Latin American Studies The Cádiz Constitution and Liberalism
by
Roberto Breña
  • LAST REVIEWED: 05 May 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 30 June 2014
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199766581-0161

Introduction

In 1812, in the middle of the occupation of almost all of the Iberian peninsula by the French army, a group of around 300 deputies from Spain, Spanish America, and the Philippines promulgated a liberal constitution in the Mediterranean port of Cádiz (this was possible to a large extent because the city was protected by the British Navy). This document meant a radical change from the way in which the Spanish Empire had worked for centuries. The constitutional monarchy that the Constitution of 1812 tried to put in place did not come to fruition because in May of 1814 king Fernando VII declared it invalid and restored absolutism. However, Cádiz and the Constitution of 1812 was a very important period in the political and intellectual history of the Spanish-speaking world and represents a major contribution to Western political thought and practice during the Age of Revolutions. The study of the Cádiz Constitution, of liberalism, and of its manifold relations with Spanish America during the first quarter of the 19th century has witnessed such a revival in the past two decades that it may be a temptation to say that this is a “new” field in the Western academic world. If this may be an exaggeration in the case of Spain and a couple of Latin American countries, it may be correct if we consider the rest of the Western world. This explains one of the main difficulties that any English-speaking scholar that doesn’t read Spanish will face if he or she wants to delve into this topic: the vast majority of the bibliography is in Spanish. The rise of Atlantic history, and more specifically of the literature on the Atlantic revolutions, is changing this situation, but it will be some time before it changes drastically (if it ever does). Another aspect that should be mentioned regarding the study of the Cádiz Constitution and liberalism is that up until fairly recently this study was almost exclusively confined to the Peninsula. That is not the case anymore: Spanish America is now a very large field of research regarding Cádiz, liberalism, and the 1812 Constitution. The bicentennials of the beginning of the crisis of the Spanish monarchy or crisis hispánica (2008), of the beginning of the “independence” movements in Spanish America (2010), and of the promulgation of the Cádiz Constitution (2012) have been the main motive behind the editorial avalanche on these topics that we have witnessed since for the past six or seven years. However, it will be some time before the academic community establishes which titles will make it beyond the “commemorative frenzy.” In any case, the importance of the participation of the Spanish American deputies in the Cádiz Cortes and of the role that Spanish liberal thought in general and the Cádiz Constitution in particular played in Spanish America during the first quarter of the 19th century are now well established. Regarding the 1812 Constitution, the political, ideological, and intellectual aspects of liberalism are essential if we are to understand the main aspects of a legal document that, with all its limitations and its very restricted application in the Peninsula, was revolutionary vis-à-vis the political principles that had sustained the Spanish monarchy for centuries. Cádiz was, more than anything else, a political revolution; however, this fact should not neglect or minimize the social and cultural implications of a period of the history of the Spanish-speaking world that evidently transcends a legal document. Because Cádiz, liberalism, and the 1812 Constitution are the main objectives of this bibliography, it centers its attention in Peninsular Spain during the six years that cover the crisis hispánica and the revolución liberal española (i.e., 1808–1814) and in Spanish America during those six years and the following decade, all through which the presence, weight, and influence of what was still the metropolis was felt in the entire region (with considerable variations among the different territories). In 1820, liberals came back to power in Spain and the Cádiz Constitution was restored. This period, known as the Trienio Liberal, lasted only three years and could not avoid the loss of the whole continental Spanish American empire. In any case, many of the books comprised in this bibliography include the Trienio. Finally, considering the tendency of contemporary Western historiography to amplify chronological spans and to emphasize continuities, some of the titles included in this bibliography cover the first half of the 19thcentury (particularly in some sections devoted to Spanish America).

Historical Overviews

The “modern” academic discussion on the Cádiz Constitution stems from the debate that took place around the middle of the 20th century between two well-known Spanish historians, Federico Suárez and Miguel Artola. Their positions were clear-cut: Suárez was very critical of the Cádiz Constitution, more specifically of its liberalism (Suárez 1950), and Artola 1999 considered that it was precisely this liberalism that gave this period of Spanish history its essential and most distinguished feature (Artola 1959, Artola 1999). Attention then turned to the Constitution specifically. Suárez’s followers considered it a bad imitation of the French Constitution of 1791, while Artola’s epigones praised its revolutionary character. Among the Spanish historians who devoted more attention to this period in the following decades is Josep Fontana. In Fontana 1979 and Fontana 2007, the author’s Marxist position in a certain way superseded the Suárez–Artola debate, but it also created other historiographic questions and problems—among others, an emphasis on “social forces” that is c insufficient to explain a revolution like the one that took place in Spain and Spanish America between 1808 and 1814.

  • Artola, Miguel. Los orígenes de la España contemporánea. 2 vols. Madrid: IEP, 1959.

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    This book is the first step to approach the 1808–1814 period for anyone interested in the historiographic origins of the present study of the revolución liberal española. The first volume may be considered the book itself; the introduction (100 pages) is a socioeconomic overview of the Antiguo Régimen in Spain. The second volume is a selection of documents received by the authorities as responses to the Consulta al país carried out by the Junta Central in 1809.

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    • Artola, Miguel. La España de Fernando VII. Madrid: Espasa, 1999.

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      The foundational work on the reign of Ferdinand VII. Although forty-five years have transpired since its original publication, it still can be read with profit. However, Spanish America and the independence movements are not given any attention. This book originally appeared ol. 26 of the Historia de España dirigida por Ramón Menéndez Pidal (Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1968).

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      • Fontana, Josep. La crisis del Antiguo régimen 1808–1833. Barcelona: Crítica, 1979.

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        As a book that is part of a collection of guides to Spanish contemporary history, this volume gives a panoramic view that covers not only the political issues but also the social and economic ones. It also includes a very complete chronology of the whole period (pp. 219–260). It is clear, well written, and useful; however, the authors’ emphasis on the social aspects to explain this period is debatable.

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        • Fontana, Josep. La época del liberalismo. Barcelona: Crítica/Marcial Pons, 2007.

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          This book is Volume 6 of one of the most recent histories of Spain; it covers Spanish history from 1808 to 1874. Only chapter 2 is devoted to Cádiz. The project in general is directed to the educated reader, and this volume in particular fulfills its objective. However, Fontana tends to establish a direct link between the failure of liberalism and the lack of attention the liberals gave to the Spanish people (more concretely, to peasants), an interpretation that is open to debate, for several other variables should be equally taken into consideration

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          • Suárez, Federico. La crisis política del Antiguo Régimen en España. Madrid: Rialp, 1950.

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            This book establishes what could be considered the standard “conservative” perspective of the transition from the Antiguo Régimen to the Spain that emerges after the death of Ferdinand VII. Although its traditionalism and antiliberalism now appear simplistic and outdated, it still is an important reading for someone interested in the origins of the historiographic debate about Cádiz and liberalism that went on during the second half of the 20th century.

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            Primary Sources

            As in every other field of knowledge, the digital world has profoundly modified the possibilities of anyone interested in Cádiz and liberalism. Until the year 2000, such an important resource as the “Diario de sesiones” of the Cádiz Cortes was not available for the general public. In the year 2000, all of the sessions of the Extraordinary Cortes (1810–1813) were gathered in a CD-ROM issued by the Congreso de los Diputados. Important as it is as a historiographic tool, the Diario de sesiones has limitations that any reader should bear in mind (Fiestas Loza 1995). That is why, among other reasons, options like the “Crónicas de Cortes” of the Semanario Patriótico can be useful (Durán López 2003), and the same can be said about the secret sessions of the Cortes, that were almost as numerous as the public ones (814 vs. 978). A lot of information about these sessions can be found in the book Mi viaje a las Cortes by the deputy from Valencia Joaquín Lorenzo de Villanueva (Villanueva 1860). Also included here is the Teoría de las Cortes (Martínez Marina 2002), which can be considered the most important intellectual source of constitucionalismo histórico, that is, the ideological-historical device that proved to be the most original contribution of the Spanish liberals. Biblioteca Cervantes Virtual has a very complete page devoted to the Constitution.

            • Actas de las sesionessecretas. Cádiz, Spain: Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales.

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              An electronic version of the minutes of the secret sessions. This version is based on the printed one published in Madrid in 1874 by the Imprenta de J. A. García. As mentioned, these sessions were numerous and, evidently, important. More so in the case of Spanish American affairs, many of which had to be treated with circumspection.

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              • Constitución de Cádiz. Florida’s First Constitution: The Constitution of Cádiz. Translated by Matthew C. Mirow. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic, 2012.

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                This recent translation of the Cádiz Constitution by Professor Mirow may be the only integral and authoritative version in modern English available. The book includes the Spanish version. There are many other printed versions available in Spanish. A good option for the general public is La Constitución de Cádiz (1812) y Discurso preliminar a la Constitución, edited by Antonio Fernández García (Madrid: Editorial Castalia, 2010).

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                • Decretos de las Cortes. Biblioteca Cervantes Virtual.

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                  Online version of the Decrees of the Cortes based on the original edition made in Cádiz by the “Imprenta Real” (1811–1813). The work, importance, and reach of the Extraordinary Cortes go far beyond the 384 articles of the Constitution: these Cortes are also responsible for 326 decrees that deal with all kinds of issues (political, social, economic, military).

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                  • Diarios de sesiones. CD-ROM. (Cortes de Cádiz; 24 de septiembre de 1810a 20 de septiembre de 1813) Serie histórica, Congreso 1870 de los Diputados.

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                    The information contained in these two CDs is taken from the second edition of the Diario de sesiones published in Madrid between 1870 and 1874 (Imprenta J.A. García; 9 volumes). These CDs allow searches of various kinds, but sometimes the response is not as fast as could be expected. This same printed edition of the Diario de sesiones can be found on the electronic page of the Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales.

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                    • Diccionario biográfico de parlamentarios españoles. Madrid: Cortes Generales, 2010.

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                      This dictionary is very useful to know the biographies of each and every one of the deputies that participated in the Cádiz Cortes. There is an electronic version in one CD-ROM of this dictionary devoted exclusively to Cádiz.

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                      • Durán López, Fernando, ed. Crónicas de Cortes del Semanario Patriótico. Cádiz, Spain: Biblioteca de las Cortes de Cádiz, 2003.

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                        As the title makes clear, these are the accounts made by the Semanario Patriótico, one of the most important liberal newspapers of the period, of the debates that took place in the Cortes of Cádiz. The chronicles do not intend to be a faithful rendering of the words of the deputies but here precisely is its value. The book is preceded by a useful preliminary study by Fernando Durán López, who is also responsible for the 600+ notes that accompany the chronicles.

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                        • Fiestas Loza, Alicia. “El Diario de sesiones de las Cortes (1810–1814).” Anuario de Historia del Derecho Español 65 (1995).

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                          This article gives several arguments against taking the Diario de sesiones at face value. The author doesn’t deny its importance as a fundamental source to study the period but calls attention to some of its limitations.

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                          • Martínez Marina, Francisco. Teoría de las Cortes. 3 vols. Oviedo, Spain: Junta General del Principado de Asturias/Gestingraf, 2002.

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                            This peculiar reconstruction of Spain’s political history is the most ambitious example of the history that the Spanish liberals not only recuperated but also linked it directly with their political revolution. Notwithstanding its deficiencies in historic terms (contemporary scholars have shown them extensively), it was a very successful ideological device. This edition is preceded by a lengthy and interesting introductory study by José Antonio Escudero. There is an electronic version available in Biblioteca Cervantes Virtual.

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                            • Villanueva, Joaquín Lorenzo. Mi viaje a las Cortes. 4 vols. Madrid: Imprenta Nacional, 1860.

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                              Villanueva’s account of his participation in the Extraordinary Cortes is interesting in its own right, but his references to the secret sessions are particularly original and interesting. Not only because references to the content of these sessions are scarce but because, as can be surmised, very important topics were dealt with in these sessions.

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                              Contemporary Debates

                              Contemporary approaches to the Cádiz document, and to the whole period, are much more nuanced nowadays than what the first section suggests. Besides, some of the most important debates have gone beyond the Manichean outlook that is evident in the Suárez-Artola debate when viewed from the 21st century. At present, these debates are more specific, less ideological. One of the most important centers is its attention in the novelty or “non-novelty” of the Cádiz Constitution vis-à-vis the Ancien Régime from a legal and constitutional perspective. In this regard, in recent years there has been an exchange between scholars, represented by Varela Suanzes-Carpegna 2011 and Sarasola 2011 on the one hand and Portillo Valdés 1998 and 2000 and Garriga and Lorente 2007 on the other. From a different perspective, less juridical and more related with political culture, Hocquellet 2011 has emphasized the depth and modernity of the changes in aspects like the individual and public opinion. From a very different perspective and with very different interests, Bartolomé Clavero criticizes what he considers to be the utmost negation of the Indian population, its traditions, and its needs by the Spanish liberals that drafted the 1812 Constitution (Clavero 1997).

                              • Clavero, Bartolomé. “Libraos de Ultramaria! El fruto podrido de Cádiz.” Revista de Estudios Políticos 97 (1997): 45–69.

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                                In this article the author decries and criticizes what he considers to be an inadmissible attitude of the Cádiz liberals vis-à-vis the Indian population of Spanish America and posits what he considers to be the genocidal implications of Cádiz constitutional culture. He has developed this critical position in many other later works but referred to the contemporary situation of Latin American Indian populations.

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                                • Garriga, Carlos, and Marta Lorente. Cádiz, 1812: La Constitución jurisdiccional. Madrid: CEPC, 2007.

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                                  This is a selection of articles by two well-known Spanish constitutional historians. One of their main theses is that the Cádiz Constitution was to a great extent the “constitucionalización” of a series of elements pertaining to the institutions and legal culture of the Spanish Ancien Régime.

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                                  • Hocquellet, Richard. La revolución, la política moderna y el individuo: Miradas sobre el proceso revolucionario en España, 1808–1835. Edited by Jean-Philippe Luis. Zaragoza, Spain: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza/Universidad de Cádiz, 2011.

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                                    This is a selection of some of the most important articles by the late Richard Hocquellet. With rigor but also with historical “imagination,” Hocquellet deals with some of the most important political topics implied in the profound political transformation that began in Spain in 1808.

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                                    • Portillo Valdés, José María. La Nazione cattolica: Cadice 1812: Una costituzione per la Spagna. Manduria, Italy: Piero Lacaita Editore, 1998.

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                                      In this brief book, the author puts forward the thesis that the constitutional culture of the Cádiz document was not based on the supremacy of the individual and its rights but on those of the nation. He argues for the predominance of Catholicism in the way the Spanish nation was conceived at Cádiz. In his view, this nation was more than anything a religious community.

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                                      • Portillo Valdés, José María. Revolución de nación: Orígenes de la cultura constitucional en España, 1780–1812. Madrid: CEPC, 2000.

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                                        In this book, the author gives historical and intellectual elements to explain the origins of the conception of the Catholic nation that, according to him, prevailed in Cádiz.

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                                        • Sarasola, Ignacio. La Constitución de Cádiz: Origen, contenido y proyección internacional. Madrid: CEPC, 2011.

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                                          This is a thoroughly revised edition of a series of articles that the author wrote in the first decade of the 21st century. It covers many aspects related to Cádiz; mainly its prolegomena, the main “juridical” aspects of the Constitution, its innovative nature, and its influence in Europe and Spanish America.

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                                          • Varela Suanzes-Carpegna, Joaquín. La teoría del Estado en las Cortes de Cádiz: Orígenes del constitucionalismo hispánico. Madrid: CEPC, 2011.

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                                            This is a revised and updated edition of a classical book on the period: La teoría del Estado en los orígenes del constitucionalismo hispánico, Las Cortes de Cádiz (Madrid: CEC, 1983). The book reviews the main constitutional issues in a document that the author considers deeply innovative. The Spanish American deputies receive an attention that no one had given them before.

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                                            • Varela Suanzes-Carpegna, Joaquín. La monarquía doceañista. 1810–1837. Madrid: Marcial Pons, 2013.

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                                              This book shows the avatars of the monarchy designed at Cádiz in the Spanish history until the end of the third decade of the 19th century. It includes a chapter on the perceptive critique that José María Blanco White made of the document from a liberal perspective. This book shows how some of the main political tenets of Cádiz were gradually abandoned by the Spanish liberals.

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                                              The Peninsula

                                              From a certain point of view, first Spanish liberalism can be considered an unexpected consequence of the Napoleonic occupation of the Iberian Peninsula that began in in the autumn of 1807. However, it was the popular uprising in Madrid in May of the following year and, more than anything, the diffusion throughout the Peninsula of the abdications of Bayonne that turned a very difficult political situation into a crisis of historic dimension. This crisis is now called by historians crisis hispánica, but at the very beginning it was a Peninsular crisis. New attitudes, new ideas, and new measures started to flow from certain cities to the rest of the Spanish territory and then to Spanish America. In a matter of only two years, the French occupation had transformed the political and social Spanish landscape in a radical way. This transformation is unintelligible without the world of print: thousands of leaflets, pamphlets, manifestoes, and books flooded Spanish America in particular (because the vast majority of the Peninsula was quickly controlled by the Napoleonic army), setting the stage between 1808 and 1810 for the political and military earthquake that was to follow in the whole region.

                                              The Wider Context in Chronological and Geographical Terms

                                              The best book on Spanish politics during the “Age of Revolution,” with a permanent eye on Spanish America, is Hamnett 2011. Regarding the Spanish empire and America during this same period, Anna 1983 and Costeloe 1986 are highly commendable. From an Atlantic perspective, in recent years Marichal 2007, Paquette 2008 and Paquette 2009 have made important contributions, from different angles, regarding the century that precedes the crisis hispánica. From a comparative perspective centered on commercial aspects, Liss 1983 is still useful (mainly due to the amount of information and for the connections the author establishes between persons, products, and territories). Regarding Spanish public opinion and the independence movements in Spanish America, Pérez Guilhou 1981 is still the best book on the subject.

                                              • Anna, Timothy. Spain and the Loss of America. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983.

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                                                The author is very critical of the policies that the Crown led regarding Spanish America during the first three decades of the 19th century; at times, his criticisms of Spanish liberals and of first Spanish liberalism in general seem unwarranted, mainly due to what could be considered an anachronistic vision of liberalism. There is a Spanish version (Mexico: FCE, 1986).

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                                                • Costeloe, Michael P. Response to Revolution: Imperial Spain and the Spanish American Revolution, 1810–1840. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

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                                                  This is the best overview available on the relationship between Spain and its colonies in America from the beginning of the crisis hispánica until 1840. There is a Spanish version (Mexico: FCE, 1989).

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                                                  • Hamnett, Brian. La política española en una época revolucionaria, 1790–1820. México: FCE, 2011.

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                                                    An excellent overview of the very difficult situation the Spanish Crown lived from the last decade of the 18th century until the comeback of liberalism in the Peninsula in 1820. This is a new and updated edition of a book originally published in 1985.

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                                                    • Liss, Peggy K. Atlantic Empires: The Network of Trade and Revolution, 1713–1826. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983.

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                                                      A book of Atlantic history avant la lettre. Although some of its political analysis seem outdated and its view of liberalism lacks nuances, the amount of information, references, and connections that the author establishes in this book between Europe and America are still useful.

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                                                      • Marichal, Carlos. Bankruptcy of Empire: Mexican Silver and the Wars between Spain, Britain and France, 1760–1810. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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                                                        An Atlantic approach that combines politics and economics. It is a very good introduction to the European “diplomacy of war” of the second half of the 18th century, to the prolegomena of the crisis hispánica, and to some of the motivations of Spanish Americans regarding the war they waged against the metropolis from 1810 onward.

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                                                        • Paquette, Gabriel. Enlightenment, Governance and Reform in Spain and its Empire, 1759–1808. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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                                                          Based on a considerable amount of archival work, the author shows a Spanish Enlightenment that was more original in fields like political economy than what has been traditionally propounded. This does not mean that the reforms of Charles III and Charles IV, in the Peninsula and in Spanish America, were very successful. In any case, in order to be understood and calibrated they should be seen under the Atlantic light that the author considers essential.

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                                                          • Paquette, Gabriel, ed. Enlightened Reform in Southern Europe and its Atlantic Colonies, c. 1750–1830. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

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                                                            An extensive collection of essays that put into question many preconceived ideas about the Enlightenment in southern Europe and their colonies in America. Some readers may not agree with this vision of the Enlightenment (especially regarding the colonies), but there is no doubt that a debate on this issue is very much needed. This book is an excellent place to start.

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                                                            • Pérez Guilhou, Dardo. La opinión pública española y las Cortes de Cádiz frente a la emancipación hispanoamericana, 1808–1814. Buenos Aires: Academia Nacional de la Historia, 1981.

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                                                              The vast majority of the Peninsular newspapers that paid attention to the American events were in favor of the use of force to put an end to the “turmoil” in Spanish America. On the other hand, argues the author, the Cádiz Cortes expected too much of the Cádiz Constitution as a means to stop the independence processes.

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                                                              The “Local” Context (Enlightenment, Napoleon and the “War of the Independence”)

                                                              Regarding the Peninsula, the military and ideological context of first Spanish liberalism, and its apparently sudden appearance, three aspects must be given especial consideration: the Spanish Enlightenment, the Napoleonic invasion, and the political supporters of the French in the Peninsula, that is, the group called afrancesados or, more properly maybe, josefinos (supporters of José I, the brother of Napoleon that became king of Spain in June of 1808). In the middle of the 20th century, authors like Jean Sarrailh and Richard Herr presented a Spanish Enlightenment that for all its entity in certain aspects and its notorious diversity was overcautious from a political perspective. Some authors have tried to present a very different view (Elorza 1970). To get to know the political situation that Spain lived in the fifteen years that preceded the 1808 crisis, the biography of Godoy by La Parra (La Parra 2002) is an excellent option. Regarding the Napoleonic “invasion” (in strict terms, it was not an invasion, due to the Fontainebleau Treaty) and the war it ended up provoking, there are dozens of texts published in the past decade that have cast new light on the Peninsular War or Guerra de la Independencia. The topic is highly sensible for historic and ideological reasons. The extant bibliography is countless; two very good options are Esdaile 2002 and Fraser 2008. As a joint venture, La Parra 2010 is outstanding. Last, Artola 1989, Juretschke 1962, and López Tabar 2001 show how the afrancesados ceased to be the “bad guys” that traditional historiography depicted for very long, among other reasons because in doctrinal terms they were not that far from the Spanish liberales that were fighting against them.

                                                              • Artola, Miguel. Los afrancesados. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1989.

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                                                                This is one of the several editions available of a book that is now considered a classic (first edition, 1953). With this book Artola began the historical rehabilitation of the afrancesados, who, according to him were, for the most part, the ilustrados of the era of Charles III.

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                                                                • Elorza, Antonio. La ideología liberal en la ilustración española. Madrid: Tecnos, 1970.

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                                                                  Despite the fact that this book was published more than forty years ago, it is still an essential reading on the topic. Reacting to a historiography that had denied any political “radicalism” to the Spanish Enlightenment, Elorza tends to find profound signs of liberalism in it. His interpretation may be an overreaction in general terms, but many of his arguments are still convincing.

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                                                                  • Esdaile, Charles. The Peninsular War: A New History. London: Allen Lane, 2002.

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                                                                    Although it tries to be an overview of the war that includes its political and social aspects, this book is more than anything a military history. Well written and vibrant at times, some of the author’s assertions lack nuances that would have made the book even more attractive.

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                                                                    • Fraser, Ronald. Napoleon’s Cursed War: Popular Resistance in the Spanish Peninsular War. London: Verso, 2008.

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                                                                      With an impressive archival work behind, this book adopts the view “from below” to tell the history of the Peninsular War. This is one of its main strengths but also one of its weaknesses, to the extent that “the people” turns too often into a protagonist that seems to be revolutionary at all times and that appears to always know very well what it wants.

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                                                                      • Juretschke, Hans. Los afrancesados en la Guerra de la Independencia: Su génesis, desarrollo y consecuencias históricas. Madrid: Rialp, 1962.

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                                                                        More so than in the case of Artola, this is an explicit vindication of the afrancesados. It is a book originally published in German (Die Franzosenpartei im spanichen Unabhängigkeitskrieg; Münster: Aschendorff, 1961). Although Jurestchke may go too far in his vindication, this overview of the afrancesados is still worth reading.

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                                                                        • La Parra, Emilio. Godoy: La aventura del poder. Barcelona: Tusquets, 2002.

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                                                                          An excellent panorama of the decade and a half that preceded the crisis of 1808 through the life of the protagonist of Spanish politics from 1792 until the Napoleonic occupation.

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                                                                          • La Parra, Emilio, ed. La guerra de Napoleón en España: Reacciones, imágenes, consecuencias. Alicante, Spain: Casa de Velázquez/Universidad de Alicante, 2010.

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                                                                            A well-conceived book, with contrasting perspectives written by some of the main experts on the Peninsular War. An excellent option for anyone interested in what was the “state of the art” in 2010 regarding this conflict.

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                                                                            • López Tabar, Juan. Los famosos traidores: Los afrancesados durante la crisis del Antiguo Régimen, 1808–1833. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 2001.

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                                                                              This book goes beyond Artola and Jurestchke regarding the afrancesados, for it follows them all throughout the reign of Ferdinand VII (that is, until 1833). It reveals an impressive amount of archival work. However, the interpretation of the afrancesados as a juste milieu between absolutism and revolutionary liberalism is unconvincing.

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                                                                              The Cádiz Cortes

                                                                              The decision to gather the Cortes made by the Junta Central was, arguably, the most important political move during the crisis hispánica (1808–1814). This section includes titles on the city of Cádiz (Solís 1987), the world of the press in the city (Cantos Casenave, et al. 2008), the origins of the Cortes (Chávarri Sidera 1988), its workings (Morán Ortí 1986), some of the main topics they dealt with (La Parra 1984 and La Parra 1985), and two overviews: one academic (Suárez 1982) and the other a relatively recent effort of popularization that covers the whole of the period under study (Pérez Garzón 2007).

                                                                              • Cantos Casenave, Marieta, Fernando Durán López, and Alberto Romero Ferrer. La guerra de pluma: Estudios sobre la prensa de Cádiz en el tiempo de las Cortes, 1810–1814. 3 vols. Cádiz, Spain: Universidad de Cádiz, 2008.

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                                                                                There is no way to understand the Spanish liberal revolution without giving due attention to the press and the world around it. The whole collection consists of only eleven articles. The fact that three volumes were needed is because all of them are long, detailed texts devoted to specific aspects (among them, printers, journalism, propaganda, public opinion, and daily life).

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                                                                                • Chávarri Sidera, Pilar. Las elecciones de diputados a las Cortes Generales y Extraordinarias (1810–1813). Madrid: CEC, 1988.

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                                                                                  A useful guide to the complex and unprecedented electoral process that was the “birth certificate” of the Cortes of Cádiz.

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                                                                                  • La Parra, Emilio. La libertad de prensa en las Cortes de Cádiz. Valencia, Spain: Nau Llibres, 1984.

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                                                                                    One of the most important aspects of first Spanish liberalism, of the Cortes of Cádiz, and of the political life in the city was freedom of the press. This freedom existed in practical terms since the beginning of the crisis hispánica but that was formalized by a decree of the Cortes in November of 1810. An electronic version is available in Biblioteca Cervantes Virtual.

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                                                                                    • La Parra, Emilio. El primer liberalismo español y la Iglesia: Las Cortes de Cádiz. Alicante, Spain: Instituto Gil-Albert, 1985.

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                                                                                      This book is about a topic that provoked some of the most heated debates in the Cádiz’s Cortes. Although the Spanish liberals were far from being revolutionary in the religious field, the author argues they failed regarding what they thought they could accomplish in this domain.

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                                                                                      • Morán Ortí, Manuel. Poder y gobierno en las Cortes de Cádiz (1810–1813). Pamplona, Spain: Eunsa, 1986.

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                                                                                        A book on the very tense relations between the Cortes and the Executive Power or Regencia. The author shows that there was no real division of powers in the Cádiz government.

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                                                                                        • Pérez Garzón, Sisinio. Las Cortes de Cádiz: El nacimiento de la nación liberal, 1808–1814. Madrid: Editorial Síntesis, 2007.

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                                                                                          A well-written overview of the crisis hispánica. Directed to the general reader (it doesn’t have a single note), this book fulfills its objective. The author, however, tends to see too much modernity and too much liberalism in the whole process and tends to magnify the influence of Cádiz in the history of Spain.

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                                                                                          • Solís, Ramón. El Cádiz de las Cortes. Madrid: Sílex, 1987.

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                                                                                            This book is a classic regarding the city where the Cortes met (the original edition is from 1958). It covers almost every important aspect of the life in the city at the beginning of the 19th century.

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                                                                                            • Suárez, Federico. Las Cortes de Cádiz. Madrid: Rialp, 1982.

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                                                                                              A brief and clear introduction to the Cortes, since the idea of a gathering them came up in 1808 until its dissolution by Ferdinand VII in May of 1814. In this book, the author maintains his well-known critical position, some would say animosity, vis-à-vis liberalism.

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                                                                                              The Cádiz Constitution

                                                                                              If the Cádiz Cortes were the political entity that represented almost by itself what some historians define as “first Spanish liberalism,” the Cádiz Constitution or Constitution of 1812 is the document that epitomizes this liberalism. Although there is one constitutional document in Spanish history that can be considered its predecessor, the Estatuto de Bayona (Fernández Sarasola 2007) and that its “novelty” could be debated in some aspects (mainly due to the alleged influence of French revolutionary thought; Hamnett 1989), the truth is that the Cádiz Constitution meant a revolutionary transformation of Spanish society, as the leaders of the liberales (inside and outside the Cortes) knew very well; see Varela Suanzes-Carpegna 2011 and Sarasola 2011, cited under Contemporary Debates. The number of books written on the Constitution due to the bicentennial commemorations is out of the reading capability of a single person, and, in any case, it is too early to make an assessment of what will remain of the dozens of books published between 2008 and 2012. This section concentrates on the origins of the Constitution (Tomás y Valiente 2011), its reach in the Hispanic context (Lorente and Portillo Valdés 2011), and some overviews (Martínez Sospedra 1978 and Artola and Flaquer Montequi 2008).

                                                                                              • Artola, Miguel, and Rafael Flaquer Montequi. La Constitución de 1812. Madrid: Iustel, 2008.

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                                                                                                This is the second volume of a history of the Spanish Constitutions. It contains a preliminary study by Miguel Artola, the Constitution itself, and a documentary section with more than fifty contemporary documents on the origins of the Constitution (it includes some of the debates that took place in the Cortes regarding some of the most important articles).

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                                                                                                • Fernández Sarasola, Ignacio. La Constitución de Bayona (1808). Madrid: Iustel, 2007.

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                                                                                                  This is the first volume of a history of the Spanish Constitutions. It contains an exhasutive preliminary study by Ignacio Fernández Sarasola, the Constitution of Bayona itself, and a documentary section with thirty documents dealing with all sorts of issues related to this legal text (very often referred to as Estatuto de Bayona).

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                                                                                                  • Hamnett, Brian. “Spanish Constitutionalism and the Impact of the French Revolution, 1808–1814.” In The Impact of the French Revolution on European Consciousness. Edited by H. T Mason and W. Doyle, 64–80. London: Alan Sutton, 1989.

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                                                                                                    In this article, the author deals with the putative influence of French constitutionalism on the Spanish liberals, identifies some of the dilemmas they confronted, locates some of their weaknesses as a political group, and explains their defeat vis-à-vis Ferdinand’s absolutism.

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                                                                                                    • Lorente, Marta, and José María Portillo Valdés, eds. El momento gaditano: La Constitución en el orbe hispánico, 1808–1826. Madrid: Congreso de los Diputados, 2011.

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                                                                                                      An effort of several authors, this book reflects very well the ambitions and the limitations of the Cádiz Constitution, not only regarding the Peninsula but also Spanish America. Some concepts, like nación or pueblo receive especial treatment.

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                                                                                                      • Martínez Sospedra, Manuel. La constitución española de 1812: El constitucionalismo liberal a principios del siglo XIX. Valencia, Spain: Facultad de Derecho, 1978.

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                                                                                                        This is still one the best general studies of the Cádiz Constitution. It covers from the ideological origins of first Spanish liberalism to the debate about the putative lack of originality of the Cádiz Constitution vis-à-vis the French Constitution of 1791. Despite being published many years ago, this book is still a highly commendable reading regarding the 1812 Constitution.

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                                                                                                        • Tomás y Valiente, Francisco. Génesis de la Constitución de 1812. Pamplona, Spain: Urgoiti Editores, 2011.

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                                                                                                          This is a new edition of a lengthy article originally published in 1995 in the Anuario de Historia del Derecho Español. It is preceded by a detailed study on Tomás y Valiente by Marta Lorente. The main text is one of the best introductions to the ideological and political origins of the Constitution.

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                                                                                                          The Peninsular Liberals

                                                                                                          It can be said that the first Spanish liberalism has in the Cádiz Cortes its political vehicle and in the Cádiz Constitution its more concrete achievement, but its “architects” and “engineers” were a reduced group of men. They were the leaders and protagonists of the liberal revolution that took place in Spain, mainly between 1810 and 1813. The nucleus of this group consists of about a dozen men, but to anyone familiar with this period, five names come to mind almost instantly: Manuel José Quintana (Dérozier 1978), Agustín de Argüelles, el Conde de Toreno (Varela Suanzes-Carpegna 2005), Álvaro Flórez Estrada (Varela Suanzes-Carpegna 2004), and José María Blanco White (Murphy 1989, Moreno Alonso 1998, Pons 2002, Durán López 2005). Of course, they did not come out of nowhere (Martínez Quinteiro 1977), but their ability to seize the historical opportunity that arose with the Napoleonic intrusion of 1808, their political deftness, and their capabilities as ideologues, writers, and journalists are striking.

                                                                                                          • Dérozier, Albert. Quintana y el nacimiento del liberalismo en España. Madrid: Turner, 1978.

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                                                                                                            An ambitious biography of one of the most important leaders of the Spanish liberal revolution. It covers his political career and his life as a playwright and poet. Dérozier tends to view “liberalism” as a single entity (as an agent); however, the book remains impressive in general terms. There is an accompanying second volume titled Manuel Josef Quintana et la naissance du libéralisme en Espagne (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1970); it is a collection of 239 documents by Quintana (the documents are in Spanish).

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                                                                                                            • Durán López, Fernando. José María Blanco White o la conciencia errante. Sevilla, Spain: Fundación José Manuel Lara, 2005.

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                                                                                                              This biography, very well-written and directed to an educated audience, delves into some aspects of Blanco’s life, especially his religious thought and denominational crises, that previous biographies had neglected.

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                                                                                                              • Martínez Quinteiro, María Esther. Los grupos liberales antes de las Cortes de Cádiz. Madrid: Narcea, 1977.

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                                                                                                                The title of the book speaks for itself. This is a brief, clear, and still useful introduction to the prolegomena of the liberalism that Cádiz witnessed between 1810 and 1814.

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                                                                                                                • Moreno Alonso, Manuel. Blanco White: La obsesión de España. Sevilla, Spain: Ediciones Alfar, 1998.

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                                                                                                                  Moreno Alonso has devoted many years to the study of Blanco (and first Spanish liberalism in general). However, some readers will miss a more critical attitude toward a character with the insight, the complexity, and the depth of Blanco White.

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                                                                                                                  • Murphy, Martin. Blanco White: Self-Banished Spaniard. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                    A concise, well-written, and perceptive biography. Alas, it is too brief for a character like Blanco. There is a recent translation to Spanish by Victoria León (El ensueño de la razón: La vida de Blanco White; Sevilla, Spain: Editorial Renacimiento, 2011).

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                                                                                                                    • Pons, André. Blanco White y España. Oviedo, Spain: Instituto Feijoo de Estudios del siglo XVIII, 2002.

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                                                                                                                      This is the Spanish translation of the doctoral thesis that André Pons presented in Paris in 1990. This edition is in two volumes for no other reason than its total extension (840 pages). The accompanying volume is Blanco White y América (Oviedo, Spain: Instituto Feijoo de Estudios del siglo XVIII, 2006). Both books cover only six years of Blanco’s life; in fact, they are almost entirely devoted to the famous newspaper El Español, which he published in London between 1810 and 1814. After Pons’s study, it seems there is not much left to say about this period of Blanco’s life.

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                                                                                                                      • Varela Suanzes-Carpegna, Joaquín. El conde de Toreno: Biografía de un liberal. Madrid: Marcial Pons, 2005.

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                                                                                                                        A brief biography of Toreno. If one wants to follow the “discontents” of Spanish liberalism during the first half of the 19th century, Toreno’s life and the author’s analysis of his ideological and political trajectory are an excellent guide.

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                                                                                                                        • Varela Suanzes-Carpegna, Joaquín, ed. Álvaro Flórez Estrada 1766–1853: Política, economía, sociedad. Llanera: Junta General del Principado de Asturias, 2004.

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                                                                                                                          Ten essays, preceded by a brief biography, that give a very good overview of the life, the political trajectory, and the diverse intellectual interests of Flórez Estrada; among them, constitutional thought, economy, Spanish America, the military, and the “social question.” The last topic mentioned evinces that Flórez Estrada went beyond the liberalism of his age.

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                                                                                                                          Primary Sources

                                                                                                                          This section corresponds with the preceding one (The Peninsular Liberals); it includes some of the most important and most recent editions of the works of the five liberals mentioned. The only additions are Jovellanos 2002 and Martínez Marina 2002 (cited under Primary Sources). Jovellanos, the most important thinker of the Spanish Enlightenment, was a “liberal” in economic terms, but his attitude and behavior from 1808 onward (until his death in 1811) show that his political thought was clearly behind the five authors mentioned in the preceding section: Quintana 1996, Argüelles 2010, Toreno 2008, Blanco White 2006–, and Flórez Estrada 1994.,. In any case, the Memoria en defensa de la Junta Central by Jovellanos is useful not only to grasp his political mentality but also to get to know the political institution that precedes the Cortes (the “Junta Central”) and to calibrate the immediate political context in the Peninsula before their gathering. This is the context in which the Spanish liberals developed their political maneuvering.

                                                                                                                          • Argüelles, Agustín de. Examen histórico de la Reforma Constitucional de España. 2 vols. Oviedo, Spain: Junta General del Principado de Asturias/Gestingraf, 2002.

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                                                                                                                            Written in 1835, this is a thorough description of the creation, workings, and dissolution of the extraordinary Cortes of Cádiz (that is, the ones that gathered from 1810 to 1813). The tone is justificatory and the lack of self-criticism is evident, but still this is a very important document and testimony of the revolución liberal española. This edition is preceded by a lengthy though not very useful introductory study by Miguel Artola.

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                                                                                                                            • Argüelles, Agustín de. La Constitución de Cádiz y Discurso preliminar a la Constitución. Madrid: Editorial Castalia, 2010.

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                                                                                                                              This is one of the many editions available of the Discurso preliminar by Argüelles, often considered the most important text of first Spanish liberalism. Although not written entirely by himself, this is considered Argüelles’s masterpiece. Here, the leader and most brilliant orator of the liberals in the Cortes explains, justifies, and defends the contents of the Cádiz Constitution.

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                                                                                                                              • Blanco White, José María. Obras completas. Granada, Spain: Editorial Almed, 2006–.

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                                                                                                                                This is an ongoing project directed by Antonio Garnica Silva, an expert on Blanco. Up-to-date, only three volumes have appeared—one devoted to the Seminario Patriótico and two to El Español—but according to the ambitious plan of the project, this collection of the political, literary, and religious works of Blanco will reach twenty volumes.

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                                                                                                                                • Flórez Estrada, Álvaro. Escritos políticos. Oviedo, Spain: Junta General del Principado de Asturias, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                  This is a (too) brief selection of political writings by Flórez Estrada (two documents and two proclamations). The introductory study is by Manuel Jesús González; the economic approach he uses is not the most fruitful regarding an eminently political thinker like Flórez Estrada. In this selection several of his most important political writings are left out. The only printed option is Volume 113 of the Biblioteca de Autores Españoles (Madrid: Atlas, 1958).

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                                                                                                                                  • Flórez Estrada, Álvaro. Examen imparcial de las disensiones de la América con la España. Madrid: Biblioteca del Senado, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                    Though falling into several clichés regarding the origin and nature of the independence movements in the region, Florez Estrada’s main interest in this book is the disastrous economic situation of Spain and the liberal measures that should be applied to improve and develop the economic relationship between the metropolis and its Spanish American territories. This edition, a facsimile of the Spanish edition of 1812, contains a very good preliminary study by José Manuel Pérez Prendes.

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                                                                                                                                    • Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de. Memoria en defensa de la Junta Central. 2 vols. Oviedo: Junta General del Principado de Asturias/Gestingraf, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                      This is Jovellanos’s response to the series of invectives that the Junta Central received, especially after its hurried dissolution in January of 1810. The first volume includes an introductory study by José Miguel Caso González that evinces too much admiration for Jovellanos. The second volume contains very interesting documents with which Jovellanos supported his case. There is an electronic version of the Memoria in Biblioteca Cervantes Virtual

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                                                                                                                                      • Quintana, Manuel José. Memoria del Cádiz de las Cortes. Edited by Fernando Durán López. Cádiz, Spain: Universidad de Cádiz, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                        A very interesting recollection written by Quintana in 1819, while he was still in prison (he was to regain his freedom in 1820, with the return of liberalism in the Peninsula). Maybe the best and most lucid synopsis of the Spanish liberal revolution written by one of its protagonists.

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                                                                                                                                        • Toreno, Conde de. Historia del levantamiento, guerra y revolución de España. Pamplona, Spain: Urgoiti Editores, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                          Published in 1835–1837, this is still the best history of the uprising, the war, and the political revolution that took place in Spain between 1808 and 1814. This edition contains an excellent introductory study by Richard Hocquellet. This book is mainly a military history; however, Toreno’s pen, intelligence, and mastery of the story he is telling make these 1,185 pages a great read. The documentary section (another 130 pages) is invaluable. There is an electronic version of the Historia online by the Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales.

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                                                                                                                                          Spanish America

                                                                                                                                          There is no way to study Cádiz and liberalism without giving its proper due to Spanish America. This is the case not only because the Napoleonic occupation of the Peninsula made impossible the application of the Cádiz Constitution in the “madre patria” but also because if the Cádiz Constitution and the Cádiz Cortes occupy nowadays the place they do in the history of Western political thought it is because around 60 American deputies participated in them and because the revolutionary changes the document contained were to be applied in the whole monarchy. In this respect, first Spanish liberalism, with all its limitations, deserves an especial place within the Age of Revolutions. Despite its political failure due to the return of absolutism in 1814, the Cádiz Constitution remains a very important document of the history of the Atlantic Revolutions, and in certain aspects it can be considered exceptional (e.g., in electoral terms it was the most inclusive and allowed the participation of the indigenous population).

                                                                                                                                          General Approaches to the Period

                                                                                                                                          Any study of the Cádiz Constitution and liberalism in Spanish America should start with panoramic views of the Spanish American independence movements. At this point in time and for different reasons, four of them appear to be “inevitable” from a historiographic perspective: Lynch 1973, Halperin Donghi 1985, Bethell 1985, and Rodríguez 1998. Recently, four other overviews have appeared: Rojas 2009, Pérez Vejo 2010, Rinke 2011, and Breña 2012. However, excepting Rinke 2011, these fairly recent general perspectives are not as detailed or as comprehensive as their predecessors.

                                                                                                                                          • Bethell, Leslie, ed. The Cambridge History of Latin America. Vol. 3, From Independence to c. 1870. London: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                            Three authors (Lynch, Anna, and Bushnell) deal with the Spanish American independence movements, while two others (Bethell and Waddell) deal with the Church and international politics, respectively, during the period. The book has three other collaborations on Haiti, Cuba, and Brazil. In 1987 the book was published under the title The Independence of Latin America, leaving out the last three texts and with some other minor changes.

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                                                                                                                                            • Breña, Roberto. El imperio de las circunstancias: Las independencias hispanoamericanas y la revolución liberal española. Madrid: Marcial Pons/El Colegio de México, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                              An overview of some of the most important aspects of the Spanish American independence movements from a political and intellectual perspective and their relationship with first Spanish liberalism. The author dialogues throughout the book with the most recent bibliography on the subject and devotes the final chapters to Atlantic history and the bicentennials, respectively.

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                                                                                                                                              • Halperin Donghi, Tulio. Reforma y disolución de los imperios ibéricos (1750–1850). Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                This book is part of Historia de América Latina (vol. 3), directed by Nicolás Sánchez Albornoz. Halperin’s volume is ambitious in every sense of the word and is no doubt one of the best overviews of the period (besides, the book includes Brazil and the Antilles). However, Halperin’s treatment of first Spanish liberalism and of the Spanish American representatives in Cádiz remains on the surface.

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                                                                                                                                                • Lynch, John. The Spanish American Revolutions (1808–1826). London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                  The first “modern” overview of the Spanish American independence movements. Still useful as an introduction for the general reader but outdated regarding its very scarce treatment of the Spanish situation, its rather Manichean vision of liberalism, and its emphasis on the social issue as a sort of leitmotive and explanation of the “failure” of the independence movements.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Pérez Vejo, Tomás. Elegía criolla: Una reinterpretación de las guerras de independencia hispanoamericanas. México City: Tusquets, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                    This book is not a reinterpretation of the Spanish American independence movements (as the subtitle states), and it is too much centered in New Spain, but it makes good use of the bibliography of the past two decades to achieve an interesting account of the period.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Rinke, Stefan. Las revoluciones en América Latina: Las vías a la independencia, 1760–1830. México City: El Colegio de México, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                      One of the last overviews on the Spanish American independence period. Originally published in Germany as Revolutionen in Lateinamerika: Wege in die Unabhängigkeit, 1760–1830 (Munich: C. H. Beck, 2010). This book is intended for the general public, it is updated, contains a bibliography in five languages, and covers seventy years of Spanish American history, but readers will not find new hypothesis regarding its main topic.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Rodríguez, O., Jaime E. The Independence of Spanish America. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                        This overview of the Spanish American independence movements has, among other virtues, that of giving Spain and the Peninsular events a very important role. Rodriguez, who has devoted many years to the study of this period (especially Mexico), follows closely the relationship between Spain and its American empire during the whole period. This book is the English version of La independencia de la América española (México City: El Colegio de México/FCE, 1996).

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                                                                                                                                                        • Rojas, Rafael. Las repúblicas de aire: Utopía y desencanto en la revolución de Hispanoamérica. México City: Taurus, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                          This lengthy and very well-written book is devoted to the general public, but experts will surely benefit from it. One of its main hypothesis is debatable (the radical separation between liberalism and republicanism), but its ambitious scope and deep knowledge of the intellectual history of the period in the whole American continent makes it a very profitable reading.

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                                                                                                                                                          The New Historiography on Political and Intellectual History

                                                                                                                                                          Few fields in Western historiography have gone through such an impressive transformation in the past couple of decades as the study of Spanish America during the first quarter of the 19th century. The main academic responsible for this change is the French historian of Spanish origin François-Xavier Guerra (Guerra 1992, Guerra 2012). However, other historians have also played an important role, among them Jaime Rodríguez, Antonio Annino, and Brian Hamnett. Of them, only Hamnett has devoted specific attention to Peninsular politics and Peninsular liberalism (see Hamnett 2011, cited under The Wider Context in Chronological and Geographical Terms and Hamnett 1989, cited under The Cádiz Constitution). Later, new approaches to the constitutional history of the period opened new fields of inquiry (Aguilar Rivera 2000). More recently, works such as Portillo Valdés 2006 and Breña 2006 paid close attention to the relationship between the metropolis and the American territories during this period. New methodological approaches (Palti 2007, Fernández Sebastián 2009, Fernández Sebastián 2012) have also contributed to the aforementioned transformation.

                                                                                                                                                          • Aguilar Rivera, José Antonio. En pos de la quimera: Reflexiones sobre el experimento constitucional atlántico. México City: CIDE/FCE, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                            The author argues that the great constitutional experiment during the Age of Revolutions did not take place in the United States or France but in Spanish America. From 1811 onward, a constitutional “frenzy” occupied the time and efforts of the political elites of almost all of the Spanish American territories during the independence period.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Breña, Roberto. El primer liberalismo español y los procesos de emancipación de América, 1808–1824: Una revisión historiográfica del liberalismo hispánico. México City: El Colegio de México, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                              An overview of the relationship between metropolitan events and ideas with their Spanish American counterparts during the crisis hispánica and beyond. The author pays especial attention to first Spanish liberalism and surveys its links with the independence movements of Spanish America.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Fernández Sebastián, Javier, ed. Diccionario político y social del mundo iberoamericano: La era de las revoluciones, 1750–1850. Madrid: Fundación Carolina, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                An impressive collective effort, directed by Javier Fernández Sebastián, to trace the trajectory of some of the concepts that define the revolutionary era in the Spanish-speaking world. The countries represented may be too many for an era that until c. 1820 was a single empire and the chronological range may be debatable, but the usefulness of this dictionary and the contribution that conceptual history can make to deepen our understanding of this era are out of the question.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Fernández Sebastián, Javier, ed. La aurora de la libertad: Los primeros liberalismos en el mundo iberoamericano. Madrid: Marcial Pons, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                  For those readers interested in liberalism, here are, reworked, the voices devoted to “liberal” and “liberalism” that appeared in the Diccionario politico y social del mundo iberoamericano.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Guerra, François-Xavier. Modernidad e independencies: Ensayos sobre las revoluciones hispánicas. Madrid: Mapfre, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                    This collection of ten essays can be considered the starting point of the new historiography on the subject. Guerra’s attention to the metropolitan events, his profound knowledge of the French Revolution, his emphasis on the elites combined with the role of sociabilities (“sociabilidades”), and his insistence on considering this period from an essentially Hispanic perspective (not exclusively metropolitan or Spanish American) set the stage for some of the most important developments that the historiography on the period has witnessed in the past two decades.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Guerra, François-Xavier. Figuras de la Modernidad. Hispanoamérica siglos XIX–XX. Compiled by Annick Lempérière and Georges Lomné. Bogotá, Spain: Universidad Externado, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Guerra left many articles scattered in reviews of several countries. This timely compilation gathers a dozen of the most important.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Palti, Elías. El tiempo de la política: El siglo XIX reconsiderado. Buenos Aires: Siglo, XXI, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                        This is one of the few systematic criticisms made to Guerra’s ouevre. It is also a theoretical proposal to study the political history of the 19th century in Spanish America from the perspective of what can be called “the history of political languages.” The author is at times hard to follow and he will not convince everyone, but his revisionist impulse and his “contextual” approach are illuminating in many respects.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Portillo Valdés, José María. Crisis atlántica: Autonomía e independencia en la crisis de la monarquía hispánica. Madrid: Marcial Pons, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                          This book is devoted to some aspects that the author considers essential to understand the first phases of the emancipation processes in Spanish America: federalism, autonomy, the “pueblos,” congresses, the nation, and the native Indians. The author deftly analyzes the beginnings of what became an irreversible path toward the independence of the whole continental Spanish Empire in America.

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                                                                                                                                                                          The Spanish American Deputies

                                                                                                                                                                          Ignored for very long, the contribution of the Spanish American deputies to the Cádiz Cortes, the revolución hispánica, and the liberal cause in general is now out of the question. The first step, as already mentioned in Contemporary Debates, was taken by Varela Suanzes-Carpegna (Varela Suanzes-Carpegna 1983). The best texts on the subject are Rieu-Millan 1990 and Blanco Valdés 1994. Other books that touch different aspects of the Spanish American representatives are Berruezo 1986 and Chust 1999.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Berruezo, María Teresa. La participación americana en las Cortes de Cádiz, 1810–1814. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Constitucionales, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                            This is a reference book; it is mainly a list of biographies of all the Spanish American deputies who participated in the Cádiz Extraordinary Cortes. Until very recently it was still a useful tool; however, the Cádiz section of the Diccionario biográfico de parlamentarios españoles has made this book obsolete in many respects.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Blanco Valdés, Roberto. “El ‘problema americano’ en la primeras cortes liberales españolas, 1810–1814.” In Los orígenes del constitucionalismo liberal en España e Iberoamérica: un estudio comparado. Edited by Pedro Cruz Villalón, 67–106. Sevilla, Spain: Junta de Andalucía, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                              This lengthy article is an excellent résumé of an issue (the problema americano) that, despite its importance, never received the attention it deserved from the Peninsular deputies (especially the liberals, who had the upper hand in the Cortes between 1810 and 1813). The year following its original publication, this text was published as a booklet by the National University of Mexico and the Corte de Constitucionalidad of Guatemala.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Chust, Manuel. La cuestión nacional americana en las Cortes de Cádiz, 1810–1814. Valencia, Spain: UNED, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                This book follows some of the most important debates in the Cádiz Cortes regarding America. The author insists time and again on the Spanish American weight on the Cádiz Constitution; however, he tends to conflate the Spanish American participation in the debates with the concrete contributions of the Spanish Americans to the final version of the document.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Rieu-Millan, Marie Laure. Los diputados americanos en las Cortes de Cádiz. Madrid: CSIC, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  This book covers all of the important issues regarding the Spanish American representation in the Cortes. Its clarity, its detailed treatment of the issues, and its equilibrated judgments make it by far the best book on the subject.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Varela Suanzes-Carpegna, Joaquín. La teoría del Estado en los orígenes del constitucionalismo hispánico: Las Cortes de Cádiz. Madrid: CEC, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    This was the first book to give to the Spanish American deputies the place in historiography they now enjoy. Some aspects, like the political ideology attributed to some Spanish American deputies, are debatable, but the ensemble is still highly commendable. There is a recent edition Varela Suanzes-Carpegna 2011 (cited under Contemporary Debates).

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                                                                                                                                                                                    The Constitution Applied and Spanish American Liberalism

                                                                                                                                                                                    In the end, the Cádiz Constitution was applied in two viceroyalties (New Spain and Peru) and in the Captaincy General of Guatemala. Due to the state of war that almost the whole subcontinent was living under, its application was pretty selective; see Ferrer Muñoz 1993 for the Mexican case and Peralta Ruiz 2002 for the Peruvian. However, as the contributors of Ortiz Escamilla and Serrano 2007 have shown, in some aspects (e.g., city councils) its influence was remarkable. Regarding Central America (see Rodríguez 1978), although the region was not living in a military situation, the authorities were unable to really apply the Constitution or to obtain its potential benefits (geographic distances and a terrible economic situation were decisive in this respect). The influence of the Constitution has been studied recently even in “remote” places of the Spanish Empire in America: Mirow 2012 shows how the Constitution was received in St. Augustine, eastern Florida. Regarding liberalism in other American territories, the war with the metropolis, a social situation that was much more complex than the one in the Peninsula, an increasing desire for total independence, and the lack of a political group identified as “liberal” made liberalism a more flexible and undetermined ideology—so flexible in fact that during the first quarter of the 19th century it is difficult to pinpoint where the Spanish American liberales stood or where exactly was the “liberalism” they espoused. As is very often the case in political and intellectual history, nuances are therefore fundamental. A good example of this is Bolívar and his attitude vis-à-vis the Cádiz Constitution and liberalism in general (Pagden 1990, Collier 2008). Last, this section includes an overview of what went on politically in the Philippines during the first quarter of the 19th century vis-à-vis the Cádiz Constitution (Celdrán Ruano 2001).

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Celdrán Ruano, Julia. “Filipinas.” In Historia de España Menéndez Pidal. Vol. 32. Edited by José María Jover Zamora, 280–322. Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Philippines and its relationship with first Spanish liberalism is one topic of this period that continues to be neglected by political historians. This is one of the few overviews of the period under study (the first quarter of the19th century) that covers the most important aspects of the political ties between the Philippine islands and the metropolis, with Cádiz in the forefront.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Collier, Simon. “Simón Bolívar as Political Thinker.” In Essays on the Life and Legacy of the Liberator. Edited by David Bushnell and Lester D. Langley, 13–34. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        In less than twenty pages, the author presents the most important dilemmas of Bolívar’s political thought and concludes that, for all his realism, his political hopes may have been unrealistic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ferrer Muñoz, Manuel. La Constitución de Cádiz y su aplicación en la Nueva España. México City: UNAM, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          An overview of the applications and “missapplications” of the Cádiz Constitution in New Spain, the most important viceroyalty of the empire.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mirow, Matthew C. “The Constitution of Cádiz in Florida.” Florida Journal of International Law 24.2 (2012): 271–329.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            As this article shows, the Cádiz Constitution even reached peripheral places in Spanish America. This extensive and well-researched text shows how the town of St. Augustine in eastern Florida lived and celebrated the promulgation of the Constitution in 1812.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ortiz Escamilla, Juan, and José Antonio Serrano, eds. Ayuntamientos y liberalismo gaditano en México. Guadalajara, Mexico: El Colegio de Michoacán/Universidad Veracruzana, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Twelve essays by distinguished experts in the field show the important political consequences that the application of the Cádiz Constitution in New Spain brought along for the local political entities that the document gave birth to: the city councils.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Pagden, Anthony. “The End of Empire: Simón Bolívar and the Liberal Republic.” In Spanish Imperialism and the Political Imagination. By Anthony Pagden, 133–153. London: Yale University Press, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Pagden shows some of the tensions of Bolívar’s political thought and argues that his notion of the ideal republic was problematic in several respects, among them his ambiguous relationship with liberalism. There is a Spanish version of this article in the book El liberalismo como problema, edited by Luis Castro Leiva (Caracas: Monte Ávila Editores, 1991).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Peralta Ruiz, Víctor. En defensa de la autoridad: Política y cultura bajo el gobierno del virrey Abascal, 1806–1816. Madrid: CSIC, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supported in extensive archival work, the author argues that notwithstanding all the limitations that the application of the Cádiz Constitution suffered in the viceroyalty of Perú (due mainly to the ideology, authority, and power of its viceroy, José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa), this territory went through important political and cultural transformations during the period tht goes from 1810 to 1814.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Rodríguez, Mario. The Cádiz Experiment in Central America, 1808–1826. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Although Central America was, as the author writes, “an adequate testing ground for the Cádiz experiment” (p. 233) (to the extent that it remained in peace between 1812 and 1814), he argues that the political errors of the Peninsular liberals, regionalism, federalism, an adverse economic situation, and unmanageable geographic distances contributed to the failure of the experiment. There is a Spanish translation of this book (México City: FCE, 1984).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Liberalism, Popular Participation, Race, and Slavery

                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Cádiz Constitution was received, adopted, and adapted differently, not only among the different territories where it was applied but also within each administrative entity of the empire. At first, only the reactions of the elites received attention; however, for about two decades, popular (more specifically indigenous) groups have received increasing attention. No other case has been more studied than the Viceroyalty of New Spain. With Van Young 2001 as the work of reference in this field, Annino 1995, Guarisco 2003, Ducey 2004, Guardino 2005, and Caplan 2010 have dealt with the ways in which popular culture was affected by the transition from the Ancien Régime to the Mexican republic and by liberal practices in particular. The findings, however, tend to disagree in several aspects, among them the role played by liberalism or, more concretely, the way in which popular and indigenous groups received, modified, and made use of liberalism and liberal principles during the war of independence and beyond. Finally, during the past decade, several books have appeared on race and slavery during the independence period. The links of these topics with Cádiz are sometimes less clear and less direct than what some social historians purport. In any case, as Lasso 2007 and Blanchard 2008 show, these fields of inquiry will surely maintain the pace they have exhibited recently and will continue making important contributions to the study of the whole first half of the 19th century in Spanish America.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Annino, Antonio. “Nuevas perspectivas para una vieja pregunta.” In El primer liberalismo mexicano 1808–1855. By Antonio Annino, 45–91. México City: INAH, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      In this article, as in several others of his authorship, Annino establishes a very close link between local self-government and liberalism, mainly through the re-appropiatrion of sovereignty by the “pueblos” The reappropriation of sovereignty by the “pueblos” that he posits seems insufficient from a certain perspective to characterize them as liberal. This hypothesis is debatable; in any case, it has influenced many historians.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Blanchard, Peter. Under the Flags of Freedom: Slave Soldiers and the Wars of Independence in Spanish America. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Blanchard shows the very important role that slaves played in South America for the achievement of independence of several countries. Despite their involvement, slaves were maintained in the vast majority of the new countries until the middle of the 19th century. However, it can be said that the dismantling of the institution began in the independence period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Caplan, Karen D. Indigenous Citizens: Local Liberalism in Early National Oaxaca and Yucatán. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          The author covers the whole first half of the 19th century regarding the political history of two important Mexican states. Her findings reveal the complexity of the reception of liberalism by local indigenous peoples and their political cultures. This reception varied significantly, but in no instance can it be considered either “failure” or “success” when viewed from a local perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ducey, Michael T. A Nation of Villages: Riot and Rebellion in the Mexican Huasteca, 1750–1850. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            This revision of 100 years of history of a Mexican region shows that its villagers adapted colonial political culture and then republican ideas according to their social and institutional needs. Liberal ideas like the nation were approached from a local perspective, but this is not considered atavistic by the author but as another sign of the transformation into what he calls a “league of villages.”

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Guardino, Peter. The Time of Liberty: Popular Political culture in Oaxaca, 1750–1850. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              According to the author, the Oaxacan insurgentes were not worried about independence from Spain. In fact, Spanish liberalism was much more corrosive of the traditional politics of the city. In this interpretation of Mexican political history of the first half of the 19th century, peasants and other subalterns were conscious and active political actors that enabled popular politics to play an important role in shaping national politics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Guarisco, Claudia. Los indios del valle de México y la construcción de una nueva sociabilidad política, 1770–1835. Zinacantepec, Mexico: El Colegio Mexiquense, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                The author shows how the Cádiz Constitution affected the political sociability of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico. More specifically, it shows how the repúblicas de indios transformed themselves into city councils, the new entities of local government created in Cádiz. In the end, however, the liberal political sociability was unable to overcome very ancient habits of the inhabitants of the Valley and had to learn to be flexible and tolerant.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lasso, Marixa. Myths of Harmony: Race and Republicanism during the Age of Revolution, Colombia 1795–1831. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lasso deftly shows that the discourse of racial equality became one of the unchallenged nationalist principles of Colombia during the independence period. Racial harmony may have been rhetorical in many respects, but it set the boundaries for a legitimate and republican way to deal with an issue that was crucial for Colombian social stability.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Van Young, Eric. The Other Rebellion: Popular Violence, Ideology, and the Mexican Struggle for Independence, 1810–1821. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This book is the most important study of Mexico’s independence process written in many years. It is a history “from below” that reflects decades of work on Mexican archives. Van Young’s conclusion has disconcerted some social historians: Mexican indigenous “revolutionaries” wanted to preserve untouched their traditional way of life. Their political participation was local and defensive; it should be understood predominantly as a form of cultural resistance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Atlantic Approach and the Revoluciones Hispánicas

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The attention that Atlantic history has received in the past decade and more concretely the attention given to the Age of Revolution has put the Spanish American independence movements (and to that extent the Spanish liberal revolution) in a sort of limelight in Western academia. The reason is simple: at present, there is no way to deal with the Atlantic Revolution that took place in the Western world between 1775 and 1825 without giving an important place to the Spanish American Revolutions. Although there are books that can be considered “predecessors” (Langley 1996), nowadays there is only one comparative history of the four “classic” Atlantic revolutions (United States, France, Haiti, and the Spanish territories in America): Atlantic Revolutions (Klooster 2009). Regarding the Spanish Empire and the Spanish American revolutions, there are several titles that clearly show the stamp of the Atlantic approach (Elliott 2006; Calderón and Thibaud 2006; Adelman 2006; and Thibaud, et al. 2013). Some authors have adopted a cautious attitude regarding the contributions that the Atlantic approach can make to the study of the Spanish American independence movements from a political and intellectual perspective (Breña 2010). However, this approach has already contributed so much to the study and reevaluation of the period in topics like commerce, slavery, and migrations that the field will keep on growing. A very recent example of its potentialities (and its heterogeneity) is Hensel et al. 2012.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Adelman, Jeremy. Sovereignty and Revolution on the Iberian Atlantic. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A long-range analysis of the demise of the Spanish and Portuguese empires in America. This book is full of suggestive interpretations, mainly regarding the idea of empire and some commercial issues linked with it; the inclusion of Brazil is a great asset. Unfortunately, the most important Spanish territory in America, New Spain, is given scarce attention.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Breña, Roberto. “Las independencias hispanoamericanas, la revolución española y el enfoque atlántico.” Historia y Política 24 (2010): 11–22.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In this introduction to a dossier on Ibero-America in 1810, the author presents the reasons why he thinks historians should adopt a cautious attitude vis-à-vis the Atlantic approach to the revoluciones hispánicas and gives several arguments to show why this approach could be partially misleading regarding what went on ideologically and politically in the Hispanic world during the first quarter of the 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Calderón, María Teresa, and Clément Thibaud. Las revoluciones en el mundo atlántico. Bogotá, Spain: CEHIS, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This book, consisting of sixteen essays, is highly commendable. The vast majority of them are devoted to Spanish America, but the United States, France, Haiti, Spain, and Brazil are also represented. The editors are confident regarding the potentialities of Atlantic history, but they are also aware of its limitations, as the brief prologue clearly shows.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Elliott, John. Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America 1492–1830. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A well-conceived and well-written panoramic comparative perspective of more than three centuries of history of two of the greatest empires of the modern era. Elliott’s wisdom and historiographic savoir-faire avoid one of the greatest temptations of some Atlantic historians: facile comparisons.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hensel, Silke, Ulrike Bock, Katrin Dircksen, and Hans-Ulrich Thamer, eds. Constitutional Cultures: On the Concept and Representation of Constitutions in the Atlantic World. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Nearly twenty authors analyze and debate several issues regarding constitutional culture during the Age of Revolution” (each of the four sections of the book ends with a critical comment). The book reflects at the same time the present richness of the field and the heuristic risks contained in a diversity of themes, regions, and methodological approaches; this variety may overwhelm some readers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Klooster, Wim. Revolutions in the Atlantic World: A Comparative History. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Directed to undergraduate students, this book is an overview of the four “classic” Atlantic revolutions (United States, France, Haiti, and Spanish America). The “patterns” that the author puts forward in the last chapter are open to debate, and the pages devoted to Spanish America evince some imprecisions, but the effort to cover the four revolutionary Atlantic movements in a single and brief volume should be noticed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Langley, Lester D. The Americas in the Age of Revolution, 1750–1850. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The chronological span that appears in the title may mislead some readers. This book is a comparative history of the revolutionary movement of the Thirteen Colonies, the Haitian revolution, and the independence movements in Spanish America. Despite some stereotypes in the chapter devoted to Spanish America, in several aspects the book is a useful comparative exercise of the Age of Revolution in a continent that is seldom viewed as a single entity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Thibaud, Clément, Gabriel Entin, Alejandro Gómez, and Federica Morelli, eds. L’Atlantique révolutionnaire: Une perspective ibéro-américaine. Rennes, France: Les Perséides, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Twenty authors from more than ten countries study the revolutionary situation in Spanish America, Brazil, and the Caribbean during the Age of Revolutions. The book is divided in five topics: politics, commerce, ideas, popular sectors, and slavery. It may be uneven, and the metropolis of the Spanish Empire is given scarce attention, however, this book is an excellent thermometer of the interests and tendencies of present Atlantic historiography and of its Ibero-American outlook.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Influence of First Spanish Liberalism in the Western World

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    It’s been known for a long time that the Cádiz Constitution exercised influence in Portugal and Italy during the decade of the 1820s (Ferrando Badía 1991). Its influence in other countries has been less studied, but its presence in Germany, Russia, and Norway is increasingly clear (Fernández Sarasola 2011, Historia Constitucional), particularly regarding the Russian Decembrists (Stites 2011). Adherents to global history have recently discovered the presence of the Constitution in other parts of the world, but it will be some time before these connections are well researched and established. In any case, Spanish American revolutions are now contextualized not only within the Atlantic world, but they are starting to be a subject within global history (Armitage and Subrahmanyam 2010).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Armitage, David, and Sanjay Subrahmanyam, eds. The Age of Revolutions in Global Context, c. 1760–1840. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The whole world is included in this book; however, its “globality” is not reflected in academic terms (eleven out of thirteen authors teach in the United States). There were revolutions in many places during the eighty years contemplated in the title, but it remains to be seen if there are significant links among them beyond their chronological proximity. The chapter on Spanish America is by Jeremy Adelman.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ferrando Badía, Juan. Proyección exterior de la Constitución de 1812. Madrid: Ayer, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This article deals mainly with the influence of the Cádiz Constitution in Portugal and Italy. It also devotes some pages to its influence in Spanish America.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Fernández Sarasola, Ignacio. “La proyección europea e iberoamericana de la Constitución de 1812.” In La Constitución de Cádiz: Origen, contenido y proyección internacional. By Ignacio Fernández Sarasola, 271–336. Madrid: CEPC, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This is the most complete article on the subject. It deals with the reaction to the Cádiz Constitution in England, France, Germany, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Russia, and Spanish America.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Historia Constitucional 13 (2012).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This issue of a well-known Spanish electronic review used the bicentennial as an excuse to delve into the impact of the Cádiz Constitution in Europe and in Spanish America. Ten of the fifteen articles that deal with Cádiz in this issue are devoted entirely to the study of this impact.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Stites, Richard. “Decembrists with a Spanish Accent.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 12.1 (2011): 5–23.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The author shows the presence and influence of the Spanish military and liberal revolt of 1820 on the Russian Decembrists, particularly on some of the leaders of the uprising that tried (unsuccessfully) to prevent the accession to the throne of Nicholas I in December of 1825. The author extended his research on this topic in the book The Four Horsemen: Riding to Liberty in Post-Napoleonic Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).

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