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Music Solo Secular Vocal Music
by
David Tunley

Introduction

Singing being the most natural and spontaneous form of music making, its universal cultivation knows no bounds in time or place. However, for practical purposes, the following references are mainly concerned with European-style solo secular vocal music from medieval times to the present day. Yet even within that time frame and geography it is not easy to define solo secular vocal music, often known as “art song,” a slightly broader term, as that repertory sometimes includes songs with a religious or spiritual text. The difficulty in finding a watertight definition of solo secular vocal music is that there is often an overlap with other forms and types. Folk songs, for example, have often been incorporated into classical repertory, but folk song is an enormous area in its own right and needs its own bibliographical resources. A similar overlap occurs with indigenous songs from various cultures, as do popular songs. Into the latter category are those by George Gershwin, Cole Porter, Irving Berlin, and others in the early years of the 20th century. However, most of the songs of these brilliant composers—even those whose compositions became classics of their kind—were originally written for musicals and as such are better treated as music for theater or cabaret rather than in the present category. Thus, with some exceptions, the sources listed below relate to solo songs not primarily composed for liturgical, religious, or theatrical purposes.

Reference Works

The following citations begin with those general studies of song which also have sections dealing with solo secular vocal music. Following these are references dealing with songs from particular countries: Britain, the United States, Italy, France, Germany, Spain, Russia, and Poland, each commencing with general studies of those repertories, followed by more specialized ones (see Guides to Literature). The references are listed in the chronological order of each repertory. Information about songs from countries other than those listed above, may sometimes be found in music databases such as Répertoire international de la literature musicale, which offers abstracts in English of books and articles in their original languages. Encyclopedia-type references are good starting points, as they usually survey the broad scene, as in Chew, et al. in Grove Music Online, while Jost 1996 is more lieder-oriented. Two other broad studies are Schmitz 1955 and Stevens 1960. The issue of combining words with music is taken up by Dunsby 2004, while Manning 1996 discusses performance matters in contemporary solo song.

  • Chew, Geoffrey, Thomas B. Payne, Thomas J. Mathiesen, and David Fallows. “Song.” Grove Music Online.

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    This fine entry provides an excellent background to the study of solo song, leading from ancient times to the present. It commences with some reflections on the nature of song and the various theories that emerged during its long history. Available by subscription only.

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  • Dunsby, Jonathan. Making Words Sing: Nineteenth-and Twentieth-Century Song. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511481703Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A highly original approach to understanding the combination of words and music, with wide-ranging references to the concept of “vocality,” to psychology, Schenkerian analysis, and many other ideas, resulting in a book of profound scholarship and insights.

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  • Jost, Peter. “Lied.” In Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Vol. 5. Edited by Friedrich Blume and Ludwig Finscher, 1259–1328. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1996.

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    While this entry is essentially about German lied with a brief sidelong glance at solo song in other countries, it takes in developments from the Middle Ages to the present with an extensive bibliography.

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  • Manning, Jane. New Vocal Repertory—an Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

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    This is not a musicological study or a complete catalogue of new vocal repertory but a valuable guide for performers new to the repertory or who seek to know more about it. Most of the seventy-five songs are not widely known. The songs are classified in order of technical difficulty, further divided into musical difficulty. Each song is preceded by a commentary.

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  • Répertoire Internationale de Littérature Musicale.

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    Since 1966 this project has attempted to record details of all scholarly writings about music (mainly in books and journal articles) with abstracts in English. Non-English-language writings normally have their abstracts translated into English. RILM is dependent on authors providing details of their publications as they appear.

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    • Schmitz, Eugen. Geschichte der weltlichen Solokantate. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1955.

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      A second and revised edition of an important work that first appeared in 1914, this book is devoted to Italian, French, German, and English solo baroque cantatas. Although much research has subsequently overtaken it, the book remains one of the few that shows the wide range of the genre.

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    • Stevens, Denis, ed. A History of Song. London: Hutchinson, 1960.

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      The enormous range of this book—from medieval times to mid-20th century—results in very generalized accounts of the development of song in various countries and is well suited to undergraduates. It contains lists of all works and composers cited in the text but lacks a bibliography directing readers to more detailed studies.

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    Journals

    Very few journals are devoted to solo song. However, most musicological journals include articles and reviews on the topic. Journal of Singing contains reviews of books and CDs as well as research articles.

    Guides to Literature

    Solo secular vocal music not only inevitably reflects the national traits of those countries where it was cultivated, but also usually comes at a time when distinctive styles of poetry were being developed. Art song usually sprang from the inspiration of contemporary lyrical verse, and the combination of these two arts is considered in some depth by the works listed below.

    Britain

    The English Renaissance was marked by a great outpouring of lyrical poetry and music, which created a rich repertory of songs that has attracted the attention of modern scholarship such as Stevens 1961, Maynard 1986, Doughtie 1986, and Duckles and Zimmerman 1967. In the early 19th century there was no similar musical response to the romantic revival in English literature at that time (late 18th century) although, as Banfield 1985 reveals, the relationship between romantic music and romantic poetry developed strongly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

    • Banfield, Stephen. Sensibility and English Song: Critical Studies of the Early 20th Century. 2 vols. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

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      This is essential reading about English secular song from the late 19th century to the time of the young Benjamin Britten. It combines a close analysis of many representative songs that enables Banfield also to take a broad view of developments at that time. Volume 2 is largely taken up with complete song lists of the composers discussed in the study.

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    • Doughtie, Edward. English Renaissance Songs. Boston: Twayne, 1986.

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      Explores the influences of music and poetry on each other during a period when both these arts were undergoing significant changes. Doughtie discusses the theories of Gascogne and the innovative poems of Sir Philip Sidney and Edmund Spenser. This book neatly dovetails into Maynard 1986.

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    • Duckles, Vincent, and Franklin B. Zimmerman. Words to Music: Papers on English Seventeenth-Century Song. Papers presented at a Clark Library Seminar on 11 December 1965. Los Angeles: University of California at Los Angeles, 1967.

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      These two papers were read at a Clark Library seminar on 11 December 1965: “English Song and the Challenge of Italian Monody” (Duckles) and “Sound and Sense in Purcell’s ‘Single Songs’” (Zimmerman). Both are closely analytical, Zimmermann’s range of reference being wider and at a highly concentrated level of scholarship in both literary and musical aspects.

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    • Maynard, Winifred. Elizabethan Lyric Poetry and its Music. Oxford: Clarendon, 1986.

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      It is not surprising that in the book’s title “poetry” comes before “music,” since the author’s professional expertise was in English literature. However, this study shows the interaction between the two in considerable depth. Covers early and later songbooks, studies of Sir Philip Sidney’s texts and their setting, Ben Jonson’s texts, and ballads, songs, and masques in Shakespeare’s plays.

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    • Scott, Derek B. The Singing Bourgeois: Songs of the Victorian Drawing Room and Parlour. 2d ed. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2001.

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      Both a social history and a musical study, this book uncovers the roots of the Victorian genre: 18th-century English opera, refined folk airs, and songs by respectable entertainers. The widening repertoire is examined in the light of social and political changes, the importance of English piano manufacture, and the rise of women composers. Fills an important gap.

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    • Stevens, John. Music & Poetry in the Early Tudor Court. London: Methuen, 1961.

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      This remains the classic study of courtly English song in the 16th century and is based upon three surviving sources: The Fayrfax, Henry VIII, and Ritson manuscripts. These are placed in the context of courtly music and poetry as well as love and the lyric. Valuable appendices include notes to the literary texts and an index of selected songs, a list of sources, and a bibliography.

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    United States

    There is at present only one in-depth published study devoted to American solo secular vocal music, Upton 1969, and this text is limited in both its historical range and its material. There is obviously need for a new scholarly study in this area.

    • Chase, Gilbert. America’s Music from the Pilgrims to the Present. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.

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      The revised edition of a book that has long been regarded as the most authoritative study of the development of music in the United States. While there is no chapter devoted to art song, references to it are found throughout the book. A vast bibliography is provided.

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    • Friedberg, Ruth C. American Art Song and American Poetry. Metuchen, NJ, and London: Scarecrow, 1981.

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      An excellent study of the coming of age of American music and literature that analyzes songs by nine composers, from Edward MacDowell to Aaron Copland. Sensitive to both song and poetry, the author’s analyses are supplemented with many illustrations and chart the development of serious art song in America in a compelling and insightful way.

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    • Upton, William Treat. Art-Song in America: A Study in the Development of American Music. Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1969.

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      While this book presents what are essentially the author’s personal views, they are based upon a devoted study of a large number of songs from 1750 to 1930, including many examples. There is no bibliography, and important composers such as MacDowell and Ives are not included. Originally published in 1930.

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    Italy

    The prominence of opera in Italian music has overshadowed studies of solo secular vocal music. Scholarly writings about this are mainly limited to the development of baroque singing and to the repertoire of baroque chamber cantatas as in Marx 1986.

    • Fortune, Nigel. “Italian Secular Monody from 1600–1635.” Musical Quarterly 39 (1953): 171–195.

      DOI: 10.1093/mq/XXXIX.2.171Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      This brilliant article was the first to point out how studies of early Italian opera have tended to hide the significance of monodies written in the first third of the 17th century. It points out how different from each other the monodic styles were in Florence, Rome, and Venice, and the article is rich in social as well as musical observations.

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    • Galliver, David. “Cantare con Affetto: Keynote of the Bel Canto.” Studies in Music 7 (1974): 1–7.

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      A short but original article on 17th-century Italian singing arguing that singing with emotion (affetto), instigated by Caccini and his followers with its emphasis upon intense expression, brought about a new style of singing with a variety of timbres hitherto unknown. It was also the origin of the bel canto style as discussed in Manén 1987, cited in the Italian section of Performance Practice.

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    • Marx, Hans Joachim. “Solo Song and Vocal Duet—Italy.” In The New Oxford History of Music. Vol 6. Edited by Gerald Abraham, 97–124. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

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      The extraordinary outpouring of secular solo song in cantata repertory is surveyed in this informative chapter that focuses on various centers such as Rome, Venice, Bologna, and Naples. Also devotes some pages to Alessandro Scarlatti and Handel. It is also generous with musical examples and points out that the Italian chamber cantata was one of the most polished forms of social entertainment, providing a vehicle for the finest singers of the time.

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    France

    In France as in Italy, opera has dominated major musical studies. Exceptions are the repertories of the troubadour/trouvères (Aubrey 1996), 16th- and 17th- century airs (Brooks 2000), baroque chamber cantatas (Tunley 1997), and 19th-century romances and melodies (Tunley 2002), all of which have received close musicological scrutiny.

    • Anthony, James. French Baroque Music from Beaujoyeulx to Rameau. Portland, OR: Amadeus, 1997.

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      First published in 1974, with later editions including a French translation in 1992, this revised and expanded edition remains the classic overall study. Two chapters are devoted to solo song: the air de cour and related genres as well as the French cantata.

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    • Aubrey, Elizabeth. The Music of the Troubadours. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

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      This is the most significant study of the topic to have appeared for many years. It views the troubadour repertory and its style as distinctly different from that of the trouvères, placing the music in its historical and theoretical context, and considering the contributions of singers and scribes. It also proposes new ways of analyzing the music.

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    • Brooks, Jeanice. Courtly Song in Late Sixteenth-Century France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

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      Brings together a study of the air de cour, placing the genre in its social and cultural context as well as providing detailed studies of the music and poetry. It reveals a vivid account of courtly life and the qualities that made up the courtier. It brilliantly brings the period to life through a close acquaintance with source material about those who were close to the court (120 detailed pages of such sources are given in an appendix). A masterly study on all counts.

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    • Graham, Johnson, and Richard Stokes. A French Song Companion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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      An extensive book (530 pages), this study commences with a short but insightful history of mélodie, followed by biographies and work lists of over 150 composers of various nationalities who have set French poetry to music. Most of these entries are short; but those on the more well-known composers are extensive and include texts and translations of their important songs.

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    • Massip, Catherine. L’Art de Bien Chanter: Michel Lambert. Paris: Société française de musicologie, 1999.

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      The first major study of the songs of the foremost songwriter of the 17th century, Michel Lambert, court composer to Louis XIV (see Lambert 1983, cited under France in the Anthologies section). Commencing with a description of the man himself, its main concern is with his vocal music, both secular and sacred. Its appendices, (annexes) taking up more than a hundred pages, are a masterly survey of the sources and include transcription of four airs.

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    • Noske, Frits. French Song from Berlioz to Duparc. 2d ed. New York: Dover, 1970.

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      The classic study of 19th-century French song. Covers the roots of French song in the late-18th-century romance, its expansion into mélodie, and observations on its literary aspects. Also examines the songs of eighteen composers grouped under three chapters, with six appendices, including a catalogue of songs by those composers. Essential reading.

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    • Tunley, David. The Eighteenth-Century French Cantata. Oxford: Clarendon, 1997.

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      First published in 1974, this remains the only full-length study of this important form. Includes the social background to its emergence and development, its musical and literary aspects, an analytical study of the contrasts between French and Italian baroque style (which French cantata composers succeeded in uniting), and a list of nine hundred works, many no longer extant.

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    • Tunley, David. Salons, Singers and Songs: A Background to Romantic French Song 1830–1870. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2002.

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      Against the backdrop of the Parisian salons where singers performed romances and mélodies, this book traces the development of French song throughout much of the century. It provides a companion study to Noske 1970.

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    Germany

    Many of the classic texts in German were published in the early 20th century. However, their bibliographies still remain very useful (such as in Moser 1968). The modern studies in English offer some refreshingly new views on German lied: these are Stein 1971 and Kravitt 1996.

    • Gorrell, Lorraine. The Nineteenth-Century German Lied. Portland, OR: Amadeus, 1993.

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      This useful introduction touches on poetry and music, politics, the piano, performers, and performances. It includes commentaries on lesser-known composers as well as the leading ones while offering an extensive bibliography.

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    • Kravitt, Edward F. The Lied: Mirror of Late Romanticism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996.

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      Although Kravitt puts forth the thesis that modernism starts after World War I and not at the fin de siècle (while expressing other controversial ideas), this book, though often difficult to follow, contains fascinating material not often found in other studies of German lieder.

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    • Moser, Hans Joachim. Das deutsche lied seit Mozart. Tutzing, Germany: Hans Schneider, 1968.

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      This is a revised and expanded version of Moser’s book first published in 1937. It remains one of the foundational studies of German lied. The first of its two parts is a general survey of the history of the form, and the second part is a detailed study of various songs by composers from Beethoven to Mahler and Pfitzner.

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    • Parsons, James, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Lied. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

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      Brings together fourteen specialists in fields related to lied. As well as covering the essential elements of the genre, there are chapters devoted to German song in the Enlightenment; issues of style and development as exemplified in songs by Schubert, Schumann, Liszt, Brahms, Wolf, and Mahler; and reception and performance. The book concludes with an extensive guide to further reading.

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    • Stein, Jack. Poem and Music in the German Lied from Gluck to Hugo Wolf. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971.

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      This excellent book takes as its raison d’être the fact that the lied is the only composite musical form that, unlike opera, regularly makes use of an entire work of art as an integral part, which poses responsibilities on the part of the composer toward the poem. The synthesis between the two arts is carefully examined with a number of examples.

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    • Stein, Deborah J., and Robert Spillman. Poetry into Song: Performance and Analysis of Lieder. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

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      Offering studies in German romantic poetry, musical performance, and musical analysis. This book also offers some follow-up assignments. While it works from a broad canvas, it is also quite detailed, with very useful appendices, text translations, a glossary of terms, an extensive bibliography, and a selection of some “not readily available” scores.

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    • Stoljar, Margaret Mahony. Poetry and Song in Late Eighteenth Century Germany: A Study in the Musical Sturm und Drang. London: Croom Helm, 1985.

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      Explores the emotionally turbulent spirit that came over German song in the late 18th century and set it on its way to romantic lieder. The book’s weakness lies in its sparse index.

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    Spain

    Scholarly research into Spanish art song, not least by non-Spanish musicologists, has developed significantly since World War II and covers songs from medieval times to the present day. Most of the texts listed below offer a broad chronological sweep, but Torrente 1998 and Alonso 1998 are very focused studies.

    • Alonso, Celsa. La Canción Lírica Española en el siglo XIX. Música Hispana. Textos. Madrid: Instituto Complutense de Ciencias Musicales, 1998.

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      This history of 19th-century Spanish song not only examines that form’s production, consumption, reception, etc. but also offers a detailed analysis of its musical language within a broad variety of genres: from the seguidillas-boleras and tiranas of the early 19th century to the polos, fandangos, and canciones andaluzas; also included are the romanzas and melodías as well as the lied hispano, the habanera songs, and salon songs.

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    • Chase, Gilbert. The Music of Spain. New York: Dover, 1959.

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      This is a revised edition of a book that, since 1941, has remained the major study of Spanish art song. While it is a general history of music in Spain and its influence, it includes a chapter devoted to secular song of the Renaissance. Even though much has been written on this subject since 1959, its references and bibliography are indispensable.

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    • Cockburn, Jacqueline, and Richard Stokes. The Spanish Song Companion. London: Gollancz, 1992.

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      A survey of Spanish songs from medieval times to the 20th century, this includes texts and biographies of composers. An annotated bibliography of art songs, classified according to the nationality of each composer, with information on text source, and modern editions.

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    • Draayer, Suzanne Rhodes. Art Song Composers of Spain: An Encyclopedia. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2009.

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      This encyclopedia is the most comprehensive survey of Spanish art song (canción lirica) from the 18th century to the present. The book is generously illustrated with musical examples, its list of songs (at this stage) probably the complete known repertory. It is an indispensable source.

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    • Torrente, Älvaro, and Pablo L. Rodrïguez. “The Guerra Manuscript (c.1680) and the Rise of Solo Song in Spain.” Journal of the Royal Musical Association 123.2 (1998): 147–189.

      DOI: 10.1093/jrma/123.2.147Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      It is believed that the one hundred anonymous songs in this manuscript from Compostela is the earliest collection of its kind in Spain. The article discusses the manuscript’s scribe, Joseph Miguel Guerra, and gives a detailed description of the manuscript and its contents, but it does not present any transcriptions of songs and their lute or vihuela accompaniment.

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    Russia

    For obvious reasons only those musicians and scholars with a thorough grasp of the Russian language are in a position to write about Russian art song, so entwined are the texts and the music. Abraham 1985, Calvocoressi 1974, and Hodge 2000 help fill a gap in English-language studies of Russian song and show considerable expertise on this subject.

    • Abraham, Gerald. Essays on Russian and East European Music. Oxford: Clarendon, 1985.

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      Three essays on song cover those in Russia, Poland, and Czechoslovakia, reflecting the author’s wide knowledge of the different repertories and their history. A valuable source, both scholarly and readable.

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    • Calvocoressi, M. D. Mussorgsky. London: J. M. Dent, 1974.

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      This is a completed and revised edition by Gerald Abraham. It contains a long and detailed chapter on Mussorgsky’s songs.

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    • Hodge, Thomas P. A Double Garland: Poetry and Art-Song in Early-Nineteenth-Century Russia. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2000.

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      A scholarly study of poetry and music in 19th-century Russia, this book shows how both of these art forms intertwined and overlapped in this period and influenced each other. Also shows how certain verse types tended to attract composers. The author untangles some misconceptions and paints a broad canvas of the literary and musical world during the social and cultural changes of that period.

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    Scandinavia

    No studies are available in English on aspects of Scandinavian art song. Horton 1963 lists eight publications in English, but none are devoted to song. The New Grove lists one book in Danish: N. Schiørring: Det 16. og 17. århundredes verdslige danske visesang (Danish 16th- and 17th-century secular song), (Copenhagen, 1950).

    Poland

    There is only one book in English strictly devoted to Polish art song, Simon 1936. There is actually a paucity of Polish material overall, The New Grove listing only one study: P. Poźniak: Repertuar polskiej muzyki wokalnej w epoce renesansu (Repertory of Polish vocal music in the Renaissance) (Kraków, 1999). Abraham is a good general study of eastern European song, including Polish song.

    • Abraham, Gerald. Essays on Russian and East European Music. Oxford, UK: Clarendon, 1985.

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      Three essays on song cover those from Russia, Poland, and Czechoslovakia, reflecting the author’s wide knowledge of the different repertories and their history. A valuable source, both scholarly and readable.

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    • Simon, Alicja. The Polish Songwriters. Warsaw: Tosspo, 1936.

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      Although not a musicological work in the modern sense, this short work (50 pages) gives an overview of the development of the genre in Poland until just before the outbreak of World War II.

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    Catalogues and Guides to Repertory

    Directions for singers toward repertoire has led to a large output of catalogues and other guides. These, however, will always need updating as new songs or editions appear. The problem of offering a clear path through the enormous repertoire of art song has been approached in different ways as evidenced by the publications listed below. Categories (individual songs, song cycles, language, nationality, period, to mention just a few) and the need for many cross-references lie at the heart of such guides, and it can take time to master the procedures adopted in each one. The formidable challenge to produce catalogues and guides to repertoire has been taken up largely by US scholars and librarians since World War II: see such publications as Espina 1977, Seaton 1987, Kimball 2006, and especially Carman 2001.

    • Carman, Judith, ed. Art Song in the United States, 1759–1999: An Annotated Bibliography. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2001.

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      This third edition includes miscellaneous anthologies, single-composer collections, as well as separately published works under composers’ names; also contains useful information about the composers, poets, recordings, and special characteristics. Gordon Myers’s section on art song in the United States from 1759–1810 has been included as a supplement. This publication is the essential guide to American art song.

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    • Clifton, Keith E. Recent American Art Song: A Guide. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2008.

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      The last twenty-five years of American song composition is covered in this bibliography. Composers are listed alphabetically, with biographies, followed by a list of song cycles and then individual songs (these are also indexed in an appendix). Appendices include an index of poets and songs listed by voice types and difficulty.

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    • Coffin, Borton. Singers’ Repertoire. 5 vols. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1960–1962.

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      Each volume of the present set contains songs of a particular range, as well as information on the subject of each song, its accompaniment and publisher.

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    • Emmons, Shirley, and Wilbur W. Lewis. Researching the Song: A Lexicon. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

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      The outstanding feature of this reference work is the multiple cross-references offered on the songs themselves and their respective poets. Also helps with elusive words in the texts and many other items found in the vast repertory of songs in English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish, Greek, and Scandinavian.

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    • Espina, Noni. A Fully Annotated Guide to Works for the Solo Voice Published in Modern Editions and Covering Material from the 13th Century to the Present. 2 vols. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1977.

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      Although compiled over thirty years ago, this publication remains the most comprehensive listing of accessible solo repertory. Its ten thousand entries, however, include sacred songs as well as secular, and it specifically excludes avant-garde works. The entries are grouped nationally and include songs from the smaller repertories of countries such as Greece, Hungary, and Japan.

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    • Kimball, Carol. Song: A Guide to Art Song Style and Literature. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard, 2006.

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      This second edition has been considerably enlarged from the first (1996), especially the sections on Italian, Russian, Scandinavian, and American literature. There are over two thousand songs listed including those by contemporary composers and concise biographies and surveys of different styles. Also includes a very accessible index of composers and their songs.

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    • Seaton, Douglass. The Art Song: a Research and Information Guide. New York and London: Garland, 1987.

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      Listing almost a thousand sources of information with annotations on each entry, its introduction considers the definition of “art song,” aesthetic issues, and gives a historical overview of solo song from the 17th century onward. Includes studies of individual composers and works, analysis and criticism, text anthologies, bibliographies, and an index.

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    • Vollen, Gene E. The French Cantata: A Survey and Thematic Catalog. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research, 1982.

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      This rigorously pursued source study and thematic catalogue of the extant works in the repertory of the 18th-century French cantata commences with a survey of the genre during the period of its vogue and its musical and poetic formal structure. The thematic catalogue that follows is useful for those who wish to study the music either as scholars or singers.

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    Anthologies

    Collections of songs under the names of well-known composers are usually easy to locate and are found in most good music libraries. Hence they have not been included in the listings below. Far more difficult to find are those songs by lesser-known composers, many of which have been brought to light by musicologists and are usually grouped together in specialist anthologies (their titles and composers often found only in a table of contents). Yet in many cases these are the songs that have contributed to the stylistic character of a particular period and provide the primary source for those interested in historical research and/or performance. Their modern publications are frequently found in collected sets or monumental editions. Only those anthologies that have been edited in scholarly fashion have been included in this section. Although not as extensive as might be expected, the three general anthologies (MacClintock 1973, Jakoby 1968, and Noske 1958) have been impeccably edited and contain reliable information about the chosen songs, useful for both scholars and performers.

    • Jakoby, Richard., ed. The Cantata. Anthology of Music series. Vol. 32. Cologne: Arno Volk Verlag, 1968.

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      Contains both secular and sacred cantatas composed during the 17th century to the 20th century in Italy, Germany, France, Spain, and Britain. The historical Introduction mentions modern composers such as Hans Werner Heinze, Stockhausen, Stravinsky, and Bartok, but their works are not included in the anthology.

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    • MacClintock, Carol, ed. The Solo Song 1580–1730. New York: Norton, 1973.

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      Contains seventy-five songs in four groups: Italian, English, French, and German composers, each in chronological order. Most of the songs are secular, the exceptions being those by German composers. There are useful suggestions for performance practice based on well-known sources (Caccini, Frescobaldi, Vicentino, Quantz, Geminiani, etc.), historical notes, and English translations of the poetic texts.

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    • Noske, Frits, ed. The Solo Song Outside German Speaking Countries. Cologne: Arno Volk Verlag, 1958.

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      This is the English edition of Das aussserdeutsche Sololied 1500–1900, in Das Musikwerke 16. Its thirty songs comprise a tiny sampling from Italy, France, England, Holland, Norway, and Russia; and it has a useful, though not extensive survey of the genre.

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    Britain

    The anthologies listed below are the result of fine research and editing. Together they provide a sampling of British solo secular vocal music from medieval times (Dobson and Harrison 1979, Stevens 2005) to the 17th and 18th centuries (Spink 1971) and beyond (Bush 1979 and Bush 1989).

    • Bush, Geoffrey, and Nicholas Temperley, eds. English Songs 1800–1860. London: Stainer and Bell, 1979.

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      A collection of forty-four songs that represent some of the best examples of Victorian English art song, a repertoire very much in need of rehabilitation. It includes short but useful introductions, suggestions for interpretation, and editorial comments.

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    • Bush, Geoffrey, ed. English Songs 1860–1900. London: Stainer and Bell, 1989.

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      A collection of forty-four songs which represent some of the best examples of Victorian English art song in the late 19th century. Includes useful introductions and editorial comments.

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    • Dobson, E. J., and F. Harrison, eds. Medieval English Songs. London and Boston: Faber and Faber, 1979.

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      Originally intended as a practical modern edition of all the songs with English text up to 1400 for performance purposes, it resulted in a large tome in which the scholarly notes take up far more pages than do the thirty-three songs. These songs comprise both secular and sacred texts, but often there is a fine line between these.

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    • Spink, Ian, ed. English Songs 1625–1660. London: Stainer and Bell, 1971.

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      This collection of 124 continuo accompanied songs represents the stylistic development of songwriting in England during the 17th century. The majority of the works are in the declamatory style borrowed from Italy. Of the twenty-eight named composers, the best known are Lanier and Henry and William Lawes. The publication includes a brief history, notes on the composers and their songs, sources, and other scholarly information.

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    • Stevens, John, ed. The Later Cambridge Songs. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2005.

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      The songs transcribed in this scrupulously edited collection come from a manuscript dating from 1180–c. 1230. The majority of the thirty-five songs are monophonic, some simple and strophic, others more elaborate. Following the death of its original editor, the collection has been completed by a team of specialists in this area.

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    United States

    The United States has been at the forefront in issuing anthologies of their songs. The great majority of these are concerned with folk and “Negro” songs, family favorites, and those with a social message, none of which fall into the category of art song as defined in the introduction. The following four anthologies, however, fit the category well. Walters 2007 is a particularly interesting collection. For a list of sixty-eight miscellaneous anthologies of songs by American composers see Carman 2001 (cited under Catalogues and Guides to Repertory).

    Italy

    While Italian arias for the stage well outnumbered those composed for concert performance, it is still ironic that the non-operatic “bel canto” repertoire (developed in Italy from the mid-17th century) was so under-represented in early anthologies of Italian vocal music. For many years there were only two widely available collections, neither claiming stylistic accuracy. Knud Jeppeson’s three-volume La Flora (Jeppeson 1948) was one of the first of the scholarly yet practical editions that set the standard for others to follow. Nicholas 2007 is one of the most readily available collections, useful through its stylish and reliable editing.

    • Alte Meister des Bel Canto: Eine Sammlung von Arien. Leipzig: C. F. Peters, 1900.

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      Typical of many arrangements of the time, this collection of fifty arias, mainly from Italian cantatas, provides piano accompaniments that move away from simple realizations of harpsichord continuo. The Italian texts are translated into German, and there is an appendix giving the source of each aria.

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    • Canepàri, L., B. Giovannelli, and G. Viaro, eds. Arie antiche con trascrizione fonetica per lo studio del canto. Perugia, Italy: Guerra Edizione, 2001.

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      This takes eighteen of the arias in La Flora (Jeppeson 1948) and gives pronunciation guides. It is in Italian only. Diagrams and charts offer meticulous details of pronouncing Italian words in a way not usually found in other song editions.

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    • Fellerer, Karl Gustave, ed. The Monody. Vol. 31. Anthology of Music series. Cologne: Arno Volk Verlag, 1968.

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      Twenty-five early-17th-century songs influenced by the dramatic and expressive style cultivated in Florence at the time, which soon spread elsewhere. Fellerer has provided a succinct historical introduction, a list of sources, and selected bibliography. No English translations of the Italian texts are provided.

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    • Gianturco, Carolyn, ed. The Italian Cantata of the Seventeenth Century: Facsimiles of Manuscripts and Prints of Works by Leading Composers Including an Edition of the Poetic Texts. 16 vols. New York: Garland, 1985–1986.

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      Italian solo cantatas were produced by the thousands during the 17th century, and this facsimile series conveniently makes available a large number of scores chosen and annotated by leading scholars in the field. The facsimiles are of published works and manuscripts.

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    • Jeppeson, Knud, ed. La Flora: Arie &c. Antiche Italiane. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Wilhelm Hansen, 1948.

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      A collection of 115 arias from the 17th and 18th centuries from Caccini onward, with the addition of twenty duets contained in Volume 3. Most of the songs were unedited at the time of this anthology. The basso continuo accompaniments have been transcribed for keyboard alone. Notes are provided to indicate editorial procedures and sources for each aria and include brief notes on the composers. Translations are given in English and German.

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    • Le Van, Timothy. Masters of the Italian Art Song: Word-by-Word and Poetic Translations of the Complete Songs for Voice and Piano. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1990.

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      Texts of the complete songs by Bellini, Donaudy, Donizetti, Puccini, Rossini, Tosti, and Verdi (181 songs in total) have been translated into English in two ways: literal and poetic. There is an index for both song titles and first lines.

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    • Nicholas, Roger, ed. 30 Italian Songs and Arias of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. London: Peters, 2007.

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      While a number of songs included here can be found in earlier commercial publications, the virtue of this anthology lies in its stylistically appropriate accompaniments. The poetic text, with an English translation, features an International Phonetic Alphabet guide to pronunciation for each song. There is a useful CD with all the accompaniments.

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    • Walters, Richard, ed. 28 Italian Songs and Arias of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. New York: Schirmer, 2008.

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      This is a new and expanded version of a much earlier publication by Schirmer. It is based upon arrangements made by the Italian composer Alessandro Parisotti (in his three-volume Arie Antiche, Ricordi, 1885), some of whose accompaniments were over-influenced by 19th-century romantic piano styles popular in his day. This beautifully clear new edition, as well as adding four more arias to Schirmer’s earlier edition, also includes English translations, commentaries on the composers, and a list of the International Phonetic Alphabet symbols.

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    France

    The large repertoire stretching from the time of the troubadours and trouvères to the early 20th century is now relatively well covered by reliable and well-edited anthologies. It is worth pointing out that there also now exist a number of facsimile editions of music of earlier times, including some solo vocal music from the 16th- and 18th-century French repertoire. This trend may be likely to continue.

    • Bataille, Gabriel, and Antoine Boesset, eds. Airs de différents autheurs mis en tablature de luth. Paris: Pierre Ballard, 1608–1632.

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      This is the most important collection of early-17th-century airs for solo voice and lute, containing some seven hundred songs mainly by court composers. The first eight books were compiled and edited by the Parisian composer and lutenist Gabriel Bataille, and the remaining books were edited by Antoine Boesset, and both Bataille and Boesset arranged the lute accompaniments. The collection comprises airs, récits, dialogues, and some psalms.

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      • Gennrich, Friedrich, ed. Troubadours, Trouvères, Mastersingers, and Minnesingers. Anthology of Music 2. Cologne: Arno Volk Verlag, 1960.

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        Available in both German and English, this volume contains some sixty songs preceded by a scholarly historical introduction. There is also an invaluable annotated commentary on the works and their sources. However, the book’s application of modal rhythms to the troubadour songs is nowadays contentious.

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      • La Laurencie, Lionel de, Adrienne Mairy, and G. Thibault, eds. Chansons au Luth et Airs de Cour Français du XVI Siècle. Paris: Heugel (for the Société Française de Musicologie), 1976.

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        Three 16th-century collections issued by Attaignant (1519), Phalèse (1553) and Le Roy and Ballard (1571) are reproduced here in a modern collection that has been scrupulously edited. The lute tablature has been retained and arranged for keyboard. Includes scholarly notes, with a historical overview. Sources are provided in French, but no translations are given.

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      • Lambert, Michel. Les airs corrigez de nouveau de plusieurs fautes de Graveure. Introduction by Catherine Massip. Geneva, Switzerland: Minkoff, 1983.

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        Lambert (b. 1610–d. 1696) was considered in his day (and by present-day scholars) to be the foremost 17th-century songwriter in France. He was court composer to Louis XIV, celebrated also for his graceful style of singing with its sensitive ornamentation, highly praised by Bénigne de Bacilly 1968 (see Performance Practice: French).

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      • Lambert, Michel. Airs from Airs de différents autheurs. Edited by Robert Green. Recent Researches in the Music of the Baroque Era 139. Middleton, WI: A-R Editions 2005.

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        Includes 121 airs by Michel Lambert in an anthology published annually by the Ballard firm in Paris from 1658 to 1694. The bass line (without figured bass) may be played or sung (text for it provided in most cases).

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      • Nichols, Roger, ed. The Art of French Song. 2 vols. London: Edition Peters, 2007.

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        A collection of forty-seven songs from the beginning of the 19th century (including Niedermeyer and Berlioz) to the early 20th century (including Honneger and Poulenc). It contains some favorites as well others that deserve to be much better known, such as songs by Massé, Séverac, and Pauline Viardot. English translations of the texts, notes on French pronunciation, and other commentaries are provided.

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      • Tischler, Hans, ed. Trouvère Lyrics with Melodies: Complete Comparative Edition. Neuhausen, Germany: American Institute of Musicology/Hänssler-Verlag, 1997.

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        This is the most complete modern edition comprising trouvères. Although conceived as much for performers as for scholars, Tischler’s firm belief in the validity of modal rhythms for this music (now much at odds with recent scholarship) leaves little room for interpretative freedom. Volume 1 provides essential information to direct the reader through this large collection.

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      • Tunley, David, ed. The Eighteenth-Century French Cantata. 17 vols. New York: Garland, 1990–1991.

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        A facsimile set with commentaries of the most widely cultivated and performed vocal chamber music in early 18th-century France. Covered are 222 works, mostly for solo voice with continuo and/or instrumental ensemble. Volume 1 contains a list of all the cantatas classified by vocal and instrumental scoring, and each volume contains synopses of the libretti.

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      • Verchaly, André, ed. Airs de cour: pour voix et luth (1603–1643). Paris: Heugel (for the Société Française de Musicologie), 1961.

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        This collection of ninety 17th-century French airs has been an important source of this rare music since it was first published in 1961. The original lute accompaniment is provided, together with a transcription for keyboard. It includes a historical introduction and detailed notes. Some of the songs come from Pierre Ballard’s Airs de différents autheurs mis en tablature de luth (Bataille and Boesset 1608–1632.

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      Germany

      The popularity of German lieder has meant that the works by the leading composers in the genre are readily available in anthologies under the name of each composer. Such anthologies do not appear in this section. Instead, the anthologies listed here are of works by groups or “schools” of composers from the time of Mozart, most of whom, although well respected in their day, are no longer widely known. See especially Ansion and Schlaffenberg 1960 and Maschek and Kraus 1960.

      • Ansion, Margaret, and Irene Schlaffenberg, eds. Das Wiener Lied von 1778 bis Mozarts Tod. Graz, Austria: Akademische Druk-U. Verlagsanstalt, 1960.

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        A collection of eighty-six short songs popular during Mozart’s time that sheds light on the style of domestic vocal music that was around the famous Viennese composer. The large number of song publications reflects the widespread love of simple and pleasurable music in a style within the reach of most amateur singers and pianists. Offers a glimpse into the large repertory of songs in this style.

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      • Maschek, Hermann, and Hedwig Kraus, eds. Das Wiener Lied von 1792 bis 1815. Graz, Austria: Akademische Druk-U. Verlagsanstalt, 1960.

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        This collection of 15 songs in the tradition described above, also contains some that are a little more expansive in their range of expression than the earlier songs, especially those by Krufft.

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      • Moser, Hans Joachim, ed. The German Solo Song and the Ballad. Anthology of Music series 14. Cologne: Arno Volk Verlag, 1958.

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        Available in both German and English. This wide-ranging anthology includes songs from the 17th century to the mid-20th century, later composers including Richard Strauss, Reger, Pfitzner, Othmar Schoeck, Fortner, and Hindemith. The introduction is a model of historical scholarship, and translations of the German song texts are available in the English edition.

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      • Stephenson, Kurt, ed. Romanticism in Music. Cologne: Arno Volk Verlag, 1961.

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        Although only thirteen of the pieces in this collection are for solo voice and piano, all of which are German, this publication is valuable for the extended introduction, which considers the problematic question of “romanticism” and its application of the term to music. This, together with the historical notes that link the individual songs in the collection to Stephenson’s ideas, provide a thought-provoking background to the collection.

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      Spain

      Research into Spanish music has continued apace from the second half of the 20th century, partly resulting in a large number of fine anthologies, the songs well-chosen and edited with scholarly finesse and musical insights.

      • Baron, John H., ed. Spanish Art Song in the Seventeenth Century. Recent Researches in the Music of the Baroque Era 49. Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 1985.

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        Reproduced in this collection are thirty-one songs by a group of Spanish composers (and the French composer Gabriel Bataille), the continuo part realized discreetly for keyboard or sometimes guitar. The songs follow a brief but scholarly introduction that gives a historical overview, notes on the composers, the texts (of which translations are provided), editorial method, and sources.

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      • Binkley, Thomas, and Margit Frenk, eds. Spanish Romances of the Sixteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

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        Performer/scholar Binkley and the linguist/scholar Frenk have combined their individual expertise to produce an anthology that fills a gap in Spanish repertoire. There are suggestions for performance, while texts and translations form an important part of this publication.

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      • Cockburn, Jacqueline, and Richard Stokes, eds. The Spanish Song Companion. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2006.

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        Commencing with a spirited and insightful introduction by Graham Johnson, this book is essentially devoted to translations of representative Spanish texts set by composers from the time of monody and emerging polyphony to modern times. Includes notes on both composers and poets, the later composers being given their own chapters. There are useful appendices including a select discography, list of composers, poets, titles, and first lines.

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      • Draayer, Suzanne Rhodes, ed. Canciones de Espana: Songs of Nineteenth-Century Spain. 3 vols. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2003–2007.

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        A valuable collection of little-known pieces edited by the author of Draayer 2009 (cited under Guides to Literature: Spain).

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      • Gavaldá, Miguel Querol, ed. Canciones a Solo y Duos del Siglio XVII. Monumentos de la música Española 47. Barcelona: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1988.

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        In addition to ten duets, this volume comprises thirty-three solo songs from the 17th century, their lute or vihuela accompaniments transcribed for keyboard. Composers include Capitán, Aranés, Romero, Borja, Galan, Juan Serqueyra, Garau, Hidalgo, Marín, Durón Torres, Gaz, Ruiz, and an equal number of anonymous composers. The scholarly commentaries are in Spanish with no translations.

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      • Jacobs, Charles, ed. A Spanish Renaissance Songbook. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1988.

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        This collection of sixty-three songs is preceded by a short but informative introduction and followed by a commentary that includes source information and English translations. The composers represented include Narváez, Mudarra, Valderrábano, Pisador, and Daza, and their songs are arranged for piano accompaniment (in place of vihuela). Some of the songs also appear in Morphy 1967.

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      • Morphy, Guillermo, ed. Les Luthistes Espagnole du XVIe Siècle. 2 vols. New York: Broude Brothers, 1967.

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        This reprint of the 1902 edition remains a model of scholarly editing. It comprises eighty-five works, almost all for solo voice accompanied by lute, guitar, or vihuela and taken from collections that appeared from 1536 to 1576. Commentaries are in German and French and include explanations of the tablature and the accompaniments for keyboard.

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      • Sobrer, Josep Miquel, and Edmon Colomer, eds. The Singer’s Anthology of 20th Century Spanish Songs. New York: Pelion, 1987.

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        The title is somewhat misleading, as this is not a musical anthology but a collection of texts of songs composed by Granados, de Falla, and Mompou. In addition to the sixty songs in Spanish or Catalan, there are five in French by Mompou. All have been translated into English and there is a particularly useful section on pronunciation and diction.

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      • Subirá, José, ed. Spanish Songs of the 18th Century. New York: International Music Company, 1956.

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        These twelve “lyrical interludes” come from various theatrical presentations (sung by celebrated singers of the day). This collection covers a wide range of moods, and the songs have been arranged and revised for modern performance.

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      Performance Practice

      The number of books and articles on this subject has grown rapidly with the increasing interest in historically informed performances of early music now taken as a matter of course. Included in this list are commentaries from musicians of past eras; and while providing the essential materials for informed judgment, it would be a mistake to regard them as sacrosanct. Present trends, especially in performances of baroque music, are becoming more flexible and more “romantic,” recognizing that there can be no single way of finding the interpretative path to authenticity. The majority of performance manuals appeared in the 17th and 18th centuries from the two seemingly opposed schools: French and Italian, from which came the two very significant vocal treatises of Bacilly and Tosi. Also included in the list are some modern studies of past practices.

      • Donington, Robert. The Interpretation of Early Music. London: Faber and Faber, 1974.

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        Originally published in 1964, Donington’s classic book provides initial insights and incentives for many performers searching for ways to interpret early music. While there are no chapters or sections devoted to solo singing, ideas about it are scattered in abundance throughout the book, which still remains a useful starting point in the field.

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      • Jackson, Roland. Performance Practice, Medieval to Contemporary: A Bibliographic Guide. New York and London: Garland, 1988.

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        This is an indispensable listing, grouped chronologically from the 9th to the 20th century in thirteen chapters. While covering the gamut of performance issues, each chapter has a section dealing with song. This book supersedes earlier generalist guides on the subject and offers annotations for 1,392 sources.

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      • McGee, Timothy J. Singing Early Music: The Pronunciation of European Languages in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

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        With such a wide sweep of early languages grouped into areas across England, France, Iberia, Italy, Germany, and the Low Countries, it is inevitable that this would be a voluminous and detailed book. It uses the International Phonetic Alphabet throughout and attempts to be as user-friendly as possible, including the provision of a helpful CD.

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      • Ramm, Andrea. “Singing Early Music.” Early Music 4.1 (1976): 12–15.

        DOI: 10.1093/earlyj/4.1.12Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        Written by an experienced early music scholar/performer, this article points to the extraordinary variety of styles offered to the singer by early music: color, range, tension, phrasing, etc. It discusses in some detail vibrato, influence of language, agility, and register

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      • Wolff, Hellmuth Christian. Original Vocal Improvisations from the 16th–18th Centuries. Cologne: Arno Volk Verlag, 1972.

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        A useful collection showing how vocal ornamentation may be improvised in performance as found in works by various composers, from the 16th century to the late 18th century. The sources for these examples are described in prefatory notes. While few of the works in this anthology are songs for solo voice, the styles of embellishment are as relevant for solo voice as they are for the choral works they are derived from.

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      Italian

      The development of the bel canto style of singing arose in 17th-century Italy, and it remains central to any study of Italian vocal music from early modern times to the 19th century. Manén 1987 is an essential modern reference.

      • Caccini, Giulio, and H. Wiley Hitchcock, eds. Recent Researches in the Music of the Baroque Era. Vol. 28. Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 1978.

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        This is an English translation of the 1601–1602 Florentine publication with commentary. Although primarily a collection of Caccini’s songs, this publication also contains the most important source of information about the new style of singing employed in the earliest Italian operas at the beginning of the 17th century.

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      • Manén, Lucie. The Teaching of the Classical Italian Song-Schools, and its Decline and Restoration. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.

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        This is a completely revised version of The Art of Singing: a Manual of Bel Canto (1974) and incorporates her later investigations into the physiological aspects of voice production. Her findings have been rightly heralded as a breakthrough in the understanding of the old bel canto style and ways of teaching it to singers in modern times.

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      • Tosi, Pier Francesco. Observations on the Florid Song. London: Stainer & Bell, 2010.

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        Tosi’s celebrated singing manual looks back to the bel canto style of the late 17th century, and it deals mainly with the embellishments of those times, finishing with pertinent observations about singing and singers. The Pilkington edition adds further comments underneath Tosi’s translated text and is printed in smaller type. Originally published as Opinioni de’cantori antichi e moderni (Bologna, 1723) and first translated by Galliard in 1743.

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      • Tosi, Pier Francesco. Introduction to the Art of Singing. Translated by Julianne C. Baird. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

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        This is a modern translation of J. F. Agricola’s German translation (1757) of Tosi’s Opinioni de’cantori antichi e moderni (1723) and throws interesting light from a German interpretation about Italian bel canto singing, not least its ornamentation.

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      • Uberti, Mauro. “Vocal Techniques in Italy in the Second Half of the 16th Century.” Early Music 9.4 (1981): 486–495.

        DOI: 10.1093/earlyj/9.4.486Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This translation from the original provides a quite detailed description of the physiology of the voice and how the early technique differed from that used in the romantic period. The arguments are based upon writings of various renaissance theorists, and although the conclusions may be conjectural, they are also quite persuasive.

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      French

      The closeness between text and music is the central concern of French vocal practice in the 17th and 18th centuries, as revealed in Bacilly 1968, which also demonstrates the link between ornamentation and expression, as does Montéclair 1978.

      • Bacilly, Bénigne de. A Commentary on the Art of Proper Singing. Translated by A. B. Caswell. New York: Institute of Medieval Music, 1968.

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        Contains invaluable comments on composing and performing airs and particularly the significance of vocal ornamentation. Bacilly discusses in detail the matter of long and short syllables in French and how to distinguish between them when setting words to music. This is an essential source for information on 17th-century French solo song. Originally published as Remarques curieuses sur l’art de bien chanter (Paris, 1668).

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      • Montéclair, Michel Pignolet. “Principles of Vocal Ornamentation.” In Translation of 77–90 of Montécair’s Principes de Musique. included in Cantatas for One and Two Voices. Edited by James Anthony and Diran Akmajian. Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 1978.

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        This is the only published translation of this important section of Montéclair’s treatise Principes de musique (Paris, 1736).

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      • Millet, Jean. La Belle Méthode ou l’Art de Bien Chanter (1668). New York: DaCapo, 1973.

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        Originally published in 1666, its suggestions for vocal ornamentation (which take up most of the treatise) look back to the earlier years of the century when such techniques were applied to the airs de cour to exhibit the skill of the singer rather than to convey the expressive nuances of the text.

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      LAST MODIFIED: 06/29/2011

      DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199757824-0071

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