Music Electronic and Computer Music Instruments
by
Anne Acker
  • LAST MODIFIED: 24 May 2017
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199757824-0204

Introduction

The category of electronic musical instruments has a large and diverse membership. Evolving from their early experimental origins through the popular fame of the alien sounding Theremin to the present, these instruments have become a ubiquitous part of the avant-garde, rock and popular music worlds. While they are properly a subset of electrophones (instruments that produce vibrations that must pass through a loudspeaker to be heard), common usage includes electric or electroacoustic instruments. Technically, electronic instruments must utilize electronic circuitry as a necessary component for sound generation, and, in fact, the later evolution and sound production of most electrophones typically involves electronic circuitry. This article will employ the common inclusive usage of the term. The development of electronic instruments is now inseparable from that of electricity, electronics, and experimental and popular music as well as computers and computer music. Additionally, their similarities to and differences from acoustic instruments both influence and reflect society and the changing world. Always highly diverse in nature, in terms of both the instruments themselves and the music made, the field of electronic instruments further changed dramatically beginning in the 1980s and continuing today with the rapid evolution of smaller, much faster computers with greatly increased memory and retrieval times. This allows real-time sound generation facilitating the development of many different forms of controllers and the utilization of robots and hand-held and wearable wireless mobile devices. This merging of electronic musical instruments and computers has muddied or eliminated any prior lines between computers, computer music, composition, recording technology, and electronic instruments. The range of resources is similarly diverse with material found in the popular, scientific, engineering, and academic arenas. Given the recent rapid pace of developments and the increasing use of often evanescent websites for documentation, finding quality up-to-date sources can be challenging. Still, for the study of the history of vintage instruments and technologies, some older resources can be superior to newer sources and popular publications sometimes superior to scholarly ones. This article guides the reader through the available literature on subject areas related to electronic musical instruments.

General Overviews

These sources provide a general overview, definitions and a survey of the development and evolution of electronic instruments, each with a distinctive approach and focus. Holmes 2012 and Manning 2013 provide the most general overviews suitable for introductory courses as well as general study or reference. Holmes 2012 additionally includes unique and important coverage of international aspects and women’s contributions. Davies and Quanten 2014 contains the most up-to-date formal definitions and categorization systems, important for musicologists and other researchers, as well as for a detailed understanding of how the instruments evolved and components interrelate. Davies 2014, an extensive, updated, well-researched version of the same article from the 1st edition, is comprehensive and detailed, making it an essential resource for general information, history, and social, commercial, and economic aspects as well as for further references. Chadabe 1997 uniquely provides an overview that includes interviews with practicing developers and musicians from the important period of the middle to the end of the 20th century. Collins 2010 is a fast-moving, high-level practical textbook for developers and designers for today’s computer-based electronic instruments, but it also includes an excellent overview, history, and superb references. Collins, et al. 2013 is unique in its coverage of dynamic electronic performance, sound art, and multimedia using a distinctive social query approach to presenting the general overview and history. It serves as an important supplement to the other references cited here. Dean 2009 provides yet another approach to history and overview, including excellent coverage of electroacoustic development as well as unique coverage of sensor-based instruments and laptops as performing instruments.

  • Chadabe, Joel. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique overview especially of the period from the middle to the late 20th century using many interviews with developers and performers to present the history of electronic musical instruments. Useful at every level.

    Find this resource:

  • Collins, Nick. Introduction to Computer Music. Chichester, UK: John Wiley, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Up-to-date work, characterized by extreme breadth; introductory but fast moving. Despite the title, very much about the resulting electronic instruments. Useful for students or professionals, not recommended for novices; features algorithms and use of pseudo-code to keep programming examples from being language specific. Superb references for deeper study.

    Find this resource:

  • Collins, Nick, Margaret Schedel, and Scott Wilson. Electronic Music. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511820540Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Excellent if selective summary of the history and development of both popular and academic arenas. Well-written, introductory-level volume suited to non-specialists requiring no mathematical, scientific, or technical knowledge yet discusses topics and questions rarely found elsewhere, so useful at every level. Addresses live electronic music, sound art, and multimedia; great photos and diagrams.

    Find this resource:

  • Davies, Hugh. “Electronic Instruments.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Laurence Libin, 151–193. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive, up-to-date overview yet with copious details regarding terminology, methods, history, and development by region, types of instruments, and social and commercial aspects. Large and varied bibliography for deeper study. Important reference for context and for pointers to deeper, more focused research.

    Find this resource:

  • Davies, Hugh, and Maarten Quanten. “Electrophone.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Laurence Libin, 197–200. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article clarifies the formal definition and distinctions of electrophones and their subcategories as well as their historical and practical evolution. It also provides an excellent summary of the instrument category though at a level most useful for graduate students and other scholarly researchers.

    Find this resource:

  • Dean, Roger T., ed. The Oxford Handbook of Computer Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of essays by experts in electronic and computer music-making that surveys the history and development of the field to the present time. Includes a broad introduction to the electroacoustic field and its history. Unique coverage of sensor-based musical instruments and laptop computer music performance. Academic approach, useful for college courses or independent study.

    Find this resource:

  • Holmes, Thom. Electronic and Experimental Music: Technology, Music, and Culture. London: Routledge, 2012.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive history of electronic music and analog and digital synthesis techniques. This edition includes unique coverage of electronic music development worldwide, its use in jazz and folk rock, and of important women in the field. Designed for classroom use. Companion website includes listening guides, audio, and video links.

    Find this resource:

  • Manning, Peter. Electronic and Computer Music. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746392.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive coverage of the evolution of electronic and computer music in both commercial and experimental research realms. Addresses use of digital audio workstations, laptops, the Internet, new controllers, and interfaces. Well written, accessible; useful for introductory levels.

    Find this resource:

Historical and Social Overviews

These sources provide coverage of historical and social aspects of electronic music instruments. Several are collections of scholarly articles or essays, including Braun 2002, Collins and d’Escriván 2007, Dean 2009, and Weium and Boon 2013. Each article covers a different aspect of historical or social issues from a unique point of view, making these excellent supplements to the general but more thorough historical overview with interwoven social discussions provided in Davies 2014. Additional sources address significant gaps in the more general overviews. Smirnov 2013 publishes information only recently available regarding music technology in Russia and the Soviet Union in the 20th century. Rodgers 2010 has the most extensive coverage of women’s contributions, though a number of important women are mentioned in Davies 2014. Dean 2009 is unique in its coverage of the historical development of computers, a critical area for understanding the development of electronic musical instruments. While Rhea 1972 (cited under Biographies of Significant Individuals) is older, it is still a superb reference for developments in the United States as well as for biographical information on important information regarding specific electronic instruments and related technology not available elsewhere. For the important popular and rock music viewpoint, Trynka and Bacon 1996 gives a practical and entertaining, yet informative, trip through the history of rock instrumentation, thus providing an important balance to the academically-oriented surveys.

  • Braun, Hans-Joachim, ed. Music and Technology in the Twentieth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Essays on a variety of subjects related to bidirectional influences between society and electronic instruments. Discusses changes in aesthetic perception of electronic and general music. Excellent supplement to traditional overviews. A thought-provoking volume for amateurs and scholars of electronic instruments, technology, and society.

    Find this resource:

  • Collins, Nicholas, and Julio d’Escriván, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique diverse essays by important researchers and artist/musicians. Comprehensive timeline. Fine worldwide summary excepting Russia. Perfect for seminar readings. Includes much material for beginning and advanced students. No physics required. Includes history and development of electroacoustic instruments, computer history, network, audiovisual, music studios, live music, graphic sound, robotic instruments.

    Find this resource:

  • Davies, Hugh. “Electronic Instruments.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Laurence Libin, 151–193. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Extensively updated from the 1st edition. Provides in one place an extended and broad coverage with good depth on the historical development of the field running the gamut of subcategories from earliest to present. Excellent international scope. Integrated discussion of social and economic aspects. Essential resource, useful for all.

    Find this resource:

  • Dean, Roger T. The Oxford Handbook of Computer Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Collection of articles by different experts. Historical overview of the development of computers, useful to non-engineers. Music technology, digital audio workstations, sound synthesis, digital control. Unique computer music technology chronology from 1939 to 2000, including selected significant musical events, main technological events of the times, and computer music events.

    Find this resource:

  • Rodgers, Tara. Pink Noises: Women on Electronic Music and Sound. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822394150Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique coverage of important women in the history of electronic instrument development and practice, using interview method. Essential gap filler for any level. Unique inclusion of glossary of terms used. See website Pinknoises.

    Find this resource:

  • Smirnov, Andrej. Sound in Z: Experiments in Sound and Electronic Music in Early 20th Century Russia. London: Koenig, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique coverage of the history, social issues, and development of electronic music instruments in Russia that fills gaps and makes corrections to prior knowledge based on information not previously available. Includes important information on graphic sound, Theremin, and noise orchestras. Essential for historical breadth, Russian developments.

    Find this resource:

  • Trynka, Paul, and Tony Bacon. Rock Hardware: 40 Years of Rock Instrumentation. San Francisco: Miller Freeman, 1996.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Well-written, accessible coverage of the history, use, and development of electronic instruments in the evolution of rock music. Many color photos. Includes electric guitars, basses, amps, electronic percussion, keyboards, sound systems and recording technology, and more. Gives practical understanding of how to choose and combine old and new tools and technology.

    Find this resource:

  • Weium, Frode, and Tim Boon, eds. Material Culture and Electronic Sound. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Scholarly Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Collection of superb essays by a range of scholars. Excellent history of the development of electronic instruments and individuals in the field not covered elsewhere. Public reception of historical and modern instruments, e.g., turn-tablism, tape recorders, samplers, and drum machines. Development in Austria. User interfaces. Important social coverage and rare item details.

    Find this resource:

Biographies of Significant Individuals

There are as yet few reliable separate biographies of the pioneers of electronic musical instruments available. Among existing books, Young 1989 covers Hugh Le Caine and Fjellestad 2005 is a documentary about Robert Moog. Libin 2014 contains well-researched entries with bibliographies about many notable figures, making it a fine starting point. Rhea 1972 remains an important resource discussing many pioneers in the field. Deutsch 1993 gives an easy reading introduction to the most important figures in electroacoustics. Donhauser 2007 is the most detailed work about the German and Austrian inventors and their instruments during the important years from the 1920s to the 1950s. Many contemporary electronic musical instrument creators, makers, and users have websites of their own. Fan websites must be read with discernment.

  • Deutsch, Herbert A. Electroacoustic Music: The First Century. Miami: Belwin Mills, 1993.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Begins with a good summary of some of the most important figures in electroacoustic electronic instruments, including Thaddeus Cahill, Max Mathews, and Robert Moog. Many photographs. An easy introduction.

    Find this resource:

  • Donhauser, Peter. Elektrische Klangmaschinen: Die Pionierzeit in Deutschland und Österreich. Vienna: ‪Böhlau Verlag, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Exclusive, well-researched work about the development of electronic instruments and their creators in Germany and Austria from the 1920s through the 1950s; includes Harold Bode, Oskar Sala, Oskar Vierling, Friedrich Trautwein, Jörg Mager, and others. Suitable for all. Detailed history and excellent details and drawings about the individual instruments. Translated as “Electric sound machines: The pioneering period in Germany and Austria.”

    Find this resource:

  • Fjellestad, Hans. Moog. DVD. Brooklyn, NY: Plexigroup, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Feature-length videodisc documentary about Robert Moog’s life and inventions.

    Find this resource:

  • Libin, Laurence, ed. The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. 5 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Contains biographies of many notable figures of electronic musical instrument design, including technical and personal aspects. Excellent for fast access to well-researched information and further references.

    Find this resource:

  • Rhea, Thomas. “The Evolution of Electronic Musical Instruments in the United States.” PhD diss., George Peabody College for Teachers, 1972.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Essential reference that includes biographical information on important individuals, including Jörg Mager, Frederick Terman, Robert Moog, Benjamin Miessner, and others less well known along with their inventions.

    Find this resource:

  • Young, Gayle. The Sackbut Blues: Hugh Le Caine, Pioneer in Electronic Music. Ottawa, ON: National Museum of Science and Technology, 1989.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Pleasant accessible read. Balances personal and technical aspects of his life well. Thorough coverage from interviews and primary sources.

    Find this resource:

Bibliographies

Stand-alone print bibliographies are nonexistent for this technological field. Except for some partial print bibliographies within other sources, such publications have been supplanted by Internet web pages and associated search engines. Many existing Internet bibliographies are subjective and incomplete, or they have broken links and do not yet provide an adequate substitute for a well-researched, comprehensive bibliography. In contrast, Wick 1997, though obviously dated, is the only comprehensive dedicated print bibliography, and it remains a fine resource for works up to its publication date. Davies 2014 includes a large current and well-selected bibliography broken down according to the many sections covered in the overview article, while Vail 2014 provides a bibliography that supplements Davies with periodicals and films, as well as books, focusing mostly on synthesizers. Several notable practicing researchers in the field have web pages with excellent reading lists for university courses on making electronic music. Collins has supplied a class reading list (Nick Collins Reading List), sorted by topic, that is a treasure for anyone interested in the many worlds and applications of electronic musical instruments. Most are academically oriented. Drawn from Jaime Oliver’s class, “Concepts of Instrument in Electronic and Computer Music,” Oliver 2013 has a more eclectic list with specific selections for various topics that provide an excellent overview of the field equally suitable for individuals wishing a fast high level introduction in a form not predigested and summarized. Many magazines and journals in the field, such as Sound on Sound, have online search capabilities for articles they have published. Music Index and RILM Abstracts of Music Literature are useful general bibliographic sources providing search capability and abstracts. RILM Abstracts of Music Literature includes versions of many abstracts in both English and original languages.

Periodicals and Conference Proceedings

Periodicals and conference proceedings are important both for period publications from both the commercial and academic/experimental arenas and for the latest work and instruments due to rapid recent developments in computer-related electronic instruments, since book publishing necessarily lags.

Scholarly Journals and Conference Proceedings

The journals in this section contain articles for the advanced researcher, developer, or musician/artist, and they represent the most recent work in various areas, some related to electronic musical instruments. Publications from the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) (cited under Computer Science Journals and Proceedings) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the Computer Music Journal, Journal of New Music Research, and the Proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) (all cited under Other Scholarly Journals and Proceedings) are peer reviewed. Online access to tables of contents is universally excellent, speeding the sorting process to find relevant issues and articles. Some conference proceedings can be directly accessed, while the others are available online via subscription and can usually be accessed through university libraries. All constitute excellent sources of original research. Articles from all but the Leonardo Music Journal (cited under Other Scholarly Journals and Proceedings) will contain prior work and useful bibliographies as well.

Engineering Journals and Proceedings

Engineering journals and proceedings are important sources for new work on methods, electronic instruments, and interfaces. The Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has a number of publications that may include such work. Conference proceedings are a vast and critical resource for study of new electronic instruments and techniques. Because of the diverse nature of research in electronic musical instruments, the reader is encouraged to start with, but not be limited to, the suggestions cited here.

Computer Science Journals and Proceedings

As engineering and computer science applications overlap, computer science journals and proceedings are important sources for new work on methods, electronic instruments, and interfaces. The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) has a number of publications that may include such work. Conference proceedings are a critical resource for study of this fast-moving area of new electronic instruments and techniques. Because of the diverse nature of research in electronic musical instruments, the reader is encouraged to start with, but not be limited to, the suggestions cited here.

Other Scholarly Journals and Proceedings

These publications require varying degrees of engineering or other technical knowledge as articles can range dramatically in topic area. In general, Computer Music Journal is for technically oriented musicians, engineers, inventors, and composers, as is Csound Journal; however, the latter is geared more toward practical use of projects using the Csound sound and music computer system. The Journal of New Music Research is highly interdisciplinary, containing both electronic and non-electronic articles, but it tends to be more oriented to nontechnical and compositional and artistic pursuits. Leonardo Music Journal is similarly very interdisciplinary, while tending to the avant-garde and philosophical pondering. Organised Sound is dedicated to music and technology, and it is particularly oriented toward electroacoustic music creation and topics, including social impact. The Proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) articles are necessarily much shorter than articles found in the journals described in this section, and they tend to discuss aspects of university research center projects that focus on controller designs for existing or new types of electronic musical instruments.

Non-academic Periodicals

Electronic musical instruments have been and continue to be heavily used in most genres of popular and/or experimental music. Considerable timely information such as reviews and advertising about specific electronic music instruments and other related equipment can be found in periodicals such as Keyboard, Electronic Musician, Guitar World, and Music Tech, the titles of which speak for themselves. There is some overlap, as is also evident from the titles. These sources all provide online access and search capabilities.

Synthesizers

Synthesizers, a critical component in many electronic musical instruments systems, are electronic devices or software systems that create and manipulate audio signals. Vail 2014 is an essential resource for synthesizer knowledge, providing a comprehensive overview along with details of important makes. Vail 2000 focuses on groundbreaking vintage instruments and individuals associated with the instruments beyond that covered in Vail 2014. Brend 2005 presents an accessible history of electronic instruments from the viewpoint of the pop music world with particular treatment of then popular and now rare instruments. Vail 2014, Vail 2000, and especially Brend 2005 require less scientific and technical background than Aikin 2003, Pressing 1992, Shepard 2013, and Schwarz 2006. Pressing 1992, though older, thoroughly covers physical synthesizers and samplers and provides a unique discussion of keyboard and controller performance technique issues. Shepard 2013 is a useful practical textbook about physical and virtual synthesizer elements with exercises and programming algorithms. Aikin 2003 specifically focuses on virtual synthesizers, and it is a handbook for many different commercial programs and software packages. Pinch and Trocco 2002 supplies an alternate academic approach to considering the evolution of early synthesizers using social construction of technology methods. Schwarz 2006 provides an advanced academic discussion of concatenative techniques using databases of actual sounds along with signal processing synthesis methods.

  • Aikin, Jim. Software Synthesizers: The Definitive Guide to Virtual Musical Instruments. San Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2003.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Practical, introductory guide to virtual, that is, software/computer-based synthesizers. Some history. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) discussion. Uniquely useful; discusses many different software packages.

    Find this resource:

  • Brend, Mark. Strange Sounds: Offbeat Instruments and Sonic Experiments in Pop. San Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Accessible history of use of electronic instruments such as the Clavioline by pop and rock music musicians, 1950s to early 21st century. How instruments were used, played, chosen. Excellent view into popular unusual, now rare instruments. Companion CD with sample recordings of instruments using instruments described in the book.

    Find this resource:

  • Pinch, Trevor, and Frank Trocco. “The Social Construction of the Early Electronic Music Synthesizer.” In Music and Technology in the Twentieth Century. Edited by Hans-Joachim Braun, 67–83. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Considers technical development of the synthesizer (primarily Moog and Buchla), relationship to current social, cultural developments using SCOT (Social Construction of Technology) techniques. Unique, interesting, based on interviews due to lack of written data. Information not available elsewhere. Both nontechnical and academic; research and seminar use.

    Find this resource:

  • Pressing, Jeff. Synthesizer Performance and Real-Time Techniques. The Computer Music and Digital Audio Series 8. Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 1992.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Thorough coverage of physical synthesizers and samplers. Does not cover virtual synthesizers. Uniquely covers performance issues including keyboard and continuous controller techniques as well as managing features such as polyphonic pressure and pitch bends for performer. Less technical, accessible; for use by intermediate to advanced learners.

    Find this resource:

  • Schwarz, Diemo. “Concatenative Sound Synthesis: The Early Years.” Journal of New Music Research 35.1 (2006): 3–22.

    DOI: 10.1080/09298210600696857Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comparative survey and taxonomy since the 1950s. Use of large sound segment unit databases and concatenative sound production using samples of actual recordings. Maps early design into this methodology, compares with digital sampling, and recent project techniques including stochastic selection. Analytical, academic, advanced but clear approach; current and future directions.

    Find this resource:

  • Shepard, Brian K. Refining Sound: A Practical Guide to Synthesis and Synthesizers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Clear, concise descriptions of basic synthesizer elements. Includes playing techniques, external sources, and, notably, effects processors. Provides ideas for instruction and further reading. Designed as a textbook, good for classes or self-learning. Hands on exercises. Applicable to hardware, software, virtual, any device, any programming language. Free link to use Crystal software.

    Find this resource:

  • Vail, Mark. Vintage Synthesizers. 2d ed. San Francisco: Miller Freeman, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Outlines groundbreaking analog and digital synthesizers and their makers from 1962 on. Special focus on select instruments. Creator interviews. Photo gallery, lists useful services, museums, websites, and organizations for dealers and owners. Estimated values. Lists of recordings of vintage electronic and electroacoustic. Important resource for history and vintage enthusiasts.

    Find this resource:

  • Vail, Mark. The Synthesizer: A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding, Programming, Playing, and Recording the Ultimate Electronic Music Instrument. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive, essential resource. Covers historical, control, digital, analog, virtual analog, sampling, workstations, recent instruments. Detailed coverage of every significant make. For new or experienced enthusiast. Non-textbook style by an experienced writer in the synthesizer world. Companion website of screenshots and audio of described sounds. Extensive bibliography of books, periodicals, and films.

    Find this resource:

Samplers and Sampling

Many electronic musical instrument systems use sampling methods, historically having begun with tape-based systems and, later, digital methods. General discussions can be found under General Overviews, Historical and Social Overviews, and Synthesizers. The sources in this section present important supplementary coverage. Davies 2014 gives the clearest concise definition of a term that has morphed over the years. Hosken 2015 provides a practical introduction to the concepts and to modern practice. Russ 2013 is more specific to synthesis and sampling than Hosken 2015, yet it adds more breadth, including historical coverage. Naumann and Wagoner 1985 gives a clear view into practices in experimental electronic music studios in the important historical period of the late 1960s to the early 1980s. Rodgers 2010 gives a unique interview with the electronic music pioneer Pauline Oliveras. Samagaio 2002 presents historical, technical, and practical information about the Mellotron, a famous early instrument that remains in use today. De la Motte-Jaber 2002 and Angliss 2013 address social, aesthetic, and reception issues related to sampling in providing unique insights into the history and development of sampling.

  • Angliss, Sarah. “Mimics, Menaces, or New Musical Horizons? Musicians Attitudes toward the First Commercial Drum Machines and Samplers.” In Material Culture and Electronic Sound. Edited by Frode Weium and Tim Boon, 95–130. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Scholarly Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Analysis of reception, history, social aspects, unions, and evolution of samplers and turn-tablism. Discussion includes Chamberlin and Mellotron; provides a unique angle on the history and development of samplers and sampling.

    Find this resource:

  • Davies, Hugh. “Sampler.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Laurence Libin, 373–374. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Clearest concise definition, technical description. Brief history and discussion of the evolution of an often confusing term.

    Find this resource:

  • de la Motte-Jaber, Helga. “Sound Sampling: An Aesthetic Challenge.” In Music and Technology in the Twentieth Century. Edited by Hans-Joachim Braun, 199–206. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Uniquely discusses social and aesthetic issues in the development of sound sampling. Important adjunct to historical coverage. Interesting seminar reading for music technology students or anyone interested in acquiring a greater breadth of historical understanding of the development of sampling.

    Find this resource:

  • Hosken, Dan. An Introduction to Music Technology. 2d ed. New York: Routledge, 2015.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Extremely clearly written and comprehensible introductory book that includes practical coverage of digital sampling, sampling rates, file formats, and related software. Clear definitions and concept explanations. Updated to include handheld mobile devices. Good for classroom use or as a shelf reference; recent updates for the experienced.

    Find this resource:

  • Naumann, Joel, and James D. Wagoner. Analog Electronic Music Techniques in Tape, Electronic, and Voltage-Controlled Synthesizer Studios. New York: Schirmer, 1985.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Older book, but presenting an excellent historical window into the practices of the late 1960s and the 1970s in the experimental electronic music world.

    Find this resource:

  • Rodgers, Tara. Pink Noises: Women on Electronic Music and Sound. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822394150Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique in its coverage of women in the field of electronic musical instruments, using interview method. Includes discussion of tape systems in an interview with important early experimenter Pauline Oliveras. Useful for history and social background as well as a general discussion of tape-based systems. Includes glossary and companion website.

    Find this resource:

  • Russ, Martin. Sound Synthesis and Sampling. 3d ed. New York: Focal Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive, readable, non-mathematical introduction to principles and techniques of commercial and experimental systems. Many illustrations and examples. History timelines for context. Glossary. Useful for the classroom and as a reference for musicians and engineers.

    Find this resource:

  • Samagaio, Frank. The Mellotron Book. Vallejo, CA: ProMusic, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Written by modern skilled enthusiast. Uniquely detailed history of the use and development of important historical tape sampler systems the Chamberlin and the Mellotron. Detailed description of construction. Approachable style, broadly useful. Many photos. Rare and important details for use.

    Find this resource:

Sequencer

Sequencers are essential components of many electronic musical instrument systems. Sequencers are electronic hardware or software that record, edit, and can determine playback of stored sequences through a hardware or software synthesizer or digital keyboard. The clearest, up-to-date overall coverage of sequencers is Acker 2014. Hosken 2015 is an introductory practical, up-to-date guide to using them. While Young 2001 is not as up to date, it provides an accessible clear approach to understanding and using sequencers in a MIDI system. Samagaio 2002 is the most complete coverage of history, technical details, and modern use of the Mellotron, an important early analog sequencer. Angliss 2013 provides a unique study of public reception of sequencers and social aspects in the evolution of sequencers.

  • Acker, Anne Beetem. “Sequencer.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Laurence Libin, 468. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Up-to-date, clear definition and explanation of hardware and software sequencers, details about important early examples. Unique discussion of breadth of use.

    Find this resource:

  • Angliss, Sarah. “Mimics, Menaces, or New Musical Horizons? Musicians Attitudes toward the First Commercial Drum Machines and Samplers.” In Material Culture and Electronic Sound. Edited by Frode Weium and Tim Boon, 95–130. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Scholarly Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique analysis of the history, reception, and social aspects of the evolution of samplers and sequencers; includes study of trade unions.

    Find this resource:

  • Hosken, Dan. An Introduction to Music Technology. 2d ed. New York: Routledge, 2015.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Clear practical introductory coverage of hardware and software sequencers and digital audio workstations suitable for students or new enthusiasts, or for updating knowledge. Updated to include latest computing paradigms, including handheld mobile devices.

    Find this resource:

  • Samagaio, Frank. The Mellotron Book. Vallejo, CA: ProMusic 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Detailed history of the development of and technical details about the important early sequencers, especially the Chamberlin and the Mellotron. Many photos. Essential resource about this type of sequencer and especially about the Mellotron.

    Find this resource:

  • Young, Rob. The MIDI Files. 2d ed. London: Prentice Hall, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    General introduction to MIDI, software and hardware sequencers, digital audio workstations, tracks and channels, etc. Straightforward and practical volume for users; assumes only an input form and some understanding of the sequencer in use.

    Find this resource:

Electronic Music Studios and Digital Audio Workstations

Electronic music sound production typically began in large studios of analog equipment, eventually moving into the digital and software domain. Sources giving general and historical information can be found in the General Overviews, Historical and Social Overviews, and Synthesizers sections of this article. The sources cited in this section give important supplementary viewpoints. Of these, Vail 2014 is the most general, while Chadabe 1997 provides an alternate viewpoint via interviews with developers; it requires only modest technical knowledge. Collins 2007, Hugill 2007, and Schedel 2007 are readable chapters in larger works, each giving a different slant to consideration of the history, development, and role of electronic music studios and recent digital audio workstations. Schedel 2007 includes accounts from important individuals found in electronic music studios worldwide, while Hugill 2007 examines the historical and social context of studios. Collins 2007 emphasizes the role of workstations and studios in interactivity. A work about research in Russia, Smirnov 2013 presents information that was unavailable until recently about electronic music studios and the associated scientists, inventors, and musicians.

  • Chadabe, Joel. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Includes the history and development of important electronic music studios through interviews with developers and performers in the field. Covers equipment and people as well as methods. Important alternate viewpoint of experimental, laboratory, and commercial electronic music studios. Modest technical knowledge required.

    Find this resource:

  • Collins, Nicholas. “Live Electronic Music.” In The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music. Edited by Nicholas Collins and Julio d’Escriván, 38–54. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    DOI: 10.1017/CCOL9780521868617.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Excellent, unique, thought-provoking, approach to the history and development of electronic music, including tape music and live music. Discusses the role of computers, workstations, and interactivity. Excellent introductory, supplemental material on music and technology discussions.

    Find this resource:

  • Hugill, Andrew. “The Origins of Electronic Music.” In The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music. Edited by Nicholas Collins and Julio d’Escriván, 7–23. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An unusual and brilliant discussion examining the historical and social context in the creative development of electronic instruments, including electronic music studios. Excellent supplement to standard overviews. Good for introductory music and technology seminar readings as well general interest readers; includes supplemental information.

    Find this resource:

  • Schedel, Margaret. “Electronic Music and the Studio.” In The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music. Edited by Nicholas Collins and Julio d’Escriván, 24–37. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    DOI: 10.1017/CCOL9780521868617.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Overview of electronic music studios past and present from around the world based largely on interviews with important people in the field. Information not found elsewhere. Useful at any level.

    Find this resource:

  • Smirnov, Andrej. Sound in Z: Experiments in Sound and Electronic Music in Early 20th Century Russia. London: Koenig, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique coverage of the history, social issues, and development of electronic music studios in Russia. Information not available elsewhere, corrects some prior knowledge. Important supplemental information.

    Find this resource:

  • Vail, Mark. The Synthesizer: A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding, Programming, Playing, and Recording the Ultimate Electronic Music Instrument. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive historical discussion of electronic music studios and workstations and associated software and hardware. Companion website with screenshots and audio. Accessible, useful for wide range of readers.

    Find this resource:

Selected Electronic Instrument Categories

Certain electronic instruments are in common enough use so that significant useful literature exists. These include electronic organs, electronic percussion, electronic/digital pianos, and Theremin-type instruments.

Electronic/Digital Pianos/Keyboards

Much information about electronic keyboards and digital pianos is found only in trade and popular periodicals, that are especially useful for model and company specifics. Colbeck 1996 is a collection of such articles over many years of publications, with reviews and information about many models and makers. Trynka and Bacon 1996 includes many electronic keyboards in its overview of electronic instruments and accessories used in the rock music world. Pinksterboer 2009 is a relatively simple practical book for owners and potential buyers but useful for describing aspects of many models. Pressing 1992 stands at a higher level and is unique in its discussion of performance techniques with electronic keyboards. Also see General Overviews, Historical and Social Overviews, Synthesizers, and Periodicals and Conference Proceedings.

  • Colbeck, Julian. Keyfax Omnibus Edition. Emeryville, CA: MixBooks, 1996.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A collection of reviews plus additional information from Colbeck’s experience as a keyboard player and reviewer for Electronic Musician and Keyboard Magazine. Covers a large number of electronic and digital pianos. Excellent source for particular models and as a general study of the market. Primarily popular/rock music viewpoint. Good for collectors and vintage users; includes historical research.

    Find this resource:

  • Pinksterboer, Hugo. Tip Book: Keyboard & Digital Piano; The Complete Guide. 2d ed. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Originally published in 2004 by the Tipbook Company (Zaandam, The Netherlands). Practical guidebook intended for novice owners of digital keyboards, but with helpful information for all introductory levels; serves as a window into the popular use of these instruments worldwide; includes a guide to capabilities and use.

    Find this resource:

  • Pressing, Jeff. Synthesizer Performance and Real-Time Techniques. Computer Music and Digital Audio Series 8. Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 1992.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Distinctive in its coverage of performance techniques, including keyboard controller techniques, managing polyphonic pressure, and pitch bends. Useful for designers and players.

    Find this resource:

  • Trynka, Paul, and Tony Bacon. Rock Hardware: 40 Years of Rock Instrumentation. San Francisco: Miller Freeman, 1996.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Traces the evolution and use of all electronic keyboards and digital pianos through the history of rock music. Many photos; an easy and entertaining book primarily for enthusiasts, but much important and useful information interspersed throughout about types, use, groups, and players.

    Find this resource:

Electronic Organs

Of the literature listed here, Orton 2014 gives the most complete coverage of definitions and history as well as a general discussion, and it is an important starting point for serious study. Anderson 1960 and Eby 1953 are publications geared toward maintenance and owners covering many makes and models; each contains distinct information. Both provide important data that can be easily lost as instruments become obsolete and that are critical for maintenance, preservation, and restoration. Carson 2000 gives a somewhat informal discussion of combo organs from the 1960s with useful information about specific makes and models of this type of electronic organ. Vail 2014 integrates discussion of many firms, makes, and models of electronic organs into this massive detailed, yet accessible overview of synthesizers, making it an important adjunct for any research into electronic organs. Also see General Overviews, Historical and Social Overviews, Synthesizers, and Periodicals and Conference Proceedings.

  • Anderson, H. Emerson. Electronic Organ Handbook. Indianapolis, IN: Howard W. Sams, 1960.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Invaluable extremely detailed period resource for maintenance, preservation. How they work, models, dispositions, maintenance. Intended for service technicians, owners. Describes then common electronic organs: Baldwin, Conn, Gulbransen, Hammond, Kinsman, Thomas, Lowrey, Wurlitzer, and Leslie speakers. Circuit schematics, waveforms, flow diagrams, tone generator charts, tuning, pedal relay switching, etc. Problem solving.

    Find this resource:

  • Carson, Barry. “Combo Organs of the’60s.” In Vintage Synthesizers. Edited by Mark Vail, 250–262. San Francisco: Miller Freeman, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In an easily readable style, the article contains a brief history and personal discussion of instruments the author knew, tonal aspects. Includes light technical discussion, performing groups, photos. Makers include Farfisa, Vox, Baldwin, Wurlitzer, Gibson, Fender. Information difficult to source elsewhere. Useful for enthusiasts and documentarians of all levels.

    Find this resource:

  • Eby, Robert L. Electronic Organs: A Complete Catalogue, Textbook and Manual. Wheaton, IL: Van Campen, 1953.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A detailed period resource written in a textbook style on the subject of maintenance. Covers a large number of electronic organs. Understanding of circuitry important. Invaluable for maintenance, preservation, and restoration as well as understanding of workings.

    Find this resource:

  • Orton, Richard. “Electronic Organ.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Laurence Libin, 193–195. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive, condensed review of definitions, history, and development as well as a general discussion of methods, reception, and digital organs. Important adjunct to other resources. Good starting point for all levels and all purposes.

    Find this resource:

  • Vail, Mark. The Synthesizer: A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding, Programming, Playing, and Recording the Ultimate Electronic Music Instrument. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Contains information about many specific electronic organs interspersed throughout, best located by looking for makers in the index. Details of historical development, firms, creators, performers, and features presented from the viewpoint of the commercial and performance worlds. Useful for organologists, enthusiasts. All levels.

    Find this resource:

Electronic Percussion

The most comprehensive and scholarly overview of electronic percussion is Davies 2014, while Trynka and Bacon 1996, Vail 2000a, Vail 2000b, and Vail 2014 give additional breadth and details about individual product development and details though more from the point of view of the commercial and performance world. Trynka and Bacon 1996 provides significant coverage of the use of electronic percussion in rock music performance by professionals. Horn 1988 is the only source here giving circuitry details, including pin-outs for original integrated circuits critical for equipment analysis and repairs, thus making it appropriate for those with engineering knowledge important for maintenance, preservation, and restoration. Angliss 2013 focuses on social aspects, including history and reception by the public and musician unions, and it is suitable for all levels for discussion and comparison.

  • Angliss, Sarah. “Mimics, Menaces, or New Musical Horizons? Musicians Attitudes toward the First Commercial Drum Machines and Samplers.” In Material Culture and Electronic Sound. Edited by Frode Weium and Tim Boon, 95–130. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Scholarly Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique presentation of history and development with special analysis of reception, history, social aspects, unions, and evolution of drum machines. Useful for all levels, especially for supplementary discussion and for music and technology seminars.

    Find this resource:

  • Davies, Hugh. “Electronic Percussion.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Laurence Libin, 191–196. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Dense, well-organized, useful content, including historical development, discussion of firms and models, descriptions, details of use and methods, and controls. Only source with all these details organized and in one place. Important for anyone doing research on electronic percussion.

    Find this resource:

  • Horn, Delton T. Digital Electronic Music Synthesizers. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books, 1988.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Dated but still important reference for specific period systems, including drum machines, e.g., shows pin-outs for original integrated circuits. Important for maintenance, preservation, and restoration.

    Find this resource:

  • Trynka, Paul, and Tony Bacon. Rock Hardware: 40 Years of Rock Instrumentation. San Francisco: Miller Freeman, 1996.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Thorough coverage of the use of electronic instruments in rock music, including drum machines and other electronic percussion. Many photos; includes information about inventors, firms, music, groups, and individual performers. Concise casual style. Some technical descriptions.

    Find this resource:

  • Vail, Mark. “Linn LM-1 Drum Computer.” In Vintage Synthesizers. By Mark Vail, 289–293. San Francisco: Miller Freeman, 2000a.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Brief discussion of earlier drum machines. Unique detailed description of evolution and creation of the Linn LM-1 as described by Robert Linn in interview. Original cost, specifications, capabilities. Names performers who used it according to Linn. Unique style of presentation for important electronic percussion unit. Accessible.

    Find this resource:

  • Vail, Mark. “Roland CR-78, TR-808, & TR-909: Classic Beatboxes.” In Vintage Synthesizers. By Mark Vail, 289–293. San Francisco: Miller Freeman, 2000b.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discussion of origins of the manufacture of Roland drum machines along with the evolution of microprocessors. Chronological table of Roland Rhythm machines. Photos. Specifications, including original price. Interview with Roland’s then president Ikutaro Kakehashi interspersed for historical details. Informal style; accessible to all levels.

    Find this resource:

  • Vail, Mark. The Synthesizer: A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding, Programming, Playing, and Recording the Ultimate Electronic Music Instrument. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Incorporates discussion of forms of electronic percussion within the text. Necessary to read the index to find all the references. Unique approach to historical and technical presentation. Information about years of production, details, and individuals involved with development; includes photos. An essential resource.

    Find this resource:

Theremin

Created by Lev Sergeyevich Termen, the theremin has captured and held the world’s imagination, and it led the way for other innovations, including the modern synthesizer. Orton 2014 gives an up-to-date history of the inventor and of the instrument’s development and its spin-offs as well as an overview of how it works. Glinsky 2000 is an entertaining history of the instrument and its inventor and their relationship to international espionage. Smirnov 2013 supplements and corrects information about Termen and his instruments, including material not available elsewhere. Sauer 2008 adds to these with a discussion of different types of theremins. Jordà 2007 is a nontechnical history of interactivity and gestural controllers, including the theremin, and it is appropriate for all levels of study, and especially for controller study. Skeldon, et al. 1998 gives a thorough discussion of the physics of the theremin, suitable for engineers and designers. Bachiller Martin, et al. 2012 and Mizumoto, et al. 2009 are high-level scientific and engineering studies examining, respectively, problem solving in human groups and robot performance that shows ongoing research with theremins.

  • Bachiller Martin, Carmen, Jorge Sastre Martinez, Amelia Ricchiuti, Héctor Esteban González, and Carlos Hernández Franco. “Study of the Interference Affecting the Performance of the Theremin.” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation 2012 (2012): 1–9.

    DOI: 10.1155/2012/348151Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Addresses an issue with interference and modified intonation when any object is within three meters of the theremin, such as when playing with other musicians. Demonstrates solutions to the problem. An advanced-level work; an understanding of physics and electronics is required.

    Find this resource:

  • Glinsky, Albert. Theremin: Ether Music and Espionage. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Biography of Termen that looks at the amazing public life made possible by the invention, Termen’s suppression by the Soviets, as well as his other inventions that presaged multimedia and performance art. Details how he used the same technology in his work as a spy.

    Find this resource:

  • Jordà, Sergi. “Interactivity and Live Computer Music.” In The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music. Edited by Nicholas Collins and Julio d’Escriván, 89–106. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Useful history of interactivity and controllers, including gestural controllers such as the theremin. Puts theremins into a more general context and within the development of instruments leading to live computer music. No technical knowledge needed. Appropriate for all levels; a springboard for future work.

    Find this resource:

  • Mizumoto, Takeshi, Hiroshi Tsujino, Toni Takahashi, et al. “Therminist Robot: Development of a Robot Theremin Player with Feedforward and Feedback Arm Control Based on a Theremin’s Pitch Model.” In IROS 2009: October 11–15, 2009, St. Louis, USA; The 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robots and Intelligent Systems. Edited by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Robotics Society of Japan, 2297–2302. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Describes the development of methodologies to allow robots to play the theremin, bringing up interesting questions of feedback for control and motor skills required for performance. Advanced engineering knowledge helpful for full comprehension but generally understandable.

    Find this resource:

  • Orton, Richard. “Theremin.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 4. Edited by Laurence Libin, 763–764. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Up-to-date overview; useful starting point for understanding the theremin. Suitable for all levels. Biographical information, history of development, workings, influence, and related instruments. Most complete single source on the theremin.

    Find this resource:

  • Sauer, Matthias. Die Thereminvox: Konstruktion, Geschichte, Werke. Osnabrücker Beiträge zur systematischen Musikwissenschaft 13. Osnabrück, Germany: Electronic Publishing, 2008.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique detailed discussion of the history of different types of theremins and their use. Biographical chapter on Lev Termen’s life. Essential resource with details of construction, etc. for designers and researchers. Translated as “The theremin: Construction, history, art.”

    Find this resource:

  • Skeldon, Kenneth, Lindsay M. Reid, Viviene McInally, Brendan Dougan, and Craig Fulton. “Physics of the Theremin.” American Journal of Physics 66.11 (November 1998): 945–955.

    DOI: 10.1119/1.19004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses the physics of design and the use of the theremin. Describes the construction of two theremins, one based on original methods and the other using modern electronics. Schematics. Requires advanced technical and physics knowledge. Suitable for designers and instrument analysts.

    Find this resource:

  • Smirnov, Andrei. Sound in Z: Experiments in Sound and Electronic Music in Early 20th Century Russia. London: Koenig, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Based on the author’s own research into documents only available recently. Includes a contextual history of Termen and his invention, as well as more details on his life during the repression of the Soviet regime. Important biographical and contextual political and societal aspects supplementing and correcting other sources.

    Find this resource:

Electroacoustic Instruments

Electroacoustic instruments are frequently classified with electronic musical instruments despite a technical distinction that can be found along with definitions and excellent overall coverage in Davies 2014. Deutsch 1993 covers most important figures and instruments, including many photographs and is an important starting point for study of this subcategory. Barrett 2007 addresses historical, sociological, and technical trends for a different approach to a survey. Kolkowski and Rabinovici 2013 similarly discusses public reception but for some otherwise neglected instruments. Vine 2010 addresses concerns of extinction and formal methods for understanding and preservation.

  • Barrett, Natasha. “Trends in Electroacoustic Music.” In The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music. Edited by Nicholas Collins and Julio d’Escriván, 232–255. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    DOI: 10.1017/CCOL9780521868617.015Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Treats historical, sociological, and technical trends. Good references. Good discussion of “high” versus “low” music, of particular interest for the development of electronic music and its growth toward its omnipresence today. Yet another valuable view of history and development.

    Find this resource:

  • Davies, Hugh. “Electronic Instruments.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Laurence Libin, 151–193. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive, clear, up-to-date definitions and descriptions of all different types of electroacoustic instruments, their history, and their makers. Excellent first stop, suitable for novices and experienced researchers. Good bibliography.

    Find this resource:

  • Deutsch, Herbert. Electroacoustic Music: The First Century. Miami: Belwin Mills, 1993.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Accessible clear introduction to the topic. Covers most important figures and instruments from the Teleharmonium of Cahill to the contributions of Max Mathews to Minimoogs. Many photographs. Slightly dated, but still an important useful resource.

    Find this resource:

  • Kolkowski, Aleksander, and Alison Rabinovici. “Bellowphones and Blowed Strings: The Auxeto-Instruments of Horace Short and Charles Algernon Parsons.” In Material Culture and Electronic Sound. Edited by Frode Weium and Tim Boon, 1–42. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Scholarly Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discussion of some otherwise neglected early externally amplified musical instruments and their public reception. Relevant to the broad study of electroacoustic instruments, music technology, and society. Accessible to all levels.

    Find this resource:

  • Vine, William. “Avoiding Extinction in the Instrument Zoo: A Taxonomical and Ontological Approach to Developing an Understanding of the Ecosystem of Electroacoustic Instruments.” Organised Sound 15.2 (August 2010): 167–177.

    DOI: 10.1017/S1355771810000166Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Addresses concerns of electroacoustic instrument extinction and the reasons why. Discusses the importance of classification and formal collection methods as well as existing projects to preserve both knowledge and instruments. Unique paper recognizing the importance of preservation of these types of instruments and information about them. For collectors, museum personnel, and academics.

    Find this resource:

Electric Guitars

The electric guitar is undoubtedly a popular ubiquitous example of an electroacoustic musical instrument. Resources are primarily from the popular music world and are full of photos, generally intended for a fan audience, but good information can be found within them, which are all accessible by design. These works include Bacon 2000 about the Fender guitar, Bacon 2002 about the Gibson Les Paul, and Gruhn and Carter 1994. Smith 1987 is a more serious history of the Rickenbacker firm and their products and includes patents. Trynka 1995 has chapters discussing the most important inventors, makers, and individual models, and also, uniquely, it has some albeit light discussion of amplifiers and effects boxes. Mallard 2004 provides perhaps the most interesting review, suitable for supplemental reading or for a seminar or specialist, via a diverse collection of essays. It covers important women guitarists and includes discussion of amplifiers and effects boxes. McSwain 2002 applies social reconstruction techniques to the history of the electric guitar’s development, which will be of interest to scholars of music technology and society.

  • Bacon, Tony. Fifty Years of Fender. London: Balafon, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Social and design history of the Fender guitar, 1950–2000; for enthusiasts and specialists. Includes important information for general and specific study. Descriptions of models, years, chronology, dating information by feature, serial numbers, model chronology, and performers.

    Find this resource:

  • Bacon, Tony. Fifty Years of the Gibson Les Paul. San Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Thorough history of Les Paul’s development of the electric guitar, especially for Gibson. History of the Gibson company as it relates to electric guitar manufacture. Descriptions of models, years, chronology, dating information by feature, serial numbers, model chronology, and performers.

    Find this resource:

  • Davies, Hugh. “Electric Guitar.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Laurence Libin, 145–148. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    General summary, history, development. Details of pickups. Discussion of amplifiers. Good references. Excellent supplement or starting point for any level.

    Find this resource:

  • Gruhn, George, and Walter Carter. Electric Guitars and Basses: A Photographic History. San Francisco: GPI, 1994.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Photographic history, starting in 1932, covering the most important makers from Rickenbacker on. Well-written general history, good photographs, good breadth, detailed descriptions of models. Good introductory source.

    Find this resource:

  • Mallard, Andre, ed. The Electric Guitar: A History of an American Icon. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Collection of essays about the history and evolution of the electric guitar. Uniquely includes a section on women guitarists. Discusses manufacturing cycles, aspects of technology and the modern age, amplifiers, volume and effects. An important, scholarly but accessible supplement to other overviews or books on a specific model.

    Find this resource:

  • McSwain, Rebecca. “The Social Reconstruction of a Reverse Salient in Electrical Guitar Technology: Noise, the Solid Body, and Jimi Hendrix.” In Music and Technology in the Twentieth Century. Edited by Hans-Joachim Braun, 186–198. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Distinctive approach to looking at the history of the development of the electric guitar using social reconstruction. Academic reading, but also of general interest. Considers aesthetic aspects, social acceptance of feedback noise.

    Find this resource:

  • Smith, Richard R. The History of Rickenbacker Guitars. Anaheim, CA: Centerstream, 1987.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive coverage of the important Rickenbacker firm, including major figures, patents, instruments, and development. History of electric guitar markets.

    Find this resource:

  • Trynka, Paul, ed. The Electric Guitar: An Illustrated History. San Francisco: Chronicle, 1995.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Originally published in 1993 (London: Virgin Books). Collection of chapters about the most important pioneers, inventors, makers, and individual models. Includes a useful design anatomy section with clear illustrations. Rare section on guitar amplification and effects boxes, but very general.

    Find this resource:

Electric Keyboards

A variety of unusual electric keyboards were widely employed for popular music and are being embraced in a small revival. Most available sources are full of important useful information for performers, keyboard scholars, and others, but they are not scholarly in nature. The exception is Orton, et al. 2014, which is an essential starting point for serious scholarship. Carson 2000 provides information that is difficult to find about rare instruments, including clavichord- and harpsichord-inspired keyboards. Trynka and Bacon 1996 covers more common electric keyboard instruments used in rock music. Regen 2012 describes newly made electric pianos using original techniques employed by the firm Vintage Vibe.

  • Carson, Barry. “Electric Pianos, Harpsichords, & Clavichord of the ’50s and ’60s.” In Vintage Synthesizers. By Mark Vail, 263–279. San Francisco: Miller Freeman, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Rare coverage of array instruments and companies, including photos and description of capabilities and tonal aspects. Includes various electric pianos by Rhodes, RMI, the Rock-Si-Chord, Hohner Pianet, Cembalet and Clarinet, Wurlitzer, Baldwin harpsichord. Written at a level accessible for all.

    Find this resource:

  • Orton, Richard, Hugh Davies, and Kyle Devine. “Electric Piano.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Laurence Libin, 149–150. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Concise, clear, comprehensive definition; includes history, technical discussion, design variants, important makers, and digital pianos.

    Find this resource:

  • Regen, Jon. “Vintage Vibe Electric Piano.” Keyboard Magazine, 21 November 2012.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Review of newly made electric pianos in vintage style by maker and restoration firm Vintage Vibe. Specifications, review, video, photos.

    Find this resource:

  • Trynka, Paul, and Tony Bacon. Rock Hardware: 40 Years of Rock Instrumentation. San Francisco: Miller Freeman, 1996.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Covers a range of types of electronic instruments, including keyboards from the point of view of rock music performance. Good photos. Some technical information but generally very accessible. History of instrument makers, and some discussion of performers who used them.

    Find this resource:

Bowed and Other Miscellaneous Electroacoustic Instruments

Davies 2014 has discussions of many and various electroacoustic instruments and their creators interwoven into the text, making it a useful starting point. Rhea 1973 is another general discussion with more details about makers and instruments. Donhauser 2007 provides specialized information about instruments and makers in Germany and Austria during the productive period from the 1920s through the 1950s. Graesser 1998 is the definitive scholarly work about electric bowed stringed instruments. Price 2013 gives additional historical detail about Stroh violins and other electric bowed stringed instruments, including social aspects and public reception. Kolkowski and Rabinovici 2013 discusses rare instruments not treated elsewhere, the first externally amplified instruments, and their public reception, and will be of interest to specialists in music technology and society and electroacoustic instruments.

  • Davies, Hugh. “Electronic Instruments.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Laurence Libin, 151–193. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Comprehensive detailed coverage includes descriptive sections about all types of electroacoustic instruments, including rare and obscure ones. Content interwoven into the history section as well as the rest of the article. Helpful bibliography; important starting point and source of details and referrals for advanced readers.

    Find this resource:

  • Donhauser, Peter. Elektrische Klangmaschinen: Die Pionierzeit in Deutschland und Österreich. Vienna: ‪Böhlau Verlag, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Exclusive in-depth coverage of the development of all types of electronic instruments, including unusual and rare varieties in Germany and Austria from the 1920s through the 1950s. Important supplement in studying any electroacoustic instruments. Translated as “Electric sound machines: The pioneering period in Germany and Austria.”

    Find this resource:

  • Graesser, Hanno. Design und Technik der elektrischen Streichinstrumente/Electric Violins: Design and Technique of Electric Bowed Stringed Instruments. Frankfurt: Verlag Erwin Bochinsky, 1998.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    German/English bilingual. Definitive work on electric violins up to the date of publication; covers history, makers, methods, effects pedals, transducer systems, and tunings.

    Find this resource:

  • Kolkowski, Aleksander, and Alison Rabinovici. “Bellowphones and Blowed Strings: The Auxeto-Instruments of Horace Short and Charles Algernon Parsons.” In Material Culture and Electronic Sound. Edited by Frode Weium and Tim Boon, 1–42. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Scholarly Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    First treatment of externally amplified musical instruments and their public reception. Excellent history of the development of unusual examples not covered elsewhere. Discusses the first projection of recorded sound to mass audiences. Technical knowledge is not needed. A work that would make interesting reading for a seminar on music technology and society.

    Find this resource:

  • Price, Katy. “Artifacts in Performance.” In Material Culture and Electronic Sound. Edited by Frode Weium and Tim Boon, 43–66. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Scholarly Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Historical detail with theory about the reception of Stroh violins and other electric stringed instruments. Very specific but of great general applicability; suitable for all levels.

    Find this resource:

  • Rhea, Thomas. “The Evolution of Electronic Musical Instruments in the United States.” PhD diss., University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI, 1973.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Essential resource covering historical and technical developments, including electroacoustic instruments and their inventors. Excellent bibliography for deeper research.

    Find this resource:

Graphic (Drawn) Sound, Optics, Visual Arts, Multimedia

Instruments and installations combining visual or light elements with electronics are an important category. Alexander and Collins 2007 gives an introduction to the history and development of many visual forms, incorporating discussion of electronic musical instruments along with a social overview in a brief article suitable for a seminar or topical reading assignment. Collins, et al. 2013 includes multimedia from the popular and academic worlds as part of an overall summary of electronic music, suitable for inclusion in a general class on electronic music. D’Escriván 2007 constitutes a unique article addressing the use of electronic instruments and music in film, television, and new media along with consideration of their future potential. Hugill 2007 includes considerable coverage from a historical/social context. Any of these shorter articles would make excellent reading assignments for many types of classes, including those covering multimedia, film, music technology, composition, and technology and society as well as electronic music. The many unusual instruments created in Germany and Austria utilizing optical techniques during the fertile period from the 1920s to the 1950s are best studied in Donhauser 2007. The best sources on graphic sound are Davies and Smirnov 2014, which provides an excellent discussion of its principal inventors and their creations, and Smirnov 2013, which provides more details. Grierson and Boon 2013 presents information on the important composer/inventor Daphne Oramic and her graphic sound device. This volume fills a gap in graphic sound research as well as studies of women in otherwise male-dominated arenas.

  • Alexander, Amy, and Nicholas Collins. “Live Audiovisuals.” In The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music. Edited by Nicholas Collins and Julio d’Escriván, 126–139. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    DOI: 10.1017/CCOL9780521868617.009Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses history and development and gives a social overview of visual aspects of electronic musical instrument use and incorporation in color organs, multimedia events, light shows, andcontemporary audiovisual performance. Provides unique breadth, social discussions. Enjoyable reading style in a brief article suitable for reading assignment.

    Find this resource:

  • Collins, Nicholas, Margaret Schedel, and Scott Wilson. Electronic Music: Cambridge Introductions to Music. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511820540Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Excellent overall summary of electronic music includes discussions of multimedia, both popular and academic aspects; written in an accessible style. No mathematical or science needed. Extensive bibliography.

    Find this resource:

  • Davies, Hugh, and Andrei Smirnov. “Graphic Sound.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Laurence Libin. 463–467. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Uniquely comprehensive and in-depth overview with many details about graphic or drawn sound, including inventors, composers, and methods. Good bibliography. Essential starting point for beginning study and an essential reference at any level.

    Find this resource:

  • d’Escriván, Julio. “Electronic Music and the Moving Image.” In The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music. Edited by Nicholas Collins and Julio d’Escriván, 155–170. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique discussion of the relationship between visual arts and electronic instruments, including incorporation into film orchestras, use of electronic music on TV and in new media, and discussion of future potential. Includes graphic sound. Good as supplementary material, for discussion and as a pointer to further reading.

    Find this resource:

  • Donhauser, Peter. Elektrische Klangmaschinen: Die Pionierzeit in Deutschland und Österreich. Vienna: ‪Böhlau Verlag, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Accurate, thorough coverage of experimental and developmental work done in Germany and Austria from the 1920s through the 1950s. Discusses the use of optical discs in machines, other optics, and light related instruments, including the Chromatophon. Fills a gap for this important topic. Translated as “Electric sound machines: The pioneering period in Germany and Austria.”

    Find this resource:

  • Grierson, Mick, and Tim Boon. “The Oramics Machine and the Origins of British Electronic and Computer Music.” In Material Culture and Electronic Sound. Edited by Frode Weium and Tim Boon, 185–202. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Scholarly Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Rare history of Daphne Oramic and her innovative graphic sound device and its influences. Fills a gap in providing important material for those studying graphic sound and on women in the design of electronic musical instruments as well as women inventors in the arts and sciences in general.

    Find this resource:

  • Hugill, Andrew. “The Origins of Electronic Music.” In The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music. Edited by Nicholas Collins and Julio d’Escriván, 7–23. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    General discussion but includes considerable coverage of electronic instrument use with art and light, graphic sound, uniquely through the historical and social context. Good supplemental material for study and discussion.

    Find this resource:

  • Smirnov, Andrej. Sound in Z: Experiments in Sound and Electronic Music in Early 20th Century Russia. London: Koenig, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An up-to-date and detailed discussion of inventors and the history of graphic sound in Russia based on information only recently made available. Also about instruments using optics. Essential reading for any serious study of graphic sound.

    Find this resource:

Signal Processing

Signal processing is a critical aspect of all electronic instruments, whether analog, digital, or virtual. Some discussion, including general history can be found in works cited under Synthesizers, but the best resources for teaching and practical use and to acquire a deep understanding are listed here. Williams 2013 is a unique history of specific filters and their use by different electronic music creators. Park 2010 is an engaging book at the introductory level, with strong coverage of fundamentals and practical runnable MATLAB® exercises. Neukom 2013 is a comprehensive clear textbook perfect for the classroom, self-study, or a professional’s library, while Miranda 2002 is also a useful textbook and includes a CD with software, tutorials, and examples. Miranda 2002 reaches beyond its strong basics to address the role and potential of incorporating artificial intelligence, super computers, and more. Bianchini and Cipriano 2000 is oriented to current computer-based practice in giving a brief history of sound synthesis languages, and it is uniquely specific in its practical programming guides. Miranda and Wanderley 2006 looks at the cutting edge of research, discussing new sensors, gestural analysis, and bio-signal processing. Pakarinen and Yeh 2009 addresses the important topic of signal processing for guitar amplifiers. Also see Theory and Practice.

  • Bianchini, Riccardo, and Alessandro Cipriano. Virtual Sound: Sound Synthesis and Signal Processing; Theory and Practice with Csound. Rome: ConTempo, 2000.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Brief history of signal processing and sound synthesis languages. Practical descriptions of different aspects and programming. Clear objectives. Maps into any software, though based on Csound. Uniquely specific volume; excellent for upper undergraduate and graduate students or for self-study by practicing engineers/musicians and inventors. Updated, translated from the original Italian, Il suono virtuale (Rome: ConTempo, 1998).

    Find this resource:

  • Miranda, Eduardo R. Computer Sound Design: Synthesis Techniques and Programming. 2d ed. Oxford: Focal Press, 2002.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    First published as Computer Sound Synthesis for the Electronic Musician, 1998. Treats fundamentals, spectrum modeling, source modeling; includes practical case studies. Unique in software breadth. Good for professionals or the classroom. Readers should know the fundamentals of acoustics, music technology, and computers. Concise explanations; CD included with software, tutorials, examples from introductory to advanced levels.

    Find this resource:

  • Miranda, Eduardo R., and Marcelo M. Wanderley. New Digital Musical Instruments: Control and Interaction beyond the Keyboard. Middleton, WI: A-R Editions, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique discussion of working with computers, sensors, and gestural and bio-signal processing and interfaces. Experimental instrument orientation, at the forefront of new research approaches.

    Find this resource:

  • Neukom, Martin. Signals, Systems and Sound Synthesis. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang, 2013.

    DOI: 10.3726/978-3-0351-0609-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Updated, translated from 2003 German original. Utilizes a thorough mathematical textbook approach suitable for coursework, self-study, or foundations. Acoustics, signals, systems, analog, Fourier transforms, digital signals, filters, dynamic systems, feedback control, software and languages, nonlinear techniques, physical modeling. Sound synthesis issues using recent developments. CD Rom includes entire text, graphic animations, and sound examples.

    Find this resource:

  • Pakarinen, Gyro, and David T. Yeh. “A Review of Digital Techniques for Modeling Vacuum-Tube Guitar Amplifiers.” Computer Music Journal 33.2 (Summer 2009): 85–100.

    DOI: 10.1162/comj.2009.33.2.85Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Fine discussion of guitar amplifier circuits and a review of methods of nonlinear modeling. Includes excellent bibliography; academic but clear approach. Unique discussion of guitar amplifiers.

    Find this resource:

  • Park, Tae Hong. Introduction to Digital Signal Processing: Computer Musically Speaking. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Introductory-level book, very strong on fundamentals for students. Gives reasons and creative purposes. Relaxed and engaging style, yet clear and practical. Well-chosen workbook exercises using runnable MATLAB® code. Musical examples on companion website.

    Find this resource:

  • Williams, Sean. “Stockhausen Meets King Tubby’s: The Transformation of the Stepped Filter into a Musical Instrument.” In Material Culture and Electronic Sound. Edited by Frode Weium and Tim Boon, 159–184. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Scholarly Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique and detailed history of specific filters and synthesizers and their relationship to musical uses. Good supplemental reading for signal processing, technology and music, other related classes.

    Find this resource:

Theory and Practice

Though a dated volume, Sear 1972 remains an excellent practical text that provides the foundations of the elements of electronic instruments, suitable for early to mid-level college students or musicians lacking prior training in mathematics and physics. Another older source, Ward 1975 provides essential circuit diagrams for electronic instruments up to the date of publication, important for physical implementation or computer modeling as well as maintenance, preservation, and restoration. Puckette 2007 is a very high level textbook for serious developers and higher level students with prior training in mathematics, algebra, physics, and electronic instruments. Bilbao 2009 is yet more advanced as a detailed text and professional reference volume for numerical and modeling techniques used for precise sound simulation. Other sources can be found under Signal Processing.

  • Bilbao, Stefan. Numerical Sound Synthesis: Finite Difference Schemes and Simulation in Musical Acoustics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009.

    DOI: 10.1002/9780470749012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Use of numerical and modeling techniques for simulation with the goal of more realistic sound production. Advanced. Includes problems, exercises, and MATLAB® examples. Discusses all major musical instrument families plus audio effects. Excellent upper-level and graduate textbook. Also important reference for professional engineers and researchers.

    Find this resource:

  • Puckette, Miller. The Theory and Technique of Electronic Music. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2007.

    DOI: 10.1142/6277Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Excellent higher level textbook written by an experienced teacher. Assumes prior knowledge of algebra, trigonometry, electronic musical instruments, and computers in general. Detailed coverage of oscillators, sampling, filters, electronic techniques of synthesis, processing, and analysis. Uniquely useful for professionals.

    Find this resource:

  • Sear, Walter. The New World of Electronic Music. New York: Alfred, 1972.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Older, but still excellent practical book detailing basic principles and concepts of sound, acoustics, electricity, magnetism, and recording techniques necessary to understand electronic musical instruments especially before computer dependence. Good for early to mid-level college courses, or as a fill-in volume for musicians lacking physics and engineering background.

    Find this resource:

  • Ward, Brice. Electronic Music Circuit Guidebook. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books, 1975.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    While a older reference, it is clearly written and provides precise circuit drawings. Very useful for physical and virtual design of electronic instruments. Requires a knowledge of basic physics and electrical circuitry. Important for maintenance, restoration, and preservation.

    Find this resource:

Chip Tunes and Hardware Hacking

Little material is available about these important subcultures of utilizing sound chips and micro music from various devices, essentially creating novel electronic instruments from existing hardware. Collins 2009 is a unique textbook for beginners with many hands-on projects suitable for high schools or clubs, but also useful as a practical, intriguing, and creative springboard appropriate as an adjunct volume for introductory engineering or physics classes or as a reference for serious hobbyists. Dittbrenner 2007 is the sole essential scholarly source in this area. It covers sound chips and their use in chip tunes, micromusic, video games, and sound generators.

  • Collins, Nicholas. Handmade Electronic Music: The Art of Hardware Hacking. 2d ed. New York: Routledge, 2009.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique. No previous electronic experience assumed; includes many hands-on projects. Excellent photos, diagrams, schematics. Social and historical commentary on the work of practitioners and artists. Excellent basis for high school lab class or club or as a supplement to a physics course. Companion DVD with aural and visual examples. Excellent references.

    Find this resource:

  • Dittbrenner, Nils. Soundchip-Musik: Computer- und Videospielmusick von 1977–1994. Osnabrück, Germany: Electronic Publishing, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique detailed discussion of different sound chips and their use in computers, sound generators, and video games. Popular culture use of chip tunes and micro music. Extensive, unique bibliography for those doing their own research. Useful for courses in music and or society and technology and sound engineering. Translated as “Soundchip music: Computer and videogame music from 1977–1994.”

    Find this resource:

MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)

MIDI is a hardware and software standard for communication necessary for electronic musical instruments such as controllers, synthesizers, drum machines, and computers. Burnand 2014 gives the best complete yet concise summary of its history, management, components, and use, important for background and general knowledge. For learning how to use MIDI, Alexander 2001 and Young 2001 are well suited to practical learning and training for novices, Alexander giving a slower moving approach, while Young gives data specific to Roland and Yamaha. Lehrmann and Tully 1993, though older, is a complete technical discussion important for higher level study and professionals that covers wind controllers, sound editing, and more. De Furia and Scacciaferro 1987a and de Furia and Scacciaferro 1987b are essential resources for working professionals and student designers. The MIDI Exclusive Book (de Furia and Scacciaferro 1987b) provides extensive details by manufacturers, critical for those working with analog and vintage systems. Pressing 1992 gives a helpful specific presentation of MIDI implementation for different types of keyboard and continuous controllers.

  • Alexander, Peter Lawrence. How MIDI Works. 6th ed. Milwaukee, WI: Hall Leonard, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Introductory, basic, and practical volume. Based on experience in a MIDI-based digital audio production studio, hence digital audio workstation based. Very wordy, but good for those needing a slower, practical approach.

    Find this resource:

  • Burnand, David. “MIDI.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 3. Edited by Laurence Libin, 467–468. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Concise yet detailed history, description of the evolution of MIDI and various forms of the standard, its use and capabilities. Unlike many other sources, it includes tuning extension capabilities. Important for clarification and general knowledge, any level.

    Find this resource:

  • De Furia, Steve, and Joe Scacciaferro. The MIDI Resource Book. Pompton Lakes, NJ: Third Earth Publishing, 1987a.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Acts as a dictionary and encyclopedia of all MIDI standards. Unique in its quantity of descriptions and specifications of particular manufacturer system exclusive formats, critical to understanding now older technology. Quick, clear, detailed summaries. An essential resource for those working with MIDI.

    Find this resource:

  • De Furia, Steve, and Joe Scacciaferro. The MIDI System Exclusive Book. Pompton Lakes, NJ: Third Earth Publishing, 1987b.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Very detailed listing of specific manufacturer codes and formats, beyond those in De Furia and Scacciaferro 1987a. Precise codes for devices, communication protocols; implementation details. Essential for working with older systems for maintenance, preservation, and restoration.

    Find this resource:

  • Lehrmann, Paul, and Tim Tully. MIDI for the Professional. New York: Amsco, 1993.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An older volume but very complete discussion. Essentials are unchanged. For higher level study and professionals, including musicians, composers, engineers. Discusses hardware and software, quantization, synchronization, multimedia, networks, wind controllers, sound editing, automation and post-production, quantization, limitations, and inconsistencies. Useful as a textbook.

    Find this resource:

  • Pressing, Jeff. Synthesizer Performance and Real-Time Techniques. Computer Music and Digital Audio Series 8. Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 1992.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Within the general text, provides unique coverage of MIDI programming specific for keyboard and continuous controllers for implementing pressure signals in addition to the usual parameters.

    Find this resource:

  • Young, Rob. The MIDI Files. 2d ed. London: Prentice Hall, 2001.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Practical for beginners, generally useful for all. General introduction, hardware and software sequencers, tracks and channels, events, tone generators, controllers, modes, standard MIDI files and protocols, programming techniques, special effects. MIDI maps. Discusses Roland and Yamaha. Straightforward accessible style. Includes CD with examples.

    Find this resource:

Controllers

A controller is the component of an electronic musical instrument that interfaces between the performer and the sound processing and creation system. The following sources provide more focused and advanced coverage. In particular, Cole 1998 describes the Electronic Valve Instrument, an important wind controller. It covers historical and technical evolution of wind controllers while requiring only minimal technical knowledge. For practical development and professional use, Lehrmann and Tully 1993 covers MIDI communication and data protocols for controller use, while Pressing 1992 discusses real-time performance concerns using different types of controllers with different capabilities. A volume suitable for general reading and for music and technology study, Jordà 2007 covers the late 20th to early 21st century paradigm of computers as musical instruments, including the use of a wide array of recent controllers. The remaining sources are looking toward future design and refinement of existing controllers. McPherson 2015 discusses keyboards as controllers and how keyboards can be expanded to allow additional control signals. In contrast, Medeiros and Wanderley 2014 gives an updated review of sensors and instrumentation methods for controllers in instrument design with a discussion of potential improvements. Providing another view of this topic, Cook 2004 discusses the flaws in the standard paradigm of separating the synthesizer/sound producer and the controller. Miranda and Wanderley 2006 is an essential text for creators and electronic musicians that extends the discussion to include biosignals, brain-computer interfacing, artificial intelligence, and extensive gestural control. Also see General Overviews and Synthesizers for general information.

  • Cole, Ron. “The Electronic Valve Instrument: Nyle Steiner’s Unique Musical Innovation.” DMA diss., University of Washington, 1998.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Description of Nyle Steiner’s Electronic Valve Instrument (EVI), a wind controller. Minimal knowledge of synthesizers required. Covers historical and technical evolution with respect to Steiner, Crumar, and Akai. Discusses musicians who use the EVI. Performance technique, fingering, technical exercises, photos, discography. Provides a complete discussion of commercial wind controller.

    Find this resource:

  • Cook, Perry. “Remutualizing the Musical Instrument: Co-design of Synthesis Algorithms and Controllers.” Journal of New Music Research 33.3 (September 2004): 315–320.

    DOI: 10.1080/0929821042000317877Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Rare and well-thought discussion of weaknesses in the design paradigm of the controller and synthesizer/sound production being separate. Discusses instrument design. Examples of novel instruments, including bowed and plucked string types. Good for students in seminars, researchers, experimenters, and designers.

    Find this resource:

  • Jordà, Sergi, “Interactivity and Live Computer Music.” In The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music. Edited by Nicholas Collins and Julio d’Escriván, 89–106. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Fine discussion of the computer as a musical instrument and a sound producing device, including use of various types of controllers. Distinctive coverage of gestural, tabletop, and networked controllers. Good supplement for understanding the use of controllers in interactive settings, suitable for any level.

    Find this resource:

  • Lehrmann, Paul, and Tim Tully. MIDI for the Professional. New York: Amsco, 1993.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Includes a discussion of integration and issues related to different types of controllers. Textbook style, useful for professionals and electronic musical instrument system designers. An older volume, but still applicable.

    Find this resource:

  • McPherson, Andrew. “Buttons, Handles, and Keys: Advances in Continuous-Control Keyboard Instruments.” Computer Music Journal 39.2 (Summer 2015): 28–46.

    DOI: 10.1162/COMJ_a_00297Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Review of keyboards that use continuous control from early mechanical origins to digital controllers and augmented instruments. Discusses their contributions that expand existing keyboards into continuous controllers. Useful for researchers and designers and for design course reading.

    Find this resource:

  • Medeiros, Carolina Brum, and Marcelo M. Wanderley. “A Comprehensive Review of Sensors and Instrumentation Methods in Devices for Musical Expression.” Sensors 14.8 (August 2014): 13556–13592.

    DOI: 10.3390/s140813556Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique review for all levels of digital electronic musical instrument designers. Covers types of sensors and signal processing for different types of controllers. Analysis of effects on overall design and usability of controllers in electronic musical instruments. Specialized discussion of potential improvements using different types of sensors, circuitry, and signal processing tools.

    Find this resource:

  • Miranda, Eduardo R., and Marcelo Wanderley. New Digital Musical Instruments: Control and Interaction beyond the Keyboard. Middleton, WI: A-R Editions, 2006.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Essential for creators and electronic musicians. Only full coverage of how novel electronic instruments are essentially unusual controllers communicating with computers for digital sound synthesis. Unique description of sensor technology. Discusses gestures, gestural controllers, sensors, sensor-to-computer interfaces, bio-signal interfaces controllers, brain computer interfaces, artificial intelligence, and interactive aspects.

    Find this resource:

  • Pressing, Jeff. Synthesizer Performance and Real-Time Techniques. Computer Music and Digital Audio Series 8. Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 1992.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Thorough coverage of real-time aspects, such as keyboard and continuous controllers techniques, as well as managing polyphonic pressure, pitch bends, etc. Concentrates on performance aspects. Suitable for programmers, instrument designers, and advanced level students.

    Find this resource:

Laptop and Handheld Mobile Devices

This section lists references specific to the growing use of laptops and wireless portable computing devices as electronic musical instruments, both individually and networked. Bonus 2014 is an excellent starting point for study of the use of handheld mobile devices for electronic music making in providing a concise overview of their use and social aspects, and it includes examples. Grossman 2008 provides an excellent starting point for the study of laptop music, considering the development of their use and the resulting transformation of music. Beck 2012 contains a large volume of papers related to the wide range of work with laptops and mobile phones, including project reports and research papers; it features a number of seminal papers to be read by those in the field. Gopinath and Stanyek 2014 contains more advanced chapters by scholars and practitioners in the field and it is an essential compendium for this field. Also see works under Networked Instruments. Many readings are also available in articles from conferences held by NIME (New Interfaces for Musical Expression) (see Proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME), cited under Other Scholarly Journals and Proceedings).

Robotic Instruments

General survey discussions are few, the most complete being Acker 2014 and Collins 2007. Kapur 2005 provides the original history and is also essential reading. Murphy, et al. 2012 continues this work and gives a history from 1970 to the date of publication, presenting some major figures and projects. Those experienced with engineering and computers, both developers and researchers, will benefit from reading Weinberg and Driscoll 2006, which treats the question of working with technology to create musicianship. Solis and Ng 2011 includes a unique set of essays covering a number of recent research projects and related concepts suitable for higher level academic study. Miranda 2007 and Miranda and Todd 2007 present advanced theoretical concepts useful for graduate-level and post-graduate researchers, although the basic concepts found here could also be of use for sociology and technology discussions.

  • Acker, Anne Beetem. “Robotic Instruments.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Laurence Libin, 322–323. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Survey of the history and development of robotic musical instruments. Discusses historical and modern definitions, range of types, goals, specific centers of research and development, important research, and performance figures and groups. Suitable as an introductory survey, some technical aspects. Good starting point and provides excellent references to deeper study.

    Find this resource:

  • Collins, Nick. “Musical Robots and Listening Machines.” In The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music. Edited by Nicholas Collins and Julio d’Escriván, 171–184. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    DOI: 10.1017/CCOL9780521868617.012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    History of robotics and musical instruments going back to Vaucanson and his flute-playing automaton of 1738. History, examples of interactive improvisation systems, machine listening techniques, categorization, and evaluation of interactive music systems. General discussion, with specific examples. Good for historical research, seminar discussions, multilevel applicability.

    Find this resource:

  • Kapur, Ajay. “A History of Robotic Musical Instruments.” In Proceedings of the 2005 International Computer Music Conference. Barcelona, Spain, 4–10 September 2005. Edited by Suvisoft Oy, 21–28. San Francisco: International Computer Music Association, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Well-written unique source on the history of robotic musical instruments by an important practicing developer and researcher in the field. Essential starting point for the origin and and history of these instruments. Suitable for any level.

    Find this resource:

  • Miranda, Eduardo R. “Cellular Automata Music: From Sound Synthesis to Musical Forms.” In Evolutionary Computer Music. Edited by Eduardo R. Miranda and John Al Biles, 170–193. London: Springer, 2007.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-1-84628-600-1_8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Detailed yet clear, advanced mathematical and engineering content. Employs a theoretical, far-thinking approach using cellular automata and granular synthesis applicable to computer generated music, robotics, and interactive music.

    Find this resource:

  • Miranda, Eduardo R., and Peter M. Todd. “Computational Evolutionary Musicology.” In Evolutionary Computer Music. Edited by Eduardo R. Miranda and John Al Biles, 218–249. London: Springer, 2007.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-1-84628-600-1_10Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Volume at a high level scientifically; provides a socially theoretical but very clear discussion using computer modeling and simulations to study how music systems might originate and evolve in artificial “worlds” populated by interacting autonomous “agents,” which would be computer software or robots. Excellent references for further study or for a discussion group.

    Find this resource:

  • Murphy, Jim, Ajay Kapur, and Dale Carnegie. “Musical Robotics in a Loudspeaker World: Developments in Alternative Approaches to Localization and Spatialization.” Leonardo Music Journal 22 (2012): 41–48.

    DOI: 10.1162/LMJ_a_00090Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    History of music robots from 1970 to the date of publication. Looks at major figures and projects. Good introductory summary, but also a thought-provoking piece of broad interest.

    Find this resource:

  • Solis, Jorge, and Kia Ng, eds. Musical Robots and Interactive Multimodal Systems. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2011.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique collection of mostly example-based essays written by top creators and academics in the field of robotic electronic musical instruments. Discussion of programming and analytical components, multimodal analysis, and gesture analysis, including bowing and automated instruments. Appropriate for upper-level courses and academic research.

    Find this resource:

  • Weinberg, Gil, and Scott Driscoll. “Toward Robotic Musicianship.” Computer Music Journal 30.4 (2006): 28–45.

    DOI: 10.1162/comj.2006.30.4.28Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discusses development of a percussion robot developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Excellent discussion of prior work, issues, approach, design model, and details. Good for serious students and researchers in the development of robotic musical instruments. Paper serves as an excellent example of this type of work and publication.

    Find this resource:

Networked Instruments

Networked sound creation is an important aspect of electronic musical instrument design evolution and performance. Bischoff, et al. 1978 is a seminal paper describing one of the first projects. Acker 2014 provides a useful overview. Collins 2010 includes a discussion of networked instruments in the general context of computer involvement in music. Duckworth 2005 has good coverage of the history of networked instruments plus examples at an introductory level. Rohrhuber 2007 supplements Duckworth with additional material regarding the history and development of networked instruments. Weinberg 2005 utilizes a theoretical academic engineering approach to categorization and design, and it is essential for serious scholars in the field. Any general source on computer networking will be of practical benefit. Also see Laptop and Handheld Mobile Devices as ensembles and interactive social music making involve networks.

  • Acker, Anne Beetem. “Networked Instruments.” In The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. 2d ed. Vol. 3. Edited by Laurence Libin, 585. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    General survey, definition, history, range of examples, direction. Suitable for all levels, though requires some light technical understanding. Useful starting point.

    Find this resource:

  • Bischoff, J., R. Gold, and J. Horton. “Microcomputer Network Music.” Computer Music Journal 2.3 (1978): 24–29.

    DOI: 10.2307/3679453Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The essential, seminal paper on the use of networked microcomputers to create music. Important historically and for the innovation and problem solving.

    Find this resource:

  • Collins, Nicholas. Introduction to Computer Music. Chichester, UK: John Wiley, 2010.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Up-to-date coverage of the use of computers in making electronic music, unique in its inclusion of modeling of networks. Introductory but fast moving; good for students and professionals. Discusses integration, virtual agents, and interfaces.

    Find this resource:

  • Duckworth, William. Virtual Music: How the Web Got Wired for Sound. New York: Routledge, 2005.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Good, otherwise hard-to-find coverage of early versions of networked electronic music, including the League of Automatic Composers and the Hub, through the 20th century. Includes examples and notes the potential for using mobile handheld devices and satellites. Excellent introductory-level volume with practical information. For composers, performers, and electronic instrument system designers. Useful bibliography.

    Find this resource:

  • Rohrhuber, Julian. “Network Music.” In The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music. Edited by Nicholas Collins and Julio d’Escriván, 140–155. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

    DOI: 10.1017/CCOL9780521868617.010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Unique discussion of the history and development of networked electronic music. Brief yet thorough and clear discussion of the means of transmissions, computer aspects, mobile computing devices, and laptop orchestras. Discusses interactive and live electronic music creation interactive. Good for any level.

    Find this resource:

  • Weinberg, Gil. “Interconnected Musical Networks: Toward a Theoretical Framework.” Computer Music Journal 29.2 (2005): 23–39.

    DOI: 10.1162/0148926054094350Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Author categorizes by aesthetic and technological factors; useful for academics and designers. Includes historical overview. Examples of recently developed musical network systems not readily available elsewhere. Suggestions for musical network design. Engineering academic style. Well organized, many good diagrams, and excellent bibliography of recent works.

    Find this resource:

Performance Considerations: Gestures and Interfaces

While some electronic instruments are shaped and played in similar ways as relatively isomorphic acoustic instruments; in truth, a wide range of possibilities exists for design options. The sources cited in this section consider performance aspects of designing electronic musical instruments, all applicable to electronic instrument design at any level. Kvifte 2013 is an excellent and useful discussion of the continuity between acoustic and electronic instruments with regard to playing methods, and it discusses mappings of gestures to keyboards. Hartvigsen 2014 takes this further in employing a mathematical method for describing ease of play by formalizing and quantifying finger motions on different configurations of the standard Western 12 pitch scale. A somewhat older but still important work, Goldstein 1998 similarly uses a formal approach in a discerning consideration of playing gestures and the implications for electronic instruments design. Also see many of the sources cited under Controllers.

  • Goldstein, M. “Gestural Coherence and Musical Interaction Design.” In SMC ’98 Conference Proceedings: 1998 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics; Conference Theme; Intelligent Systems for Humans in a Cyberworld; October 11–14, 1998, Hyatt La Jolla, San Diego, USA. Edited by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 1076–1079. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 1998.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discerning, well-presented consideration of playing gestures through definition and dimensions as well as analysis of how tones are produced. Historical correlation with types of sounds, comfort and ease, and the implications for electronic instrument design. Formal but accessible approach. Excellent introduction to the topic.

    Find this resource:

  • Hartvigsen, David. “Fingering Systems for Electronic Musical Instruments.” Journal of Mathematics and Music 8.1 (2 January 2014): 41–58.

    DOI: 10.1080/17459737.2013.849769Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Formal, mathematical consideration of the design of key systems for electronic musical instruments using the Western 12 pitch chromatic scale. Defines ease of play as requiring a small number of simple finger movements for common structured sequences and melodies and conceptually simple finger combinations. Important for designers; makes instrument comparisons.

    Find this resource:

  • Kvifte, Tellef. “Musical Instruments and User Interfaces in Two Centuries.” In Material Culture and Electronic Sound. Edited by Frode Weium and Tim Boon, 203–230. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Scholarly Press, 2013.

    Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Considers the continuity between acoustic and electronic instruments particularly as regards the user interfaces. Discusses specific machines, such as the Subharchord, as well as keyboards and mappings of gestures to keyboards. Accessible, good for design questions; makes instrument comparisons.

    Find this resource:

Museum Collections and Listings

Several physical museums have significant electronic musical instrument collections, including the Audities Foundation, the Deutsches Museum, the EMIS Synthesizer Museum, the New England Synthesizer Museum, the National Music Centre, and the National Music Museum. All but the Deutches Museum also have useful information about these collections on their websites, though the EMIS Synthesizer Museum appears to be under very slow development.

Preservation

Preservation of electronic musical instruments is critical as technological progress is rapid and older types become obsolete, neglected, and fall into disrepair. It is especially important to preserve documentation while it still exists. Davies 2001 and Zatra, et al. 2001 discuss the similar but also different methods used at their respective institutions for preservation, maintenance and restoration of electronic musical instruments. Both are useful for individuals involved with collections, but especially for those studying preservation issues and methods.

  • Davies, Hugh. “The Preservation of Electronic Musical Instruments.” Journal of New Music Research 30.4 (2001): 295–302.

    DOI: 10.1076/jnmr.30.4.295.7492Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discussion of the issues of obsolescence and the need for preservation of electronic musical instruments. Various approaches to display, conservation, and care of electronic instruments. Suitable for a general audience but especially those concerned with maintenance of collections large and small.

    Find this resource:

  • Zatra, Laura, Giovanni de Poli, and Alvyse Vidolin. “Yesterday Sounds Tomorrow: Preservation at CSC.” Journal of New Music Research 30.4 (2001): 407–412.

    DOI: 10.1076/jnmr.30.4.407.7486Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A discussion of the schemes for preservation and restoration at the CSC (Center for Computational Sonology), Padova University, Italy, including cataloging and re-recording. Useful for those studying or engaged in the maintenance of any collection.

    Find this resource:

back to top

Article

Up

Down