Music Christoph Willibald Ritter Von Gluck
by
Patricia Howard
  • LAST MODIFIED: 21 November 2012
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199757824-0090

Introduction

Christoph Willibald Gluck (b. 1714–d. 1787) has a secure place in history as the reformer of 18th-century opera. Blending forms and styles from across the whole field of European opera, he replaced the established, popular, but formulaic genre of Italian opera seria with music dramas that have a less predictable structure and more spontaneous modes of expression. The first truly international opera composer, Gluck was born in Germany, raised in Bohemia, learned his trade in Milan, absorbed lessons in simplicity from Handel in London, collaborated with like-minded reformers in Vienna, and created his finest works for Paris. He was a conscious synthesizer of diverse influences, declaring that his aim was to produce a music fit for all nations. At the heart of his reforms was a new approach to word setting that valued a natural declamation of the text above lyricism; he also sought to raise the importance of the chorus and orchestra, and to limit singers’ customary freedom to improvise ornamentation. His enduring influence can be detected in the operas of Mozart, Berlioz, and Wagner. Gluck scholarship is focused almost exclusively on his role as reformer. In successive phases, attention has moved from identifying the nature of Gluck’s innovations to putting his achievements in context, and to pointing up the contributions of his contemporaries, both in reshaping opera (Traetta and Jommelli) and in the parallel reforms of singing (Guadagni), acting (Garrick), dance (Angiolini and Noverre), costume (Diderot), and stage design (the brothers Galliari). Despite determined efforts to detect signs of his reforming tendencies in his earliest works, there is little evidence of these before his ground-breaking opera Orfeo ed Euridice (Vienna, 1762), perhaps because until that work, Gluck did not have the opportunity of collaborating with a librettist who shared his vision: Orfeo was as much the creation of the poet Ranieri de’ Calzabigi as it was Gluck’s. Subsequent reform landmarks resulted from equally stimulating partnerships, notably Iphigénie en Aulide (Paris, 1774) with François-Louis Gand Leblanc du Roullet and Iphigénie en Tauride (Paris, 1779) with Nicolas-François Guillard. Gluck’s output includes some fifty operas, at least a dozen ballets, and a small number of sacred and secular vocal works.

Reference Works

Although articles on Gluck feature in all dictionaries of music and musicians, two sources are outstanding: Brown and Rushton 2001 and Croll, et al. 2002 both provide full and accurate coverage of biographical issues, together with assessments of Gluck’s place in history. Howard 2003 contains additional detail on published, manuscript, and autograph scores, and provides the most complete bibliography of Gluck literature up to 2003. Despite its early date, Wortsmann 1914 is worth consulting for its detail on 19th-century bibliography, for the light it sheds on the reception of the operas, and for its analysis of the dissemination of the anecdotal literature.

  • Brown, Bruce Alan, and Julian Rushton. “Gluck, Christoph Willibald Ritter von.” In Grove Music Online. 2001.

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    Reliable biography. The worklist is the most complete available, though it lacks the latest additions to the Bärenreiter collected edition (Abert, et al. 1951–, cited under Scores and Librettos). The bibliography has not been updated since 1997. Accessible online by subscription. Also available in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed., edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan, 2001).

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  • Croll, Gerhard, Renata Croll, Irene Brandenburg and Elisabeth Richter. “Gluck, Christoph Willibald.” In Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Personenteil. Vol. 7. 2d ed. Edited by Ludwig Finscher, 1099–1159. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 2002.

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    The only serious competitor to Brown and Rushton 2001. The coverage is broadly similar, with more emphasis on German scholarship, especially in the bibliography.

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  • Howard, Patricia. Christoph Willibald Gluck: A Guide to Research. 2d ed. New York: Routledge, 2003.

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    Contains a worklist of Gluck’s compositions, together with library sources for printed and manuscript material, including a list of autograph scores and fragments. The annotated bibliography contains nearly six hundred items, including studies on individual works, Gluck’s collaborators, and the reforms in opera, ballet, acting, singing, and stage design.

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  • Wortsmann, Stephan. Die deutsche Gluck-Literatur. Nuremberg, Germany: Koch, 1914.

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    Useful overview of 19th-century Gluck studies in Germany. Shrewdly assesses earlier dictionary entries, specialized studies, and bibliographies. Where facts diverge, compares the evidential base, tracing some common errors to their source.

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Thematic Catalogues

It has taken more than two hundred years to assemble a list of Gluck’s compositions, and it seems unlikely that there will be many further additions. Despite its early date, the thematic catalogue Wotquenne 1983 (originally published 1904) is an essential tool. Several scholars have supplied additional entries, as seen in Liebeskind 1911 and Arend 1914, but the Wotquenne catalogue has many omissions and inaccuracies and is in urgent need of revision.

Scores and Librettos

Of Gluck’s first ten operas, only one (Ipermestra) has survived complete; the remainder exist in fragments, often in the form of a handful of arias, mostly in manuscript, though for the two London operas, La caduta de’ giganti and Artamene, there are printed selections of Favourite Songs. Later works fared better, usually surviving intact, but still, in accordance with 18th-century practice, they were disseminated in manuscript copies. Not until his groundbreaking opera Orfeo ed Euridice (1762) did Gluck’s most important operas begin to be printed, and only when he moved to Paris in 1774 was his output regularly published within a year of each first performance. Hopkinson 1967 is the only source to attempt an overview of the printed scores issued prior to the collected edition Abert, et al. 1951–. Attempts at constructing a collected edition began in the 18th century with the publication by Des Lauriers of Gluck’s last opera, Écho et Narcisse, together with seven other Paris operas. Several series of the late operas followed, published in Paris and Berlin, in both full score and in piano reductions. These collections are discussed in Hopkinson 1967. As of 2012, the publication of Abert, et al. 1951–, a collected edition of all Gluck’s scores, is nearing completion.

  • Abert, Anna Amalie, Ludwig Finscher, Gerhard Croll, et al., eds. Christoph Willibald von Gluck: Sämtliche Werke. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1951–.

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    Published over a span of more than sixty years, the series, almost complete as of 2012, reflects a wide range of editorial approaches. While recent scholarship has already rendered some earlier volumes insufficient, on the whole this is a reliable enterprise. One volume (vii/1) contains facsimiles of the librettos of the operas published in the collected edition up to 1990.

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  • Hopkinson, Cecil. A Bibliography of the Printed Works of C. W. von Gluck 1714–1787. 2d ed. New York: Broude, 1967.

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    An ambitious endeavor to catalogue all the printed scores. Although there are numerous omissions, this is the fullest available list. Also included are single arias and extracts. There is a list of first editions of the librettos. The library locations of rare copies of early scores are particularly useful.

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Collections of Criticism

Collections of essays tend to cluster around the anniversaries of Gluck’s birth, such as special issues of Die Musik and La Revue musicale, and Abert 1914–1918, or his death, including Del Monte and Segreto 1987, and the first (1989) volume of the series Gluck-Studien. The most useful of all these collections, however, celebrating neither anniversary, are a special issue of Chigiana and the further five volumes of Gluck-Studien, arising from international conferences. L’Avant-Scène Opéra is neither a periodical nor related to a conference, but the four volumes present a useful collection of essays on the operas named.

  • Abert, Hermann, ed. Gluck-Jahrbuch 1–4. Leipzig: Breitkopf &; Härtel, 1914–1918.

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    Some of the essays are cited separately in this bibliography. This early scholarly endeavor has retained its relevance to a remarkable degree.

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  • Del Monte, Claudio, and Vincenzo Raffaele Segreto, eds. Christoph Willibald Gluck nel 200° anniversario della morte. Parma, Italy: Editrice Grafice STEP Cooperativa, 1987.

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    Large collection of essays addressing a wide variety of aspects of Gluck’s life and works. The level of scholarship is variable; many of the essays are addressed to the general reader, yet still raise interesting topics. Contains the libretto for Le feste d’Apollo.

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  • Gluck-Studien series. 6 vols. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1989–2011.

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    A major source for current Gluck studies. All volumes present papers from international conferences, mostly concerned with the progress of Abert, et al. 1951– (cited under Scores and Librettos). Many items are cited separately in this bibliography. Vo1. 1, Gluck in Wien (1989); Vol. 2, Tanzdramen /Opéra-comique (2000); Vol. 3, Beiträge zur Wiener Gluck-Überlieferung (2001); Vol. 4, Gluck-Schriften (2003); Vol. 5, Gluck der Europäer (2009); Vol. 6, Gluck auf dem Theater (2011).

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  • L’Avant-Scène Opéra. Paris: Palais Garnier.

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    Volumes of note deal with Iphigénie en Tauride (issue 62, 1984), Alceste (issue 73, 1985), Orphée (issue 192, 1999), and (with new essays) Alceste (issue 256, 2010). Designed for the general reader rather than the scholar, these volumes nevertheless contain sound introductions to the operas, with synopses, librettos, and essays establishing the historical significance and musical content of each opera.

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  • Special Issue: Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi Musicali: “Gluck e la Cultura Italiana nella Vienna del suo Tempo.” Chigiana n.s. 9–10 (1972–1973): 235–592.

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    Contains papers from an international conference “Gluck and the Italian Culture in the Vienna of His Time,” Siena, Italy, September 1973. Most of the items are cited separately in the present bibliography.

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  • Special Issue. Die Musik 13/9 (1913–1914).

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    Special Gluck issue, providing useful evidence of the issues concerning scholars at this turning point in Gluck studies. Includes Otto Keller, “Gluck-Bibliographie,” which lists many items not listed in later bibliographies, and Marie-Louise Pereyra, “Vier Gluck-Briefe,” an early attempt to assess the importance of the Gluck–Kruthoffer correspondence.

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  • Special Issue. La Revue musicale: Bulletin français de la Société Internationale de Musique 10/6 (1914).

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    Special Gluck issue. Includes Jean Leroux, “L’iconographie du chevalier Gluck,” an illustrated discussion of the portraits by Duplessis, Greuze, and Houdon; Louis Vauzanges, “L’écriture de Gluck,” a highly contentious graphological analysis claiming to trace Gluck’s musical characteristics in his handwriting; and Camille Mauclair, ed., “A travers la vie de Gluck,” a collection of brief contributions to the biography of Gluck’s early life.

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Contemporary Sources

The 18th century was a literate and articulate age. A wealth of material exists in which Gluck’s professional contemporaries commented on the changes occurring in all aspects of stage art. Some (Algarotti 1989 [originally published in 1763], Arteaga 1785, and Planelli 1772, all cited under Historical Background to the Reform of Opera), specifically called for reform, named names, and gave examples of good or bad practice. Audiences, too, were eager to record their experiences, both in informal reminiscences such as Kelly 1968 (originally published in 1826; cited under Records and Reminiscences), and in structured surveys of the age, where it is impossible to ignore the magisterial Burney 1969b (originally published in 1775) and Burney 1969a (originally published in 1786–1789; both cited under Records and Reminiscences). Another source for Gluck studies is the exchange of letters between the composer and his collaborators.

Historical Background to the Reform of Opera

The starting point for any investigation of the reform of opera lies in the prefaces Gluck wrote for his own operas, especially for Alceste (1767) and Paride ed Elena (1770). These are found in the original Italian in the relevant volumes of Abert, et al. 1951– (cited under Scores and Librettos) and in English translation in Howard 1995 (cited under Letters). There were many calls for reform. Algarotti 1989 (originally published in 1763), Arteaga 1785, and Planelli 1772 agree on specific issues. All three documents deplore the dominance of singers, whose concern to display their skills was seen as damaging to the drama. Criticism is particularly valuable when it comes from a practitioner: Calzabigi’s many writings, represented here in Calzabigi’s 1755 essay on the poetry of Metastasio (Calzabigi 1994), the chief exponent of pre-reform opera, alert readers to the direction his reformed librettos were to take in the future. Few works endorsed the status quo: Manfredini 2002 (originally published in 1788) was a lone voice defending unreformed opera. The related reform of ballet is discussed in Angiolini 1956 (originally published in 1765) and Noverre 1967 (originally published in 1760), and a reform of stage design and costume is advocated in Diderot 1773.

  • Algarotti, Francesco. Saggio sopra l’opera in musica. Lucca, Italy: Libreria Musicale Italiana, 1989.

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    A reprint of the 1763 edition. Trenchant criticism of Italian opera in the mid-18th century. Attacks every aspect that weakens the impact of the drama, including irrelevant overtures and dance episodes, inexpressive arias, and excessively lengthy passages of recitative. The 1763 edition is available online.

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  • Angiolini, Gasparo. Dissertation sur les ballets pantomimes des anciens pour servir de programme au ballet pantomime de “Sémiramis.” Milan: Bertarelli, 1956.

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    A reprint of the 1765 edition. Criticizes the lack of expressive movement and natural gesture in contemporary ballet. Argues that dance should be able to communicate the story and the emotions of the characters as accurately as recitative: “a declamation for the eyes.”

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  • Arteaga, Esteban. Le rivoluzioni del teatro musicale italiano dalla sua origine fino al presente. 2d ed. 3 vols. Venice: Palese, 1785.

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    Criticizes some aspects of Metastasio’s librettos, especially his reliance on the da capo aria with its invitation to excessive ornamentation, and the metaphor aria that distances the singer from directly expressing an emotion. Identifies Gluck as the leading composer of the age.

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  • Calzabigi, Ranieri de’. “Dissertazione di Ranieri de’Calzabigi, dell’Accademia di Cortona, su le poesie drammatiche del Signor Abate Pietro Metastasio.” In Scritti teatrali e letterati. Vol. 1. Edited by Anna Laura Bellina, 139–146. Rome: Salerno, 1994.

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    Original edition in Poesie del Signor Abate Pietro Metastasio, Vol. 1 (Paris: La Vedova Quillau, 1755), pp. xix–cciv. Major document of the reform. Sets out exactly those changes to the libretto that he was later to put into practice: a simpler, more declamatory setting of librettos and freer and more varied aria forms.

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  • Diderot, Denis. “De la poésie dramatique.” In Collection complette des œuvres philosophiques, littéraires et dramatiques de M. Diderot. Vol. 5. By Denis Diderot, i–cxii. London, 1773.

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    Comprehensive criticism of 18th-century French theater. Although the main focus of Diderot’s argument is spoken theater, many of his criticisms relating to the design of scenery and costume influenced the more naturalistic productions of Gluck’s operas in Paris in the 1770s.

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  • Manfredini, Vincenzo. A Critical Translation from the Italian of Vincenzo Manfredini’s Difesa della musica moderna: In Defence of Modern Music (1788). Translated and edited by Patricia Howard. New York: Mellen, 2002.

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    Originally published, Bologna, 1788. Notable for voicing support for unreformed Italian opera. All the key issues of the reform—overture, recitative, the da capo aria, ornamentation—are addressed in a dialogue with Arteaga (see Arteaga 1785).

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  • Noverre, Jean-Georges. Lettres sur la danse et sur les ballets. New York: Broude, 1967.

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    Originally published in 1760 (Lyons, France: Delaroche). A comprehensive plea for “Nature” in all aspects of dance—steps, gesture, the use of the limbs, costume, and design. Attacks the overemphasis on geometry and pattern in traditional ballet. Discusses the role of ballet within opera. Text available online.

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  • Planelli, Antonio. Dell’opere in musica. Naples, Italy: Donato Campo, 1772.

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    Detailed criticism of music, librettos, scenery, and production methods. Cites Alceste as a model libretto that allows the expression of true emotions to dictate the unfolding of the drama.

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Records and Reminiscences

The value of these items is that they place the reader in the immediate presence of Gluck and his contemporaries. All the writers of the sources in this section knew Gluck. Most numbered him among their intimate friends. There are factual insights into the performance and reception of his operas in Bachaumont, et al. 1777–1789 and Sonnenfels 1784; technical details on the productions in Dittersdorf 1970 (originally published in 1896); and intimate recollections of close friends in Burney 1969b (originally published in 1775) and Burney 1969a (originally published 1786–1789), and especially Mannlich in Trostprugg 1934. Kelly 1968 (originally published in 1826) and Corancez 1788 show an early stage in the construction of a Gluck hagiography, associating the composer with other giants of 18th-century culture (Handel and Rousseau, respectively). The consistency of the accounts of Gluck’s energy, passion, and commitment is impressive.

  • Bachaumont, Louis Petit de, M. F. Pidansat de Mairobert, Moufle d’Angerville, et al. Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire de la république des lettres en France depuis 1762 jusqu’à nos jours. 36 vols. London: Adamson, 1777–1789.

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    Vols. 7–13 offer an eyewitness account of literary and musical circles during the years Gluck worked in Paris. Provides vivid descriptions of the reception of Gluck’s operas in the French capital, including the reasons for revisions to some of the operas and the success or otherwise of these reworkings.

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  • Burney, Charles. A General History of Music, from the Earliest Times to the Present Period. 2 vols. Edited by Frank Mercer. New York: Dover, 1969a.

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    Originally published 1786–1789. Vol. 2 includes further descriptions of Burney’s meetings with Gluck, and his reputation in London. Text available online.

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  • Burney, Charles. The Present State of Music in Germany, the Netherlands and United Provinces. 2 vols. New York: Broude, 1969b.

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    Originally published, London, 1775. This lively journal includes an intimate account of Gluck and his family at home in Vienna.

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  • Corancez, Olivier de. “Lettre sur le Chevalier Gluck.” Journal de Paris (18 August 1788): 997–999.

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    Continued in subsequent issues, Journal de Paris (21 August 1788): 1009–1011; (24 August 1788): 1021–1023. The reliability of Corancez’s reminiscences has never been fully tested. This fascinating document allegedly records scenes in which Gluck defended problem passages in his operas. It also throws light on his relationship with Rousseau.

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  • Dittersdorf, Karl Ditters von. The Autobiography of Karl von Dittersdorf. Translated by A. D. Coleridge. New York: Da Capo, 1970.

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    A reprint of the original 1896 edition, a translation of his Lebensbeschreibung (1801). Contains lively reminiscences from Gluck’s junior colleague. Valuable description of the technical effects used in the staging of Le cinesi (mistakenly referred to as La danza). The 1896 translation is available online.

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  • Kelly, Michael. Reminiscences. 2 vols. New York: Da Capo, 1968.

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    A reprint of the original 1826 edition. Gossipy and egotistical; communicates the feel of taking part in an 18th-century opera production. Includes an eyewitness account of Gluck, and is the source for Gluck’s tribute to Handel. The 1826 edition is available online.

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  • Sonnenfels, Joseph von. “Briefe über die Wienerische Schaubühne.” In Gesammelte Schriften. Vol. 5. By Joseph von Sonnenfels, 131–392. Vienna, 1784.

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    Also in Vol. 6, pp. 1–437. A series of articles, first published in 1767–1768, describing Viennese theater in the second half of the 18th century. Includes an account of the premiere of Alceste. Explains Gluck’s role in the reform, particularly his aim to create an international style in opera.

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  • Trostprugg, Henriette Weiss von. “Mémoires sur la musique à Paris à la fin du règne de Louis XV.” La Revue musicale 15.148 (July–August 1934): 111–119.

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    Includes excerpts from Johann Christian von Mannlich’s manuscript Histoire de ma vie and continues in La Revue musicale 15.149 (September–October 1934): 161–171 and 15.150 (November 1934): 252–262. Wonderfully intimate account of Gluck and his wife, at home, at court, and in the theater, recorded by a royal portrait painter. Mannlich’s memoirs exist in many versions and several languages. The complete version remains in manuscript in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Munich, Codex Gallicus 619–619.

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Letters

Gluck’s letters are important because many of them contain statements of his artistic principles and accounts of the difficulties he met putting them into practice. There is still no modern edition with the text in both the original language and in translation. Mueller von Asow and Mueller 1962 was a valuable pioneering work; Howard 1995 offers a fuller and more accurate collection.

  • Howard, Patricia, ed. and trans. Gluck: An Eighteenth-Century Portrait in Letters and Documents. Oxford: Clarendon, 1995.

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    Devised to correct and expand Mueller von Asow and Mueller 1962. Contains all known letters to and from Gluck and the prefaces to his published operas in which he stated his dramatic principles. The documents are linked by a commentary setting them in a biographical context. Many items are published for the first time in English.

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  • Mueller von Asow, Erich Hermann, and Hedwig Mueller, eds. The Collected Correspondence and Papers of Christoph Willibald Gluck. Translated by Stewart Thomson. London: Barrie &; Rockliff, 1962.

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    A landmark work for three decades. Although this collection has numerous inaccuracies and omissions, it is still worth consulting for its footnotes and incidental information concerning Gluck’s correspondents.

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Biographical Studies

In addition to the major dictionary entries, a number of articles examine specific periods in Gluck’s life, giving an overview of the cultural ambience in which he lived, or presenting unfamiliar source materials.

Early Years

In the absence of documentary evidence, research has concentrated on the context of Gluck’s early life. The opportunities available to a musical child in Bohemia are examined in Heartz 1988, which also assesses Gluck’s own account of his childhood (see Trostprugg 1934, cited under Records and Reminiscences). Buzga 1995 and Seifert 1989 focus on the music Gluck could have heard in his student years in Prague and Milan.

  • Buzga, Jaroslav. “Der junge Christoph Willibald Gluck bei den Prager Jesuiten.” In Festschrift Klaus Hortschansky zum 60. Geburtstag. Edited by Axel Beer, 181–192. Tutzing, Germany: Schneider, 1995.

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    Identifies the music Gluck might have heard in Prague during his student years, including Italian operas, Jesuit plays, and music for town processions.

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  • Heartz, Daniel. “Coming of Age in Bohemia: The Musical Apprenticeships of Benda and Gluck.” Journal of Musicology 6.4 (1988): 510–527.

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    Analyzes anecdotal accounts of Gluck’s childhood and student years, setting them in the context of Bohemian history and culture. Investigates Gluck’s move to Vienna in 1734 or 1735.

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  • Seifert, Herbert. “Der junge Gluck: Das musikdramatische Umfeld.” In Kongressbericht Gluck in Wien: Wien, 12.–16. November 1987. Edited by Gerhard Croll and Monika Woitas, 21–30. Gluck-Studien 1. Kassel, West Germany: Bärenreiter, 1989.

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    With a different emphasis from that in Buzga 1995, Seifert focuses on the operas Gluck may have seen in Prague and Vienna up to his move to Milan in 1737.

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London

The little that is known about Gluck’s brief period in London in 1745–1746 is capably summarized in Edwards 1908. See also Barclay Squire 1915 (cited under Early Italian Operas).

  • Edwards, F. R. G. “Gluck in England.” Musical Times 49 (1908): 508–513.

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    Despite its early date, this gives a sound account of Gluck’s visit to London in 1745 including the performances of La caduta de’ giganti and Artamene, and the publication by Walsh of two volumes of Favourite Songs from the operas, and the six “Trio Sonatas.”

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Vienna

The excellent study in Brauneis 1989 of Gluck’s various lodgings in Vienna establishes Gluck at the heart of Viennese life. Research into this period is mainly focused on the nature and function of the Viennese theaters, investigated in Brown 1991 and Grossegger 1995. Difficult to access but providing invaluable insights are two manuscript sources, both held in Vienna: the diaries of Graf Karl von Zinzendorf, in the Haus-Hof- und Staatsarchiv, and Philipp Gumpenhuber’s “Repertoire de tous les spectacles qui ont été donné au Theatre de la Ville 1758–1763,” held in the Österreichische Nationalbibliotek. The index to Zinzendorf in Breunlich 1989 and excerpts from his diaries in Zinzendorf 1997 go some way to compensate for the remotely located original document. The Gumpenhuber source is described in Croll 1975 and investigated in more detail in Brown 1991.

  • Brauneis, Walther. “Gluck in Wien: Seine Gedenkstätten, Wohnungen und Aufführungsorte.” In Kongressbericht Gluck in Wien: Wien, 12.–16. November 1987. Edited by Gerhard Croll and Monika Woitas, 42–61. Gluck-Studien 1. Kassel, West Germany: Bärenreiter, 1989.

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    Informative study of the dwellings occupied by Gluck and the theaters where he worked in and around Vienna. Well supported by contemporary maps and ground plans.

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  • Breunlich, Maria Christine. “Gluck in den Tagenbüchern des Grafen Karl von Zinzendorf.” In Kongressbericht Gluck in Wien: Wien, 12.–16. November 1987. Edited by Gerhard Croll and Monika Woitas, 62–68. Gluck-Studien 1. Kassel, West Germany: Bärenreiter, 1989.

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    Lists references to Gluck in the unpublished Zinzendorf diaries.

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  • Brown, Bruce Alan. Gluck and the French Theatre in Vienna. Oxford: Clarendon, 1991.

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    Indispensable study of Gluck’s involvement with the Burgtheater in the 1760s. Topics include opera, ballet, and concerts. Sets Orfeo and Don Juan in the context of the theater repertory. Rich in primary sources.

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  • Croll, Gerhard. “Neue Quellen zu Musik und Theater in Wien 1758 bis 1763. Ein erster Bericht.” In Festschrift Walter Senn zum 70. Geburtstag. Edited by Erich Egg and Ewald Fässler, 8–12. Munich: Katzbichler, 1975.

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    Brief report of the important discovery of Philipp Gumpenhuber’s manuscript inventory of the repertories of the French troupe at the Burgtheater and the German troupe at the Kärntnertortheater.

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  • Grossegger, Elisabeth. Gluck und Afflisio: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Verpachtung des Burgtheaters 1765/67–1776. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1995.

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    Documents the period when Giuseppe d’Afflisio was impresario at the Burgtheater. Assesses Gluck’s role in the administration of the theater and especially the choice of repertory, and his financial involvement with Afflisio.

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  • Zinzendorf, Karl Graf von. Aus den Jugendtagebüchern 1747, 1752 bis 1763. Edited by Maria Breunlich and Marieluise Mader. Vienna: Böhlau, 1997.

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    A useful collection of extracts from Zinzendorf’s diaries, illuminating the taste of the audiences for whom Gluck wrote, and with some accounts of the reception of Orfeo.

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Paris

Gluck’s Paris years are more richly represented in source materials than in modern research. Genlis 1825–1826 gives an overview of the part played by opera in Paris society; see also Trostprugg 1934 and Bachaumont 1777–1789 (both cited under Records and Reminiscences). Lesure 1984 contains a wealth of contemporary documents covering the aesthetic debates surrounding the rival genres of French and Italian opera. Brook 1980 investigates the commercial aspects of opera production and publication.

  • Brook, Barry S. “Piraterie und Allheilmittel bei der Verbreitung von Musik im späten 18. Jahrhundert.” Beiträger zur Musikwissenschaft 22 (1980): 217–239.

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    Investigates the publishing industry, and reveals the part played by piracy in the dissemination of scores. Informative on the huge financial rewards Gluck reaped from both performance and publication in Paris in the 1770s.

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  • Genlis, Stéphanie Félicité Ducrest de Saint Aubin. Mémoires inédits de Madame la Comtesse de Genlis pour servir à l’histoire des dix-huitième et dix-neuvième siècles. 8 vols. Paris: Colburn, 1825–1826.

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    Vols. 2 and 3 give a useful overview of Paris in the 1770s, showing how society women supported Gluck. Text available online.

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  • Lesure, François, ed. Querelle des Gluckistes et des Piccinnistes. 2 vols. Geneva, Switzerland: Minkoff, 1984.

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    A comprehensive collection of documents, reproduced in facsimile, covering Gluck’s Paris years, tracing the partisan polemics of Gluck’s supporters and detractors.

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Last Years

As one of the first celebrity composers, Gluck received a good deal of attention during his last years. Van Boer 1990 describes Kraus’s pilgrimage to honor him. Since Gluck was famous for performing his compositions to friends and visitors before he had written them down, several attempts were made in the decades immediately after his death to establish a list of works completed in these years, as seen in Rochlitz 1809 and Salieri 1809. Modern scholars have been fascinated by his relationship with Mozart, as seen in Croll 1989; see also Gruber 1981 (cited under Comparative Studies).

  • Croll, Gerhard. “Der ‘alte Gluck’ und Mozart in Wien.” In Kongressbericht Gluck in Wien: Wien, 12.–16. November 1987. Edited by Gerhard Croll and Monika Woitas, 158–165. Gluck-Studien 1. Kassel, West Germany: Bärenreiter, 1989.

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    Overview of Gluck in Vienna in the 1780s. Examines his relationship with Mozart and infers Gluck’s influence in Die Entführung aus dem Serail.

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  • Rochlitz, Johann Friedrich. “Glucks letzte Pläne und Arbeiten.” Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung 22 (March 1809): cols. 385–390.

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    In the format of an interview with an unnamed friend of Gluck’s. Dismisses suggestion that Gluck set two sacred texts. Describes Gluck’s close sympathy with the poet Klopstock, his improvised settings of Klopstock’s Odes, and the missing setting of Hermanns-Schlacht. Text available online.

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  • Salieri, Anton. “Erklärung in Beziehung auf Rochlitz’s Aufsatz: Glucks letzte Pläne und Arbeiten.” Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung 27 (December 1809): cols. 196–198.

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    Responds to Rochlitz 1809, suggesting that the only sacred text Gluck set was the De profundis. Notes that only two of Gluck’s settings of Klopstock’s Odes had been published. Suggests that Hermanns-Schlacht may never have been written down: Salieri heard Gluck perform it several times in different versions. Text available online.

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  • van Boer, Bertil. “The Travel Diary of Joseph Martin Kraus: Translation and Commentary.” Journal of Musicology 8.2 (1990): 266–290.

    DOI: 10.2307/763571Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A portrait of Gluck in 1783 and his status in Vienna. Clarifies his collaboration with Salieri on Les Danaïdes.

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Iconography

Portraits of Gluck were collected, identified, and catalogued during the early decades of the 20th century. Prod’homme 1918 assembled and analyzed the most important portraits. Tenschert 1938 reproduced these together with little-known images from Gluck’s life. Croll 1987 brings the investigation up to date, adding a good deal of contextual information.

Theater History

Gluck was a practical man of the theater, composing the repertory each theater required. Individual studies of various theaters in Milan, Copenhagen, Naples, Vienna, and Paris indicate the different conditions under which he worked. He took an interest in every aspect of a production, collaborating with some of the leading designers of the day.

Administration and Archives

Archival sources are available for a number of the theaters Gluck worked in. Each presented a different working environment, and Gluck’s role varied from theater to theater. Studies of the theaters where Gluck worked in his youth are comparatively rare: Paglicci Brozzi 1894 on the condition of opera in Milan, and Mueller von Asow 1917 on the Mingotti troupe are early but valuable investigations of little-explored ground. Despite its early date, Croce 1891 remains one of the best sources for opera in Naples. More modern research is available for the mainstream opera houses in Bologna (Gotti 1966; see also Ricci 1888, cited under Reform Operas), Vienna (Zechmeister 1971 and Heartz 1982), and Paris (Barthélemy 1964; see also Angermüller 1992, cited under Contemporary Reception).

Stage and Costume Design

Surviving designs for Gluck’s operas are scattered throughout a number of studies, some focusing on aesthetics and the theory of stage design, including Horowicz 1946, Decugis and Reymond 1953, and Wolff 1968, and some on individual designers, including Viale Ferrero 1963. Fischer 1931 is a comprehensive study of costume in Paris. The sources urgently need collating so that all the extant designs for Gluck’s operas are reproduced in one volume.

Reception History

Various types of study contribute to a reception history of Gluck’s operas. The immediate reception of the operas by Gluck’s contemporaries can be traced in formal and informal reviews of performances, in studies of box-office receipts, and in parodies of the operas that depend for their currency on the audience’s familiarity with the originals. The further extent of Gluck’s influence can be detected in the work of some prominent 19th-century composers, many of whom were ready to acknowledge their debt.

Contemporary Reception

Reviews of the first performances of the Paris operas are too numerous to include here. A good selection is reproduced in Lesure 1984 (cited under Paris); a fuller list appears in Howard 2003 (cited under Reference Works). Kantner 1993 casts an interesting light on the pressures Gluck worked under in Vienna. Kunze 1989 explores the influence of his dramatic ideas on his German contemporaries. Useful hard facts are provided from box-office receipts in Angermüller 1992. For Paris, see Bachaumont 1777–1789, and for Vienna, see Sonnenfels 1784 (both cited under Records and Reminiscences). Martina 1995 is the definitive study of the dissemination of Orfeo in its various versions.

  • Angermüller, Rudolph. “Kassenschlager Gluck an der Pariser Académie Royale de Musique.” In De editione musices: Festschrift Gerhard Croll zum 65. Geburtstag. Edited by Wolfgang Gratzer and Andrea Lindmayr, 109–124. Laaber, Germany: Laaber Verlag, 1992.

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    Tracks Gluck’s financial fortunes in Paris. Argues that the notable success of most of his operas ensured the financial viability of the opera house.

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  • Kantner, Leopold M. “I teatri viennesi al tempo di Maria Teresa: Tendenze stilistiche nella musica teatrale a Vienna.” In Napoli e il teatro musicale in Europa tra Sette e Ottocento. Edited by Bianca Maria Antolini and Wolfgang Wizenmann, 45–53. Florence: Olschki, 1993.

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    Discusses the taste of the Habsburgs and its influence on composers employed by the court. Argues that Gluck, Hasse, Grétry, and Salieri each reacted differently to identical pressures.

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  • Kunze, Stefan. “Christoph Willibald Gluck, oder die ‘Natur’ des musikalischen dramas.” In Christoph Willibald Gluck und die Opernreform. Edited by Klaus Hortschansky, 390–418. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1989.

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    Examines Gluck’s influence on his contemporaries, the building of his reputation, and the dissemination of his dramatic theories.

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  • Martina, Alessandra. Orfeo–Orphée di Gluck: Storia della trasmissione e della recezione. Florence: Passigli, 1995.

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    The definitive study of the various transformations of Orfeo from its Viennese première to Berlioz’s revision. Traces the changes in public taste that drove each reworking. Argues that although Orfeo originated as a festa teatrale, it was soon perceived, both by the composer and audiences, as a vehicle for reform, and developed accordingly.

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Parodies

Parodies are a neglected area of Gluck studies. The overview in Cucuel 1922 sets the scene for the opera parody in Paris. Abert 1916 and Brown 1999 discuss the function of parodies, both as a tribute to the original work and as criticism of it.

  • Abert, Herbert. “Über Entstellungen und Parodien Gluckscher Opern.” Gluck-Jahrbuch 2 (1916): 108–109.

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    Distinguishes between Italian and French parodies. Argues that Italian parodies disparage Gluck and French parodies pay tribute to him.

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  • Brown, Bruce Alan. “Les Rêveries renouvelées des Grecs: Facture, Function and Performance Practice in a Vaudeville Parody of Gluck’s Iphigénie en Tauride (1779).” In Timbre und Vaudeville: Zur Geschichte und Problematik einer populären Gattung im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert. Edited by Herbert Schneider, 306–343. Hildesheim, Germany: Olms, 1999.

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    Discusses parody as criticism. Traces the history of a parody of Iphigénie en Tauride by Favart.

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  • Cucuel, Georges. “Les Opéras de Gluck dans les parodies du XVIII siècle.” La Revue musicale 3.5 (1922): 210–221.

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    Continued in La Revue musicale 3.6 (1922): 51–68. An overview of operatic parody in Paris. Discusses parodies of Gluck’s operas, arguing that the prime target for the parodists was the declamatory style of singing developed by Gluck.

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Reception in the 19th Century

Studies in this area include acknowledgments by Berlioz in Fauquet 1992, Liszt in Liszt 1854, and Wagner in Glasenapp 1891 of the impact of Gluck’s reform operas on their music. Gluck’s growing reputation in Germany is explored in Wörner 1930–1931 and Henzel 1993. Claims of Gluck’s influence on Beethoven (as discussed in Antonicek 1970) and Schubert (as discussed in Schollum 1979) are inconclusive.

  • Antonicek, Theophil. “Beethoven und die Gluck-Tradition.” In Festgabe der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zum 200. Geburtstag von Ludwig van Beethoven. Edited by Erich Schenk, 195–220. Vienna: Böhlau, 1970.

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    Speculates about Gluck’s influence on Beethoven. Argues that Gluck’s operas were regarded as models for German national opera in the first quarter of the 19th century.

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  • Fauquet, Joël-Marie. “Berlioz’s Version of Gluck’s Orphée.” In Berlioz Studies. Edited by Peter Bloom, 189–253. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511551420Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Detailed study of Berlioz’s revival of Orfeo/Orphée. Traces the performance history of the opera in Paris in the first half of the 19th century and Berlioz’s enthusiasm for the work. Lists Berlioz’s modifications to Gluck’s scores. An appendix shows Pauline Viardot Garcia’s alterations to the vocal line.

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  • Glasenapp, Carl Friedrich. “Gluck.” In Wagner-Enzyklopädie. Vol. 1. By Carl Friedrich Glasenapp, 217–227. Leipzig: Fritzsch, 1891.

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    Collects references to Gluck in Wagner’s writings, incorporating them into four essays on the reform of opera, the overture, performance practice, and the influence of Gluck on Mozart.

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  • Henzel, Christoph. “Zwischen Hofopfer und Nationaltheater: Aspekte der Gluckrezeption in Berlin um 1800.” Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 50 (1993): 201–216.

    DOI: 10.2307/930970Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Traces the performance history of Gluck’s operas in Berlin at the close of the 18th century. While most productions were given as concert performances, the staging of Iphigenie auf Tauris in 1795, the first tragic opera to be given in Berlin by German singers, helped to establish the Nationaltheater in Berlin and create a demand for opera in German.

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  • Liszt, Franz. “Orpheus von Gluck.” Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 40.18 (1854): 189–192.

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    Liszt reveals how a performance of Orfeo in Weimar in February 1854 had an enduring influence on his music. Discusses the importance of declamation in Gluck’s reform operas, comparing Gluck’s word setting with Schubert, Weber, Spontini, Méhul, and Grétry.

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  • Schollum, Robert. “Grétry–Salieri–Schubert.” In Schubert-Kongress Wien 1978: Bericht. Edited by Otto Brusatti, 363–371. Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck-und Verlagsanstalt, 1979.

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    Speculates that Schubert may have come to know Gluck’s music through Grétry and Salieri. Argues that aspects of Schubert’s word setting show Gluck’s influence.

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  • Wörner, Karl. “Die Pflege Glucks an der Berliner Oper von 1795–1841.” Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft 13 (1930–1931): 206–216.

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    Traces a steady growth in popularity of Gluck’s reform operas, especially Iphigenie auf Tauris and Armide. Argues that successful productions of Gluck’s operas stimulated an interest in Greek classical drama in Berlin.

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Music and Style

There is no one comprehensive analysis of Gluck’s musical style. Single issues are, however, examined in depth. Some aspects of his style have attracted particular attention: recitative in Meyer 1918, aria in Robinson 1961–1962, and large-scale form in Wellesz 1950 and Sternfeld 1972–1973. His working methods have received detailed attention, especially in Hortschansky 1973. Two very different studies examine Gluck’s relationship to the Enlightenment: Baethge 1976 is politically biased but raises important topics; Rushton 1987 works from a broader concept of Enlightenment thought. A major debate, tackled head on in Abert 1919–1921, is whether his unique style was a deliberate choice of simplicity or an attempt to hide his defects.

  • Abert, Hermann, ed. “Das Musikdrama Glucks.” In W. A. Mozart. 2d ed. Vol. 1. Edited by Otto Jahn, 675–696. Leipzig: Breitkopf &; Härtel, 1919–1921.

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    Challenges Jahn’s opinion, voiced in the first edition of his biography of Mozart (1856–1859), that Gluck’s style was the result of his technical limitations. Argues that Gluck’s deliberate choice of simplicity and the subordination of music to poetry was characteristic of the Enlightenment.

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  • Baethge, Wilhelm. “Untersuchungen zum Erbe Erbeaneigung: Christoph Willibald Gluck.” In Der Komponist und sein Adressat. Edited by Siegfried Bimberg, 100–106. Halle, East Germany: Martin Luther Universität, 1976.

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    A Marxist approach. Notes Gluck’s concern to portray individuals rather than the character types of traditional heroic opera. Argues that his concern to represent the bourgeoisie was typical of Enlightenment art. Attributes to Gluck revolutionary intentions, especially the breaking down of national styles and the rejection of conventions.

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  • Hortschansky, Klaus. Parodie und Entlehnung im Schaffen Christoph Willibald Glucks. Analecta Musicologica 13. Cologne: Volk, 1973.

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    Groundbreaking study of Gluck’s creative process, analyzing his parody technique. Tabulates all his self-borrowings. Essential reading for a study of Gluck at any level.

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  • Meyer, Ralph. “Die Behandlung des Rezitativs in Glucks italienischen Reformopern.” Gluck-Jahrbuch 4 (1918): 1–90.

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    Notes trends in the development of recitative in the 18th century: an increasing expressive content in recitative, and an increased declamatory element in arias. Briefly surveys recitative in the operas before Orfeo, and investigates in depth the recitative in Orfeo, Alceste, and Paride ed Elena.

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  • Robinson, Michael. “The Aria in Opera-seria, 1725–1780.” Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 88 (1961–1962): 31–43.

    DOI: 10.1093/jrma/88.1.31Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Traces developments in form and style in 18th-century arias. Argues that Gluck’s rejection of da capo form and cultivation of simplicity was paralleled in unreformed opera seria.

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  • Rushton, Julian. “Christoph Willibald Gluck, 1714–87: The Musician Gluck.” Musical Times 128 (1987): 615–618.

    DOI: 10.2307/965519Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Argues that Gluck’s purely musical abilities have been overshadowed by interest in his power as a dramatist. Makes the case for Gluck as a “representaive musician of the Enlightenment.” Illustrates the range of styles he employed and the refinement of his technique.

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  • Sternfeld, Frederick W. “Gluck’s Operas and Italian Tradition.” Chigiana n.s. 9–10 (1972–1973): 275–281.

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    Argues that Gluck’s finales owe their form and use of the chorus to the Italian festa teatrale.

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  • Wellesz, Egon. “Three Lectures on Opera: The Problem of Form.” In Essays on Opera. Translated by Patricia Kean, 90–106. London: Dodson, 1950.

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    Writing as a fellow opera composer who has grappled with the same problem, Wellesz evaluates Gluck’s attempt to introduce greater continuity into opera.

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Comparative Studies

Numerous studies have compared Gluck with his contemporaries. Some focus on the extent to which his reforms were anticipated by his predecessors, as seen in Rackwitz 1976, Abert 1908, and Churgin 1980. Others draw comparisons with his contemporaries, in particular, Mozart (Gruber 1981; see also Croll 1989, cited under Last Years). Comparisons have also been drawn with Haydn (Geiringer 1963) and Traetta (Strohm 1989). In one of several well-focused articles on the subject, Rushton 1971–1972 differentiates the dramatic approaches of Gluck and Piccinni. For comparative studies between Gluck and later composers, see Reception in the 19th Century.

  • Abert, Hermann. Niccolò Jommelli als Opernkomponist. Halle, Germany: Max Niemeyer, 1908.

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    Draws a detailed comparison between Gluck and Jommelli. Concludes that Jommelli’s music is richer and more elaborate, but Gluck’s simplicity is driven by his reforming agenda. Includes sixty-four pages of music examples.

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  • Churgin, Bathia. “Alterations in Gluck’s Borrowings from Sammartini.” Studies in Music 9.1 (1980): 117–134.

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    Deals with Gluck’s borrowings from Sammartini. Argues that his attempts to alter the originals are unconvincing. Detailed analysis of the overture to Le nozze and the introduction to Act II of La contesa de’ numi.

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  • Geiringer, Karl. “Gluck und Haydn.” In Festschrift Otto Erich Deutsch zum 80. Geburtstag. Edited by Walter Gerstenberg, Jan LaRue and Wolfgang Rehm, 75–81. Kassel, West Germany: Bärenreiter, 1963.

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    Attempts to establish the degree of influence between Gluck and Haydn. Compares texts set by both composers. Concludes that Haydn must have been familiar with Gluck’s dramatic theories but lacked Gluck’s commitment to opera reform to respond to them.

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  • Gruber, Gernot. “Gluck und Mozart.” Hamburger Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft: Die frühdeutsche Oper und ihre Beziehungen zu Italien, England und Frankreich 5 (1981): 169–186.

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    Reviews earlier attempts to compare Gluck and Mozart. Compares Iphigénie en Tauride with Die Zauberflöte, investigating the power of music to portray character.

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  • Rackwitz, Werner. “Glucks-Händel-Beziehungen.” In Georg Friedrich Händel als Wegbereiter der Wiener Klassik: Wissenschaftliche Konferenz zu den 26. Händelfestspielen der DDR in Halle (Saale) am 24. und 25. Juni 1977. Edited by Walther Siegmund-Schulze, 5–24. Halle, East Germany: Wissenschaftliche Beiträge, Martin Luther Universität, 1976.

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    Argues that many of Gluck’s reforms were anticipated in the oratorios of Handel.

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  • Rushton, Julian. “The Theory and Practice of Piccinnism.” Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 93 (1971–1972): 31–46.

    DOI: 10.1093/jrma/98.1.31Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Makes detailed comparisons between Gluck’s and Piccinni’s styles, focusing on the arias, with a brief consideration of recitative and orchestration. Compares the influence of both composers in the decades immediately after their deaths.

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  • Strohm, Reinhard. “Tradition und Fortschritt in der Opera Seria.” In Christoph Willibald Gluck und die Opernreform. Edited by Klaus Hortschansky, 325–352. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1989.

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    In a wide-ranging examination of reform principles in Italian opera in the 1760s, makes a detailed comparison between Traetta’s Ifigenia in Tauride and Gluck’s Telemaco.

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Early Italian Operas

The bulk of Gluck scholarship is contained in studies of specific genres and individual works. The first port of call for any individual work will be the preface to relevant volumes in Abert, et al. 1951– (cited under Scores and Librettos). The category “Early Italian Operas” comprises the twenty-two Italian operas written before Orfeo. These include examples of heroic opera (opera seria) and small-scale serenades (named variously componimento drammatico, festa teatrale, and serenata). There are two main thrusts to scholarly inquiry. Kurth 1913 and Moser 1940 seek to uncover a repertory for the most part unpublished in Gluck’s lifetime and rarely performed then or today. Abert 1916 and Vetter 1924 have a more targeted agenda, sifting the scores for evidence of reforming tendencies; see also Croll 1976 (cited under Individual Early Operas). Hortschansky 1972 and Barclay Squire 1915 contribute valuable surveys of performance data for two groups of early works.

  • Abert, Herbert. “Glucks italienische Opern bis zum Orfeo.” Gluck-Jahrbuch 2 (1916): 1–25.

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    In an overview of the operas before Orfeo, divides the works into two phases. Argues that the works up to Le nozze d’Ercole e d’Ebe (1747) are traditional and influenced by Sammartini, but those from Semiramide (1748) to Antigono (1756) are in the style of Hasse’s operas and share dramatic qualities with the reform operas.

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  • Barclay Squire, William. “Gluck’s London Operas.” Musical Quarterly 1 (1915): 397–409.

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    General background to the performances of La caduta de’ giganti and Artamene. Establishes the content of both works and surveys coverage in the press.

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  • Hortschansky, Klaus. “Gluck nella Gazetta di Milano 1742–1745.” Translated by Roberto Frontini. Nuova rivista musicale italiana 6.4 (1972): 512–525.

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    Investigates the performances of the first ten operas through press notices in the Gazetta di Milano. Notes Gluck’s growing reputation in Milan and sheds light on some of his theatrical colleagues.

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  • Kurth, Ernst. “Die Jugendopern Glucks bis Orfeo.” Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 1 (1913): 193–277.

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    A descriptive account that considers every aspect of Gluck’s style in the early operas without making unwarranted claims for signs of reform. Contrast Vetter 1924.

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  • Moser, Hans Joachim. Christoph Gluck: Die Leistung, der Mann, das Vermächtnis. Stuttgart: Cotta, 1940.

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    Sets Gluck’s changing style in the context of contemporary theater conventions, with good coverage of the works before Orfeo.

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  • Vetter, Walther. “Gluck’s Entwicklung zum Opernreformator.” Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 6 (1924): 165–219.

    DOI: 10.2307/929540Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Seeks evidence of Gluck’s reform tendencies in his handling of aria in the early operas. Finds examples of asymmetric phrasing, syncopation, and original harmonic language that distinguish Gluck’s arias from those of his model Hasse.

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Individual Early Operas

Studies of the early operas from the newly energized Gluck research at the beginning of the 20th century tend to concentrate on discovering sources and piecing together sometimes fragmentary scores, as seen in Abert 1914 and Arend 1915. Later scholars have concentrated on reconstructing individual performances that took place in, for example, Dresden (Dahms 1988) and Vienna (Croll 1976, Loppert 1984), or, in one case, on a performance that did not take place (Hortschansky 1968). Buschmeier 1989 compares Gluck’s early setting of Ezio with the revisions he made to the score in the year after Orfeo, showing how the early operas were often limited by their librettos, and that Gluck’s reforming ideals could not be put into effect until he was able to work with reforming librettists.

  • Abert, Hermann. “Zu Glucks Ippolito.” Gluck-Jahrbuch 1 (1914): 47–53.

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    Investigates the production of Ippolito in Milan in 1745. An aria is recovered from an engraving of the soloist Caterina Aschieri to enlarge the scanty sources for this opera.

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  • Arend, Max. “Glucks erste Oper Artaxerxes.” Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 82 (1915): 201–202, 208–209.

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    Discusses the extant fragments and argues that Gluck’s dramatic genius is already apparent in his first opera. Makes comparisons with the Iphigenia operas.

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  • Buschmeier, Gabriele. “Ezio in Prag und Wien: Bemerkungen zu den beiden Fassungen von Glucks Ezio.” In Kongressbericht Gluck in Wien: Wien, 12.–16. November 1987. Edited by Gerhard Croll and Monika Woitas, 85–88. Gluck-Studien 1. Kassel, West Germany: Bärenreiter, 1989.

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    Compares the version of Ezio given in Prague in 1749 with Gluck’s revision for Vienna in 1763. Argues that the revisions show Gluck’s attempts to incorporate reform aspects into an opera limited by its traditional Metastasian structure.

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  • Croll, Gerhard. “Glucks Debut am Burgtheater: Semiramide riconosciuta als Festoper für die Wiederöffnung des Wiener Burgtheaters 1748.” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 31 (1976): 194–202.

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    An account of the part played by Gluck’s first Viennese opera for the festive reopening of the Burgtheater. Argues that the work shows early signs of the reform.

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  • Dahms, Sibylle. “Glucks Serenata Le nozze d’Ercole e d’Ebe und das Gastspiel der Mingotti-Truppe in Dresden und Pilnitz.” In Die italienische Oper in Dresden von Johann Adolf Hasse bis Francesco Morlacchi. Edited by Günther Stephan and Hans John, 439–449. Dresden, East Germany: Hochschule für Musik “Carl Maria von Weber,” 1988.

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    Examines the first performance of Le nozze in 1747, noting the collaboration of Gluck with Noverre, Gaetano Vestris, and Maria Vestris, colleagues who were to become influential in his reform of the ballet.

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  • Hortschansky, Klaus. “Die Festaufführung fand nicht statt: Bemerkung zu Christoph Willibald Glucks La corona (1765).” Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 129 (1968): 270–274.

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    Investigates the circumstances for which La corona was written and why it was never performed.

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  • Loppert, Max. “Gluck’s Chinese Ladies: An Introduction.” Musical Times 125 (1984): 321–325.

    DOI: 10.2307/960904Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A well-documented account of the genesis and performance of Le cinesi in 1754.

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Reform Operas

The bulk of Gluck scholarship falls in this field. By general consensus, the list of reform operas comprises Orfeo ed Euridice, Alceste (1767), Paride ed Elena, Iphigénie en Aulide, Orphée et Euridice, Alceste (1776), Armide, Iphigénie en Tauride (1779), and Ifigenia auf Tauris (1781). Écho et Narcisse is not usually counted among the reform operas, but, being Gluck’s last opera, has been included in the studies of individual works. Overviews of this repertory aim to identify trends common to all the reform operas. Cumming 1995 identifies Iphigénie en Tauride as the culmination of Gluck’s reform ideals. The paramount importance of the chorus is examined in Betzwieser 2000, which makes a bold claim for the innovative merging of chorus and corps de ballet in the French operas, ignoring the evidence in Ricci 1888. The tradition of the happy ending has also fascinated scholars, as seen in Finscher 1972–1973. Gluck’s concern to fuse national opera styles and traditions is examined in Rushton 1972–1973. Schneider 1995 takes a previously unanalyzed aspect of French aesthetics, the cultivation of asymmetry, and applies it to Gluck’s French operas. In another original approach, Tocchini 1998 argues for the prevalence of Masonic imagery and practice in the reform operas.

  • Betzwieser, Thomas. “Musical Setting and Scenic Movement: Chorus and Chœur Dansé in Eighteenth-Century Parisian Opera.” Cambridge Opera Journal 12.1 (2000): 1–28.

    DOI: 10.1017/S095458670000001XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Analyzes the effect of the danced chorus in Gluck’s French operas. Claims two innovations in the French operas: that Gluck was the first to integrate the chorus with the corps de ballet, and that he was the first to use contrapuntal textures in the danced chorus. (But Ricci 1888 implies that the chorus and ballet were already integrated in Vienna in the 1760s.)

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  • Cumming, Julie Emelyn. “Gluck’s Iphigenia Operas: Sources and Strategies.” In Opera and the Enlightenment. Edited by Thomas Bauman and Marita Petzoldt McClymonds, 217–239. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

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    Argues that although Iphigénie en Aulide had been recommended as the ideal subject by Algarotti 1989 and Diderot 1773 (both cited in Historical Background to the Reform of Opera), Gluck only fully realized his dramatic aims in Iphigénie en Tauride.

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  • Finscher, Ludwig. “Gluck e la tradizione dell’opera seria: Il problema del lieto fine nei drammi della riforma.” Translated by Giulio Cogni. Chigiana n.s. 9–10 (1972–1973): 263–274.

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    Discusses the convention of the happy ending in 18th-century theater. Analyzes the conclusions of Orfeo, Alceste, and Iphigénie en Aulide, arguing that Gluck found three uniquely individual solutions to the need to resolve each of the tragedies.

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  • Ricci, Corrado. I teatri di Bologna nel secoli XVII e XVIII. Bologna, Italy: Monti, 1888.

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    Documentary history of opera in Bologna. In an appendix, pp. 625–644, reproduces Calzabigi’s detailed instructions for staging Alceste in 1778, including his instruction that the chorus and the corps de ballet should be merged, with the chorus using expressive gesture “as they had done in Vienna.”

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  • Rushton, Julian. “From Vienna to Paris: Gluck and the French Opera.” Chigiana n.s. 9–10 (1972–1973): 283–298.

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    Dealing with the fusion of national styles, argues that Gluck had already assimilated many French traits into his Viennese reform operas. Identifies Iphigénie en Tauride as Gluck’s most complete synthesis of French and Italian styles.

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  • Schneider, Herbert. “Gluck als ‘prosateur en musique.’” In Festschrift Klaus Hortschansky zum 60. Geburtstag. Edited by Axel Beer, 193–209. Tutzing, Germany: Schneider, 1995.

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    Identifies a fashion in France for asymmetric structures. Claims that symmetry was considered a barrier to audience involvement, and that it was rejected in areas as diverse as ballet and landscape gardening. Relates this to Gluck’s rejection of traditional symmetrical forms in his French operas.

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  • Tocchini, Gerardo. I fratelli d’Orfeo. Florence: Olschki, 1998.

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    Argues that the influence of Freemasonry helped shape many aspects of Orfeo and Iphigénie en Tauride, influencing the plots, the scenic designs, the characterization, the language, and the music.

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Individual Reform Operas

Studies in individual operas often investigate the revisions Gluck made to his reform operas. Orfeo has received widespread attention, as seen in Martina 1995 (cited under Contemporary Reception). Ulm 1991 gives a detailed account of Gluck’s revision of the work for Parma in 1769. Croll 1993 deals with the Italian and French versions of Alceste. Ballola 1972–1973 investigates Paride ed Elena. The revisions to Iphigénie en Aulide are the subject of Rushton 1992; Buschmeier 1997 analyzes its word setting. Hayes 1982 discusses the extent to which Armide is steeped in the traditions of French opera. Dahlhaus 1974 explores the characterization in Iphigénie en Tauride. Tiersot 1902 makes a case for including Écho et Narcisse in the list of reform operas.

  • Ballola, Giovanni Carli. “Paride ed Elena.” Chigiana n.s. 9–10 (1972–1973): 465–472.

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    Argues that Paride plays a unique role in the reform. Although the work appears at first sight more traditional than Orfeo and Alceste, it is innovative in that it shows Gluck’s experiments with the sensuous and the ironic, qualities developed in Mozart’s Così fan tutte.

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  • Buschmeier, Gabrielle. “‘. . . de l’emploi du mêtre . . . dépend le grand effet de l’expression musicale’: Du Roullet, Gluck und die Prosodie.” In Festschrift Christoph-Hellmut Mahling zum 65. Geburtstag. Edited by Axel Beer, Kristina Pfarr and Wolfgang Ruf, 203–210. Tutzing, Germany: Schneider, 1997.

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    Identifies du Roullet’s innovations in the libretto of Iphigénie en Aulide and evaluates them in comparison with his commentary on the libretto in Lesure 1984 (cited under Paris), Vol. 2, pp. 109–161. Notes how Gluck’s word setting departed from the metrical structures laid down by du Roullet.

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  • Croll, Gerhard. “Gluck’s Alceste in Wien und Paris.” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 48.5 (1993): 231–236.

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    Identifies the Italian Alceste as the key text of the reform. Compares Italian and French versions of the opera from the aspects of performance and reception. Discusses Gluck’s coaching of the soloists Bernasconi in Vienna and Levasseur in Paris.

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  • Dahlhaus, Carl. “Ethos und Pathos in Glucks Iphigenie auf Tauris.” Die Musikforschung 27 (1974): 289–300.

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    Analyzes expression in Iphigénie en Tauride. Argues that the portrayal of Thoas and Oreste illustrates “Pathos”—the representation of a single emotion, typical of Baroque opera, while Iphigénie illustrates “Ethos,” an attempt to portray a complex character, typical of classical opera.

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  • Hayes, Jeremy. “Armide: Gluck’s Most French Opera?” Musical Times 123 (1982): 408–410.

    DOI: 10.2307/964116Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Relates Armide to French operatic traditions, especially the nature of recitative, the use of spectacle, and the divertissement.

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  • Rushton, Julian. “‘Royal Agamemnon’: The Two Versions of Gluck’s Iphigénie en Aulide.” In Music and the French Revolution. Edited by Malcolm Boyd, 15–36. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

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    Reviews the changes Gluck made for the 1775 revival of Iphigénie en Aulide. Argues that the revisions, in particular the intervention of Diana, weaken the originality and power of the score.

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  • Tiersot, Julien. “L’ultima opera di Gluck: Eco e Narciso [Écho et Narcisse].” Rivista musicale italiana 9 (1902): 264–296.

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    Detailed account of the composition and reception history of Écho et Narcisse. Argues that Gluck continued to develop reform ideas in this work, particularly in devising a new expressive intimacy not found in the earlier reform operas.

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  • Ulm, Renate. Glucks Orpheus-Opern. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1991.

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    Definitive study of Gluck’s adaptation of Orfeo for Parma in 1769.

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Opéras-Comiques

Gluck’s opéras-comiques have only recently been afforded the depth of critical scrutiny to which the reform works have been exposed. Yet, many scholars have maintained that Gluck first encountered some aspects of the reform, in particular, the melodic simplicity and informal aria forms, in the comic repertory. Three broad overviews of the genre emphasize different aspects: the focus of Cucuel 1914 is on the French tradition of comic opera; Haas 1925 examines how the genre was imported into and practiced in Vienna; and Holzer 1926 gives detailed attention to Gluck’s scores.

Individual Opéras-comiques

Outside the prefaces in Abert, et al. 1951– (cited under Scores and Librettos), few of the opéras-comiques have been the subject of in-depth studies. Brown 1983 offers a model investigation of the sources and variants of La rencontre imprévue. Cythère assiégée is examined from different angles in Noiray 2000 and Schmidt 1996. The Turkish operas are reviewed as a group in Preibisch 1908–1909 and Wirth 1975. Brown 1987 proposes an addition to the canon with the author’s discovery of the libretto of a planned revision of Le cadi dupé.

  • Brown, Bruce Alan. “Gluck’s Rencontre imprévue and Its Revisions.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 36 (1983): 498–518.

    DOI: 10.2307/831237Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Groundbreaking study of the genesis of Gluck’s last opéra-comique. Includes a detailed investigation of the revisions made during rehearsals.

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  • Brown, Bruce Alan. “Le Mandarin: An Unknown Gluck Opera?” Musical Times 128 (1987): (1987): 619–623.

    DOI: 10.2307/965520Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Investigates a manuscript libretto in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, for a “Chinese comedy” set by Gluck. Argues that this was planned as a reworking of Le cadi dupé.

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  • Noiray, Michel. “Cythère assiégée (1759, 1775): Problèmes de Construction.” In Tanzdramen, Opéra-comique: Kolloquiumsbericht der Gluck-Gesamtausgabe. Edited by Gabriele Buschmeier and Klaus Hortschansky, 115–134. Gluck-Studien 2. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 2000.

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    Analyzes the content and structure of the 1775 version of Cythère assiégée, showing how in incorporated elements from earlier works. Includes a table comparing the versions of 1748, 1759, and 1775.

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  • Preibisch, Walter. “Quellenstudien zu Mozarts Entführung aus dem Serail. Die Türkenoper Glucks und über Gluck hinaus.” Sammelbände der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft 10 (1908–1909): 430–476.

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    Examines the fashion for Turkish themes in Vienna. Compares Le cadi dupé, La rencontre imprévue, and Die Entführung aus dem Serail. Argues that Mozart was indebted to Gluck for aspects of his Turkish music, including the characteristic rhythms and colorful orchestration.

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  • Schmidt, Dörte. “‘Cythère assiégée, opéra-comique en un acte’: Favart, Gluck, und die Möglichkeiten der Parodie.” In Opernkomposition als Prozess. Edited by Werner Breig, 31–45. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 1996.

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    Suggests that Cythère assiégée was one of a series of plays and operas on the subject of Armida, devised by Durazzo to promote French culture in Vienna. Argues that Cythère can be read as a parody of Lully’s Armide.

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  • Wirth, Helmut. “Gluck, Haydn und Mozart: Drei Entführungs-Opern.” In Opernstudien: Anna Amalie Abert zum 65. Geburtstag. Edited by Klaus Hortschansky, 25–35. Tutzing, West Germany: Schneider, 1975.

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    Sets La rencontre imprévue in the context of the fashion for Turkish operas in Vienna.

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Ballets

Abert 1908 and Dahms 1989 set the reform of ballet in the context of other theater reforms in the 18th century; Dahms 2010 suggests that Noverre was ready to compromise between theory and practice. Other studies focus on the choreographers Angiolini and Noverre, assessing the extent to which they were pioneers of reform or advancing an already established tendency toward greater naturalness and dramatic gesture. Tozzi 1972 and Tozzi 1972–1973 explore Angiolini’s contribution to ballet reform. Derra de Moroda 1972–1973 and Krüger 1963 investigate the work of Noverre through his scenarios and his theoretical writings.

  • Abert, Hermann. “J. G. Noverre und sein Einfluß auf die dramatische Balletkompositionen.” Jahrbuch der Musikbibliothek Peters 15 (1908): 29–45.

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    Indicates how Noverre was influenced by ideas from the Encyclopédie; stresses his influential role in the integration of the ballet into the plot in French opera.

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  • Dahms, Sibylle. “Gluck und das ‘Ballet en action’ in Wien.” In Kongressbericht Gluck in Wien: Wien, 12.–16. November 1987. Edited by Gerhard Croll and Monika Woitas, 100–105. Gluck-Studien 1. Kassel, West Germany: Bärenreiter, 1989.

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    Outlines the landmarks of the reform of ballet, from Du Bos to Noverre. Draws parallels with the reform of opera.

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  • Dahms, Sibylle. Der konservative Revolutionär: Jean Georges Noverre und die Ballettreform des 18. Jahrhunderts. Munich: Epodium Verlag, 2010.

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    Compares the content of the various versions of the Lettres 1760 (cited in Historical Background to the Reform of Opera) and explores the tensions between Noverre’s reform theories and his pragmatism. Contains a comprehensive catalogue of Noverre’s works and other source documents.

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  • Derra de Moroda, Friedericka. “The Ballet-Masters before, at the Time of, and after Noverre.” Chigiana n.s. 9–10 (1972–1973): 473–485.

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    Challenges Noverre’s pioneering role in inventing the ballet d’action. Argues that it was a gradual evolution, beginning in the 17th century, supplying evidence from the work of his predecessors to support this claim.

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  • Krüger, Manfred. J. G. Noverre und das “Ballet d’Action.” Emsdetten, West Germany: Verlag Lechte, 1963.

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    In-depth analysis of Noverre’s work based on his theoretical writings and his scenarios. Argues that his influence continued forward through to Fokine.

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  • Tozzi, Lorenzo. Il balletto pantomimo del settecento: Gasparo Angiolini. L’Aquila, Italy: Japadre, 1972.

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    Analyzes Angiolini’s contribution to the reform of ballet, especially his concept of realistic movement. Argues that his influence in the field of narrative gesture persists up to the present day.

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  • Tozzi, Lorenzo. “La poetica angioliniana del balletto pantomimo nei programmi viennesi.” Chigiana n.s. 9–10 (1972–1973): 487–500.

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    Traces the development of Angiolini’s thought in his writings. Argues that unlike Noverre, Angiolini never intended to devise a theory of ballet reform but only wanted to be a practical exponent of reform ideas voiced by others.

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Individual Ballets

Gluck’s best-known ballet, Don Juan, is analyzed in Gruber 1974 and Russell 1984. Tozzi 1972–1973 and Gruber 1989 make the case for a study of Sémiramis. Croll 1969 and Brown 1995 add new ballets to the canon: Iphigénie, now lost, and Zéphire et Flore, newly attributed.

  • Brown, Bruce Alan. “Zéphire et Flore: A ‘Galant’ Early Ballet by Angiolini and Gluck.” In Opera and the Enlightenment. Edited by Thomas Bauman and Marita Petzoldt McClymonds, 189–216. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

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    Establishes the attribution of Zéphire et Flore to Gluck and Angiolini. Argues that the tension between galant and reformist tendencies is evident in this early work.

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  • Croll, Gerhard. “Ein unbekanntes tragisches Ballet von Gluck.” Mitteilung der Gesellschaft für Salzburger Landeskunde 109 (1969): 275–277.

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    An account of the ballet Iphigénie by Gluck and Angiolini given in 1765. Both score and scenario are lost, but Croll supplies two eyewitness descriptions.

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  • Gruber, Gernot. “Glucks Tanzdramen und ihre musikalische Dramatik.” Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 29.1 (1974): 17–24.

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    Argues that because of the absence of word setting, Gluck’s ballets provide the opportunity to identify precisely how Gluck translated drama into music. Relates his argument with a detailed analysis of Don Juan.

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  • Gruber, Gernot. “Bemerkungen zur Semiramis.” In Kongressbericht Gluck in Wien: Wien, 12.–16. November 1987. Edited by Gerhard Croll and Monika Woitas, 106–115. Gluck-Studien 1. Kassel, West Germany: Bärenreiter, 1989.

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    Compares Angiolini’s scenario with Voltaire’s play. Examines how Gluck represented the dramatic situations in the ballet.

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  • Russell, Charles C. “The Libertine Reformed: Don Juan by Gluck and Angiolini.” Music and Letters 65.1 (1984): 17–27.

    DOI: 10.1093/ml/65.1.17Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Examines the popularity of Don Juan operas following Gluck’s ballet. Argues that Angiolini reinterpreted the subject matter as a tragedy, endowing Don Juan with heroic qualities which are absent in earlier versions of the legend.

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  • Tozzi, Lorenzo. “Sémiramis.” Chigiana n.s. 9–10 (1972–1973): 565–570.

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    Advocates a reevaluation of Sémiramis, arguing that it has been undeservedly neglected in comparison with Don Juan and Orfeo.

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Non-Theatrical Vocal Music

This is a comparatively little-studied area of Gluck’s compositions. Kretzschmar 1911 and Chochlow 1989 give an overview of Gluck’s songs, relating them to the development of the Lied in the last quarter of the 18th century. Preeminent among the surviving songs are Gluck’s settings of Klopstock’s Odes (see Seiler 1868). Only one sacred setting has survived, the masterly De profundis, assessed in Arend 1914. See also Rochlitz 1809 and Salieri 1809 (both cited under Last Years).

  • Arend, Max. “Glucks De profundis. Eine Analyse und ein Protest.” In Zur Kunst Glucks. Edited by Max Arend, 38–58. Regensburg, Germany: Bosse, 1914.

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    Argues that the work can only be fully appreciated in a liturgical context. Defends it from charges of mediocrity, analyzing the nature of Gluck’s simplicity. Compares aspects of the work with both Iphigénie operas. Text available online.

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  • Chochlow, Jurig. “Die Oden und Lieder Glucks.” In Kongressbericht Gluck in Wien: Wien, 12.–16. November 1987. Edited by Gerhard Croll and Monika Woitas, 151–157. Gluck-Studien 1. Kassel, West Germany: Bärenreiter, 1989.

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    Places Gluck’s songs within the context of his development as an opera composer, analyzing the declamatory nature of his word setting. Relates the songs to the Second Berlin Song School.

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  • Kretzschmar, Hermann. “Das deutsche Lied im 18. Jahrhundert.” In Geschichte des neuen deutsches Liedes. Vol. 1. By Hermann Kretzschmar, 162–342. Leipzig: Breitkopf &; Härtel, 1911.

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    Argues that Gluck’s settings mark an important stage in the development of the Lied. Gluck’s settings of Klopstock are discussed on pp. 167–169.

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  • Seiler, Josef. “Über Glucks und einige Andere Compositionen Klopstock’scher Oden.” Neue Berliner Musikzeitung 22.33 (1868): 264.

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    Continued in Neue Berliner Musikzeitung 22.33 (1868): 272–273; 22.36 (1868): 289. A short study of Klopstock’s Odes. Compares Gluck’s declamatory settings with the more lyrical settings by Neefe. Argues that Neefe’s settings would be more acceptable to a mid-19th-century audience.

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Non-Theatrical Instrumental Music

The majority of work in this area is focused on establishing the extent of Gluck’s instrumental compositions. Lipsius 1893 surveys the works known to scholars at the end of the 19th century. Gerber 1951 argues the case for adding three newly discovered trio sonatas, two ballets, and several sinfonias to the catalogue; the authenticity of one of the sinfonias is debated in LaRue 1964. Finscher 2009 reassesses the “Trio Sonatas.” Two further studies examine Gluck’s orchestral writing: Botstiber 1913 traces the development of the program overture and its significance for the reform; Schenk 1962 investigates Gluck’s use of a variety of tremolo techniques.

  • Botstiber, Hugo. Geschichte der Ouverture und der freien Orchesterformen. Leipzig: Breitkopf &; Härtel, 1913.

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    Identifies Gluck’s role in the history of the overture. Notes the unique significance of the overture to Alceste (1767) in the development of the program overture. Traces the changes made to the overture to Telemaco when it was adapted for Armide. Argues that Gluck’s early overtures show no signs of his later achievements.

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  • Finscher, Ludwig. “Gluck in/und Italien: Glucks Triosonaten im gattungsgeschichtlichen Umfeld; Anmerkung zu einer wenig geliebten Werkgruppe.” In Gluck der Europäer: Kongressbericht, Nürnberg, 5.–7. März 2005. Edited by Irene Brandenburg and Tanja Gölz, 21–35. Gluck-Studien 5. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 2009.

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    Assesses Gluck’s “little-loved” trio sonatas in the context of their Italian qualities in terms of form and style.

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  • Gerber, Rudolf. “Unbekannte Instrumentalwerke von Christoph Willibald Gluck.” Die Musikforschung 4 (1951): 305–318.

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    Assesses the authenticity of various instrumental works including three trio sonatas, several sinfonias, and the ballets Alessandro and Achille. See LaRue 1964 for further discussion.

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  • LaRue, Jan. “Gluck oder Pseudo-Gluck.” Die Musikforschung 17 (1964): 272–275.

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    Questions the authenticity of the D minor sinfonia discussed in Gerber 1951. Notes the problems of dealing with conflicting sources in 18th-century symphonic works.

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  • Lipsius, Ida Maria. “Gluck als Symphoniker.” Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 89.50 (1893): 525–526.

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    Still valuable as an overview of all currently known sinfonias attributed to Gluck.

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  • Schenk, Erich. “Zur Aufführungspraxis des Tremolo bei Gluck.” In Anthony van Hoboken: Festschrift zum 75. Geburtstag. Edited by Joseph Schmidt-Görg, 137–145. Mainz, West Germany: B. Schotts Söhne, 1962.

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    Examines the evidence for the performance of tremolo, an effect frequently indicated in Gluck’s scores. Discusses the variety of notation used and the confusion among tremolo, ondeggiando, and vibrato. Argues the three techniques were differentiated in terms of expressive effect.

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