Perón and Peronism
- LAST REVIEWED: 22 January 2016
- LAST MODIFIED: 28 October 2011
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199766581-0041
- LAST REVIEWED: 22 January 2016
- LAST MODIFIED: 28 October 2011
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199766581-0041
Peronism is an Argentine political phenomenon born on 17 October 1945. Its name comes from an army colonel named Juan Perón, a key figure of the military dictatorship established in 1943. Three periods can be identified in the history of Peronism: 1943–1955, 1955–1976, and 1976–present. During the first period, Perón was elected president twice, and his wife, Eva, acquired star status. Intensive social policies were carried out by the government at the expense of society, and there was an increasing political polarization. Following a clash with the Catholic Church, Perón was ousted by the army generals in September 1955. The Peronist Party was banned, and Peronism was thought to disappear—but it did not. Political instability characterized the second period. The dilemma was how integrate Peronism into the democratic fold. When a solution was found after eighteen years, it implied Perón’s return to Argentina and to the presidency. By then, Peronism had turned into a labor-based party. Once in office again, Perón had to confront rising political violence. When he died, Isabel Perón failed to follow in his footsteps. The armed forces removed her, and a new period began for Peronism and Argentina. During the third period, Peronism changed again. After losing the 1983 presidential election that put an end to the last military dictatorship, Labor lost influence vis-à-vis the newly elected governors and mayors. At this point, Peronism turned into a political force based upon extended clientelistic networks. The literature on the first period is overwhelming and still growing. The literature on the second period focuses mainly on what were the main Peronist actors while Perón was in exile—trade unions and guerrillas and their peripheral organizations. The literature on the third period is much thinner, because, with Peronism’s merging into mainstream politics, there was less need for specific studies.
All general overviews on Peronism deal with the 1943–1955 period, but there is none covering its whole history to the present. Gambini 2008 comes close to completing this task but stops in 1983. The author leaves out, consequently, the history of Peronism since the restoration of constitutional rule, a period that has undergone significant changes. Gambini 1999, Gambini 2001, and Luna 1984–1986 are good narrative introductions, but they focus almost exclusively on political events. Torre 2002 offers the greatest coverage of the subject, with many chapters written by scholars who have whole books on the same issues. Waldmann 1974 provides deep, still valuable insights into the Perón regime. Zanatta 2009 is the best introduction to the subject for readers who have no previous exposure to it because the author takes into account early 21st-century scholarship and addresses all relevant issues.
Gambini, Hugo. Historia del peronismo. Vol. 1, El poder total, 1943–1951. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Planeta, 1999.
The author was a member of the Primera Plana team that prepared, back in the mid-1960s, the first journalistic history of Peronism, characterized by heavy reliance on the actors’ accounts. He takes advantage of that experience to write a narrative history underlining the nondemocratic traits of the Perón regime.
Gambini, Hugo. Historia del peronismo. Vol. 2, La obsecuencia, 1952–1955. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Planeta, 2001.
A sequel to Gambini 1999, this volume covers from Perón’s re-election as president to his fall. As in the first volume, much information can be found, but not a systematic, academic approach.
Gambini, Hugo. Historia del peronismo. Vol. 3, La violencia, 1956–1983. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Planeta, 2008.
By choosing violence as the standpoint to render the history of Peronism after Perón’s downfall, the author leaves to one side the slow process leading to its full integration into the democratic realm. Keener on narrative fluency than on political analysis, he retains in this volume the journalistic flavor characteristic of the previous ones.
Luna, Félix. Perón y su tiempo. 3 vols. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Sudamericana, 1984–1986.
The author was an opposition activist who was imprisoned and tortured during the Perón regime. But, he opposed Perón, the man, rather than his policies. Four decades later, when he published this book, he was a well-known historian who had made his name in the field of popular rather than academic history. This book addresses mainly the general public, but scholars cannot ignore it.
Torre, Juan Carlos, ed. Nueva historia argentina. Vol. 8, Los años peronistas, 1943–1955. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Sudamericana, 2002.
Specialists in every field are brought together to summarize their own book-length contributions on different aspects of the Perón regime. Consequently, there are chapters by Potash, on the army; Navarro, on Eva Perón; Caimari, on the Catholic Church; and so on. Torre’s own contributions are first-rate studies. Anyone interested in the Perón regime should read this book after Zanatta 2009.
Waldmann, Peter. Der Peronismus, 1943–1955. Kritische Wissenschaft. Hamburg, West Germany: Hoffmann und Campe, 1974.
Its 1981 Spanish translation became an instant classic in Argentina. Today, readers may find less interesting its theoretical framework, drawn from what was then-current social science of the 1970s, than its superb analysis of the main traits of Perón’s regime.
Zanatta, Loris. Breve historia del peronismo clásico. Translated by Carlos Catroppi. Nudos do la historia Argentina. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Sudamericana, 2009.
A brief book, certainly, but in no way insignificant. It offers a balanced narrative of the Perón regime, referred to, in the early 21st century, as classic Peronism to tell it apart from its later history. As other distinguished non-Argentine scholars have done, the author has turned distance from the scene into an asset to study Peronism free from the weight of past and present political pressures and ephemeral, fashionable opinions.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
How to Subscribe
Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here.
- Agricultural Technologies
- Andean Contributions to Rethinking the State and the Natio...
- Antislavery Narratives
- Arab Diaspora in Latin America, The
- Argentina in the Era of Mass Immigration
- Argentina, Slavery in
- Argentine Literature
- Army of Chile in the 19th Century
- Asian Art and Its Impact in the Americas, 1565–1840
- Asian-Peruvian Literature
- Baroque and Neo-baroque Literary Tradition
- Bello, Andrés
- Black Experience in Colonial Latin America, The
- Black Experience in Modern Latin America, The
- Borderlands in Latin America, Conquest of
- Bourbon Reforms, The
- Brazilian Northeast, History of the
- Buenos Aires
- Caribbean Philosophical Association, The
- Caribbean, The Archaeology of the
- Cartagena de Indias
- Caste War of Yucatán, The
- Caudillos, 19th Century
- Cádiz Constitution and Liberalism, The
- Chaco War
- Children, History of
- Chile's Struggle for Independence
- Chronicle, The
- Church in Colonial Latin America, The
- Chávez, Hugo, and the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela
- Cinema, Contemporary Brazilian
- Cinema, Latin American
- Colonial Central America
- Colonial Portuguese Amazon Region, from the 17th to 18th C...
- Contemporary Maya, The
- Costa Rica
- Cárdenas and Cardenismo
- Cuban Revolution, The
- Development of Architecture in New Spain, 1500-1810, The
- Development of Painting in Peru, 1520–1820, The
- Drug Trades in Latin America
- Early Colonial Forms of Native Expression in Mexico and Pe...
- Ecuador, La Generación del 30 in
- El Salvador
- Enlightenment and its Visual Manifestations in Spanish Ame...
- Environmental History
- Era of Porfirio Díaz, 1876–1911, The
- Family History
- Film, Science Fiction
- Football (Soccer) in Latin America
- Gender in Colonial Brazil
- Gender in Postcolonial Latin America
- Guatemala and Yucatan, Conquest of
- Guatemala City
- Haitian Revolution, The
- Health and Disease in Modern Latin America, History of
- History, Cultural
- History, Food
- Honor in Latin America to 1900
- Horror in Literature and Film in Latin America
- Human Rights in Latin America
- Immigration in Latin America
- Indigenous Elites in the Colonial Andes
- Indigenous Population and Justice System in Central Mexico...
- Indigenous Voices in Literature
- Japanese Presence in Latin America
- Jewish Presence in Latin America, The
- Las Casas, Bartolomé de
- Latin American Independence
- Latin American Urbanism, 1850-1950
- Law and Society in Latin America since 1800
- Legal History of New Spain, 16th-17th Centuries
- Legal History of the State and Church in 18th Century New ...
- Literature, Argentinian
- Machado de Assis
- Maroon Societies in Latin America
- Martí, José, and Cuba
- Mestizaje and the Legacy of José María Arguedas
- Mexican Revolution, 1910–1940, The
- Mexican-US Relations
- Mexico, Conquest of
- Mexico, Education in
- Migration to the United States
- Military and Modern Latin America, The
- Military Government in Latin America, 1959–1990
- Military Institution in Colonial Latin America, The
- Modern Decorative Arts and Design, 1900–2000
- Modern Populism in Latin America
- Modernity and Decoloniality
- Musical Tradition in Latin America, The
- Native Presence in Postconquest Central Peru
- New Conquest History and the New Philology in Colonial Mes...
- New Left in Latin America, The
- Novel, Chronology of the Venezuelan
- Novel of the Mexican Revolution, The
- Novel, 19th Century Haitian
- Novel, The Colombian
- Oaxaca, Conquest and Colonial
- Painting in New Spain, 1521–1820
- Paraguayan War (War of the Triple Alliance)
- Perón and Peronism
- Peru, Colonial
- Peru, Conquest of
- Peru, Slavery in
- Philippines Under Spanish Rule, 1571-1898
- Photography in the History of Race and Nation
- Political Exile in Latin America
- Popular Culture and Globalization
- Popular Movements in 19th-Century Latin America
- Post Conquest Aztecs
- Post-Conquest Demographic Collapse
- Poverty in Latin America
- Preconquest Incas
- Pre-Revolutionary Mexico, State and Nation Formation in
- Printing and the Book
- Prints and the Circulation of Colonial Images
- Protestantism in Latin America
- Revolution and Reaction in Central America
- Rosas, Juan Manuel de
- Sandinista Revolution and the FSLN, The
- Science and Empire in the Iberian Atlantic
- Sexualities in Latin America and the Caribbean
- São Paulo
- Spanish and Portuguese Trade, 1500–1750
- Spanish Caribbean In The Colonial Period, The
- Spanish Colonial Decorative Arts, 1500-1825
- Spanish Florida
- Textile Traditions of the Andes
- 16th-Century New Spain
- Transculturation and Literature
- Trujillo, Rafael
- Tupac Amaru Rebellion, The
- United States and Castro's Cuba in the Cold War, The
- United States and the Guatemalan Revolution, The
- United States Invasion of the Dominican Republic, 1961–196...
- Urban History
- Urbanization in the 20th Century, Latin America’s
- U.S.-Latin American Relations During the Cold War
- Vargas, Getúlio
- Women and Labor in 20th-Century Latin America
- Women in Colonial Latin American History
- Women in Modern Latin American History
- Zapatista Rebellion in Chiapas