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Linguistics Aphasia
by
Susan Edwards, Christos Salis

Introduction

Aphasia is a language disorder acquired subsequent to brain damage that affects production and understanding of spoken and written language in varying degrees and patterns associated with the size and site of the lesion (see Symptoms and Neurological Correlates). Written and online examples of aphasic speech are available (see Aphasic Language Datasets). Brain damage is usually in the left cerebral cortex, with the left temporal and frontal lobes being especially vulnerable. Profiles of deficits vary in the extent that levels of language, phonology (see Phonemic and Phonetic Characteristics), lexis (see Nouns, Verbs, Closed-Class Words), and syntax (see Sentence Comprehension and Sentence Production) are involved, in varying degrees and patterns, although lexical access problems are found in most types of aphasia. These deficits give rise to problems in connected speech (see Discourse). Variations in the types of language deficit found in aphasia led to the notion of syndromes and the search for associations between types of language deficits and sites of lesion (see Historical Overviews). Two well-described syndromes are Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasia. Broca’s aphasia is characterized by syntactic deficits in output but with relatively retained understanding of language. Most experimental research has been in this type of aphasia. In Wernicke’s aphasia, understanding is impaired and lexical semantics are compromised, whereas syntax is relatively intact. Aphasia is found in all languages (see Across Languages) and in children who have passed the early stages of language development and subsequently have impaired language following brain damage.

General Overviews

Overviews are found in edited collections, although few of these can be described as “general,” and in some journal special issues. The ones listed here tend to be more appropriate for postgraduate researchers than for undergraduate students. All these authors have published extensively in scientific journals. Caplan 1996, although published some time ago, still provides an excellent overview of psycholinguistic aphasia at the time of publication. Hillis 2002 is a collection of papers that provide a theoretical background to aphasia study. They include chapters on written and spoken language, models of lexical processing, applications of connectionism to aphasic language, and sentence production and comprehension. Grodzinsky, et al. 2000 is focused on Broca’s aphasia, although other types of aphasia are included in some of the studies. These papers report on psycholinguistic research into sentence processing and production; some studies look at lexical deficits (see Closed-Class Words). Useful surveys on aphasic phenomena, assessment, and intervention as well as background information is in Stemmer and Whitaker 2008. Goodglass 1993 is a classic text from an aphasia lab that has had considerable influence on research and clinical work in aphasia (see Developments in the 20th and 21st Centuries). LaPointe 2005 has chapters based on the Boston aphasia classification as well as chapters on written language disorders and neuroimaging in aphasia (see Developments in the 20th and 21st Centuries). Paquier and Van Dongen 1993 describes an unusual clinical condition, aphasia in children who, previous to brain damage, were exhibiting normal language development. Further papers on this topic are in the same issue of the journal in which this article appears.

  • Caplan, David. 1996. Language, structure, processing, and disorders. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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    This is an informative text on aphasia, written for students from all educational backgrounds. Caplan explains models and theoretical concepts used in the field. He links selected linguistic theories and data from experimental psycholinguistic and online brain studies to aphasic disorders. A good example of interdisciplinary aphasic research.

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  • Goodglass, Harold. 1993. Understanding aphasia. San Diego, CA: Academic.

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    Written by one of the 20th-century giants of aphasia, the text provides descriptions of aphasic syndromes that were widely adopted, despite limitations, as well as a historical context. Suitable for undergraduates and newcomers to the field.

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  • Grodzinsky, Yosef, Lew Shapiro, and David Swinney, eds. 2000. Language and the brain: Representation and processing. Foundations of Neuropsychology. San Diego, CA, and London: Academic.

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    A collection of papers that provide a picture of some of the outstanding experimental work in aphasia, relating aphasia phenomena both to linguistic theories and psychological models of language processing. Many of the papers are on agrammatism, and some background knowledge of this condition is required. For advanced scholars.

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  • Hillis, Argye E., ed. 2002. The handbook of adult language disorders: Integrating cognitive neuropsychology, neurology, and rehabilitation. New York: Psychology.

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    A collection of papers by eminent aphasiologists on various acquired language problems found in or associated with aphasia. Highly recommended as a guide to serious aphasic researchers who seek information about related cognitive processes as well as language.

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  • LaPointe, Leonard L., ed. 2005. Aphasia and related neurogenic language disorders. 3d ed. New York: Thieme.

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    Chapters for those following the Goodglass syndromes (see Historical Overviews), plus chapters on acquired disorders of written language and language deficits associated with other conditions (dementia, traumatic head injury).

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  • Paquier, Phillippe, and Hugh Van Dongen. 1993. Current trends in acquired childhood aphasia. Aphasiology 7.5: 421–440.

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    The authors discuss the rare cases of aphasia acquired in childhood, including when language disorders are associated with cerebral seizures. The journal issue in which this article appears contains other papers on childhood aphasia, and Paquier’s introduction to the issue provides a context for the topic.

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  • Stemmer, Brigitte, and Harry A. Whitaker, eds. 2008. Handbook of the neuroscience of language. Amsterdam and Boston: Elsevier/Academic.

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    A number of the chapters are rich sources of information about the various backgrounds to the study of aphasia, surveys of experimental investigations into lexical and syntactic deficits, and the use of neuroimaging and event-related potential (ERP) in aphasia research. Provides a state-of-the-art view of aphasiology.

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Reference Resources

The study of aphasia embraces neurology, linguistics, psychology, and clinical speech-language sciences, and this is reflected in the diverse publications and journals that carry useful papers, which possibly explains why there are few reference texts. Malmkjaer 2010 provides a short introduction for those with no knowledge of the subject and includes descriptions of the most widely recognized syndromes. Kent 2004, although called an encyclopedia, is a collection of papers addressing a wide range of speech and language disorders, including chapters about aphasia.

  • Kent, Raymond D., ed. 2004. The MIT encyclopedia of communication disorders. Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press.

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    This massive reference book has a number of entries that present current thinking on the nature and classification of language disorders in aphasia. The text provides a balanced view of aphasia research in the 21st century. Pages 243–269 are especially relevant.

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  • Malmkjaer, Kirsten, ed. 2010. The Routledge linguistics encyclopaedia. 3d ed. London and New York: Routledge.

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    Provides a short description of aphasic conditions based largely on the Goodglass model (pp. 15–18). Suitable for undergraduate students and those new to the subject.

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Textbooks

Davis 2007 is a clinically orientated textbook that backs up clinical descriptions with experimental findings. Basso 2003 provides an introductory description of aphasia and relates descriptions to theoretical neurolinguistic models of language processing.

  • Basso, Anna. 2003. Aphasia and its therapy. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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    This text provides an introduction to aphasia, a brief historical setting for the study of aphasia, and a review of some major influences on diverse approaches to aphasia intervention. For undergraduates and other newcomers to the field.

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  • Davis, Albyn G. 2007. Aphasiology: Disorders and clinical practice. 2d ed. Boston: Pearson, Allyn, and Bacon.

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    A book for undergraduates that offers description and discussion of aphasic disorders within a clinical context. Some experimental data and studies are used to back up descriptions.

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Aphasic Language Datasets

Electronically accessed datasets are at AphasiaBank, CAVA, and PATSy. These databases provide materials that would otherwise be difficult to access because of the difficulty of locating willing participants and dealing with lengthy and complex ethical procedures. Such resources minimize these boundaries. The datasets available in these databases would appeal mainly to undergraduate students who wish to carry out linguistic analyses of aphasic language and gain hands-on experience with data. Access is usually free, although registration is required, but some may charge a subscription fee. Menn and Obler 1990 contains textual datasets especially useful for cross-linguistic comparisons (see Across Languages).

  • AphasiaBank.

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    The goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a shared database of multimedia interactions (in which at least one of the interlocutors has aphasia) for studying communication in aphasia. An extensive resource for beginners and more-experienced researchers. Registration is required for this free service. The AphasiaBank has been developed by Brian MacWhinney and Audrey Holland.

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    • CAVA.

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      This video archive of interactions would appeal primarily to those interested in conversation analysis of aphasic interactions. Contains datasets from not only aphasia but also other disorders of communication. Registration is required.

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      • Menn, Lise, and Loraine K. Obler, eds. 1990. Agrammatic aphasia: A cross-language narrative sourcebook. 3 vols. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

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        This resource covers a broad spectrum of narrative language samples of people with aphasia from different languages and language families. At the time of publication, cross-linguistic datasets were scarce. This resource is still a key point of reference. With an accessible introduction, suitable for undergraduates.

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      • PATSy.

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        PATSy stands for Patient Assessment and Training System. It is intended primarily for health-care professionals (speech-language pathologists, neuropsychologists) as a clinical training tool but would also appeal to users in other disciplines. Some of the materials are dated but still very useful. Subscription is required for this service, which is available only to residents of the United Kingdom and Ireland.

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        Symptoms and Neurological Correlates

        Meinzer, et al. 2011 provides an overview of late-20th- and early-21st-century studies of the brain-language relationship in aphasia. One of the many studies on the relationship between type of aphasia and lesion site is Willmes and Poeck 1993, which found an imperfect fit. Theoretical accounts, especially of grammatical deficits found in agrammatism (sometimes assumed under Broca’s aphasia), include applications of government and binding and minimalism theories (Grodzinsky 2000). Examples of similar detailed considerations of aphasic language processing or production (or both) and cortical representation or compensatory cortical activity (or both) exist: nouns versus verbs (Aggujaro, et al. 2006), syntactic movement (Caplan, et al. 2007), regular versus irregular past tense (Ullman, et al. 2005), and representation of verb types and verb argument structure (Thompson, et al. 2010). Bhatnager, et al. 2011 presents an unusual case of aphasia associated with a right-sided cortical lesion known as crossed aphasia.

        • Aggujaro, Silvia, Davide Crepaldi, Caterina Pistarini, Mariangela Taricco, and Claudio Luzzatti. 2006. Neuro-anatomical correlates of impaired retrieval of verbs and nouns: Interaction of grammatical class, imageability and actionality. Journal of Neurolinguistics 19.3: 175–194.

          DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroling.2005.07.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Different regions of cortical representation were found for nouns and verbs in a group of twenty Italian aphasic participants. The findings contrast with claims that factors such as imageability rather than word class account for different sites of cortical representation. Available online through purchase.

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        • Bhatnager, Subhash C., Hugh W. Buckingham, Santina Puglisi-Creegan, and Lotfi Hacein-Bey. 2011. Crossed aphasia in a patient with congenital lesion in the right hemisphere. Aphasiology 25.1: 27–42.

          DOI: 10.1080/02687031003615243Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          When a right-handed person presents with a language problem following a right-sided cortical lesion, the condition is known as crossed aphasia. Clinical data are presented from an individual with this unusual clinical condition. Previous cases are discussed along with deliberations of possible neurological explanations for the case described. Available online through purchase.

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        • Caplan, David, Gloria Waters, David Kennedy. et al. 2007. A study of syntactic processing in aphasia II: Neurological aspects. Brain and Language 101.2: 151–177.

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          An important study for the range of investigations used, examining neurological correlates of assignment and interpretation of three key syntactic structures (passives, object-extracted relative clauses, reflexive pronouns). Investigations include three behavioral tasks and, for a subset of participants, neurological analysis. Part 1 of this study (in the same volume of this journal) examines psycholinguistic aspects.

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        • Grodzinsky, Yosef. 2000. The neurology of syntax: Language use without Broca’s area. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23.1: 1–71.

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          Grodzinsky controversially argues that Broca’s area is responsible for specific syntactic processing that links moved constituents with their original sites (comprehension) and produces constituents of the higher parts of the syntactic tree (expression). Evidence includes experimental aphasic data from a number of languages and functional neural imaging. A large number of commentaries follow this lead paper.

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        • Meinzer, Marcus, Stacy Harnish, Tim Conway, and Bruce Crosson. 2011. Recent developments in functional and structural imaging of aphasia recovery after stroke. Aphasiology 25.3: 271–290.

          DOI: 10.1080/02687038.2010.530672Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          This article provides a review of studies investigating the language-brain relationship in aphasia, using a variety of functional and structural imaging techniques. Most studies investigate single-word processing, but one study on syntactic processing is included, as are studies examining neural changes following treatment. Postgraduate level. Available online through purchase.

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        • Thompson, Cynthia K., Borna Bonakdarpour, and Stephen F. Fix. 2010. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 22.9: 1993–2011.

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          This is one of many studies from this lab in which processing of verbs in aphasia is examined. The relationship between the processing of verbs with differing argument structure and neural activity, as shown by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was investigated. Results show activation of differing cortical regions, depending on status of participant (+/- aphasia) and type of verb.

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        • Ullman, Michael T., Roumyana Pancheva, Tracy Love, Eiling Yee, David Swinney, and Gregory Hickok. 2005. Neural correlates of lexicon and grammar: Evidence from the production, reading, and judgment of inflection in aphasia. Brain and Language 93.2: 185–238.

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          Results from participants with differing lesion sites and aphasia types are used to support the idea that irregular past tense is represented within the mental lexicon, whereas regular past tense depends on mental grammar with differing neurological correlates. The commentaries in the same journal issue broaden the discussion.

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        • Willmes, Klaus, and Klaus Poeck. 1993. To what extent can aphasic syndromes be localized? Brain 116.6: 1527–1540.

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          In a retrospective study of 221 aphasic patients, the association between site of lesion (using computed tomography [CT] scans) and type of aphasia (based on the Aachen Aphasia Test) was examined and found to be equivocal, although posterior lesions were highly associated with Wernicke’s aphasia. Available online by subscription.

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        Historical Overviews

        Historical overviews, such as Howard and Hatfield 1987 and Tesak and Code 2008, provide introductions to the early work of two neurosurgeons, Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke, who, in the middle of the 19th century, observed a relationship between brain lesions within the left cerebral cortex and acquired language deficits. Their observations, based on postmortem examinations, laid the foundations for the study of aphasia for the next 160 years. Basso 2003 includes the early history as well as more-recent developments in the field. Tesak and Code 2008 emphasizes the development of the study of Broca’s aphasia (agrammatism). A section in Grodzinsky and Amunts 2006 offers a historical perspective, with original papers from a number of key pioneers in aphasiology, material that students might find hard to locate.

        19th Century

        Although Paul Broca, in his 1865 publication of observations of a language disorder and assumed site of lesion based on autopsy results, is credited with being the first to note that “we speak with the left side of the brain,” some claim that Marc Dax had already made this observation, a debate discussed in Buckingham 2006. Original papers by many of the leading 19th- and early-20th-century writers on aphasia are in Grodzinsky and Amunts 2006 (cited under Historical Overviews). Harris 1991 gives a more complex view of early work in the relationship between damage in the left cortical regions and subsequent language deficits. Eggert 1977 is a useful translation of and commentary on Carl Wernicke’s 1874 (Der aphasische Symptomencomplex, eine psychologische Studie auf anatomischer Basis, Wrocław, Poland: Cohn and Weigert) descriptions of ten patients who, although they were able to talk fluently and could hear normally, had problems conveying meaning and problems with understanding. The lengthy descriptions suggest that not many of these patients had what would now be recognized as Wernicke’s aphasia. Edwards 2005 includes a further discussion of Wernicke’s work and considers to what extent these patients would be described as fluent aphasic speakers in the early 21st century.

        • Buckingham, Hugh W. 2006. The Marc Dax (1770–1837)/Paul Broca (1824–1880) controversy over priority in science. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 20.7–8: 613–619.

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          Discusses the debate concerning whether Broca’s 1865 paper was the first to claim that the language faculty is in the left cortical lobe. Available online by subscription.

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        • Edwards, Susan. 2005. Fluent aphasia: Identification and classic descriptions. In Fluent aphasia. By Susan Edwards, 5–31. Cambridge Studies in Linguistics. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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          Outlines Wernicke’s contribution to the study of aphasia and gives a brief overview of some 20th-century work. Suitable for undergraduate students.

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        • Eggert, Gertrude H. 1977. Wernicke’s works on aphasia: A sourcebook and review. Janua Linguarum: Series Maior. The Hague and New York: Mouton.

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          An accessible translation of and commentary on Wernicke’s seminal description of ten cases.

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        • Harris, Lauren Julius. 1991. Cerebral control for speech in right-handers and left-handers: An analysis of the views of Paul Broca, his contemporaries, and his successors. Brain and Language 40.1: 1–50.

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          This article presents a reconsideration of Broca’s views of the relationship between handedness, language, and neural correlates in light of Broca’s publications, contemporary scientific views, subsequent claims on the matter, and current knowledge of brain-language relationships. Provides context for one of the most important claims about aphasia. Available online through purchase.

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        Developments in the 20th and 21st Centuries

        Following major wars, clinical neurologists, such as Head and John Hughlings Jackson in London and Alexander Luria in Moscow (see Historical Overviews), started to record their assessments of language deficit in brain-injured patients. Influenced by the emergence of psychometric tests, aphasia assessments were developed by clinical psychologists, enabling researchers to use a common tool. In the mid-20th century the descriptions and clinical assessment of syndromes of Harold Goodglass and Edith Kaplan in 1972 became influential, and although others were proposed, no definitive schema of syndromes emerged (Goodglass, et al. 2001). Considerable debate about the integrity of syndromes and defining characteristics grew and continues in various forms. Alfredo Ardila (Ardila 2010) is among a host of writers who argue that the classical descriptors fail. Poeppel and Hickok 2004 suggests a new way of looking at the classification of aphasia in light of neuroanatomical and test data. However, group studies based on syndromes continued, and claims about the theoretical nature of language features, especially agrammatism, developed. Schwartz, et al. 1987 describes a faulty process (mapping between linguistic levels) underlying aphasic errors in comprehension (see Sentence Comprehension). Drai and Grodzinsky 2006 and the following commentaries in the same journal issue are examples of the debates of this time. Friedmann 2006 provides an excellent exposition to a rich field that links aphasic syntactic deficits to linguistic theories. Goodglass and Wingfield 1997 is an example of the multitude of papers on lexical deficits, which are ubiquitous in aphasia studies (see Nouns). The increasing access to various types of technology (functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI] and structural magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] brain scanning, tracking of eye movement, event-related potential [ERP]) led to considerable progress in understanding both the linguistic nature of aphasia and the neurological correlates. Thompson 2005 is a good overview of some of this work.

        • Ardila, Alfredo. 2010. A proposed reinterpretation and reclassification of aphasic syndromes. Aphasiology 24.3: 363–394.

          DOI: 10.1080/02687030802553704Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Classical considerations of modularity of language (grammar and lexis) and of the different ways articulatory control is damaged in aphasia, and how this might inform our understanding of aphasia types. This forum paper is followed by commentaries by Hugh W. Buckingham, Andrew Kertesz, and Jane Marshall. A useful paper that links past and present thoughts on aphasia classification. Available online by subscription.

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        • Drai, Dan, and Yosef Grodzinsky. 2006. A new empirical angle on the variability debate: Quantitative neurosyntactic analyses of a large data set from Broca’s aphasia. Brain and Language 76.2: 117–128.

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          Data are presented to support the claim that there is a characteristic pattern to sentence comprehension deficits in Broca’s (or agrammatic) aphasia. This lead article is important to the debate about syndromes, the relationship between lesion and symptoms, and theoretical accounts of aphasic linguistic behavior. Commentaries are in the same issue of Brain and Language.

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        • Friedmann, Naama. 2006. Speech production in Broca’s agrammatic aphasia: Syntactic tree pruning. In Broca’s region. Edited by Yosef Grodzinsky and Katrin Amunts, 63–82. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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          Friedmann’s elegant exposition of a theoretical account that links patterns of impoverished grammar in agrammatism to specific lesion loci in the syntactic tree. She reviews her work and other seminal studies that provide data linking well-described syntactic deficits to established theoretical frameworks in addition to considering language-brain connections.

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        • Goodglass, Harold, Edith Kaplan, and Barbara Barresi. 2001. The assessment of aphasia and related disorders. 3d ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.

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          Originally written by two eminent aphasiologists who worked together for many years, this text provides descriptions of aphasic syndromes and a guide to assessment. Regarded by many as a standard text, although the usefulness of syndromes is widely challenged. Also, this third edition with Barresi has added information on further psycholinguistic data, referencing experimental work. Originally published in 1972.

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        • Goodglass, Harold, and Arthur Wingfield. 1997. Word finding deficits in aphasia: Brain-behavior relations and clinical symptomology. In Anomia: Neuroanatomical and cognitive correlates. Edited by Harold Goodglass and Arthur Wingfield, 3–27. Foundations of Neuropsychology. San Diego, CA: Academic.

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          One of the many useful chapters on lexical accessing in aphasia that provide an accessible introduction to this busy field of research. Also included in this text are chapters on models of lexical representation and access, modality-specific deficits (e.g., deficits in spoken but not written naming), and difficulties in proper noun retrieval.

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        • Poeppel, David, and Gregory Hickok. 2004. Towards a new functional anatomy of language. Cognition 92:1–12.

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          The authors attempt to reconcile language function with neuroanatomy, taking into account task effects on language as tested in experiments. They make a distinction between speech production, which they assume requires bilateral cortical involvement, and processing of speech, which depends on left hemispheric activity. A good paper for initiating debate. Available online through purchase.

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        • Schwartz, Myrna F., Marcia C. Linebarger, Eleanor M. Saffran, and Debra Pate. 1987. Syntactic transparency and sentence interpretation in aphasia. Language and Cognitive Processes 2:85–113.

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          One of the many papers from these researchers, whose work has included investigation into the nature of comprehension deficits in Broca’s aphasia. They propose that deficits in mapping between the syntactic level and assignment of thematic role underlie sentence deficits in aphasia. This article has remained one of the main planks of this group’s subsequent research.

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        • Thompson, Cynthia K. 2005. Functional neuroimaging: Applications for studying aphasia. In Aphasia and related neurogenic language disorders. 3d ed. Edited by Leonard L. LaPointe, 19–38. New York: Thieme.

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          An accessible state-of-the-art overview.

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        Across Languages

        Most people in the world speak more than one language, and studies of aphasia across different languages may challenge theories of aphasia (which are often based on English) and contribute to new explanations of aphasic phenomena, especially syntactic limitations, verbs and verb morphology, and closed-class words. Two examples of such work are Burchert, et al. 2008, which explores the fit of two theoretical explanations of syntactic limitations to German agrammatic data, and Penke and Westermann 2006, which examines Dutch and German aphasic data, searching for evidence of different cognitive procedures for regular versus irregular tense marking in agrammatism. Illustrative publications from four eminent researchers in aphasia across languages are Paradis 2004, Menn and Obler 1990, and Fabbro 1999. As well as publishing a rich source of aphasic data from a variety of languages, these researchers consider the cognitive and linguistic consequences as well as the theoretical underpinnings and cortical representation of language in bi- and multilingual aphasic speakers. The journal Aphasiology has devoted an issue to aphasia in bilingual speakers.

        • Burchert, Frank, Nadine Meissner, and Ria De Bleser. 2008. Production of non-canonical sentences in agrammatic aphasia: Limits in representation or rule application? Brain and Language 104.2: 170–179.

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          The authors investigate the validity of two competing explanations for agrammatic phenomena, loss of representation and diminished rule application, in an experimental study using participants who are German speakers with agrammatism. Available online through purchase.

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        • Fabbro, Franco. 1999. The neurolinguistics of bilingualism: An introduction. Hove, UK: Psychology.

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          Although the first one hundred pages cover basic information on language and language pathology, the following one hundred discuss clinical, psychological, and neurological aspects of aphasia in bilingual speakers, including cerebral organization and lateralization. Useful for undergraduates.

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        • Menn, Lisa, and Loraine K. Obler, eds. 1990. Agrammatic aphasia: A cross-language narrative sourcebook. 3 vols. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

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          Volume 1 contains descriptions and theoretical considerations about the nature of agrammatism, linguistic properties, and neurological underpinnings. A collection of papers on agrammatism in various languages make up Volume 2, and data in the form of samples of aphasic speech from the fourteen languages studied are in Volume 3.

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        • Paradis, Michel. 2004. A neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism. Studies in Bilingualism 18. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

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          Paradis discusses representation, organization, and processing of two or more languages in bi- and multilingual speakers. He incorporates selected linguistic theories and relevant neurological findings. This is suitable for undergraduates and newcomers to the field of bilingualism and aphasia.

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        • Penke, Martina, and Gert Westermann. 2006. Broca’s area and inflectional morphology: Evidence from Broca’s area and computer modelling. Cortex 42.4: 563–576.

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          This study investigated whether findings regarding regular and irregular past-tense markings in English aphasia were replicated in Dutch and German aphasic speakers. The findings differed, and the authors used computer modeling to build an alternative explanation. An example of using a cross-language study to explore a theoretical claim about the nature of aphasic language.

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        • Weekes, Brendan, ed. 2010. Special issue: Issues in bilingual aphasia. Aphasiology 24.2.

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          A series of papers covering clinical and experimental work that provide a snapshot of late-20th- and early-21st-century work. Accessible for undergraduates.

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        Phonemic and Phonetic Characteristics

        The breakdown of phonology in aphasia has been an area of intensive research for several decades. Blumstein 1973 is an excellent starting point in modern research into phonological abilities of aphasic speakers. Buckingham 1992 discusses phonological abilities in conduction aphasia, using theoretical frameworks, whereas Marshall 2006 reviews studies of phonological (and lexical) production in jargon aphasia. Nespoulous and Villiard 1990 brings together several dominant perspectives and extensive reviews of the literature on phonology (and also morphology) until 1990. In a review of neuroimaging findings (using positron emission tomography [PET]), Poeppel 1996 offers critical insights into the neural representation of phonology in people with aphasia. Subtle phonetic differences have also emerged with sophisticated acoustic and instrumental analyses of speech patterns in aphasia. Buchwald, et al. 2007 and Wood, et al. 2011 use high-tech articulatory imaging techniques and acoustic analyses to elucidate the phonetic abilities in aphasia and show how these interact with phonology. Within the realm of phonetics, Gandour and Dardarananda 1984, a study of voice onset time control in people with aphasia, brought new insights into this literature domain, particularly because of the language under scrutiny (Thai).

        • Blumstein, Sheila E. 1973. A phonological investigation of aphasic speech. Janua Linguarum: Series Minor. The Hague: Mouton.

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          A classic experimental investigation by a pioneer in the field of phonological disorders in aphasia. A revision of the author’s doctoral thesis. A good starting point for those interested in aphasic phonology.

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        • Buchwald, Adam, Brenda Rapp, and Maureen Stone. 2007. Insertion of discrete phonological units: An ultrasound investigation of aphasic speech. Language and Cognitive Processes 22.6: 910–948.

          DOI: 10.1080/01690960701273532Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          An articulatory and acoustic study of the phonology-phonetics interface, using ultrasound, a new method of investigating sound level deficits in aphasia.

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        • Buckingham, Hugh W. 1992. Phonological production deficits in conduction aphasia. In Conduction aphasia. Edited by Susan E. Kohn, 77–116. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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          This chapter, which is suitable for undergraduates, offers a succinct theoretical introduction to phonological impairment in conduction aphasia. Although the focus is on conduction aphasia, the ideas and theoretical frameworks are applicable to other types of aphasia.

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        • Gandour, Jack, and Rochana Dardarananda. 1984. Voice onset time in aphasia: Thai II. Production. Brain and Language 23.2: 177–205.

          DOI: 10.1016/0093-934X(84)90063-4Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A comprehensive study of voicing consonant contrasts in aphasia. The data from Thai offer unique insights into the nature of voicing errors beyond aphasia in Thai speakers. Available online through purchase.

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        • Marshall, Jane. 2006. Jargon aphasia: What have we learned? Aphasiology 20.5: 387–410.

          DOI: 10.1080/02687030500489946Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A concise critical review of the literature on jargon aphasia, a type of aphasia in which the phonological structure of words is greatly affected. Suitable for undergraduates and graduates as a comprehensive introduction to jargon aphasia. Available online through purchase.

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        • Nespoulous, Jean-Luc, and Pierre Villiard, eds. 1990. Morphology, phonology, and aphasia. New York: Springer-Verlag.

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          An extensive and detailed account of phonology in aphasia and its interaction with morphology, written by leading figures in the field. An accessible introduction for undergraduates.

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        • Poeppel, David. 1996. A critical review of PET studies of phonological processing. Brain and Language 55.3: 317–351.

          DOI: 10.1006/brln.1996.0108Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          An in-depth critical summary of PET studies of phonology in aphasia, by a leader in neuroimaging in aphasia. This work requires some prior understanding of PET and brain neuroanatomy. Available online through purchase.

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        • Wood, Sara E., William J. Hardcastle, and Fiona E. Gibbon. 2011. EPG patterns in a patient with phonemic paraphasic errors. Journal of Neurolinguistics 24.2: 213–221.

          DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2010.02.010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A rare case study using electropalatography (EPG) in aphasia, from pioneering investigators in this method. Offers a new insight into an old problem, the division between phonology and phonetics in aphasia. Available online through purchase.

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        Prosody

        The study of rhythm, stress, and intonation in aphasic speech has revealed some interesting patterns that interact with word and sentence processing. Swinney, et al. 1980 focuses on stress and lexical access. Although prosodic disturbances are classically associated with right-hemisphere damage, left-hemisphere damage, closely associated with aphasia, can also produce prosodic impairments. Pell and Baum 1997 is a representative study of this literature domain. Niemi 1998 presents a detailed study of Finnish aphasia and challenges the prosodic deficit associated with Broca’s aphasia. Van Lancker Sidtis, et al. 2010 examines timing in aphasia.

        Nouns

        Although anomia (difficulty in retrieving nouns) is the main feature of the syndrome of anomic aphasia, it is also present in all aphasic speakers to a greater or lesser degree. Nickels 2001 offers a concise introduction to single-word processing in aphasia. Two modern texts that provide excellent overviews on the topic of anomia and its neurological correlates are Goodglass and Wingfield 1997 and Laine and Martin 2006. Howard and Franklin 1988 gives a detailed investigation of nouns (understanding and production) in a single patient from a particular theoretical perspective, that of cognitive neuropsychology. Bates, et al. 1991 and Semenza, et al. 1997 are more specialized and focus on specific aspects of the architecture of the lexical system, differences between nouns and verbs, and processing of compound nouns, a relatively recent development in noun research. Hillis, et al. 1990 sheds light on the nature of semantic difficulties pertaining to nouns. Hashimoto and Thompson 2010 employs a modern method of investigating noun retrieval in aphasia.

        • Bates, Elizabeth, Sylvia Chen, Ovid Tzeng, Ping Li, and Meiti Opie. 1991. The noun-verb problem in Chinese aphasia. Brain and Language 41:203–233.

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          This paper demonstrates the well-known distinction between nouns and verbs in aphasia. The evidence from Chinese challenges standard accounts of noun and verb processing in aphasia and would appeal to graduate-level students. This paper is also relevant to those interested in verbs in aphasia. Available online through purchase.

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        • Goodglass, Harold, and Arthur Wingfield, eds. 1997. Anomia: Neuroanatomical and cognitive correlates. San Diego, CA: Academic.

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          A highly informative text on anomia written by two eminent figures of late-20th- and early-21st-century aphasiology. Its strength lies in its integration of cognitive and anatomical perspectives. This text will appeal mainly to a graduate audience.

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        • Hashimoto, Naomi, and Cynthia K. Thompson. 2010. The use of the picture-word interference paradigm to examine naming abilities in aphasic individuals. Aphasiology 24.5: 580–611.

          DOI: 10.1080/02687030902777567Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A detailed study that uses a novel, online method as well as more-traditional offline methods to investigate naming in groups of aphasic individuals and of healthy, older adults.

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        • Hillis, Argye E., Brenda Rapp, Cristina Romani, and Alfonso Caramazza. 1990. Selective impairment of semantics in lexical processing. Cognitive Neuropsychology 7.3: 191–243.

          DOI: 10.1080/02643299008253442Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A detailed analysis of single-word comprehension and production of spoken and written nouns. This article provides a concise introduction to the architecture of the semantic system, that is, a unitary, modality-independent versus multiple-semantic systems view. For graduates. Available online through purchase.

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        • Howard, David, and Sue Franklin. 1988. Missing the meaning? A cognitive neuropsychological study of processing of words by an aphasic patient. Issues in the Biology of Language and Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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          A meticulous and in-depth case study of nouns (understanding and production) from a cognitive neuropsychological perspective that should be accessible for well-informed undergraduates.

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        • Laine, Matti, and Nadine Martin. 2006. Anomia: Theoretical and clinical aspects. Hove, UK, and New York: Psychology.

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          A textbook that gives a readable overview of noun retrieval deficits in aphasia, covering word retrieval in healthy individuals, neuroanatomical correlates, and psycholinguistic models. Would appeal to undergraduates.

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        • Nickels, Lyndsey. 2001. Spoken word production. In The handbook of cognitive neuropsychology: What deficits reveal about the human mind. Edited by Brenda Rapp, 291–320. Philadelphia: Psychology.

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          An accessible and well-written chapter about the study of spoken word production in aphasia from an eminent researcher in the field of anomia.

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        • Semenza, Carlo, Sara Mondini, and Marinella Cappelletti. 1997. The grammatical properties of mass nouns: An aphasia case study. Neuropsychologia 35.1: 669–675.

          DOI: 10.1016/S0028-3932(96)00124-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          An exemplary case study on the distinction between count and mass nouns in aphasia. Graduate level. Available online through purchase.

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        Verbs

        Verbs are pivotal for conveying the meaning of actions and for sentence construction. Production of verbs is often more difficult than production of nouns in aphasia. The interest in verb production began to gain momentum in the 1980s, although a few earlier papers had indicated difficulties with verb retrieval in aphasia. McCarthy and Warrington 1985 and Kohn, et al. 1989 show two different approaches to the study of verbs in aphasia. De Bleser and Kauschke 2003 juxtaposes aphasic and language acquisition data on verbs. Several psycholinguistic factors influence verb retrieval in aphasia, which are scrutinized in Berndt, et al. 1997 and Kemmerer and Tranel 2000. Different brain regions have been shown to influence verb processing. Crepaldi, et al. 2011 presents a critical review of these findings. Thompson 2003 puts forward an important and testable hypothesis that attempts to explain the linguistic reasons why some verb classes are more difficult to produce than others.

        • Berndt, Rita Sloan, Charlotte C. Mitchum, Anne N. Haendiges, and Jennifer Sandson. 1997. Verb retrieval in aphasia: 1, Characterizing single word impairments. Brain and Language 56.1: 68–106.

          DOI: 10.1006/brln.1997.1727Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          This is the first part of a seminal and detailed study on verb retrieval (and comprehension) in aphasia. The article examines a number of psycholinguistic factors that influence verb processing. There is also a second part to the study in the same issue of the journal, which examines verbs in a sentential context. Available online through subscription.

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        • Crepaldi, Davide, Manuela Berlingeri, Eraldo Paulesu, and Claudio Luzzatti. 2011. A place for nouns and a place for verbs? A critical review of neurocognitive data on grammatical-class effects. Brain and Language 116.1: 33–49.

          DOI: 10.1016/j.bandl.2010.09.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          This review paper evaluates data about the localization arguments of verbs and nouns, not only in aphasia but also in healthy individuals. Compares data from different neuroimaging techniques. Appropriate for informed graduates.

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        • De Bleser, Ria, and Christina Kauschke. 2003. Acquisition and loss of nouns and verbs: Parallel or divergent patterns? Journal of Neurolinguistics 16.2–3: 213–229.

          DOI: 10.1016/S0911-6044(02)00015-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          The language deficit in aphasia has been compared with the development of language in children. Linguistic elements that are acquired later by children (in the case of this paper, verbs) tend to be more vulnerable in aphasia. This pattern is known as Ribot’s law or regression hypothesis. This rare study compares verb and noun abilities in German-speaking aphasic individuals. Accessible for undergraduates.

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        • Kemmerer, David, and Daniel Tranel. 2000. Verb retrieval in brain-damaged subjects: 1, Analysis of stimulus, lexical, and conceptual factors. Brain and Language 73.3: 347–392.

          DOI: 10.1006/brln.2000.2312Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          The authors compare the ability of people with aphasia and healthy controls to retrieve verbs. The paper demonstrates the effect of psycholinguistic variables in verb retrieval. In the same issue of the journal, there is also an accompanying paper with a thorough discussion of errors, which is equally interesting.

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        • Kohn, Susan, Marjorie Lorch, and David Pearson. 1989. Verb finding in aphasia. Cortex 25.1: 7–69.

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          Action naming is compared with object naming in this early study of single-verb production in aphasia, which subsequently attracted a great deal of interest and controversy concerning aphasia.

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        • McCarthy, Rosaleen, and Elizabeth K. Warrington. 1985. Category specificity in an agrammatic patient: The relative impairment of verb retrieval and comprehension. Neuropsychologia 23.6: 709–727.

          DOI: 10.1016/0028-3932(85)90079-XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Neat dissociations across and within word classes provide strong evidence about the architecture of the language system. This is a report on verb-noun differences in aphasia by two eminent neuropsychologists. Available online through purchase.

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        • Thompson, Cynthia K. 2003. Unaccusative verb production in agrammatic aphasia: The argument structure complexity hypothesis. Journal of Neurolinguistics 16.2–3: 151–167.

          DOI: 10.1016/S0911-6044(02)00014-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A linguistically motivated hypothesis on the nature of verb processing difficulties in Broca’s aphasia. When verbs become more complex in terms of the number of associated arguments, for example, ditransitive verbs, production difficulty increases for people with aphasia. Some knowledge of verb-argument structure and universal grammar is required, but this article should be accessible for undergraduates.

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        Closed-Class Words

        Closed-class words (also known as function words or functional categories) are a subset of the grammatical operators of language and include prepositions, conjunctions, and auxiliaries (and sometimes bound morphemes). The studies in this section would also be useful to readers interested in sentence comprehension and production in aphasia (see Sentence Comprehension and Sentence Production). Sophisticated investigations of the differential processing between closed- and open-class words began to attract considerable attention in the late 1970s. Friederici and Schoenle 1980 is a representative study from that era. Inflectional morphology is vulnerable in Broca’s aphasia. Goodglass and Berko 1960 and Dickey, et al. 2008 are two representative studies of inflectional morphology, the former an early descriptive study focusing on production and the latter focusing on input processes. The ability to interpret pronouns in certain syntactic contexts has been studied by many researchers in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. However, Grodzinsky, et al. 1993 put forward a strong position that influenced subsequent research in this area. Relatively unexplored is the study of operators, such as quantifiers and wh-words. Saddy 1995 (quantifiers) and Salis and Edwards 2008 (wh-words) are useful starting points in this developing literature domain. The studies Linebarger, et al. 1983 and Blumstein, et al. 1998, cited under Sentence Comprehension, should also be consulted by readers interested in processing of closed-class vocabulary in aphasia.

        • Dickey, Michael Walsh, Lisa H. Milman, and Cynthia K. Thompson. 2008. Judgment of functional morphology in agrammatic Broca’s aphasia. Journal of Neurolinguistics 21.1: 35–65.

          DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2007.08.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          The authors provide a broad yet detailed study of comprehension of complementizers and verb inflections, using timed grammaticality judgment experiments in Broca’s aphasia. A comprehensive overview of the theoretical issues in this vibrant literature domain is presented.

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        • Friederici, Angela D., and Paul W. Schoenle. 1980. Computational dissociation of two vocabulary types: Evidence from aphasia. Neuropsychologia 18.1: 11–20.

          DOI: 10.1016/0028-3932(80)90079-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          This early study shows processing differences in two aphasic speakers between open- and closed-class words and provides evidence for two different lexical subsystems organized across the open- versus closed-class divide. Although this research domain attracted particular interest in the 1980s, the wider empirical issue still remains open. Available online through purchase.

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        • Goodglass, Harold, and Jean Berko. 1960. Agrammatism and English inflectional morphology. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 3:257–267.

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          Although old and possibly difficult to access, this early study of inflectional morphology production in agrammatic Broca’s aphasia revealed that order of difficulty is based on grammatical function rather than phonological salience. More recently, morphological processing has become an area of intense research.

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        • Grodzinsky, Yosef, Kenneth Wexler, Yu-Chin Chien, Susan Marakovitz, and Julie Solomon. 1993. The breakdown of binding relations. Brain and Language 45.3: 396–422.

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          Processing of pronominal elements is problematic for people with aphasia. This study focuses on pronouns and reflexives, using the framework of universal grammar. Presupposes some understanding of universal grammar.

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        • Mätzig, Simone, Judit Druks, Ad Neeleman, and Gordon Craig. 2010. Spared syntax and impaired spell-out: The case of prepositions. Journal of Neurolinguistics 23.4: 354–382.

          DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroling.2010.02.002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Prepositions are a major type of closed-class words playing different roles in different languages, for example, denoting location, combining with verbs. Prepositions are notoriously difficult for individuals with aphasia. This in-depth study offers a comprehensive review of previous research and tests hypotheses relating to the status of prepositions in aphasia. Available online through purchase.

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        • Rispens, Judith E., Roelien Bastiaanse, and Ron van Zonneveld. 2001. Negation in agrammatism: A cross-linguistic comparison. Journal of Neurolinguistics 14.1: 59–83.

          DOI: 10.1016/S0911-6044(00)00004-XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Negation is not a widely researched topic in aphasia. This is one of the few studies of negation in aphasia, offering unique insights from three different languages and using universal grammar as a framework. Available online through purchase.

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        • Saddy, Douglas. 1995. Variables and events in the syntax of agrammatic speech. Brain and Language 50.2 :135–150.

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          Quantifiers, for example, “every,” are a closed-class word type and reveal interesting patterns of sentence comprehension ability in aphasia. This is an original study of quantification in aphasia that will be of interest to graduates.

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        • Salis, Christos, and Susan Edwards. 2008. Comprehension of wh-questions and declarative sentences in agrammatic aphasia: The set partition hypothesis. Journal of Neurolinguistics 21.5: 375–399.

          DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2007.11.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          The authors investigate the ability of agrammatic aphasic speakers to understand sentences with wh-words (who, what, which) in different levels of linguistic complexity. This paper puts forward an unusual yet testable hypothesis about the nature of sentence comprehension deficits in aphasia. Should be accessible for graduates. Available online through purchase.

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        Issues and Debates on Sentences

        Debates as to whether sentence-processing disorders in aphasia constitute loss of grammatical knowledge or access to grammar have dominated the field. Kolk 1998 provides an accessible summary of these theoretical orientations, whereas Caplan 1995 scrutinizes the scientific merits of key hypotheses and methodological issues of sentence processing in aphasia. Miyake, et al. 1995 discusses the controversy on reduced resources for language processing in aphasic and normal sentence comprehension. Berndt, et al. 1996 provides data against the uniformity of a major linguistic profile heavily debated in agrammatic aphasia. Two key but opposing theses about the issue of group versus single-case studies are discussed in detail in Caramazza 1986 and Zurif, et al. 1989. A related debate challenging the use of syndromes in aphasia research is explicated in Schwartz 1984. Comparative aphasiology across languages is studied in Bates and Wulfeck 1989, whose authors are leading figures in this field.

        Sentence Comprehension

        The ability to extract meaning from sentences presented in isolation is challenging for many people with aphasia, across aphasic syndromes. Sentence comprehension deficits can be subtle or more obvious. A much-quoted study that set the research agenda for many researchers over several decades is Caramazza and Zurif 1976. From then on, the nature of syntactic comprehension has been heavily debated. A general overview that contains linguistic profiles and detailed datasets is Caplan and Hildebrandt 1988. Different profiles of grammatical competence were brought to light in Linebarger, et al. 1983, using the method of grammaticality judgments, whereas Hagiwara 1993 uses data from Japanese aphasic speakers to test competing hypotheses of agrammatic sentence comprehension. Blumstein, et al. 1998 discusses sentence-processing issues, using online methodology, whereas Haarmann, et al. 1997 presents a computational approach to sentence comprehension in aphasia. The role of short-term memory in sentence comprehension has been a recurring and controversial research theme over a number of years. Vallar and Shallice 1990 compiles several views and data on the role of short-term memory in aphasic sentence comprehension. Tyler 1992 presents a staunch thesis on the role of lexical access and its effects on aphasic sentence comprehension.

        • Blumstein, Sheila E., Gary Byma, Kathleen Kurowski, Jennifer Hourihan, Todd Brown, and Adele Hutchinson. 1998. On-line processing of filler-gap constructions in aphasia. Brain and Language 61.2: 149–168.

          DOI: 10.1006/brln.1997.1839Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          This study investigates sentence processing in Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasia, using a variety of sentence types. This article raises interesting theoretical issues on the nature of sentence-processing abilities in fluent and nonfluent aphasia. It also raises important methodological issues on the nature of online sentence processing in aphasia. For graduates. Available online through purchase.

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        • Caplan, David, and Nancy Hildebrandt. 1988. Disorders of syntactic comprehension. Issues in the Biology of Language and Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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          An impressive volume for the number of sentence types and constructions investigated in aphasia. Readable and detailed. A solid introduction to sentence comprehension in aphasia.

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        • Caramazza, Alfonso, and Edgar B. Zurif. 1976. Dissociation of algorithmic and heuristic processes in language comprehension: Evidence from aphasia. Brain and Language 3.4: 572–582.

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          A pioneering study on three types of aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s, conduction) that exerted major influence on subsequent research. The issue of syntactic versus semantic constraints in sentence comprehension in aphasia is still topical.

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        • Haarmann, Henk J., Marcel Adam Just, and Patricia A. Carpenter. 1997. Aphasic sentence comprehension as a resource deficit: A computational approach. Brain and Language 59.1: 76–120.

          DOI: 10.1006/brln.1997.1814Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A well-articulated and clearly exemplified computational model of sentence comprehension. The authors appeal to resource limitation to explain sentence comprehension deficits in aphasia. Prior knowledge of sentence comprehension in aphasia is required. Available online through purchase.

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        • Hagiwara, H. 1993. The breakdown of Japanese passives and theta-role assignment principle by Broca’s aphasics. Brain and Language 45.3: 318–339.

          DOI: 10.1006/brln.1993.1049Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Interesting insights into the comprehension of different types of passive sentences are put forward in this linguistically motivated paper. Presupposes a good level of understanding of universal grammar. Available online through purchase.

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        • Linebarger, Marcia C., Myrna F. Schwartz, and Eleanor M. Saffran. 1983. Sensitivity to grammatical structure in so-called agrammatic aphasics. Cognition 13.3: 361–392.

          DOI: 10.1016/0010-0277(83)90015-XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          This original and much-quoted study shows that the people with Broca’s aphasia can perform grammaticality judgments, now a controversial finding. Undergraduates should find this paper relatively easy to follow.

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        • Tyler, Lorraine Komisarjevsky. 1992. Spoken language comprehension: An experimental approach to disordered and normal processing. Issues in Biology and Language Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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          A series of in-depth experiments guided by the well-known cohort model of lexical access applied to aphasic sentence processing. This clearly written book investigates various levels of linguistic description beyond sentences, such as inflectional morphology and verb-argument structure, in a number of aphasic speakers.

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        • Vallar, Giuseppe, and Tim Shallice, eds. 1990. Neuropsychological impairments of short-term memory. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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          The involvement of short-term memory in sentence comprehension has been a major theme in aphasia research. Several chapters, written by leading figures in the field, examine the interplay between short-term memory and sentence comprehension in aphasia. Ingenious ways of investigating memory and sentence comprehension are described.

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        Sentence Production

        Kean 1985 provides a comprehensive overview of agrammatism by leading figures in the field. Many of the arguments are still relevant in the early 21st century. Butterworth and Howard 1987 offers one of the few studies of spontaneous language in fluent aphasia. Bastiaanse and Edwards 2004 presents data from fluent and nonfluent aphasia, using elicited language tasks. Faroqi-Shah and Thompson 2003 grapples with the issue of complex sentence production in aphasia and how specific lexical cues facilitate or inhibit grammatical sentences. The ability to process tense has been brought to the forefront of aphasia research in Friedmann and Grodzinsky 1997 and galvanized much of subsequent research in many languages. The controversial theory of adaptation symptoms in Broca’s aphasia (and lack of adaptation in Wernicke’s aphasia) is clearly presented and substantiated in Kolk and Heeschen 1992. Readers interested in sentence production should also refer to the sections Verbs and Closed-Class Words, because these types of words are intrinsically linked to sentence production. Although detailed analyses of single cases gained popularity in the mid-1980s (and onward), Goodglass, et al. 1972 sowed the seeds. This is an early study that revealed exciting linguistic patterns. Kean 1985 offers a concise summary of theoretical accounts and issues, mainly concerning sentence production in Broca’s aphasia. Miceli, et al. 1983 presents a rare but interesting dissociation between problems of sentence input and output.

        • Bastiaanse, Roelien, and Susan Edwards. 2004. Word order and finiteness in Dutch and English Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasia. Brain and Language 89.1: 91–107.

          DOI: 10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00306-7Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A detailed, cross-linguistic comparison of sentence production (and also of verbs and sentence comprehension) in fluent and nonfluent aphasic speakers of Dutch and English. Commonalities between the two syndromes and across languages are revealed. An accessible paper. Available online through purchase.

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        • Butterworth, Brian L., and David Howard. 1987. Paragrammatisms. Cognition 26.1: 1–37.

          DOI: 10.1016/0010-0277(87)90012-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A rare analysis of grammatically incorrect sentences in fluent aphasic speakers (jargon aphasia in particular). The paragrammatisms, that is, the grammatically incorrect sentences, are compared with the errors from healthy speakers.

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        • Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen, and Cynthia K. Thompson. 2003. Effect of lexical cues on the production of active and passive sentences in Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasia. Brain and Language 85.3: 409–426.

          DOI: 10.1016/S0093-934X(02)00586-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          An ingenious study of production of active and passive sentences in nonfluent and fluent aphasia. This study is not only about sentence production and syntax but also about the role of inflection and function words in general.

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        • Friedmann, Naama, and Yosef Grodzinsky. 1997. Tense and agreement in agrammatic production: Pruning the syntactic tree. Brain and Language 56.3: 397–425.

          DOI: 10.1006/brln.1997.1795Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          One of the first studies to use the minimalism approach of universal grammar in aphasia. The authors use data from Hebrew-speaking aphasic individuals to show the importance of tense and agreement in sentence production. Knowledge of the linguistic framework is required. Available online through purchase.

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        • Goodglass, Harold, Jean Berko Gleason, Nancy Ackerman Bernholtz, and Mary R. Hyde. 1972. Some linguistic structures in the speech of a Broca’s aphasic. Cortex 8.2: 191–212.

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          A linguistically motivated analysis of sentence production in a case of Broca’s aphasia. Focuses on several grammatical structures (including inflectional morphology). This early study set the stage for much of the research in the 1990s and onward. Undergraduates should find this paper relatively easy to follow.

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        • Kean, Mary-Louise, ed. 1985. Agrammatism. Perspectives in neurolinguistics, neuropsychology, and psycholinguistics. Orlando, FL: Academic.

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          This edited book offers an all-around introduction to agrammatism, mainly on sentence production (but also comprehension), with contributions from eminent aphasiologists and linguists. An important introduction to agrammatism and the research issues dominant in the field.

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        • Kolk, Herman, and Claus Heeschen. 1992. Agrammatism, paragrammatism, and the management of language. Language and Cognitive Processes 7.2: 89–129.

          DOI: 10.1080/01690969208409381Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          The elliptical sentence fragments of Broca’s aphasia are compared with the nonelliptical utterances of Wernicke’s aphasia, against the backdrop of the controversial adaptation theory. This theory postulates that the fragmented output, typical of Broca’s aphasia, need not directly reflect an underlying impairment. Available online through purchase.

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        • Miceli, Gabriele, Anna Mazzucchi, Lise Menn, and Harold Goodglass. 1983. Contrasting cases of Italian agrammatic aphasia without comprehension disorder. Brain and Language 19.1: 65–97.

          DOI: 10.1016/0093-934X(83)90056-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Two rare agrammatic profiles in which sentence production deficits exist without a concomitant sentence comprehension deficit (often the norm). The study clearly illustrates the dissociation between input and output language processes. Available online through purchase.

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        Discourse

        The characteristics of aphasia in monologic and dialogic connected speech have been investigated in a number of ways using various sampling techniques. Ulatowska, et al. 1983 is an early example of such work; Hanna K. Ulatowska initiated these investigations in aphasia. The examination of continuous speech embraces conversational analysis (CA), which uses only qualitative measures (Beeke, et al. 2007), and grammatical analysis, which uses quantitative measures (Rochon, et al. 2000). The influence of the sampling method for both of these levels of analysis and lack of normative data are discussed in Prins and Bastiaanse 2004. Two other useful reviews are Armstrong 2000, which provides a distinction between micro- and macroanalyses of interactive speech, and Wilkinson 2008, which focuses on conversational analysis. Perkins, et al. 1999 tackles the knotty problem of how representative a chosen sample might be. Perkins 2007 provides an excellent introduction to discourse study in language impairment. The author distinguishes between different approaches, sets out some theoretical underpinnings of these levels of linguistic analysis, and discusses the implications for aphasia.

        • Armstrong, Elizabeth. 2000. Aphasic discourse analysis: The story so far. Aphasiology 14.9: 875–892.

          DOI: 10.1080/02687030050127685Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A useful paper that reviews studies and discusses the difference between detailed analyses, such as CA, and functional approaches that examine the uses (pragmatics) of dialogue in which one partner has aphasia. A large reference list. Available online through purchase.

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        • Beeke, Suzanne, Ray Wilkinson, and Jane Maxim. 2007. Grammar without sentence structure: A conversation analytic investigation of agrammatism. Aphasiology 21.3–4: 256–282.

          DOI: 10.1080/02687030600911344Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          Detailed CA analyses of small samples of conversational speech are used to illustrate that the aphasic speaker is able to communicate with his or her conversational partner. This despite low scores on standard tests of the aphasic speaker’s lexical and grammatical skills. The case is made for CA as a complementary assessment procedure. Available online through purchase.

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        • Perkins, Lisa, Jenni Crisp, and David Walshaw. 1999. Exploring conversation analysis as an assessment tool for aphasia: The issue of reliability. Aphasiology 13.4–5: 259–281.

          DOI: 10.1080/026870399402091Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          The authors report on the stability of quantitative and qualitative measures of repair in eight dyadic conversations in which one partner has aphasia. Implications of variation found among and within the dyads’ conversations and the relative stability of procedures for dealing with conversation breakdown are discussed. Other papers on the same topic appear in this issue of the journal. Available online through purchase.

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        • Perkins, Michael. 2007. Pragmatic impairment. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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          Chapter 2 provides an excellent introduction to this corner of linguistic analysis; chapter 3, a discussion about pragmatics in aphasic speech, implications for modularity, and capacity of the system. Recommended as offering a clear start to what is often a very muddled field in aphasia studies.

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        • Prins, Ronald, and Roelien Bastiaanse. 2004. Review: Analysing the spontaneous speech of aphasic speakers. Aphasiology 18.12: 1075–1091.

          DOI: 10.1080/02687030444000534Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          This paper usefully references a number of studies that have examined various types of aphasic speech samples, but it also includes reviews of well-known clinical assessments that do not primarily deal with spontaneous speech data. Available online through purchase.

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        • Rochon, Elizabeth, Eleanor M. Saffran, Rita Sloan Berndt, and Myrna F. Schwartz. 2000. Quantitative analysis of aphasic sentence production: Further developments and new claims. Brain and Language 72.3: 193–218.

          DOI: 10.1006/brnl.1999.2285Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          The authors present updated work on a quantifiable analysis of continuous aphasic speech data used primarily with Broca’s types of aphasia. Syntactic and lexical features are captured, and claims are made about the nature of aphasia types. A clinical assessment based on these procedures is available. Available online through purchase.

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        • Ulatowska, Hanna K., Renee Freedman-Stern, Alice Weiss Doyel, and Sara Macaluso-Haynes. 1983. Production of narrative discourse in aphasia. Brain and Language 19.2: 317–334.

          DOI: 10.1016/0093-934X(83)90074-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A study involving a pictorial-based storytelling method that shows preservation of discourse structure is spared, but with a reduction in information content in a group of aphasic speakers. A representative example of earlier experimental discourse studies in aphasia. Available online through purchase.

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        • Wilkinson, Ray. 2008. Conversation analysis and communication disorders. In The handbook of clinical linguistics. Edited by Martin J. Ball, Michael R. Perkins, Nicole Müller, and Sarah Howard, 92–106. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

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          A good introduction to how conversational analysis has been applied to aphasic data.

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        LAST MODIFIED: 10/28/2011

        DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199772810-0052

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