 2000 and Jung 2001, Page 1998, and Butterfield 2002, and from an emphasis on the development of musical forms in Everist 2007. Leech-Wilkinson 1982–1983 touches on Machaut’s debt to Philippe de Vitry in his motets.

    • Arlt, Wulf. “Aspekte der Chronologie und des Stilwandels im französischen Lied des 14. Jahrhunderts.” In Aktuelle Fragen der musikbezogenen Mittelalterforschung: Texte zu einem Basler Kolloquium des Jahres 1975. By Wulf Arlt, et al., 193–280. Forum Musicologicum: Basler Beiträge zur Musikgeschichte 3. Winterthur, Swizerland: Amadeus, 1982.

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      An important and wide-ranging study of musical style in the ars nova chanson.

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    • Butterfield, Ardis. Poetry and Music in Medieval France: From Jean Renart to Guillaume de Machaut. Studies in Medieval Literature 49. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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      A study of the written contexts for French vernacular song, from the early 13th century hybrid narrative of Jean Renart, Roman de la Rose ou de Guillaume de Dole, through the epochs of Adam de la Halle, the Roman de Fauvel, and finally Machaut.

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    • Earp, Lawrence. “Lyrics for Reading and Lyrics for Singing in Late Medieval France: The Development of the Dance Lyric from Adam de la Halle to Guillaume de Machaut.” In The Union of Words and Music in Medieval Poetry. Edited by Rebecca A. Baltzer, Thomas Cable, and James I. Wimsatt, tape recorded by Sequentia, 101–131. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1991.

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      Machaut’s key role in the consolidation of ars nova chansons in fixed forms. Thirteenth-century rhythmic dance forms were transformed in the early 14th century to carry the most prestigious poetry.

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    • Everist, Mark. “‘Souspirant en terre estrainge’: The Polyphonic Rondeau from Adam de la Halle to Guillaume de Machaut.” Early Music History 26 (2007): 1–42.

      DOI: 10.1017/S0261127907000265Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Thorough consideration of the meager examples of polyphonic song forms leading to Machaut.

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    • Jung, Marc-René. “La naissance de la ballade dans la première moitié du XIVe siècle, de Jean Acart à Jean de la Mote et à Guillaume de Machaut.” In Actes du IIème Colloquia International sur la littérature en Moyen Français, Milan, 8–10 mai 2000. Edited by Sergio Cigada, 7–29. Analisi linguistica e letteraria. Milan: Vita e Pensiero, 2000.

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      The formal development of the ballade in the early 14th century.

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    • Jung, Marc-René. “Les plus anciennes ballades de Machaut et la tradition antérieure de la ballade: aspects métriques.” In Convergences médiévales. Epopée, lyrique, roman. Mélanges offerts à Madeleine Tyssens. Edited by Nadine Bernard, Paola Moreno, and Martine Thiry-Stassin, 287–297. Bibliothèque du Moyen Age 19. Brussels: De Boeck Université, 2001.

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      A study of the diversity of ballade types in Machaut manuscript “C” (see Manuscript Studies), both their relationship to ballades of the early 14th century, and to later ballades of Machaut. Most metrical forms of later ballades are already found in the earliest manuscript.

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    • Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. “Related Motets from Fourteenth-Century France.” Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 109 (1982–1983): 1–22.

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      When Machaut imitates motets of Philippe de Vitry, he borrows aspects atypical of his usual procedures, thus it appears that his modeling is self-conscious. Several Machaut motets discussed.

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    • Page, Christopher. “Tradition and Innovation in BN fr. 146: The Background to the Ballades.” In Fauvel Studies: Allegory, Chronicle, Music, and Image in Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS français 146. Edited by Margaret Bent and Andrew Wathey, 353–394. Oxford: Clarendon, 1998.

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      Considers the emergence of the ballade as a high-brow genre in the early 14th century.

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    Literary and Musical Legacy

    Earp 1995 (see Reference Works) includes a chapter on Machaut’s legacy in literary and musical realms. For a more recent study focusing on Froissart and Christine de Pizan, see, for example, Lechat 2005 (in French).

    • Lechat, Denis. “Dire par fiction”: Métamorphoses du je chez Guillaume de Machaut, Jean Froissart et Christine de Pizan. Etudes christiniennes 7. Paris: Champion, 2005.

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      Authorial identity in Machaut, Froissart, and Christine de Pizan.

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    Machaut and Chaucer

    For English-language speakers, it is Machaut’s link to his younger contemporary Chaucer that continues to fascinate. Wimsatt 1991 and Calin 1994 provide a clear presentation of decades of work on the subject of Chaucer and Machaut, and lay a solid foundations for further study. Earp 1995 (see Reference Works) gives additional bibliography concerning individual works of Machaut.

    • Calin, William. The French Tradition and the Literature of Medieval England. Toronto, Buffalo, and London: University of Toronto Press, 1994.

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      The importance of the French literary tradition to medieval English literature. Calin traces Machaut’s influence on Chaucer, Gower, and Hoccleve.

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    • Wimsatt, James I. Chaucer and His French Contemporaries: Natural Music in the Fourteenth Century. Toronto, Buffalo, and London: University of Toronto Press, 1991.

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      The central chapters of this book are devoted to Machaut and his influence on Chaucer, as well as on Froissart, Oton de Granson, and Deschamps.

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    Machaut Reception in Modern Times

    Recent studies include Earp 2002, which concerns the 19th century, and Leech-Wilkinson 2002 and Kreuziger-Herr 2003 (in German), which are concerned more with the 20th century. The most recent treatment is in Leach 2011.

    • Earp, Lawrence. “Machaut’s Music in the Early Nineteenth Century: The Work of Perne, Bottée de Toulmon, and Fétis.” In Guillaume de Machaut 1300–2000. Edited by Jacqueline Cerquiglini-Toulet and Nigel Wilkins, 9–40. Paris: Presses de l’Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 2002.

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      Studies the contributions of François-Louis Perne (b. 1772–d. 1832), Auguste Bottée de Toulmon (b. 1797–d. 1850), and François-Joseph Fétis (b. 1784–d. 1871) to the revival of medieval polyphony.

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    • Kreutziger-Herr, Annette. Ein Traum vom Mittelalter: Die Wiederentdeckung mittelalterlicher Musik in der Neuzeit. Cologne: Böhlau, 2003.

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      The rediscovery of medieval music, focusing particularly on the all-important contributions of German scholars. Very large bibliography, and an appendix detailing the spread of Machaut’s music from 1800 to 1957. Some important early concert programs are given in their entirety.

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    • Leach, Elizabeth Eva. Guillaume de Machaut: Secretary, Poet, Musician. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 2011.

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      The most recent book on Machaut, considering both music and poetry as essential and co-equal aspects of his artistic program, and including the most up-to-date treatment of biography. For Machaut reception, see chapter 2.

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    • Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. The Modern Invention of Medieval Music: Scholarship, Ideology, Performance. Musical Performance and Reception. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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      Historiographical study of the performance practice of medieval music in the 19th and 20th centuries, marking radical changes of conception of the evidence for vocal and instrumental forces. Polemically concludes that the workings of scholars have had less to do with interpretation of evidence than with personal agendas.

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    LAST MODIFIED: 06/29/2011

    DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199757824-0030

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