Music Classical Era
by
Bertil van Boer
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 October 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199757824-0128

Introduction

Perhaps the shortest and yet most prolific period in music history is the Classical Era. Traditionally, it has been roughly defined as the last half of the 18th century, e.g., from the death of Johann Sebastian Bach in 1750 to some date in the early years of the 19th; contenders for this include the turn of the century (1800), 1810, just after the Treaty of Vienna ending the Napoleonic Wars (1815), 1820, or the death of Beethoven in 1827. Blume’s Classical and Romantic Music even postulates that the so-called Classical and Romantic periods are a single continuum, noting that musical style developed steadily over the course of a century and a half. Issues of chronology have resulted in a “long” and “short” 18th century, wherein the period is defined according to a number of different stylistic trends. Indeed, there is some debate on whether these styles, such as the so-called galant, Empfindsamkeit (or empfindsamer Stil), or “Pre-Classical,” reflect the final developments of the Baroque period, are simply transitional steps towards a more traditional “Classical” style, or are indicative of a definitive musical stylistic change. Moreover, terms like Rococo or Enlightenment are architectural or philosophical terms usually adapted to the music of the period but without specific musical definition. A new emotionalism in music is defined as Sturm und Drang, a term taken from a literary movement, and the mainstream works of the last half of the century are often stated to conform to “Viennese” Classicism, despite the fact that Vienna was but one of half a dozen cities which served as seminal musical centers during the century. Finally, defining the entire Classical Era in traditional relationship to three composers, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (b. 1756–d. 1791), Joseph Haydn (b. 1732–d. 1809), and Ludwig van Beethoven (b. 1770–d. 1827), is neither historically nor stylistically accurate (save perhaps in the case of Haydn), for it ignores the global reach of music, not to mention places and composers whose musical innovations set the stage for the following Romantic period. It also sets up a hierarchical structure that forces a subjective comparison between these so-called icons and others, often labeled Kleinmeister. While this debate on the exact parameters of the period continues, the Classical Era is defined by increasing and more colorful use of orchestration, development of standard formal structures found in the sonata principle, for example, use of contrasting and often lyrical themes that are developed musically within each work or movement, insertion of dramatic elements into music (rapidly contrasting dynamics or dynamic shading, articulations, varying subtle textures, etc.), use of advanced harmony and modulation, development of both voices and instruments in terms of technical ability and expressivity, and the rapid expansion of a musical culture that spread globally. As a result, the scope and variety of music during this period have been problematic for overviews, with most scholarship directed towards traditional figures, cities, or individual geographical places and/or composers. This section is intended to show some of the extant general, geographical, and stylistic overviews, with more detailed bibliographies to be found separately in other Oxford Bibliographies Online.

General Overviews

The main purpose of this section is to provide general histories of the Classical Era, generally those intended to be used as textbooks. Downs 1992 and Pauly 1988 were early attempts based upon the great masters tradition (Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven), a focus also found in Taruskin 2005. Blume 1979 is an important early study of the development of musical style. Pestelli 1984 and Rushton 1986 are based upon genre, though the latter also contains composer-specific discussion. Rice 2012 is a short overview volume based upon geographical centers in which the style of the period developed.

  • Blume, Friedrich. Classic and Romantic Music: A Comprehensive Survey. London: Faber, 1979.

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    This small book is still important in discussing the continuity of stylistic developments between the Classical and Romantic periods. Although written more from a philosophical-aesthetical point of view, it is a useful primer in understanding many of the reasons behind the history of the period.

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  • Downs, Philip G. Classical Music: The Era of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. New York: Norton, 1992.

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    This is part of the general Norton Introduction to Music History series, principally intended as a general overview of the period. Although mainly focused upon the biography and contributions of three acknowledged principal figures, it includes a wealth of ancillary material in the form of discussion of social contexts, development of musical genres, and musical centers.

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  • Pauly, Reinhard G. Music in the Classic Period. 3d ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.

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    Following its initial publication in 1965 as part of the Prentice-Hall History of Music series, it attempted to fill a void in the Norton Music History series. There is good introduction on the generic and specific concepts of Classicism in music, with further chapters devoted to genres, including the symphony, art song, sacred music, opera, chamber music, and sonata.

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  • Pestelli, Giorgio. The Age of Mozart and Beethoven. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511597275Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This is a now-dated overview of the music of the Classical Era, divided into two sections. The first is generic, devoted to instrumental and vocal music. The second section focuses on Mozart and Beethoven, with discussions of genre and style as reflected in the music of these composers.

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  • Rice, John. Music in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Norton, 2012.

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    Takes the approach of a musical grand tour throughout Europe, with a brief excursus into the North American continent (including Jamaica). It discusses the intellectual, cultural, and sociological views of music and musicians of the period. It comes with an anthology of twenty-nine representative compositions, all of which are provided with some analytical commentary. The only drawback is that it ignores a number of important areas of music, including Scandinavia.

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  • Rushton, Julian. Classical Music: A Concise History from Gluck to Beethoven. New York and London: Thames and Hudson, 1986.

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    A concisely written survey that is developed mainly according to genre, the work is accessible and meant primarily for the knowledgeable reader. The approach reflects brief statements that attempt to encompass the period by touching momentarily upon a wide variety of topics. Some analysis and fifty illustrations are provided, but there are not any musical examples outside of the latter.

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  • Taruskin, Richard. The Oxford History of Western Music. 6 vols. New York: Oxford, 2005.

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    Volume 2 of this set, the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, offers an overview of the Classical Era with emphasis upon Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. The subject matter tends to be a bit perfunctory on general topics, but there is a good explanation of the transition from the Baroque period and to the Romantic period, with a good range of standard repertory examples.

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  • Wellesz, Egon, and Fredrick Sternfeld. The Age of Enlightenment: 1745–1790. Vol. 7 of New Oxford History of Music. Edited by Gerald Abraham. London: Oxford University Press, 1973.

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    Volume 7 in the New Oxford History of Music series; approaches the period from a largely generic point of view. The coverage of the various genres is broad in terms of geographical scope and contains numerous musical examples drawn from a wide variety of composers.

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Collections of Essays

These are generally broad and comprehensive works that contain contributions from a number of authors under a general editor. The exception is the three-volume set (Heartz 1995, Heartz 2003, and Heartz 2009), where the essays are all by a single author. Fubini 1994 (cited under Source Readings) views the Classical Era from an intellectual point of view, while Keefe 2009 and Pass and Csáky 1995 have a broader focus according to the individual contributors. Rosand 1985 has essays by major musicological scholars of this period, while Zaslaw 1989 approaches the era from a geographical point of view. Both Parker 2006 and Murray 2011 (cited under Geographical Studies) include essays on a broader spectrum of 18th-century music.

  • Heartz, Daniel. Haydn, Mozart, and the Viennese School: 1740–1780. New York: Norton, 1995.

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    This is the first of a three-volume set that grew out of an initial attempt to write a history of music in the Classical Era as part of the old Norton Music History. It includes a formidable amount of research on styles and genres, as well as a generous number of musical examples and illustrations with a focus on Vienna.

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  • Heartz, Daniel. Music in European Capitals: The Galant Style 1720–1780. New York: Norton, 2003.

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    The second of the three-volume set that grew out of an initial attempt to write a history of music in the Classical Era as part of the old Norton Music History. It includes a formidable amount of research on virtually all styles and composers, with discussion of styles, genres, and a generous number of musical examples and illustrations.

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  • Heartz, Daniel. Mozart, Haydn, and Early Beethoven: 1781–1802. New York: Norton, 2009.

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    The third of the three-volume set that grew out of an initial attempt to write a history of music in the Classical Era as part of the old Norton Music History, it focuses on the music of the three most celebrated composers during a twenty-year span at the end of the period.

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  • Keefe, Simon, ed. The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Music. Cambridge History of Music. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

    DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521663199Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Part of the Cambridge History of Music series, it covers the Classical Era through essays by twenty-three different authors. The articles are broad and comprehensive. They take a generic approach, discussing music in the church, theater, chamber, concert room, etc., from a geographical perspective (also see Murray 2011, cited under Geographical Studies). Stemming from the joint conference of the Haydn Society and Society for Eighteenth-Century Music held in 2008, this work contains thirteen essays on Haydn and other 18th-century composers, with a wide variety of topics.

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  • Parker, Mara, ed. Music in Eighteenth-Century Life: Cities, Courts, Churches. Ann Arbor, MI: Steglein, 2006.

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    This series of seven essays was derived from the first biennial conference of the Society for Eighteenth-Century Music in 2004. It covers a variety of geographical-musical topics.

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  • Pass, Walter, and Moritz Csáky, eds. Europa im Zeitalter Mozarts. Vienna: Böhlau, 1995.

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    This is a collection of twenty-six essays devoted to a general overview of the music of the Classical Era, with individual essays on various aspects and topics, ranging from Mozart and freemasonry to French encyclopaedists. (Title translation: Europe in the Age of Mozart).

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  • Rosand, Ellen, ed. Classical Music: Garland Library of the History of Western Music. Vol. 6. New York: Garland, 1985.

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    This is a compendium volume of recent significant essays on the history of music in the Classical Era drawn from major journals and reprinted with permission. Authors include Ludwig Finscher, Jens Peter Larsen, James Webster, Jan LaRue, Eugene Wolf, Jane Stevens, and Leonard Ratner.

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  • Zaslaw, Neal, ed. The Classical Era: From the 1740s to the End of the 18th Century. Man and Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989.

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    This is a series of essays by knowledgeable scholars of the period organized according to geographical location (Italy, Vienna, Paris, Salzburg, Bohemia, Mannheim, North Germany, Esterháza, London, Stockholm, Spain, and Philadelphia). The emphasis is upon the role of music in society, with little discussion of the music itself.

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Anthologies

There is only one specific anthology of music from this period, Kirby 1979, although most general music histories have sections or separate interconnected anthologies containing exemplary scores.

  • Kirby, Frank E. Music in the Classic Period: An Anthology with Commentary. New York: Schirmer, 1979.

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    The anthology presents representative pieces in score, with the majority of works coming from Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven. A chapter entitled “Background” includes a selection of pieces by Pergolesi (in vocal score), Giovanni Battista Sammartini, Domenico Scarlatti, Johann Stamitz, C. P. E. Bach, and Gluck. The introductions are perfunctory.

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Dictionaries

Modern dictionaries of music in the Classical Era are relatively rare, generally being subsumed into broader historical reference works. The bulk of the early dictionaries (Gerber 1966, Dlabacz 1815, and Fétis 2010) date from the 19th century, with mostly brief biographical entries. Van Boer 2012 is a broad-spectrum reference volume designed for lexicographical information.

  • Dlabacz, Johann Gottfried [Dlabač, Jan Bohumir]. Allegemeines historisches Künstler-Lexicon für Böhmen und zum Theil auch für Mähren und Schlesien. Prague: Haase, 1815.

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    This work contains entries for the Czech-speaking areas of 18th-century Europe based upon primary sources and anecdotes. It has not been reprinted in a modern edition, and the information is often subjective. (Title translation: General historical lexicon of artists for Bohemia, and partly also for Moravia and Silesia.) Full text available online.

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  • Fétis, François-Joseph. Biographie universelle des musiciens et bibliographie générale de la musique. Charleston, SC: BiblioLife, 2010.

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    First appearing in 1835, with a multivolume full second edition in 1860 in Paris by Didot fréres et fils (reprinted in facsimile in Brussels in 1972), this dictionary is mainly devoted to composers from the 18th century, many of whom are difficult to trace historically. This modern reprint includes the revisions by Authur Pougin. (Title translation: Universal biography of musicians and general bibliography of music).

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  • Gerber, Ernst Ludwig. Neues historisch-biographisches Lexikon der Tonkünstler. Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck- und Verlaganstalt, 1966.

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    First published in 1790, with an expanded second edition published 1812–1814 by Kühnel in Leipzig, this seminal lexicon contains both historical and anecdotal entries largely garnered from primary sources with some subjective material. It is an important source of contemporaneous information. (Title translation: New historical-biographical lexicon of composers).

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  • van Boer, Bertil. Historical Dictionary of Music of the Classical Period. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2012.

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    The dictionary is part of the Historical Dictionaries series published by Scarecrow Press. It contains over 1,000 brief alphabetical entries on composers, institutions, genres, terms, places, instruments, and other items of significance during the period 1728–1800. Included are an introductory overview, a timeline, and a selected bibliography. It is mainly intended as a quick reference tool.

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Journals

Although articles on 18th-century topics can be found in general journals devoted to music history, only Eighteenth-Century Music is exclusively devoted to the Classical Era, defined as the long 18th century.

  • Eighteenth-Century Music. 2004–.

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    A journal published by Cambridge University Press that specializes in music of the Classical Era. Individual essays range from topical discussions about the chronology of the period, new discoveries, analytical essays, and reviews (often of conferences, books, music, and occasionally recordings). This is a main resource for music of the era, particularly as a forum for composers and works that are somewhat more esoteric.

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Source Readings

These works attempt to provide a selection of important contemporaneous documentation for the Classical Era. Allanbrook 1997 takes its selection from an earlier version by Oliver Strunk, while Fubini 1994 is more extensive and broader in scope with cultural intersections.

  • Allanbrook, Wye J. Strunk’s Source Readings in Music History. Vol. 5, The Late Eighteenth Century. Edited by Leo Treitler. New York: Norton, 1997.

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    This is the revised edition of the volume of Source Readings in Music History that was originally published in 1950 by William Oliver Strunk. This revised version contains twenty-three excerpts and readings ranging from selections of performance practice treatises of Johann Joachim Quantz, Leopold Mozart, and C. P. E. Bach, as well as aesthetical commentary by Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Christoph Willibald von Gluck. Historical excerpts include Charles Burney and Johann Nikolas Forkel. It is meant mainly for undergraduate history survey courses.

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  • Fubini, Enrico. Music and Culture in Eighteenth-Century Europe: A Source Book. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

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    A collection of essays by over thirty authors from the 18th century, mainly in excerpt format, this work serves as a source of contemporaneous views on how music and culture interacted during the Classical Era. The excerpts are drawn from a broad geographic spectrum in English translation that is serviceable and presents a good overview of the intellectual thoughts of the period.

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Style

Brook 1970 is a classic essay defining the stylistic movement known as Sturm und Drang, while Gjerdingen 2007 offers a seminal study that defines the galant styles of the earlier part of the century. Fubini 1994 points out directions for future cultural and stylistic studies, while Larsen 1988 and Landon 1970 both attempt to define the period through the development of stylistic trends. Ratner 1980 and Rosen 1972 are the initial forays into the attempt to define a Classical style, while Rosand 1985 compiles various stylistic studies by important scholars formerly published in journals into an accessible compendium.

  • Brook, Barry. “Sturm und Drang and the Romantic Period in Music.” Studies in Romanticism 9 (1970): 269–284.

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    This article is the classic study of the movement known as Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) and how it equates to musical manifestations. Included are terminology, examples, and concept studies, though it does not link the literary movement from which the movement is taken to the music beyond simple comparisons. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Fubini, Enrico. Music and Culture in Eighteenth-Century Europe: A Source Book. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

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    Originally published in Italian (Musica e cultura nel Settecento europeo [Turin, Italy: EDT/Musica, 1986]), this work includes a somewhat schematically based view from a cultural-historical perspective. It is a useful guideline for further scholarly exploration, though it is not a broad-based discussion.

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  • Gjerdingen, Robert. Music in the Galant Style. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

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    This focuses upon the development of the early musical style of the Classical Era during a particularly important transition from older forms and genres. It focuses upon a more analytical approach that is crucial to understanding the music, performance practice, and how it evolved.

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  • Landon, H. C. Robbins. Essays on the Viennese Classical Style: Gluck, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. New York: Macmillan, 1970.

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    A series of twelve essays on various topics surrounding music in Vienna during this period by one of the most prolific scholars. There is no central theme or topic apart from the notion of a Viennese style, with each essay addressing a single issue. This is useful as an overview of concepts and conventional history of the music of the period.

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  • Larsen, Jens Peter. Handel, Haydn, and the Viennese Classical Style. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1988.

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    This work is an overview approach to the long 18th century, created from longstanding individual research by one of the most important scholars of the older generation.

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  • Ratner, Leonard. Classic Music: Expression, Form, and Style. New York: Schirmer, 1980.

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    This is a seminal work that focuses upon the various forms developed during the Classical Era. Although most of the examples are drawn from the main composers of the period, Ratner nonetheless shows how form and structure were more widespread and developed in parallel across the region.

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  • Rosand, Ellen, ed. Classical Music. New York: Garland, 1985.

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    This comprises Volume 7 of the Garland Library of the History of Western Music. It contains twelve essays reprinted from musicological journals, which represent some of the seminal discussions on the style and music of this period.

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  • Rosen, Charles. The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven. New York: Norton, 1972.

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    This is the seminal study of genre and form during the Classical Era. Although somewhat dated, it nonetheless offers perceptive analyses of music showing its development by mainly these three composers. It is a good overview in describing the main genres of the period and how they were formulated.

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Genre

Studies devoted to the Classical Era focus on specific genres, often presenting them within an historical context. Morrow and Churgin 2012 explores the symphony; DelDonna and Polzonetti 2009 is a compendium of articles by various authors on opera. Kirkendale 1979 and Newman 1983 are seminal studies on chamber musical genres, while Smither 1987 is a comprehensive study of the oratorio. Schmuhl 2011 and McClelland 2012 both use generic trademarks with opera and performance practice to outline the period. DelDonna 2008 includes more varied topical essays on genre.

  • DelDonna, Anthony, ed. Genre in Eighteenth Century Music. Ann Arbor, MI: Steglein, 2008.

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    Conference proceedings from the second biennial conference of the Society for Eighteenth-Century Music held in 2006; the eleven essays focus on various aspects of musical genre in Italy, Germany, and England.

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  • DelDonna, Anthony, and Pierpaolo Polzonetti, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Eighteenth-Century Opera. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

    DOI: 10.1017/CCOL9780521873581Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Essays by fifteen individual authors, each of whom discusses opera from a geographical perspective. The tone and comprehensiveness vary with the essay, but in general the collection gives a good overview of the position maintained by opera during this period.

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  • Kirkendale, Warren. Fugue and Fugato in Rococo and Classical Chamber Music. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1979.

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    Standard study of the use of counterpoint in chamber works of the 18th century. It covers the development of various contrapuntal devices arranged according to composer and geographical location. This work is a fundamental resource for style analysis of the period.

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  • McClelland, Clive. Ombra: Supernatural Music in the Eighteenth Century. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2012.

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    A study of the oracle or supernatural topoi of opera in the Classical Era. Discusses stylistic attributes that are associated with such appearances, including key, rhythmic, and articulation effects, as well as stylistic trademarks or stereotypes.

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  • Morrow, Mary Sue, and Bathia Churgin, eds. The Symphonic Repertoire. Vol. 1. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2012.

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    Volume 1 of the series, entitled The Eighteenth-Century Symphony and part of a five-volume history of the symphony authored by A. Peter Brown, features essays by twenty-two authors. Sections focus on both larger geographical areas and principal cities/courts, with separate discussions and analysis of symphonies of specific composers. A CD of selected symphonies is included.

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  • Newman, William S. The Sonata in the Classic Era. 3d ed. New York: Norton, 1983.

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    The author’s work, first published in 1963, has been updated with new information, and while it is in need of further emendation, it still remains an important monumental work on the generic sonata of the period. The number of musical examples is limited, and sometimes the analysis is perfunctory.

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  • Schmuhl, Boje, ed. Zur Aufführungspraxis von Musik der Klassik. Augsburg, Germany: Wiβner-Verlag, 2011.

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    A collection of essays drawn from the performance practice conference at Kloster Michaelstein, Blankenburg, Germany in 2008, this includes material both in German and in English. The twenty-three essays are arranged topically and geographically and include numerous diagrams, charts, and illustrations to present a broad overview of the period. (Title translation: On the performance practice of the music of the Classical Era).

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  • Smither, Howard E. A History of the Oratorio. Vol. 3, The Oratorio in the Classical Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987.

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    Part of a four-volume series, it is still the most comprehensive study of the genre in the period. The author explores the oratorio throughout Europe, including numerous musical analyses and illustrations. The chapters are geographically arranged, and there is an excellent discussion on the dissemination of the genre.

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Geographical Studies

These studies present overviews of the Classical Era with special emphasis upon individual countries or geographical locations. Findeĭzen 2008 and Ritzarev 2006 focus on Russia, while Jones 2000 and Johnstone 1990 use a compendium approach to outline the period in the British Isles. The former is based upon a similar overview by various authors (Jones 1996) for Austria. Jonsson 1994 is an exhaustive historical-generic study of Sweden, while Boyd and Carreras López 1998 uses seventeen authors to outline the Classical Era in Spain. Both Parker 2006 and Murray 2011 are compendiums as reports from the Society for Eighteenth-Century Music conferences.

  • Boyd, Malcolm, and Juan José Carreras López. Music in Spain during the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

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    This is a collection of essays by seventeen authors discussing the development of music in Spain and her colonies during the Classical Era. Each is focused upon either a stylistic or generic topic, or on the works of composers and their place of employment.

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  • Findeĭzen, Nicolaj. The History of Music in Russia from Antiquity to 1800. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.

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    This two-volume work, originally published in Russia (and in Russian) in 1928, has as its second volume The Music of the Eighteenth Century, a thorough study of music in Imperial Russia, with a focus on the time of Catherine the Great. It is comprehensive and includes numerous musical examples.

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  • Johnstone, H. Diack. Music in Britain in the Eighteenth Century. Vol. 4 of Blackwell History of Music in Britain. Edited by Roger Fiske. Oxford: Blackwell, 1990.

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    An essay collection by eight authors focused upon the chronological development of music, especially sacred works, mainly in England during the Classical Era. Takes as its point of departure the long 18th century, meaning that there are essays on George Frederick Handel and his contemporaries, as well as material on post-1800 Britain. Music in Scotland and Ireland is also included peripherally.

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  • Jones, David Wyn, ed. Music in Eighteenth-Century Austria. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

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    This comprises essays by eleven authors encompassing a less historical overview. The individual essays include studies on musical institutions, genres, and persons, attempting to give a view of music in Austria outside of Viennese Classicism. It is of limited use as a comprehensive overview.

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  • Jones, David Wyn, ed. Music in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2000.

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    This is a companion work to Jones 1996, likewise with eleven authors. There is no comprehensive theme to the individual articles, but rather the compendium of institutions, genres, style, and musicians presents an idea of the level of activity in Great Britain during the Classical Era.

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  • Jonsson, Leif, ed. Musiken i Sverige. 4 vols. Stockholm: Fischer, 1994.

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    Volume 2 of this set, entitled Frihetstid och Gustaviansk Tid 1720–1810 (Age of Liberty and Gustavian Period, 1720–1810) is devoted to the history of music in Sweden during the Classical Era. Individual chapters were written by thirteen authors, covering subjects including composers, genres, and social environment within which music flourished. It is only in Swedish. (Title translation: Music in Sweden).

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  • Murray, Sterling, ed. Haydn and His Contemporaries: Selected Papers from the Joint Conference of the Society for Eighteenth-Century Music and the Haydn Society of North America, Claremont, CA, 29 February–2 March, 2008. Ann Arbor, MI: Steglein, 2011.

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    This volume comprises the conference report of the joint conference of the Haydn Society of North American and the Society for Eighteenth-Century Music held in California in 2008. It is a series of twelve articles, half of which are on Joseph Haydn and the other on various aspects of 18th-century musical life, ranging from American music to the French vocal romance.

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  • Parker, Mara, ed. Music in Eighteenth Century Life: Cities, Courts, Churches. Papers presented at the first conference of the Society for Eighteenth-Century Music, 30 April–2 May 2004, Georgetown University, Washington, DC. Ann Arbor, MI: Steglein, 2006.

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    Compendium of essays drawn from the first biennial conference of the Society for Eighteenth-Century Music held in Georgetown in 2004. The essays have no particular theme overall but instead reflect the varied research agendas of the participants. Includes topics such as the galant style, musical exoticism, and early publication history.

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  • Ritzarev, Marina. Eighteenth-Century Russian Music. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2006.

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    An excellent discussion of music in Imperial Russia of the 18th century, this work provides a sociological framework for composers and their milieu. It contains some musical examples, but these are only marginally analyzed. It is most interesting in its depiction of folk elements and how a proto-nationalist cultural idiom was developed, including work by imported Italian composers such as Sarti, Paisiello, and Cimarosa.

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