In This Article Kiowa-Tanoan Languages

  • Introduction
  • History

Linguistics Kiowa-Tanoan Languages
by
Daniel Harbour
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 October 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199772810-0073

Introduction

The Kiowa-Tanoan family consists of Kiowa and the Tanoan languages Tewa, Tiwa, and Towa (Jemez), many of which have dialects named after the pueblos in which they are spoken (e.g., Isleta, Picurís, Sandia, Santa Clara, San Juan, Taos). The family presents a number of grammatical phenomena that have fascinated historical, descriptive, typological, and theoretical linguists. The aim of this bibliography is to provide an overview of these strands of research and key topics within them. Research of primarily ethnolinguistic and anthropological linguistic interest has been omitted except where it enlightens other topics.

History

Despite the geographic and cultural distance between the Kiowas and members of the Tanoan branch of the family, a genetic relationship between Kiowa and Tanoan was postulated at least as early as 1910 (by John P. Harrington). The principal demonstration of the relationship is offered in Hale 1962 and Hale 1967. Hill 2008 argues against grouping Kiowa-Tanoan with Uto-Aztecan. Some comparative works with diachronic perspective are Watkins 1996, Kroskrity 1984, and Sutton 2010 (nonhistorical comparative works are discussed at various points in the article).

  • Hale, Kenneth. 1962. Jemez and Kiowa correspondences in reference to Kiowa-Tanoan. International Journal of American Linguistics 28:1–8.

    DOI: 10.1086/464664E-mail Citation »

    One of two key works establishing the relationship between Kiowa and the Tanoan languages.

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    • Hale, Kenneth. 1967. Toward a reconstruction of Kiowa-Tanoan phonology. International Journal of American Linguistics 33:112–120.

      DOI: 10.1086/464948E-mail Citation »

      The second of Hale’s two key works establishing the relationship between Kiowa and the Tanoan languages.

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      • Hill, Jane H. 2008. Northern Uto-Aztecan and Kiowa-Tanoan: Evidence of contact between the proto-languages? International Journal of American Linguistics 74:155–188.

        DOI: 10.1086/587703E-mail Citation »

        Argues against the long-standing hypothesis relating Kiowa-Tanoan and Northern Uto-Aztecan. Suggests borrowing between the protolanguages.

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        • Kroskrity, Paul V. 1984. Negation and subordination in Arizona Tewa: Discourse pragmatics influencing syntax. International Journal of American Linguistics 50:94–104.

          DOI: 10.1086/465817E-mail Citation »

          On negation and subordination in Tewa and Tiwa with some historical discussion.

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          • Sutton, Logan. 2010. Noun class and number in Kiowa-Tanoan: Comparative-historical research and respecting speakers’ rights in fieldwork. In Fieldwork and linguistic analysis in indigenous languages of the Americas. Edited by Andrea L. Berez, Jean Mulder, and Daisy Rosenblum, 57–89. Manoa: Univ. of Hawaii Press.

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            On noun class and number in Kiowa-Tanoan with some historical hypotheses.

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            • Watkins, Laurel J. 1996. Reconstructing person and voice in Kiowa-Tanoan: Pit-falls and progress. In Special session on historical issues in Native American languages. Edited by David Librik and Roxane Beeler, 139–152. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

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              Some historical decomposition of the complex Kiowa-Tanoan agreement prefix as well as discussion of “passives.”

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              Description and Documentation

              Description and documentation of members of the Kiowa-Tanoan family differ in format (articles, books, chapters), focus (general grammar, specific grammatical properties, general lexis, topic-specific lexis, texts), and of course quality. This section lists the best works in each domain (though the quality of these “best” works varies). Naturally, many theoretical works contain significant amounts of descriptive material too, and these are discussed in other sections.

              Grammatical Description

              In terms of general grammars, prime mention must be given to Watkins 1984: although comparatively slim, it is rich in information, excellently written, and accurate in almost every detail. Even if Kiowa is, in some measure (especially as concerns passives and incorporation), the grammatical outlier of the family, a serious student of any member of the family would be well advised to use Watkins’s work to gain a general understanding of the key aspects of Kiowa-Tanoan grammar. Besides descriptive grammars, a number of more focused works, generally articles and chapters, describe specific aspects of the grammar of Kiowa-Tanoan languages. See Textual Documentation for discussion of the texts that the grammars in this section contain.

              • Watkins, Laurel J., with Parker McKenzie. 1984. A grammar of Kiowa. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

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                The best grammar by a long shot of any Kiowa-Tanoan language. Highly recommended even if one’s interest lies with other members of the family.

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                Kiowa

                There are no significant dialect divisions within the literature on Kiowa. Featured works include Watkins 1990 and Watkins 1993, which usefully combine grammatical description with textual analysis. Four articles pertaining to Kiowa grammar also deserve particular mention: Wonderly, et al. 1954; Sivertsen 1956; Merrifield 1959a; Merrifield 1959b. Although superseded by Watkins 1984 (and for noun classes by Harbour 2007, cited in Inverse, Noun Class, Number), they are works of major import and truly artful detail and concision—none more so than William R. Merrifield’s papers.

                • Merrifield, William R. 1959a. Classification of Kiowa nouns. International Journal of American Linguistics 25:269–271.

                  DOI: 10.1086/464544E-mail Citation »

                  Describes the noun class system using verbal morphology as the identifying criterion. A major work but superseded by Watkins 1984 and by Harbour 2007 (cited in Inverse, Noun Class, Number).

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                  • Merrifield, William R. 1959b. The Kiowa verb prefix. International Journal of American Linguistics 25:168–176.

                    DOI: 10.1086/464523E-mail Citation »

                    A remarkably concise though slightly incomplete description of Kiowa agreement, the most complex in the family. Superseded by Watkins 1984 and by Harbour 2007 (cited in Inverse, Noun Class, Number). Includes tagmemic analysis.

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                    • Sivertsen, Eva. 1956. Pitch problems in Kiowa. International Journal of American Linguistics 22:117–130.

                      DOI: 10.1086/464356E-mail Citation »

                      A highly important though not completely accurate presentation of tone, laryngealization, and glottal stops. Superseded by Watkins 1984.

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                      • Watkins, Laurel J., with Parker McKenzie. 1984. A grammar of Kiowa. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

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                        The best grammar by a long shot of any Kiowa-Tanoan language. Highly recommended even if one’s interest lies with other members of the family.

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                        • Watkins, Laurel J. 1990. Noun phrase versus zero in Kiowa discourse. International Journal of American Linguistics 56:410–426.

                          DOI: 10.1086/466165E-mail Citation »

                          Discussion of when speakers use noun phrases in addition to obligatory agreement with good textual exemplification.

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                          • Watkins, Laurel J. 1993. The discourse functions of Kiowa switch-reference. International Journal of American Linguistics 59:137–164.

                            DOI: 10.1086/466193E-mail Citation »

                            Discussion of several pairs of switch-reference markers with good textual exemplification.

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                            • Wonderly, William, Lorna F. Gibson, and Paul L. Kirk. 1954. Number in Kiowa: Nouns, demonstratives, and adjectives. International Journal of American Linguistics 20:1–7.

                              DOI: 10.1086/464244E-mail Citation »

                              Identification of four noun classes based on distribution of the “inverse” number suffix (see Inverse, Noun Class, Number). Superseded by Watkins 1984 (cited in Grammatical Description).

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                              Tewa

                              Tewa covers several dialects, including Arizona Tewa, Hopi Tewa, Rio Grande Tewa, San Juan, and Santa Clara. Particular attention might be drawn to Hoijer and Dozier 1949 and Dozier 1953, as Edward P. Dozier was a native speaker of Santa Clara Tewa.

                              • Dozier, Edward P. 1953. Tewa II: Verb structure. International Journal of American Linguistics 19:118–127.

                                DOI: 10.1086/464200E-mail Citation »

                                An excellent vignette, based on agreement profile, of Santa Clara verb classes, many of which appear to recur across Kiowa-Tanoan. Examples are nearly all third-person singular.

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                                • Hoijer, Harry, and Edward P. Dozier. 1949. The phonemes of Tewa, Santa Clara dialect. International Journal of American Linguistics 15:139–144.

                                  DOI: 10.1086/464037E-mail Citation »

                                  The title describes the content.

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                                  • Speirs, Anna. 1974. Classificatory verb stems in Tewa. Studies in Linguistics 24:45–74.

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                                    Methodologically innovative discussion of noun classes and their semantic coherence using number-suppletive verbs of position.

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                                    • Speirs, Randall H. 1966. Some aspects of the structure of Rio Grande Tewa. PhD diss., State Univ. of New York, Buffalo.

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                                      Very good description of Rio Grande Tewa. Presentation of some topics (especially verbal agreement) is not always transparent or obviously complete.

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                                      • Speirs, Randall H. 1972. Number in Tewa. In Studies in linguistics in honor of George L. Trager. Edited by M. Estellie Smith, 479–486. The Hague: Mouton.

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                                        Good and nicely tabulated discussion of number in Rio Grande Tewa. Comparisons with Kiowa and Taos.

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                                        • Yegerlehner, John. 1959. Arizona Tewa I: Phonemes. International Journal of American Linguistics 25:1–7.

                                          DOI: 10.1086/464488E-mail Citation »

                                          Brief phonological description.

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                                          Tiwa

                                          Tiwa is divided into Northern and Southern and includes Isletan, Picurís (also Picuris), Sandia, and Taos. Important works include Gardiner 1977, Harrington 1916, Trager 1971, Zaharlick 1977, and Zaharlick 1982. Laylin 1988 (cited in Tiwa) provides a discussion of Harrington 1920 and suggests it would reward anyone fleet enough to catch this elusive source. The Tiwan languages are described by George L. Trager and his students as having stress in addition to tone; two examples of this Trager 1946 and Leap 1970, which describe the languages of Taos and Isleta, respectively.

                                          • Gardiner, Donna. 1977. Embedded questions in Southern Tiwa. PhD diss., State Univ. of New York, Albany.

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                                            Addresses how sentential subordination and complementation work (or, from an English perspective, are “avoided”).

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                                            • Harrington, Carobeth Tucker. 1920. The Isleta pronoun. Washington, DC: Bureau of American Ethnology.

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                                              Based on the fieldwork of John P. Harrington. Not consulted despite several international library searches. A copy would be very gratefully received.

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                                              • Harrington, John P. 1916. Ambiguity in the Taos personal pronoun. In Holmes anniversary volume: Anthropological essays presented to William Henry Holmes in honor of his seventieth birthday, December 1, 1916. Edited by Frederick Webb Hodge, 142–156. Washington, DC: J. W. Bryan.

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                                                A detailed laying out of the system and subparts of Tiwa agreement/possessive prefixes with excellent discussion of ambiguities. No mention of whether tone is relevant.

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                                                • Leap, William L. 1970. The language of Isleta, New Mexico. PhD diss., Southern Methodist Univ.

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                                                  Contains some good information though not always complete (e.g., verbal prefixes). The reader must wade through perhaps unnecessarily dense notation and terminology to get at it.

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                                                  • Trager, Felicia Harben. 1971. The phonology of Picuris. International Journal of American Linguistics 37:29–33.

                                                    DOI: 10.1086/465132E-mail Citation »

                                                    Brief phonological description.

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                                                    • Trager, George L. 1946. An outline of Taos grammar. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology 6:184–221.

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                                                      Brief and dense but contains detailed information on phonology and morphology.

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                                                      • Zaharlick, Ann Marie. 1977. Picurís syntax. PhD diss., American Univ.

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                                                        Presents some phonology and a good deal of morphology as well as the titular syntax. Influenced by Leap 1970 but exceeding it in clarity.

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                                                        • Zaharlick, Ann Marie. 1982. Tanoan studies: Passive sentences in Picuris. Ohio State University Working Papers in Linguistics 26:34–48.

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                                                          Clear and thorough exemplification of the relationship in Picurís between person, passive, and incorporation (in light of similar work on Southern Tiwa, see Inverse, Noun Class, Number).

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                                                          Towa (Jemez)

                                                          There are no dialect divisions in the literature on Jemez. The two chief works are Sprott 1992 and Yumitani 1998.

                                                          • Sprott, Robert W. 1992. Jemez syntax. PhD diss., Univ. of Chicago.

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                                                            Offers excellent discussion of argument encoding and its interaction with topichood and person (though without the morphological detail of Yumitani 1998).

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                                                            • Yumitani, Yukihiro. 1998. A phonology and morphology of Jemez Towa. PhD diss., Univ. of Kansas.

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                                                              A very valuable but possibly slavish following of Watkins 1984 (cited in Grammatical Description). Notable for its phonetic and morphological detail.

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                                                              Lexical Documentation

                                                              Several descriptive works are devoted to lexis. A good number of others focus on kinship and related terminology and several on borrowings, but these more ethnological and anthropological linguistic topics have been omitted from this bibliography. Specialized domains of Kiowa lexis (including personal names, tribal names, place names, animals, and plants) were extensively documented by the native speaker and linguist Parker McKenzie, whose papers, housed at the Oklahoma Historical Society, await thorough attention. William Meadows (e.g., Meadows 2008) presents some of these data, but the field would benefit from more careful delineation of what, precisely, is McKenzie’s versus Meadows’s. Discussion of Tiwa is in Trager 1968. Other important works on this topic include Harrington 1920; Harrington 1916; Harrington 1928; Henderson and Harrington 1916; and Robbins, et al. 1916.

                                                              • Harrington, Carobeth Tucker. 1920. Isleta language: Texts and analytical vocabulary. Washington, DC: Bureau of American Ethnology.

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                                                                Based on the fieldwork of John P. Harrington. Difficult to obtain. Discussed in Laylin 1988 (cited in Tiwa).

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                                                                • Harrington, John P. 1916. The ethnogeography of the Tewa Indians. In Twenty-ninth annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1907–1908. Edited by William Henry Holmes, 29–636. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

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                                                                  A wrist-spraining tome with much vocabulary interspersed. No tone marking.

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                                                                  • Harrington, John P. 1928. Vocabulary of the Kiowa language. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 84. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

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                                                                    Formidable lexicographic study with much morphological information. Drawbacks include lack of distinctions for length in mid vowels and that tone is mostly unmarked and when marked sometimes inaccurate.

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                                                                    • Henderson, Junius, and John P. Harrington. 1916. Ethnozoology of the Tewa Indians. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 56. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

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                                                                      Slim volume with good sprinkling of vocabulary.

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                                                                      • Meadows, William. 2008. Kiowa ethnogeography. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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                                                                        Apparently makes use of McKenzie’s unpublished data with regrettably unclear acknowledgment.

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                                                                        • Robbins, Wilfred W., John P. Harrington, and Barbara Freire-Marreco. 1916. Ethnobotany of the Tewa Indians. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 55. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

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                                                                          Slim volume with good sprinkling of vocabulary.

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                                                                          • Trager, Felicia Harben. 1968. Picurís Pueblo, New Mexico: An ethnolinguistic “salvage” study. PhD diss., State Univ. of New York, Buffalo.

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                                                                            A fair amount of ethnolinguistically interesting vocabulary plus some basic grammar, mostly subsumed by Zaharlick 1977 (cited in Tiwa).

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                                                                            Textual Documentation

                                                                            Texts are of use to linguists in all manner of ways, from the theoretician or typologist seeking to pass beyond the bounds of published grammatical description to the student of an individual language who wishes to see a snapshot of unreflective use of a wonderfully intricate grammatical system. The subsections are divided by language.

                                                                            Kiowa

                                                                            Unless otherwise stated, the texts and excerpts referred to in this subsection are midlength with glossing, translation, and sometimes notes. Texts for their own sake are in Harbour 2007, Harrington 1946, and Watkins 1984. Palmer 2003, Watkins 1984, Watkins 1990, and Watkins 1993 illustrate properties of, respectively, narrative structure, noun phrases versus their absence, and switch-reference markers.

                                                                            • Harbour, Daniel. 2007. Morphosemantic number: From Kiowa noun classes to UG number features. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                              Includes one text, midlength, glossed and translated.

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                                                                              • Harrington, John P., ed. and trans. 1946. Three Kiowa texts. International Journal of American Linguistics 12:237–242.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1086/463919E-mail Citation »

                                                                                Three texts (one long, the first also in Harrington 1928, cited in Lexical Documentation). Broadly phonemic transcription. Nonidiomatic word-by-word translation.

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                                                                                • Palmer, Gus, Jr. 2003. Telling stories the Kiowa way. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

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                                                                                  One long and three short texts. Numbered sentence-by-sentence translation (Kiowa in appendix, idiomatic English in main text, occasional mismatches in numbering). Diacritic marking somewhat inconsistent.

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                                                                                  • Watkins, Laurel J., with Parker McKenzie. 1984. A grammar of Kiowa. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

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                                                                                    Includes two texts, midlength, glossed and translated.

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                                                                                    • Watkins, Laurel J. 1990. Noun phrase versus zero in Kiowa discourse. International Journal of American Linguistics 56:410–426.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1086/466165E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      Includes four texts (two excerpts, two complete, one from Harrington 1946; glossed and translated).

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                                                                                      • Watkins, Laurel J. 1993. The discourse functions of Kiowa switch-reference. International Journal of American Linguistics 59:137–164.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1086/466193E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        Includes three excerpts, glossed and translated.

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                                                                                        Tewa

                                                                                        Texts for their own sake are in Harrington 1946, Kroskrity and Healing 1978, and Kroskrity and Healing 1980. Kroskrity 1992 illustrates a specific narrative genre and its norms.

                                                                                        • Harrington, John P. 1946. Three Tewa texts. International Journal of American Linguistics 13:112–116.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1086/463935E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          Three texts (one long). Broadly phonemic transcription with slight inconsistencies and inaccuracies. Nonidiomatic word-by-word translation.

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                                                                                          • Kroskrity, Paul V. 1992. Arizona Tewa public announcements: Form, function, and linguistic ideology. Anthropological Linguistics 34:104–116.

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                                                                                            Includes three short texts in the public announcement genre.

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                                                                                            • Kroskrity, Paul V., and Dewey Healing. 1978. Coyote and bullsnake. In Coyote stories. Edited by William Bright, 162–171. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                              One quite long text. Good glossing but with some distinct morphemes glossed identically. Semi-idiomatic translation.

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                                                                                              • Kroskrity, Paul V., and Dewey Healing. 1980. Coyote-woman and the deer children. In Coyote stories II. Edited by Martha B. Kendall, 119–128. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                One quite long text. Good glossing but with some distinct morphemes glossed identically. Semi-idiomatic translation.

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                                                                                                Tiwa

                                                                                                Texts for their own sake are in Harrington and Roberts 1928, Laylin 1988, Leap 1970, and Zaharlick 1977. Laylin 1988 presents texts in relation to agreement, passive, and noun marking and provides data from the snarkishly elusive Harrington 1920.

                                                                                                • Harrington, Carobeth Tucker. 1920. Isleta language: Texts and analytical vocabulary. Washington, DC: Bureau of American Ethnology.

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                                                                                                  Based on the fieldwork of John P. Harrington. Difficult to obtain.

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                                                                                                  • Harrington, John P., and Helen H. Roberts. 1928. Picurís children’s stories with texts and songs. In Forty-third annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution: 1925–1926. Edited by J. Walter Fewkes, 289–447. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

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                                                                                                    A wealth of texts. Idiomatic translation only. No tone marking.

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                                                                                                    • Laylin, Laura. 1988. The prefix in Isleta Tiwa: A functional approach. PhD diss., American Univ.

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                                                                                                      Includes three texts (one short from Leap 1970, one from a 1973 Isleta Parent Advisory Board publication). Word-by-word translation, limited glossing.

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                                                                                                      • Leap, William Lester. 1970. The language of Isleta, New Mexico. PhD diss., Southern Methodist Univ.

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                                                                                                        One short text.

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                                                                                                        • Zaharlick, Ann Marie. 1977. Picurís syntax. PhD diss., American Univ.

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                                                                                                          Includes six texts (four from Harrington and Roberts 1928, the other two short). Word-by-word glossing but no segmentation of the Picurís. No tone markings.

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                                                                                                          Towa (Jemez)

                                                                                                          Texts for their own sake are in Sprott 1992 and Yumitani 1998.

                                                                                                          • Sprott, Robert W. 1992. Jemez syntax. PhD diss., Univ. of Chicago.

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                                                                                                            Includes three biblical translations (two long). All are provided with good glossing and English translation.

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                                                                                                            • Yumitani, Yukihiro. 1998. A phonology and morphology of Jemez Towa. PhD diss., Univ. of Kansas.

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                                                                                                              Includes one text, midlength, glossed and translated.

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                                                                                                              Theoretical Analysis

                                                                                                              The Kiowa-Tanoan family has fed and led a surprisingly large number of debates in theoretical linguistics. Naturally, the division between theory and description is not absolute, with a number of theoretical articles reporting much novel data. No attempt has been made to quantify the level of data introduced by each work in the subsections here, however.

                                                                                                              Tone and Phonology

                                                                                                              Very little theoretical work appears to have been published on Kiowa-Tanoan phonology. Halle 2005 constitutes a rare exception, but the discussion is brief. The topics of tone and prosody lie almost untouched in almost all languages of the family. Sivertsen 1956 presents a rare, partly instrumental study of Kiowa tone, and Daniel Harbour has presented but not published work on Kiowa tone. As many descriptions eschew tone, tempting some researchers to assert without adequate evidence homophony between agreement prefixes, one must emphasize that Southern Tiwa and Picurís—like Kiowa, Tewa, and Jemez (Towa), languages for which there has been less of a tendency to omit tone from transcriptions—both have contrastive tone (Allen, et al. 1990; Zaharlick 1981). The Tiwan languages are described by George L. Trager and his students as having stress in addition to tone (e.g., Trager 1946 and Leap 1970, both cited in Tiwa; Trager 1968, cited in Lexical Documentation; and Zaharlick 1981).

                                                                                                              • Allen, Barbara J., Donald G. Frantz, Donna B. Gardiner, and David M. Perlmutter. 1990. Verb agreement, possessor ascension, and multistratal representation in Southern Tiwa. In Studies in relational grammar 3. Edited by Paul M. Postal and Brian D. Joseph, 321–384. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                Examples of contrastive tone on pp. 376, 380.

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                                                                                                                • Halle, Morris. 2005. Palatalization/velar softening: What it is and what it tells us about the nature of language. Linguistic Inquiry 36:23–42.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1162/0024389052993673E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  Discusses Kiowa dental-velar switching in the context of a theory of velar softening. No tone marking.

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                                                                                                                  • Sivertsen, Eva. 1956. Pitch problems in Kiowa. International Journal of American Linguistics 22:117–130.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1086/464356E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    A highly important though not completely accurate presentation of tone (and laryngealization and glottal stops). Superseded by Watkins 1984 (cited in Grammatical Description).

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                                                                                                                    • Zaharlick, Ann Marie. 1981. A preliminary examination of tone in Picuris. Journal of the Linguistic Association of the Southwest 4:123–129.

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                                                                                                                      Brief exemplification of contrastive tone.

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                                                                                                                      Inverse, Noun Class, Number

                                                                                                                      One of the most typologically remarkable features of the Kiowa-Tanoan family is its system of number marking. In loose terms, one suffix, the inverse, “pluralizes” some nouns and “singularizes” others; additionally, in Jemez it “dualizes” some nouns, whereas for some Kiowa nouns it “dedualizes.” For instance, in Kiowa tógúí, “young man,” is singular/dual and tógúúdáu (tógúl-dau) plural; áá, “stick,” is dual/plural and áádau singular; and k!âun, “tomato,” is dual and k!âudau (k!âun-dau) is singular/plural. Three major questions arise from such systems. Most obvious is the semantics of the inverse: what is the meaning of a suffix that moves dual/plural to singular, singular/dual to plural, and dual to singular/plural in Kiowa or makes dual/plural from singular, singular/dual from plural, and dual from singular/plural in Jemez? It has further been observed that, within each Kiowa-Tanoan language, animates tend to be classmate—that is, to show the same patterns of marking—as do various types of inanimates (collectivity being a salient feature in both Kiowa and Jemez). This raises the question of what the connection is between a class pattern of inverse marking and the semantic characteristics of the nouns it subsumes. Further, there is more to class than nominal marking: verbal agreement reveals a more fine-grained system of classification. Thus one must also ask what, if any, connection there is between a class pattern of agreement and the semantic characteristics of the nouns it subsumes. Despite this wealth of questions and despite the inverse’s popularity of mention among typologists and the typologically inclined, thorough descriptions and actual theoretical treatments are rare (the latter being limited to Noyer 1997 and Harbour 2007. Other important resources include Speirs 1972, Speirs 1974, Sprott 1992, Trager 1946, Watkins 1984, and Yumitani 1998.

                                                                                                                      • Harbour, Daniel. 2007. Morphosemantic number: From Kiowa noun classes to UG number features. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                        Argues that “inverse” is the pronunciation of mismatching features (e.g., [+singular –singular]) that arise from copying number features from class and number heads. Evidence is adduced from morphology (difficult syncretic/allomorphic relationships of person/number) and semantics (the nexus between noun classes’ patterns of agreement and their members’ semantic traits).

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                                                                                                                        • Noyer, Rolf. 1997. Features, positions, and affixes in autonomous morphological structure. New York: Garland.

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                                                                                                                          Publication of Noyer’s 1992 Massachusetts Institute of Technology dissertation. Deep if dense discussion of the inverse in Kiowa, Jemez, and Tewa in the context of a typologically adequate theory of number features. First to express the key insight into Kiowa-Tanoan class and the inverse: class features are actually number features, and inverse arises when noun class number features clash with semantic number.

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                                                                                                                          • Speirs, Anna. 1974. Classificatory verb stems in Tewa. Studies in Linguistics 24:45–74.

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                                                                                                                            Methodologically innovative discussion of noun classes and their semantic coherence using number-sensitive suppletive verbs of position.

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                                                                                                                            • Speirs, Randall H. 1972. Number in Tewa. In Studies in linguistics in honor of George L. Trager. Edited by M. Estellie Smith, 479–486. The Hague: Mouton.

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                                                                                                                              Good and nicely tabulated discussion of number in Rio Grande Tewa. Comparisons with Kiowa and Taos.

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                                                                                                                              • Sprott, Robert W. 1992. Jemez syntax. PhD diss., Univ. of Chicago.

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                                                                                                                                Good but not richly exemplified discussion of noun class. Excellent discussion of collective versus noncollective plurality. Several points of difference from Yumitani 1998.

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                                                                                                                                • Trager, George L. 1946. An outline of Taos grammar. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology 6:184–221.

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                                                                                                                                  Lists a good number of nouns and pays close attention to allomorphs of the inverse and basic number suffixes. No semantic discussion.

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                                                                                                                                  • Watkins, Laurel J., with Parker McKenzie. 1984. A grammar of Kiowa. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

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                                                                                                                                    Thorough discussion of noun class with close attention paid to number-sensitive verb suppletion and to the semantic distinction between collective and noncollective plurality.

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                                                                                                                                    • Yumitani, Yukihiro. 1998. A phonology and morphology of Jemez Towa. PhD diss., Univ. of Kansas.

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                                                                                                                                      Good but not richly exemplified discussion of noun class, possibly resulting from (laudably but perhaps frustratingly) conservative criteria concerning elicited forms. Discussion of several points of difference from Sprott 1992.

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                                                                                                                                      Argument Structure, Incorporation, Passive, Person

                                                                                                                                      The other area of Kiowa-Tanoan grammar that has attracted much attention is the nexus between person restrictions in argument combinations, passives, and incorporation, especially when these last two are obligatory versus optional versus impossible. In contrast to number and noun class, much of this attention has been theoretical. Readers should be aware that the “inverse” referred to in this section is not the nominal number-marking inverse in Inverse, Noun Class, Number but the departure from standard transitive morphology when a lower argument of the verb is a highly ranked animate. The initial impetus in this research was a series of papers on Southern Tiwa (see Southern Tiwa). However, the debate has since expanded to other Kiowa-Tanoan languages and linked up with analysis of other families (Broader Empirical Perspective) and fed into other theoretical concerns (Broader Theoretical Perspective).

                                                                                                                                      Southern Tiwa

                                                                                                                                      The initial impetus in this research was a series of papers culminating in Allen, et al. 1990. This and Rosen 1990 should certainly be the starting point for those interested in this nest of topics. Other core works include Allen and Frantz 1983; Allen, et al. 1981; and Frantz 1985. Various superseded works have been omitted from this section. Others that highlight beautiful subtleties of the data or novel methodology have been included in the hope that they will receive just attention. These works include Frantz 1990, Frantz 1995, Frantz 2009, and Laylin 1988.

                                                                                                                                      • Allen, Barbara, and Donald Frantz. 1983. An impersonal passive in Southern Tiwa. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session 27:1–9.

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                                                                                                                                        A brief but deeply fascinating look at concurrence of passive with incorporation in complements to a certain class of predicates (only “be difficult” is given) when the complements lack an overt subject.

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                                                                                                                                        • Allen, Barbara, Donald Frantz, and Donna Gardiner. 1981. Phantom arcs in Southern Tiwa. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session 25:1–10.

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                                                                                                                                          Certain Southern Tiwa verbs apparently agree for objects that they never have (e.g., the plural object in “I help you” = 1sgA+2sgD+3plO). An argument is made that the object is syntactically real rather than the object agreement being the result of an ad hoc lexical diacritic.

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                                                                                                                                          • Allen, Barbara J., Donald G. Frantz, Donna B. Gardiner, and David M. Perlmutter. 1990. Verb agreement, possessor ascension, and multistratal representation in Southern Tiwa. In Studies in relational grammar 3. Edited by Paul M. Postal and Brian D. Joseph, 321–384. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                                            One of the best unravellings of the empirical tangle of person restrictions, passives, and incorporation and, along with Rosen 1990, the clear entry point for this literature.

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                                                                                                                                            • Frantz, Donald. 1985. Syntactic constraints on noun incorporation in Southern Tiwa. In Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Edited by Mary Niepokuj, Mary VanClay, Vassiliki Nikiforidou, and Deborah Feder, 107–116. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

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                                                                                                                                              A relational grammar analysis of incorporation (of N and of (N+)V in “want”/“make” constructions) arguing that the relevant constraints must refer to initial and final strata, not to semantic or argument-structural roles. Brief comparison to a compounding-based approach and to generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG).

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                                                                                                                                              • Frantz, Donald. 1990. Null heads and noun incorporation in Southern Tiwa. In Papers from the special session on general topics in American Indian linguistics. Edited by David J. Costa, 32–38. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

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                                                                                                                                                An argument that Southern Tiwa does not wholly fall within S. Rosen’s compound/classifier dichotomization of noun incorporation but constitutes a third variety of the phenomenon.

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                                                                                                                                                • Frantz, Donald. 1995. Southern Tiwa argument structure. In Grammatical relations: Theoretical approaches to empirical questions. Edited by Clifford S. Burgess, Katarzyna Dziwirek, and Donna Gerdts, 73–95. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information.

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                                                                                                                                                  A very useful, concise discussion of Southern Tiwa post–Rosen 1990. Introduces some new facts and makes some valuable observations on conflicting data (from different speakers and sources).

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                                                                                                                                                  • Frantz, Donald. 2009. Constraints on verb stacking in Southern Tiwa. In Hypothesis A/hypothesis B: Linguistic explorations in honor of David M. Perlmutter. Edited by Donna Gerdts, John Moore, and Maria Polisky, 173–181. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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                                                                                                                                                    Analyzes verb-plus-object incorporation in terms of a strengthened version of the morphological visibility condition (MVC) of Mark C. Baker (the applicability of which to Kiowa is questioned in Adger, et al. 2009, cited in Broader Theoretical Perspective).

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                                                                                                                                                    • Laylin, Laura. 1988. The prefix in Isleta Tiwa: A functional approach. PhD diss., American Univ.

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                                                                                                                                                      An examination with textual analysis of agreement and passives. Very careful comparison of data between Allen, et al. 1981 and Carobeth Tucker Harrington.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Rosen, Carol. 1990. Rethinking Southern Tiwa: The geometry of a triple agreement language. Language 66:669–713.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/414726E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        A clear laying out and an elegant account of the empirical tangle of person restrictions, passives, and incorporation. Uses hierarchies of arguments and rules of association with syntax. Along with Allen, et al. 1990, the clear entry point for this literature.

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                                                                                                                                                        Broader Empirical Perspective

                                                                                                                                                        This section includes some works offering a broader typological perspective (Klaiman 1991, Klaiman 1992, and Zúñiga 2006) as well as those extending or evaluating claims about Southern Tiwa (see Southern Tiwa) in light of other Kiowa-Tanoan languages (Kroskrity 1985, Kroskrity 2010, Watkins 1996, Zaharlick 1982). The Laylin 1988 (cited in Southern Tiwa) discussion of Harrington 1920a and Harrington 1920b suggests that these rare sources would be well worth locating.

                                                                                                                                                        • Harrington, Carobeth Tucker. 1920a. Isleta language: Texts and analytical vocabulary. Washington, DC: Bureau of American Ethnology.

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                                                                                                                                                          The source of much data in Laylin 1988 (cited in Southern Tiwa). Based on the fieldwork of John P. Harrington and difficult to obtain.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Harrington, Carobeth Tucker. 1920b. The Isleta pronoun. Washington, DC: Bureau of American Ethnology.

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                                                                                                                                                            The source of much data in Laylin 1988 (cited in Southern Tiwa). Based on the fieldwork of John P. Harrington and difficult to obtain.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Klaiman, M. H. 1991. Grammatical voice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                              A typological survey of voice-based inverse systems. Insightful discussion, but identification of inverse voice in Tewa represents an understandable misinterpretation, stemming from the Kroskrity 1985 presentation of only a subpart of the agreement paradigm.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Klaiman, M. H. 1992. Inverse languages. Lingua 88:227–261.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1016/0024-3841(92)90043-IE-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                A briefer version of Klaiman 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Kroskrity, Paul V. 1985. A holistic understanding of Arizona Tewa passives. Language 61:306–328.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/414147E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  A useful examination of Tewa in light of the work on Southern Tiwa arguing for two varieties of passive. Interesting discussion of animate-inanimate contrasts. Perhaps not holistic, however, as probably crucial facts about indirect object agreement are absent, as they are from the earlier version, a 1977 dissertation chapter, and from the 2010 revisiting (Kroskrity 2010). Also the discussion of Kiowa is perhaps a little shoehorned.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Kroskrity, Paul V. 2010. The art of voice: Understanding the Arizona Tewa inverse in its grammatical, narrative, and language-ideological contexts. Anthropological Linguistics 52:49–79.

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                                                                                                                                                                    A revisiting of material addressed in Kroskrity 1985. Richer exemplication and useful textual analysis (plus much of theoretical concern to anthropologists) but full description of indirect objects still absent, and essentials remain unaltered.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Watkins, Laurel J. 1996. Reconstructing person and voice in Kiowa-Tanoan: Pit-falls and progress. In Special session on historical issues in Native American languages. Edited by David Librik and Roxane Beeler, 139–152. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Argues, inter alia, against viewing “passives” as passives on the basis of textual occurrence. Presents useful comparative and historical data relating to Tanoan as well as Kiowa.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Zaharlick, Ann Marie. 1982. Tanoan studies: Passive sentences in Picuris. Ohio State University Working Papers in Linguistics 26:34–48.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Clear and thorough exemplification of the relationship in Picurís between person, passive, and incorporation in light of work on Southern Tiwa.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Zúñiga, Fernando. 2006. Deixis and alignment: Inverse systems in indigenous languages of the Americas. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Good marshaling of the data and useful comparison with other systems but with at least one mispronouncement concerning the facts (relating to Kiowa agreement). Not a substitute for the original sources.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Broader Theoretical Perspective

                                                                                                                                                                          Foremost within research that embeds the data in other parts of this section in wider theoretical debates are the compendious works of Mark C. Baker on incorporation (Baker 1988) and polysynthesis (Baker 1996), which provide very thought-provoking analyses of, especially, Southern Tiwa (see Southern Tiwa). For useful reaction, see also Frantz 1998 and Adger, et al. 2009. Adger and Harbour 2007 is unusual in directly addressing the composition of the agreement prefix and, though its focus is different from the Allen, et al. 1990 (cited in Southern Tiwa) program, there is clear convergence with that line of inquiry, a point brought out with particular clarity in Heck and Richards 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Adger, David, and Daniel Harbour. 2007. Syntax and syncretisms of the person case constraint. Syntax 10:2–37.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9612.2007.00095.xE-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Ties the person case constraint and frequently concomitant syncretisms to the dual role of [±participant] in creating the correct semantics for first and second person and in licensing applicative arguments. Heck and Richards 2010 applies some of these ideas to Southern Tiwa.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Adger, David, Daniel Harbour, and Laurel J. Watkins. 2009. Mirrors and microparameters: Phrase structure beyond free word order. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511657375E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              Analyzes nonconfigurationality nonmacroparametrically (compare Baker 1996). Also provides an appendix on incorporation in Kiowa, suggesting that it is irrelevant to Baker 1988, and demonstrates split constituency (thought to be absent by Baker 1996).

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Baker, Mark C. 1988. Incorporation: A theory of grammatical function changing. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                A major work presenting a theory of incorporation across a range of languages and discussing Southern Tiwa in detail and Kiowa to a lesser extent.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Baker, Mark C. 1996. The polysynthesis parameter. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  A major work proposing that polysynthesis arises from a “macroparapametric” setting. Primary empirical focus is on Mohawk but discusses Southern Tiwa in detail and Kiowa to a lesser extent.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Frantz, Donald. 1998. Mark C. Baker, The polysynthesis parameter. Journal of Linguistics 34:494–500.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    A general and Southern Tiwa–specific review highlighting facts both infelicitous and serendipitous in Baker’s account.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Heck, Fabian, and Marc Richards. 2010. A probe-goal approach to agreement and incorporation restrictions in Southern Tiwa. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 28:681–721.

                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1007/s11049-010-9108-yE-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      A minimalist reanalysis, with additional insight, of Allen, et al. 1990 and Rosen 1990 (cited in Southern Tiwa). Contains what may be some of the cleanest statements of the relevant generalizations but rather “complexifies” issues pertaining to class and number.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Other Morphology

                                                                                                                                                                                      Besides the work discussed in Inverse, Noun Class, Number, work on Kiowa-Tanoan morphology falls into two major and one minor categories: composition of the agreement prefix, agreement and suppletion, and the issue of homophone or lexical integrity (see Composition of the Agreement Prefix, Agreement and Suppletion, and Lexical Integrity). Of these, only the second has been addressed in several members of the family (primarily descriptively); the first has focused on Kiowa and the last exclusively on Tewa. Much of this work, though not overtly theoretical, is that kind of high-level description that reveals the implicit theoretical framework of the author’s pattern of thought.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Composition of the Agreement Prefix

                                                                                                                                                                                      Given the substantial amount of research into agreement restrictions in Kiowa-Tanoan, it is perhaps surprising how little attention has been given to morphological composition of the agreement prefix itself. Many descriptive works provide varying degrees of decomposition. However, if—using realizational terminology for concreteness—morphological analysis means explication of the mapping from syntactic features to phonological exponents, then given that most works use descriptive labels, such as “A,” “B,” “C,” or “dual,” “inverse” rather than features, they do not constitute theoretical proposals but preliminary marshalings of data. The two exceptions are Merrifield 1959, which offers tagmemic analysis, and Watkins 1984, which can easily be read as an analysis with keen attention to morphophonology. Works that attempt to articulate the feature-to-phoneme mapping exist only for Kiowa: Harbour 2003 and Harbour 2007. The syntax of the prefix components (not an explicandum for all approaches to morphology) is addressed in Adger and Harbour 2007 and Adger, et al. 2009. Sprott 1992 and Watkins 1996 provide valuable decomposition.

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Adger, David, and Daniel Harbour. 2007. Syntax and syncretisms of the person case constraint. Syntax 10:2–37.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9612.2007.00095.xE-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Provides an explicit syntax of which heads agree with which arguments to yield the agreement prefix. However, the account of linearization is not consistent with the broader syntactic concerns of Adger, et al. 2009, where an alternative is briefly sketched.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Adger, David, Daniel Harbour, and Laurel J. Watkins. 2009. Mirrors and microparameters: Phrase structure beyond free word order. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511657375E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          Sketches an alternative view of the syntactic agreement and linearization that yield the agreement prefix.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Harbour, Daniel. 2003. The Kiowa case for feature insertion. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 21:543–578.

                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1023/A:1024196621352E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            Uses apparent disparities between meaning and form, particularly those pertaining to number, to argue that default feature values can be inserted postsyntactically. See also Harbour 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Harbour, Daniel. 2007. Morphosemantic number: From Kiowa noun classes to UG number features. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Chapter 5 addresses the feature composition of the agreement prefix. More extensive than and, in some theoretical senses too, an improvement over Harbour 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Merrifield, William R. 1959. The Kiowa verb prefix. International Journal of American Linguistics 25:168–176.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1086/464523E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                A remarkably concise though slightly incomplete description of Kiowa agreement, the most complex in the family. Includes decomposition and tagmemic analysis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sprott, Robert W. 1992. Jemez syntax. PhD diss., Univ. of Chicago.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Useful discussion of some components of the agreement prefix.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Watkins, Laurel J., with Parker McKenzie. 1984. A grammar of Kiowa. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Very good discussion of agreement and suppletion. Extremely informative decomposition of the agreement prefix with particularly close attention to morphophonology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Watkins, Laurel J. 1996. Reconstructing person and voice in Kiowa-Tanoan: Pit-falls and progress. In Special session on historical issues in Native American languages. Edited by David Librik and Roxane Beeler, 139–152. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Some historical decomposition of the complex Kiowa-Tanoan agreement prefix.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Agreement and Suppletion

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Number-sensitive suppletion exists in several members of the family. Chapter 4 of Harbour 2007 analyzes the Kiowa system with emphasis on agreement-suppletion mismatches. Speirs 1974 uses such suppletion to gain insight into noun class semantics. Other more descriptive works include Speirs 1972, Watkins 1984, and Yumitani 1998. Harbour 2007 provides theoretical perspective and documents some otherwise neglected mismatches.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Harbour, Daniel. 2007. Morphosemantic number: From Kiowa noun classes to UG number features. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chapter 4 examines how agreement and suppletion can apparently track different number properties. Presents novel facts about reflexives, pluralia tantum nouns, and adverbialized suppletives.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Speirs, Anna. 1974. Classificatory verb stems in Tewa. Studies in Linguistics 24:45–74.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Detailed and deep discussion of agreement and suppletion using the novel lens of (suppletive) verbs of position.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Speirs, Randall H. 1972. Number in Tewa. In Studies in linguistics in honor of George L. Trager. Edited by M. Estellie Smith, 479–486. The Hague: Mouton.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tabulation of some intricate if limited suppletion and agreement patterns.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Watkins, Laurel J., with Parker McKenzie. 1984. A grammar of Kiowa. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Very good discussion of agreement and suppletion both between nouns and verbs and, for suppletion, within noun-adjective compounds.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Yumitani, Yukihiro. 1998. A phonology and morphology of Jemez Towa. PhD diss., Univ. of Kansas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Many useful examples of number-conditioned suppletion.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lexical Integrity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                When and when not to posit homophones is a recurrent issue of morphological research. Two contributions to this topic are Kroskrity 1978 and two parts of Kroskrity 1977. A separate theme explored in Kroskrity 1977 and Kroskrity 1978 is lexical integrity, that is, when grammatically distinct homophones deserve separate lexical identities versus single, abstract, unifying ones.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kroskrity, Paul V. 1977. Aspects of Arizona Tewa language structure and language use. PhD diss., Indiana Univ.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Chapters 5 (see Kroskrity 1978) and 6 address whether different uses for conjunctive/focal á and for agentive/subordinating should be regarded as natural kinds and hence have single lexical entries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kroskrity, Paul V. 1978. On the lexical integrity of Arizona Tewa /-dí/: A principled choice between homophony and polysemy. International Journal of American Linguistics 44:24–30.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1086/465515E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Argues for a single underlying form for four seemingly separate uses of Arizona Tewa . A revised chapter of Kroskrity 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Other Syntax-Semantics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Although a good amount of work has been focused on Kiowa-Tanoan syntax-semantics, most of it is either descriptive (see Grammatical Description) or centered on person, passive, and incorporation (see Argument Structure, Incorporation, Passive, Person). Other works of theoretical syntax-semantics are Adger, et al. 2009; Kroskrity 1984; and McKenzie 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Adger, David, Daniel Harbour, and Laurel J. Watkins. 2009. Mirrors and microparameters: Phrase structure beyond free word order. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511657375E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Presents three configurational properties, mirrorings of order on either side of the verb: between preverbal and postverbal arguments, preverbal particles and postverbal suffixes, and restrictions on quantification/focus at the extremities of the clause. Analyzes how configurationality can arise in a language that is classically nonconfigurational with respect to arguments.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kroskrity, Paul V. 1984. Negation and subordination in Arizona Tewa: Discourse pragmatics influencing syntax. International Journal of American Linguistics 50:94–104.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1086/465817E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        On negation (and subordination) in Tewa and Tiwa with some historical discussion. Incorporates some unpublished work by William Leap.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • McKenzie, Andrew. 2010. Subject domain restriction and reference-tracking. Proceedings of SALT 19:1–15.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An insightful application of situation semantics to switch-reference in Kiowa, where, as Watkins 1993 (cited in Kiowa) observes, “same subject” versus “different subject” is insufficient.

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