Linguistics Salish Languages
by
Donna B. Gerdts
  • LAST MODIFIED: 22 April 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199772810-0090

Introduction

The Salish language family consists of twenty-three languages spoken in southwestern Canada and the northwestern United States. The languages are classified into five branches: Bella Coola; Central Salish (Comox, Halkomelem, Klallam, Lushootseed, Nooksack, Northern Straits, Pentlatch, Sechelt, Squamish, Twana); Tsamosan (Lower Chehalis, Upper Chehalis, Cowlitz, Quinault); Interior Salish (Northern Interior Salish: Lillooet, Shuswap, Thompson; Southern Interior Salish: Coeur d’Alene, Columbian, Kalispel, Okanagan); and Tillamook. There are two outlier languages: Bella Coola in British Columbia is the northernmost, and Tillamook in Oregon is the southernmost. The Central Salish languages form a chain of ten languages along the Salish Sea. The four Tsamosan languages are located along the coast of the state of Washington. The Interior Salish languages are spoken in the plateau area east of the Cascade Mountains in British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, and Montana. This branch is divided into Northern and Southern Interior subbranches. Pentlatch, Nooksack, Twana, Tillamook, and the Tsamosan languages are no longer spoken, and the other Salish languages are endangered or near extinction. Fortunately, most tribes or bands have revitalization programs and plans for preserving their languages. There is a robust amount of information on many of the languages, and a legion of scholars is currently actively engaged in research on all aspects of the languages. Besides research focusing on primary documentation and the production of grammars, dictionaries, and texts, much theoretically informed analysis has been done on Salish languages.

General Overviews

Several useful overviews exist for Salish languages. Thompson 1979 gives a survey of early research, classification, subgrouping, and Proto-Salish phonological reconstruction. Czaykowska-Higgins and Kinkade 1998 and Mithun 1999 give more in-depth overviews, including discussion of linguistic properties and a critical evaluation of the literature. The Northwest is the second most linguistically diverse region in North America (after California). For a discussion of broader genetic relationships, see Beck 2000, and for catalogues of areal features, see Thompson and Kinkade 1990 for the Northwest Coast area and Kinkade, et al. 1998 for the Plateau area. These last two works also give concise information on each language and branch, including locations where the languages are spoken, dialect diversity within each language, and early and modern descriptive research. The overviews give discussion but little or no data. For a data-rich introduction to a Salish language, see the sketch of the Thompson language in Thompson, et al. 1996. The names of the languages used in the scholarly literature are not phonetically accurate and often do not represent the usage of the native speakers themselves. Therefore, many linguists prefer to use the name selected by the band or tribal authority for referring to a language. There have been a multiplicity of practical orthographies used in the area, even for the same language, complicating references to a language. Furthermore, many names refer to a dialect of a language, rather than the whole language, often because a general name for the language is not shared by all of its speakers. For a guide to the various names used for Salish languages, see Poser 2009.

  • Beck, David. 2000. Grammatical convergence and the genesis of diversity in the Northwest Coast Sprachbund. Anthropological Linguistics 42.2: 147–213.

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    This paper evaluates the evidence for grouping Salish languages with Wakashan and Chimakuan languages into the larger phylum “Mosan.” The author argues that similarities are areal rather than genetically based.

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    • Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa, and M. Dale Kinkade. 1998. Salish languages and linguistics. In Salish languages and linguistics: Theoretical and descriptive perspectives. Edited by Ewa Czaykowska-Higgins and M. Dale Kinkade, 1–68. Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs 107. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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      The lengthy introductory chapter to this edited volume gives a survey of a century of research on Salish languages, with thorough citations, and an overview of key properties and current issues, but with little illustrative data.

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      • Kinkade, M. Dale, William W. Elmendorf, Bruce Rigsby, and Haruo Aoki. 1998. Languages. In Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 12, Plateau. Edited by Deward E. Walker Jr., 49–72. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

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        The Interior Salish languages share the Plateau cultural area with languages from the Na-Dene and Penutian phyla and the language isolate Kutenai. Besides cataloging areal features, this article lists key aspects of the phonology and morphology of each Interior Salish language.

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        • Mithun, Marianne. 1999. The languages of Native North America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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          The section on the Salish family includes an excellent survey of the literature, a succinct description of key properties, and a sketch of Saanich (mostly based on the work of Tim Montler).

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          • Poser, William J. 2009. The names of the First Nations languages of British Columbia.

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            This paper includes a discussion of issues surrounding language names, along with information about their origin and representation.

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            • Thompson, Laurence C. 1979. Salishan and the Northwest. In The languages of Native America: Historical and comparative assessment. Edited by Lyle Campbell and Marianne Mithun, 692–765. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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              This chapter provides a thorough grounding in early published and unpublished work on Salish languages, including surveys, classification, and reconstruction.

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              • Thompson, Laurence C., and M. Dale Kinkade. 1990. Languages. In Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 7, Northwest coast. Edited by Wayne Suttles, 30–51. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

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                Besides giving a quick overview of the branches in the Coast Salish area (Bella Coola, Central Salish, Tsamosan, and Tillamook), their dialects, and fundamental primary research, this paper compares Salish and other languages of the Pacific Northwest with respect to a variety of phonetic, morphological, syntactic, and semantic features.

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                • Thompson, Laurence C., M. Terry Thompson, and Steven M. Egesdal. 1996. Sketch of Thompson, a Salishan language. In Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 17, Languages. Edited by Ives Goddard, 609–665. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

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                  Although mostly a synopsis of the Thompson and Thompson reference grammar (Thompson and Thompson 1992, cited under Grammars), this lengthy sketch is notable for its clear and well-illustrated discussion and its informative tables of paradigms. Beautiful photos and a short word list add life. This paper is highly recommended as the first piece to read on Salish.

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                  Bibliographies and Collections of Papers

                  The field of Salish linguistics is fortunately well-endowed with high quality bibliographies. Czaykowska-Higgins and Kinkade 1998 was intended to represent the state of the art on Salish studies at the turn of the millennium. References for the papers are compiled at the end of the volume, thus constituting a useful bibliography. Mithun 1999 contains extensive references to published works on all aspects of Salish linguistics. Van Eijk 2008 is a comprehensive list of work on Salish languages. Besides linguistic studies, including some only partly focused on Salish, Van Eijk also lists language teaching materials, text collections in translation, and anthropological studies that have a sufficiently large linguistic content. The appendix gives an index by language. Focusing exclusively on syntax, semantics, and related morphology, Davis and Matthewson 2009 gives a thorough bibliography organized by topic. As for collections, two recent Festschrifts of note are Gerdts and Matthewson 2004, in honor of Dale Kinkade, and Beck 2010, in honor of Thom Hess. Dale Kinkade was especially instrumental in ensuring the vitality of the International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages (ICSNL), an annual conference since 1966. Collected online as the Kinkade Collection, the papers appear as preprints before the conference and are usually of excellent quality, in part because there are no length restrictions, but also due to the rigorous questions presenters are faced with. Given the availability of other Salish bibliographies and ICSNL papers online, the present article focuses on classic major works and recent peer-reviewed monographs, articles, and book chapters.

                  Grammars

                  Because of their phonetic and morphological complexity, Salish languages are challenging to fieldworkers. Most of the twenty-three Salish languages have received thorough descriptive treatments. The grammars listed in this section are noteworthy for richness of data and clarity of presentation. Grammars of Central Salish languages include Kuipers 1967, Suttles 2004, and Watanabe 2003. Grammars of Interior Salish languages include Doak 1997, Kuipers 1974, Thompson and Thompson 1992, and van Eijk 1997. The outlier language, Bella Coola, is treated in Davis and Saunders 1997. For grammars of Tsamosan languages, see Kinkade 1991 and Kinkade 2004 (both cited under Dictionaries).

                  • Davis, Philip W., and Ross Saunders. 1997. A grammar of Bella Coola. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 13. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                    Davis and Saunders, noted for their steady stream of papers on all aspects of Bella Coola structure, present details of the morphosyntax of this outlier language using a framework and terminology of their own design.

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                    • Doak, Ivy Grace. 1997. Coeur d’Alene grammatical relations. PhD diss., Univ. of Texas, Austin.

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                      This thorough typologically based treatment is the most easily readable of the works on Southern Interior Salish languages. It won the 1997 Mary R. Haas Book Award from the Society for the Study of Indigenous Languages.

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                      • Kuipers, Aert H. 1967. The Squamish language: Grammar, texts, dictionary. Janua Linguarum, Series Practica 73. The Hague: Mouton.

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                        This work is important for being the first modern grammar of a Salish language. Kuipers’s terminology and analysis proved foundational for subsequent generations of Salish scholars.

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                        • Kuipers, Aert H. 1974. The Shuswap language: Grammar, texts, dictionary. Janua Linguarum, Series Practica 225. The Hague: Mouton.

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                          This work was a brilliant effort from energetic field worker Kuipers and remains today an important compendium of information on Shuswap.

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                          • Suttles, Wayne. 2004. Musqueam reference grammar. Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press.

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                            The most accessible of the Salish reference grammars, this description of a variety of Downriver Halkomelem was over forty years in the making. The author uses easily accessible general terminology. Points are clearly illustrated with data that mostly come from an extensive corpus of texts and thus are rich in authenticity.

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                            • Thompson, Laurence C., and M. Terry Thompson. 1992. The Thompson language. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 8. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                              This 250-page grammar represents over a decade of fieldwork on Thompson, a Northern Interior Salish language. Especially noteworthy are the detailed descriptions of phonology, especially stress, and inflectional and derivational morphology. Analyses of copious amounts of data are laid out clearly. The organization makes the grammar easy to navigate.

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                              • van Eijk, Jan. 1997. The Lillooet language: Phonology, morphology, syntax. Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press.

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                                This grammar is notable both for its clear and accessible organization and for its range of coverage. Access to information on the syntax takes some effort to understand because of the terse presentation style, but the authenticity of the data makes it worth the effort.

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                                • Watanabe, Honoré. 2003. A morphological description of Sliammon, Mainland Comox Salish, with a sketch of syntax. Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim A2-040. Osaka, Japan: Osaka Gakuin Univ., Faculty of Informatics.

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                                  This treatment of a Central Salish language makes good use of typological terminology and gives an excellent array of data to illustrate each point of analysis. (For treatment of Sliammon phonology and morphology, see Blake 2000, cited under Phonetics and Phonology.)

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                                  Dictionaries

                                  There are classified word lists for most of the Salish languages. Several extensive dictionaries have been published for individual languages. Kinkade 2004 is a dictionary of Cowlitz; Galloway 2009 is a dictionary of Halkomelem; Bates, et al. 1994 is a dictionary of Lushootseed; Mattina 1987 is a dictionary of Okanagan; Thompson and Thompson 1996 is a dictionary of Thompson; and Kinkade 1991 is a dictionary of Upper Chehalis. In addition, Kuipers 2002 is a comparative Salish dictionary, with reconstructions for many Proto-Salish roots. Salish languages, like other polysynthetic languages, present a challenge to lexicographers. Bakker 2002 gives an English-to-Salish index of Kuipers 2002. Extensive use of prefixes, infixes, suffixes, reduplication, vowel reduction, epenthesis, and ablaut make it essential to organize entries by roots rather than by surface forms. The dictionaries listed here are notable in that they provide parsing of the internal structure of words, organization of the words by their roots, and a significant amount of information on dialect or speaker variation. Once the reader is familiar with the organization of the volume and the formatting of the entries, there is a wealth of information of all sorts—phonetic, phonological, morphological, and semantic. Before using any Salish dictionary it is important to go to the introduction and read the explanation of the editorial decisions made by the compiler. Two sorts of alphabetization are used in Salishan dictionaries: phonetic order (p, t, k, q, etc.), and Roman-based order (a, c, c’, h, k, k’, etc.) Vowels are often omitted or only given in underlying form in the entries based on roots. Salish dictionaries are primarily organized as Salish-to-English lists with brief English-to-Salishan indexes. Of significant note is the role played by Anthony Mattina, editor of the University of Montana Occasional Publications in Linguistics series, in the production of grammars, dictionaries, and texts on Salish languages. Mattina applied his exacting standards and keen eye to each project, resulting in some of the best dictionaries on Native American languages. In 2010 the series moved to the Whatcom Museum and continues to produce fine works on Salish languages.

                                  • Bakker, Peter. 2002. Index to the English translations of the Proto-Salish reconstructions in Kuipers (2002): Supplement to Salish etymological dictionary (UMOPL 16). Missoula: Linguistics Laboratory, Univ. of Montana.

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                                    This work is a much-appreciated reverse list of Kuipers’s etymological dictionary (Kuipers 2002).

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                                    • Bates, Dawn, Thom Hess, and Vi Hilbert. 1994. Lushootseed dictionary. Edited by Dawn Bates. Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press.

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                                      This dictionary is notable for its easy-to-read formatting. As is clearly explained in the introduction, related words are grouped under an entry in a standard order, making comparison within and across entries easy. The grammatical terminology used is insightful and consistent. This dictionary does an adequate job of covering the broad range of basic vocabulary and also illustrates the use of words in sentences.

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                                      • Galloway, Brent D. 2009. Dictionary of Upriver Halkomelem. 2 vols. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                        This 1,674-page tome is the most comprehensive dictionary on a Salish language to date. Volume 1 contains Halkomelem-to-English entries. Volume 2 finishes the Halkomelem entries and provides an English-to-Halkomelem index. This dictionary takes an encyclopedic approach, essentially including all of Galloway’s data from several decades of field research.

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                                        • Kinkade, M. Dale. 1991. Upper Chehalis dictionary. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 7. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                          This 378-page dictionary does an excellent job of integrating all of the field research of noted Salish scholar Dale Kinkade, as well as data from over twenty secondary sources on this now-extinct language. Extremely useful are the five appendices on place names, personal names, loanwords, lexical suffixes, and grammatical affixes.

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                                          • Kinkade, M. Dale. 2004. Cowlitz dictionary and grammatical sketch. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 18. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                            Cowlitz is a language of the understudied Tsamosan branch of the Salish family. Kinkade worked with the last speaker in 1967 and, due to his extensive knowledge of related languages, was able to salvage significant information from the scant secondary sources. This 341-page work, published shortly before Kinkade’s death, includes a sixty-five-page grammatical sketch.

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                                            • Kuipers, Aert H. 2002. Salish etymological dictionary. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 16. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                              This is the seminal work on the Proto-Salish lexicon. The reconstructions and discussion are well supported with solid evidence. From the viewpoint of individual languages, the work is somewhat marred by the limited attempt to access a full range of currently accessible data. See Bakker 2002 for an English-to-Salish index of this work.

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                                              • Mattina, Anthony, comp. 1987. Colville-Okanagan dictionary. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 5. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                This work, the first modern dictionary of a Salish language, has two parts: Colville-Okanagan to English (pp. 1–289) and an English finder list (pp. 293–354). Constructed using Robert Hsu’s Lexware program, this dictionary makes extensive use of illustrative sentences gleaned from texts. Extensive ethnobiology and ethnogeography research enriches the coverage.

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                                                • Thompson, Laurence C., and M. Terry Thompson. 1996. Thompson River Salish dictionary: Nɬɛʔkɛpmxcín. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 12. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                  This 1,412-page work with over 7,500 entries set a new standard of comprehensiveness in Salish dictionaries. This single hardbound volume is currently out of print, but there are plans to reissue it. The authors make use of thorough labeling and extensive cross-referencing to Thompson and Thompson 1992 (cited under Grammars).

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                                                  Text Collections

                                                  In comparison to the wealth of grammars and dictionaries on Salish languages, few collections of texts with interlinear glosses have been published to date, though several are currently in production. Text collections in several Interior Salish languages have been published, including Egesdal, et al. 2011 for Thompson; Matthewson 2005 for Lillooet; and Mattina 1985, and Mattina and De Sautel 2002 for Okanagan. Several books of texts in the Central Salish language Lushootseed have been published; Hess 2006 is recommended as the first of these to read, as it has the clearest glossing. Davis and Saunders 1980 presents a set of Bella Coola texts.

                                                  • Davis, Philip W., and Ross Saunders. 1980. Bella Coola texts. Heritage Record 10. Victoria, Canada: British Columbia Provincial Museum.

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                                                    This is a delightful set of stories, interesting for their content as well as the linguistic structures they illustrate.

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                                                    • Egesdal, Steven M., M. Terry Thompson, and Mandy N. Jimmie. 2011. Nɬekèpmxcín: Thompson River Salish speech. Whatcom Museum Publications 22. Bellingham, WA: Whatcom Museum.

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                                                      These forty-six stories, conversations, prayers, and songs, collected 1960–1990 from the last of the really fluent speakers, is the best collection of Salish texts to date. The glossing follows (with a few noted exceptions) the labels set up in Thompson and Thompson 1992 (cited under Grammars) and Thompson and Thompson 1996 (cited under Dictionaries).

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                                                      • Hess, Thom. 2006. Lushootseed reader with English translations. Vol. 3, Four more stories from Martha Lamont. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 19. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                        This is one of a series of books designed as teaching materials for Lushootseed, all with accompanying cassette tapes. This volume includes interlinear glosses and English translations for all the stories in Volumes 1–3.

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                                                        • Matthewson, Lisa, comp. 2005. When I was small = I wan kwikws: A grammatical analysis of St’át’imc oral narratives. Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press.

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                                                          These autobiographical stories from a group of Lillooet women are given in both practical orthography and Americanist phonemic transcription. Key phenomena are indexed.

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                                                          • Mattina, Anthony. 1985. The golden woman: The Colville narrative of Peter J. Seymour. Edited by Anthony Mattina. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

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                                                            This is one saga-length story illustrating the authentic narrative style of the grand storytelling tradition. Besides the Okanagan version, Seymour also gives an English version. The front material has an extensive discussion of the process of translating and analyzing texts. This text has only word-by-word glossing.

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                                                            • Mattina, Anthony, and Madeline De Sautel. 2002. Dora Noyes DeSautel ɬaʔ kɬcaptíkʷɬ. Edited by Anthony Mattina and Madeline De Sautel. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 15. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                              This work, comprised of several short texts, is accompanied by an audio CD. There is a brief but lucid grammatical sketch in the introduction. These traditional stories are important for both their linguistic and cultural content.

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                                                              Historical-Comparative Studies

                                                              Much comparative-historical work has been done on the phonology of Salish languages, and more recently on the morphology and syntax. In order to account for phonological and morphological microvariation, Davis 2000, Galloway 1988, Kroeber and Watanabe 2004, Montler 1999, and Thompson and Sloat 2004 present fine-grained research on specific topics. Research from a pan-Salish perspective reveals many similarities among the twenty-three languages of the family. Salish languages are verb-initial, head-marking languages, with no case marking on core arguments. Verb roots are overtly marked for transitivity in a variety of monotransitive and ditransitive constructions, including causatives and applicatives. Kiyosawa and Gerdts 2010 discusses transitivization from a pan-Salish perspective. Salish languages, as detailed in Kroeber 1999, make heavy use of preverbal position for wh-questions and focus constructions. Nominalizations are used for a variety of complement clauses, as discussed in Davis 2005 and Kroeber 1999.

                                                              • Davis, Henry. 2000. Remarks on Proto-Salish subject inflection. International Journal of American Linguistics 66:499–520.

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                                                                This paper proposes that four sets of subject markers should be reconstructed for Proto-Salish, and that one set consists of suffixes that only appear on transitive clauses.

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                                                                • Davis, Henry. 2005. On the syntax and semantics of negation in Salish. International Journal of American Linguistics 71:1–55.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1086/430577Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  A comparative treatment of negation in Salish languages reveals a widespread pattern of the negative functioning as a higher predicate with a nominalized or conjunctive complement clause. Found more rarely is a monoclausal construction.

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                                                                  • Galloway, Brent. 1988. Some Proto-Central Salish sound correspondences. In In honor of Mary Haas: From the Haas Festival Conference on Native American Linguistics. Edited by William Shipley, 293–343. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1515/9783110852387Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Careful reconstruction of Proto–Central Salish phonology based on primary and secondary data.

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                                                                    • Kiyosawa, Kaoru, and Donna B. Gerdts. 2010. Salish applicatives. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

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                                                                      This is a historical-comparative study of applicative morphology in twenty Salish languages. The form and function of applicative suffixes in Proto-Salish and the various branches and subbranches is discussed.

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                                                                      • Kroeber, Paul D. 1999. The Salish language family: Reconstructing syntax. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

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                                                                        After an introduction to the classification, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Salish languages, this work investigates complex clauses. Analysis of data from several languages, including primary research on Sliammon and Thompson, allows for a comparative-historical treatment of complement and adverbial clauses and of relative clauses and other focus constructions.

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                                                                        • Kroeber, Paul D., and Honoré Watanabe. 2004. Word-initial developments in Northern Central Salish. In Studies in Salish linguistics in honor of M. Dale Kinkade. Edited by Donna B. Gerdts and Lisa Matthewson, 257–278. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                                          Comox exhibits some word-initial phonotactics that are atypical of Salish languages. These were previously assumed to arise due to diffusion from neighboring Wakashan languages. However, this scenario is overly simplistic, since some of the historical developments are innovations shared with nearby Salish languages.

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                                                                          • Montler, Timothy. 1999. Language and dialect variation in Straits Salishan. Anthropological Linguistics 41.4: 462–502.

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                                                                            This paper, which studies microvariation in a set of closely related dialects/languages, is an excellent demonstration of the complexities of Salish dialectology. Besides phonological and lexical differences, Montler gives an insightful treatment of differences in determiners, pronominal agreement, and subject/object combinations in transitive paradigms.

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                                                                            • Thompson, Nile R., and Clarence D. Sloat. 2004. Proto-Salish y in Coastal Salishan languages. In Studies in Salish linguistics in honor of M. Dale Kinkade. Edited by Donna B. Gerdts and Lisa Matthewson, 377–409. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                                              This detailed study of the reflexes of y as /y/ or as palatal affricates in some Central Salish and Tsamosan languages shows a complicated array of overlapping synchronic patterns. Evidence comes from dialectal variation within languages and from specialized speech, including diminutive symbolism and formal registers.

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                                                                              Phonetics and Phonology

                                                                              Vowel systems in Salish languages tend to be simple—five or six vowels, with contrasts for length. A perennial problem is the phonetic and phonological status of schwa, which can be underlying or epenthetic. Underlying full vowels are often reduced to schwa in unstressed positions, but they also ablaut to schwa in stressed positions in some languages. Blake 2000 and Shahin and Blake 2004 offer insightful analysis and discussion. Salish languages are well-known for their large consonant inventories and complex phonotactics. Typically they have voiceless and glottalized stops and affricates, but no voiced ones. The languages have a velar/uvular contrast in stops and fricatives. Interior Salish languages have guttural (pharyngeal) sounds. Their phonetic properties are explored in Bird, et al. 2008 and Shahin 2010. A glottal stop triggers laryngealization of the preceding vowel (Montler 2004). Glottalized resonants are rare cross-linguistically, but abundant in the languages of the Pacific Northwest. Early researchers wrote them as sequences of resonant and glottal stop or glottal stop and resonant, but today they are standardly written as single consonants by linguists, though often native speakers prefer to write them as sequences. Acoustic phonetic analyses of glottalized resonants are presented in Bird, et al. 2008; Caldecott 2004; and Carlson, et al. 2004.

                                                                              • Bird, Sonya, Marion Caldecott, Fiona Campbell, Bryan Gick, and Patricia A. Shaw. 2008. Oral-laryngeal timing in glottalised resonants. Journal of Phonetics 36:492–507.

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                                                                                This paper shows that glottalized resonants are consistently preglottalized in Nuu-chah-nulth (Wakashan), postglottalized in Thompson Salish, and dependent upon syllable position in Lillooet Salish. Thus, intergestural timing is not determined by universal perceptual factors, but rather must be specified on a language-specific basis.

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                                                                                • Blake, Susan Jane. 2000. On the distribution and representation of schwa in Sliammon Salish: Descriptive and theoretical perspectives. PhD diss., Univ. of British Columbia.

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                                                                                  This thesis starts with a very thorough treatment of Sliammon phonology and morphophonology, and finishes with a valuable set of appendices, including a root list and list of lexical suffixes. Blake’s analyses, based on a dozen years of fieldwork, are probably the most coherent discussion of Salish phonology to date.

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                                                                                  • Caldecott, Marion G. 2004. A preliminary look at glottalized resonants in St’át’imcets. In Studies in Salish linguistics in honor of M. Dale Kinkade. Edited by Donna B. Gerdts and Lisa Matthewson, 43–57. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                                                    This phonetic study of underlying glottalized resonants in Lillooet shows that glottal timing varies depending on the environment, thus supporting the claim that they are segments and not sequences of resonant and glottal stop.

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                                                                                    • Carlson, Barry F., John H. Esling, and Jimmy G. Harris. 2004. A laryngoscopic phonetic study of Nlaka’pamux (Thompson) Salish glottal stop, glottalized resonants, and pharyngeals. In Studies in Salish linguistics in honor of M. Dale Kinkade. Edited by Donna B. Gerdts and Lisa Matthewson, 58–71. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                                                      Laryngoscopic filming of Thompson reveals that glottalized resonants are postglottalized and longer than both nonglottalized resonants and glottal stop. Pharyngeals have two and a half times the duration of plain nonglottalized resonant consonants.

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                                                                                      • Montler, Timothy. 2004. Retraction in Klallam vowels. In Studies in Salish linguistics in honor of M. Dale Kinkade. Edited by Donna B. Gerdts and Lisa Matthewson, 300–310. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                                                        According to this acoustic phonetic study, stressed vowels before glottal stop are laryngealized in Klallam, thus producing the impression of a lowered vowel.

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                                                                                        • Shahin, Kimary. 2010. Promotion of secondary place in St’át’imcets. In A Festschrift for Thomas M. Hess on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Edited by David Beck, 133–147. Whatcom Museum Publications 21. Bellingham, WA: Whatcom Museum.

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                                                                                          An acoustic phonetic study of the gutturals in Lillooet reveals that the plain forms are uvular, while the labialized forms are pharyngeal.

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                                                                                          • Shahin, Kimary N., and Susan J. Blake. 2004. A phonetic study of Schwa in St’át’imcets (Lillooet Salish). In Studies in Salish linguistics in honor of M. Dale Kinkade. Edited by Donna B. Gerdts and Lisa Matthewson, 311–327. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                                                            An acoustic phonetic study provides evidence that Lillooet schwas are shorter than full vowels and occupy a distinct vowel space. Furthermore, excrescent schwas, optionally inserted between sonorant consonants, are only about two-thirds of the length of epenthetic schwas. Schwa is longer and therefore lower before glottal stop.

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                                                                                            Morphology

                                                                                            Salish inflectional morphology is notoriously complex, due to its reliance on nonconcatenative processes such as reduplication, infixation, and ablaut, as discussed in Urbanczyk 2004, Urbanczyk 2006, and Urbanczyk 2010. Often there is not a one-to-one match between form and function. The same functional category can be marked in different ways, as seen in Leonard and Turner 2010; optionally marked, as seen in Wiltschko 2008; or multiply marked, as seen in Koch 2009. The same process, e.g., glottalization of resonants, may relate to different grammatical functions.

                                                                                            • Koch, Karsten. 2009. Innovative double subject marking in Nɬeʔkepmxcin (Thompson). Northwest Journal of Linguistics 3.4: 1–23.

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                                                                                              Transitive subjects were marked with person agreement suffixes in Proto-Salish. Central Salish languages now mark subjects with clitic pronoun forms instead. This paper shows that in conjunctive clauses in Thompson, transitive subjects are marked with both a suffix and a clitic.

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                                                                                              • Leonard, Janet, and Claire K. Turner. 2010. Predicting the shape of SENĆOŦEN imperfectives. In A Festschrift for Thomas M. Hess on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Edited by David Beck, 82–112. Whatcom Museum Publications 21. Bellingham, WA: Whatcom Museum.

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                                                                                                A word-based functional approach to Saanich (Northern Straits) verb morphology leads to the conclusion that various patterns of imperfective marking arise from the need to keep the imperfective and perfective form of verbs similar yet different enough to be distinguished.

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                                                                                                • Urbanczyk, Suzanne C. 2004. Plurality and ablaut in Central Salish. In Studies in Salish linguistics in honor of M. Dale Kinkade. Edited by Donna B. Gerdts and Lisa Matthewson, 429–453. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                                                                  Drawing on data from ablaut of plural nouns and verbs from several Central Salish languages, the author shows that Proto-Salish i relates to collective meaning and a relates to pluractional meaning. In the daughter languages, ablaut combines with other morphological processes marking plural meanings, thus obscuring its semantic basis.

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                                                                                                  • Urbanczyk, Suzanne. 2006. Reduplicative form and the root-affix asymmetry. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 24.1: 179–240.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/s11049-005-4373-xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    This paper discusses three Lushootseed reduplicative morphemes: a CVC “distributive” prefix, a CV “diminutive” prefix, and a VC “out-of-control” suffix. The first is analyzed as a root reduplicant, while the others are affixal, thus supporting the generalized template theory, which posits that root reduplicants are more marked phonologically than affix reduplicants.

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                                                                                                    • Urbanczyk, Suzanne. 2010. Evolution of Halkomelem aspectual allomorphy. In A Festschrift for Thomas M. Hess on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Edited by David Beck, 148–178. Whatcom Museum Publications 21. Bellingham, WA: Whatcom Museum.

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                                                                                                      This paper examines reduplicative and ablaut allomorphy associated with imperfectives in Halkomelem. Based on comparisons with other Central Salish languages, the author suggests that ablaut was originally associated with plurality and shifted to marking aspect in a cluster of languages.

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                                                                                                      • Wiltschko, Martina. 2008. The syntax of non-inflectional plural marking. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 26.3: 639–694.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1007/s11049-008-9046-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Some unusual properties of number marking in Halkomelem, especially optionality and lack of agreement, lead to the conclusion that it is noninflectional. The fact that words of various categories can be marked for number gives evidence for the acategorial nature of roots in Halkomelem.

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                                                                                                        Syntax

                                                                                                        Salish languages are mildly polysynthetic, having a rich set of affixes marking voice and valence. Gerdts and Hukari 2008 treats voice; Beck 2009 and Kiyosawa and Gerdts 2010 treat valence-increasing constructions; Davis and Matthewson 2003, Gerdts 2010, Gerdts and Hukari 2008, and Montler 2010 treat valence-decreasing constructions; and Davis 2010 and Hukari 2010 treat relative clause/wh-question constructions.

                                                                                                        • Beck, David. 2009. A taxonomy and typology of Lushootseed valency-increasing suffixes. International Journal of American Linguistics 75:533–569.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1086/650553Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          Based on secondary-source data, this paper proposes that the numerous valency-increasing suffixes in Lushootseed lend themselves to a syntactic classification into two general types: causatives add a semantic actant expressed as a syntactic subject, and applicatives add a semantic actant expressed as an object.

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                                                                                                          • Davis, Henry. 2010. A unified analysis of relative clauses in St’át’imcets. Northwest Journal of Linguistics 4.1: 1–43.

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                                                                                                            Lillooet has six types of relative clauses: “headless,” prenominal, postposed, postnominal, nominalized locative, and conjunctive locative. All involve the movement of a determiner phrase (DP) to the left periphery. A morphophonological filter bars a surface sequence of two determiners, resulting in the deletion of a determiner or the extraposition of the relative clause.

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                                                                                                            • Davis, Henry, and Lisa Matthewson. 2003. Quasi objects in St’át’imcets: On the (semi-) independence of agreement and case. In Formal approaches to function in grammar: In honor of Eloise Jelinek. Edited by Andrew Carnie, Heidi Harley, and MaryAnn Willie, 79–406. Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today 62. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                              This paper gives evidence for a class of overt DP objects that do not license object agreement on the verb in Lillooet. This is a problem for the claim that Salish languages are pronominal argument languages.

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                                                                                                              • Gerdts, Donna B. 2010. Ditransitive constructions in Halkomelem Salish: A direct object/oblique object language. In Studies in ditransitive constructions: A comparative handbook. Edited by Andrej Malchukov, Martin Haspelmath, and Bernard Comrie, 563–610. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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                                                                                                                This paper summarizes the properties of subjects, objects, and obliques in Halkomelem and then discusses a variety of ditransitive constructions, including applicatives and causatives.

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                                                                                                                • Gerdts, Donna B., and Thomas E. Hukari. 2008. The expression of noun phrases in Halkomelem texts. Anthropological Linguistics 50.3–4: 324–364.

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                                                                                                                  Based on a study of semantically transitive sentences in three texts, this paper argues that active transitive clauses with two overt noun phrases are rare in Halkomelem.

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                                                                                                                  • Hukari, Thomas E. 2010. On wh-agreement in Vancouver Island Halkomelem Salish. In A Festschrift for Thomas M. Hess on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Edited by David Beck, 57–81. Whatcom Museum Publications 21. Bellingham, WA: Whatcom Museum.

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                                                                                                                    This paper examines the pros and cons of treating morphology in Halkomelem nominalized wh-constructions as a voice-like marker or as wh-agreement. Crucial evidence is provided by data of long-distance extraction in bridge verb constructions.

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                                                                                                                    • Kiyosawa, Kaoru, and Donna B. Gerdts. 2010. Salish applicatives. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004183933.i-394Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      This is a study of the morphology, syntax, and semantics of applicative constructions in twenty Salish languages. In applicative constructions, the direct object bears a peripheral semantic role. Morphosyntactic analyses are given for two types of applicatives—redirectives, formed on transitive bases, and relationals, formed on intransitive bases.

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                                                                                                                      • Montler, Timothy. 2010. A double passive construction in Klallam. In A Festschrift for Thomas M. Hess on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Edited by David Beck, 113–132. Whatcom Museum Publications 21. Bellingham, WA: Whatcom Museum.

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                                                                                                                        One type of nominalization in Klallam is a subject-creating voice phenomenon akin to passive. In ditransitives, this can co-occur with the standard passive, resulting in a double passive construction.

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                                                                                                                        Semantics

                                                                                                                        Often diverging significantly from the widely studied languages of Europe and Asia, Salish languages exhibit many interesting semantic properties. See the bibliography in Davis and Matthewson 2009 for copious references, especially under the topic headings noun phrase and determiner syntax and semantics, quantification, coreference and binding, lexical aspect (aktionsarten), viewpoint aspect, mood and modality, and control and out of control. Recent contributions to Salish semantics include research on determiners in Gillon 2009, quantification in Davis 2009 and Matthewson 2009, evidentials in Matthewson 2011, and perfectivity versus imperfectivity in Turner 2011. One morphosemantic feature robustly attested in Salish languages but seldom marked in other languages of the world is the control versus noncontrol distinction. In control constructions, the action is done on purpose and with ease, while in noncontrol constructions, the action is performed accidentally or with great difficulty. Davis, et al. 2009 and Jacobs 2011 show how this distinction relates to verb classes and aspect. Not only do these semantic phenomena present descriptive and theoretical challenges, but they interact with each other and with the syntax in complicated ways. As discussed in Davis and Matthewson 2009, an ongoing project on modality in languages of the Pacific Northwest has led to the conclusion that languages in the area lack familiarity presuppositions, leading to a radically different system of determination, quantification, evidentiality, and modality than seen in better-studied languages.

                                                                                                                        • Davis, Henry. 2009. Cross-linguistic variation in anaphoric dependencies: Evidence from the Pacific Northwest. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 27:1–43.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1007/s11049-008-9062-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Languages from several families in the region allow clauses in which a full NP is C-commanded by a pronoun, thus violating Binding Condition C. This careful study of the phenomenon in Lillooet shows that it is limited to clause-internal domains that do not contain quantificational expressions in the bound element.

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                                                                                                                          • Davis, Henry, and Lisa Matthewson. 2009. Issues in Salish syntax and semantics. Language and Linguistics Compass 3.4: 1097–1166.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-818X.2009.00145.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Besides an extensive bibliography of papers on the syntax and semantics of Salish languages organized by topic, this paper gives a detailed discussion of four current issues: the deep unaccusativity of verb roots, the pronominal argument hypothesis, tenselessness, and the lack of familiarity presuppositions.

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                                                                                                                            • Davis, Henry, Lisa Matthewson, and Hotze Rullmann. 2009. “Out of control” marking as circumstantial modality in St’át’imcets. In Cross-linguistic semantics of tense, aspect, and modality. Edited by Lotte Hogeweg, Helen de Hoop, and Andrej Malchukov, 205–244. Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today 148. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                                              This paper addresses the status of a circumfix meaning “accidentally,” “manage to,” or “suddenly.” Arguments are given that this is best treated as circumstantial modality and that modality in Lillooet differs in an important way from modality in English in that it lexically encodes the epistemic versus deontic distinction.

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                                                                                                                              • Gillon, Carrie. 2009. Deictic features: Evidence from Sḵwxwú7mesh. International Journal of American Linguistics 75.1: 1–27.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1086/598201Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                This paper analyzes the determiners and demonstratives of Squamish with respect to their deictic properties. One determiner is shown to be “non-deictic.” Non-deictic DPs can introduce new discourse referents, like bare nouns in English, but can also refer to previously introduced discourse referents or to partitives.

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                                                                                                                                • Jacobs, Peter William. 2011. Control in Skwxwu7mesh. PhD diss., Univ. of British Columbia.

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                                                                                                                                  This work advances an aspectual account of control. A control predicate has event initiation as its core meaning, while a limited control predicate has event culmination as its core meaning. Syntactically, object agreement is associated with a VP-internal position in control predicates but with an aspectual node in limited control predicates.

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                                                                                                                                  • Matthewson, Lisa. 2009. An unfamiliar proportional quantifier. In Quantification, definiteness, and nominalization. Edited by Anastasia Giannakidou and Monika Rathert, 23–52. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                    The quantifier nukw in Lillooet presupposes a proportional rather than cardinal meaning (“some, but not all”) and thus resembles English partitive (some (of)). It can be used in existentials and also in both familiar and unfamiliar (out-of-the-blue) contexts.

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                                                                                                                                    • Matthewson, Lisa. 2011. On apparently non-modal evidentials. Empirical Issues in Syntax and Semantics 8:333–357.

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                                                                                                                                      This paper gives a detailed treatment of Lillooet lákw7a, which signals lack of visual evidence for a proposition. It behaves like a nonmodal evidential in that it can be used if the speaker knows the proposition is true or false. However, its speech act properties cast doubt on a nonmodal analysis.

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                                                                                                                                      • Turner, Claire Kelly. 2011. Representing events in Saanich (North Straits Salish): The interaction of aspect and valence. PhD diss., Univ. of Surrey.

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                                                                                                                                        This work investigates the interaction of aspect, aktionsart, “control,” and valence in Saanich (Northern Straits), based on original fieldwork and a thorough summary of previous research on Salish languages. The data support a two-way aspectual distinction between perfective and imperfective, and show a correlation between telicity and perfectivity.

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                                                                                                                                        Research on Specific Typological and Theoretical Topics

                                                                                                                                        Typologists often point to Salish languages as counterexamples to putative universals of human language. For discussion of two such claims, see the subsections on the Noun-Verb Distinction and Tenselessness. Some topics are challenging because they cannot be adequately studied within a single domain (phonology, morphology, syntax, or semantics). See the subsections on Incorporation and Prosody, Intonation, and Information Structure for research on interface phenomena.

                                                                                                                                        Noun-Verb Distinction

                                                                                                                                        It has been claimed that languages of the Pacific Northwest lack a noun-verb distinction. While it is true that Salish languages push the boundaries by allowing many phenomena (number, diminution, past tense, future tense) to be marked on words of various categories, nevertheless there are other areas of the grammar where distinguishing nouns from verbs proves useful. Thus, the consensus opinion among scholars of Salish languages is that the claim that there is no noun-verb distinction is overstated. For some more recent work on this topic, see Beck 2012, Koch and Matthewson 2009, and Watanabe 2010. These papers approach the problem from different directions—Beck from a functional perspective and Koch and Matthewson from a formal one—but they arrive at the same result.

                                                                                                                                        • Beck, David. 2012. Uni-directional flexibility and the noun-verb distinction in Lushootseed. In Flexible word classes: A typological study of underspecified parts-of-speech. Edited by Jan Rijkhoff and Eva van Lier, 145–179. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                          Languages that lack a noun-verb distinction are claimed to have bidirectional flexibility. This paper argues that Salish languages are more accurately considered to be unidirectional: a variety of word classes can function as predicates, but restrictions are placed on words that can appear in argument positions.

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                                                                                                                                          • Koch, Karsten, and Lisa Matthewson. 2009. The lexical category debate in Salish and its relevance for Tagalog. Theoretical Linguistics 35:125–137.

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                                                                                                                                            This paper argues that despite the many ways in which Salish nouns and verbs behave alike, they are nevertheless distinguished by three tests. Only nouns appear as heads of relative clauses and in final position in complex nominal predicates. Only verbs support auxiliaries.

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                                                                                                                                            • Watanabe, Honoré. 2010. A look at “noun” and “verb” in Sliammon. In A Festschrift for Thomas M. Hess on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Edited by David Beck, 179–196. Whatcom Museum Publications 21. Bellingham, WA: Whatcom Museum.

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                                                                                                                                              This paper reviews the standard evidence for conflating noun and verb in Salish languages, but then establishes that four morphological criteria (“have” infixation, possessive marking, imperfective reduction, and inceptive reduplication) can be used to distinguish word classes in Sliammon.

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                                                                                                                                              Tenselessness

                                                                                                                                              It has been claimed that Salish languages lack tense. Since the functional category tense has figured prominently in syntactic architecture, a truly tenseless language presents a challenge to a theoretical analysis (Ritter and Wiltschko 2009, Wiltschko 2003). However, a more careful look reveals tense effects even in the absence of a full set of contrasting tense morphemes, as seen in Davis and Matthewson 2009, Matthewson 2005, and Matthewson 2006.

                                                                                                                                              • Davis, Henry, and Lisa Matthewson. 2009. Issues in Salish syntax and semantics. Language and Linguistics Compass 3.4: 1097–1166.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-818X.2009.00145.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                After reviewing the evidence for Salish languages being tenseless, this paper argues, on the basis of temporal shifting effects, for underspecified, covert tense.

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                                                                                                                                                • Matthewson, Lisa. 2005. On the absence of tense on determiners. Lingua 115.12: 1697–1735.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/j.lingua.2004.08.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  This paper is a critique of and reply to Wiltschko 2003. Data are given from several Salish languages.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Matthewson, Lisa. 2006. Temporal semantics in a superficially tenseless language. Linguistics and Philosophy 29:673–713.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/s10988-006-9010-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    All sentences in Lillooet have a phonologically null tense that selects a reference time interval that precedes or includes the utterance time. This explains why some sentences can be interpreted as either past or present. The tense morpheme combines with a future adverb to yield past future, parallel to English would.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Ritter, Elizabeth, and Martina Wiltschko. 2009. Varieties of INFL: Tense, location, and person. In Alternatives to cartography. Edited by Jeroen van Craenenbroeck, 153–202. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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                                                                                                                                                      This paper claims that the substantial content of INFL in Halkomelem is LOCATION rather than TENSE.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Wiltschko, Martina. 2003. On the interpretability of tense on D and its consequences for case theory. Lingua 113.7: 659–696.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/S0024-3841(02)00116-XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        This paper claims that lack of nominative case and the presence of tense marking on nouns relates to the lack of the functional category TP (tense phrase) in Halkomelem.

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                                                                                                                                                        Incorporation

                                                                                                                                                        As typical of polysynthetic languages, Salish languages exhibit incorporation—nouns can be expressed as part of the verb complex. One type of incorporation, the denominal verb construction, adds a verbalizing prefix to a noun to create an intransitive verb, as discussed in Gerdts and Hukari 2008. A second construction involves lexical suffixes, bound morphemes that have the semantic force of a noun. Salish languages each have over a hundred of these suffixes, referring to body parts, natural elements, and items of material culture. Phonological evidence for their status as roots, rather than suffixes, is given in Czaykowska-Higgins 2004. As for their morphosyntax, two distributive morphology accounts have been offered for lexical suffixes, treating the bound form either as a little-n, as Bischoff 2011 does, or as an acategorial root, as Wiltschko 2009 does. Hinkson 1999 shows that lexical suffixes often extend semantically, taking on more abstract meanings. Both types of incorporation constructions allow the verb-internal N to be doubled with a free-standing NP, as discussed in Gerdts 2010.

                                                                                                                                                        • Bischoff, Shannon T. 2011. Lexical affixes, incorporation, and conflation: The case of Coeur d’Alene. Studia Linguistica 65.1: 1–31.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9582.2011.01177.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Taking a formal approach to lexical affixation within the distributed morphology framework, the author shows that the concept of conflation easily accounts for the morphosyntactic properties of Coeur d’Alene lexical suffixes. Rather than being roots, lexical suffixes are n-heads with the status of arguments that incorporate syntactically.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa. 2004. The morphological and phonological status of Nxa’amxcín lexical suffixes. In Studies in Salish linguistics in honor of M. Dale Kinkade. Edited by Donna B. Gerdts and Lisa Matthewson, 72–99. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                                                                                                                            This paper presents the key morphophonological arguments for treating lexical suffixes as bound roots in Columbian. They are not true suffixes, as shown by four phonological tests. They are also not true words, as shown by comparing them to free stem compounds. Bound roots are a category with intermediate properties.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Gerdts, Donna B. 2010. Three doubling constructions in Halkomelem. In Hypothesis A/Hypothesis B: Linguistic explorations in honor of David M. Perlmutter. Edited by Donna B. Gerdts, John C. Moore, and Maria Polinsky, 183–202. Cambridge: MIT Press.

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                                                                                                                                                              The paper discusses the licensing of themes as oblique-marked NPs rather than direct objects in three Halkomelem constructions—lexical suffixes, cognate objects, and denominal verbs.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Gerdts, Donna B., and Thomas E. Hukari. 2008. Halkomelem denominal verb constructions. International Journal of American Linguistics 74.4: 489–510.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1086/595575Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Halkomelem has four prefixes (meaning “have/make/do,” “eat,” “buy,” and “go toward”) that attach to noun phrases to form denominal verbs. Morphosyntactically intransitive, denominal verb constructions allow the expression of an oblique-marked independent noun phrase that elaborates the noun that forms the base of the denominal verb.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Hinkson, Mercedes Quesney. 1999. Salishan lexical suffixes: A study in the conceptualization of space. PhD diss., Simon Fraser Univ.

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                                                                                                                                                                  This work gives a detailed cognitive semantic analysis of the complex network of meanings associated with four lexical suffixes. Although the forms historically refer to body parts, they extend to take on locational and relational meanings.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Wiltschko, Martina. 2009. √Root incorporation: Evidence from lexical suffixes in Halkomelem Salish. Lingua 119.2: 199–223.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1016/j.lingua.2007.10.012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    This paper proposes that, rather than being analyzed as manifestations of the category N, Halkomelem lexical suffixes should be treated as precategorial roots.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Prosody, Intonation, and Information Structure

                                                                                                                                                                    Recent studies have addressed the relevance of prosody and intonation to other aspects of structure. Caldecott 2009 and Shaw 2004 discuss their relevance to phonology, Thomason and Thomason 2004 discusses their relevance to morphology; Koch 2008 discusses their relevance to syntax; and Barthmaier 2004, Beck 1999, and Beck and Bennett 2007 discuss their relevance to discourse. The study of connected speech has led to research on information structure, as seen in Beck 2010 and Koch 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                    • Barthmaier, Paul. 2004. Intonation units in Okanagan. In Studies in Salish linguistics in honor of M. Dale Kinkade. Edited by Donna B. Gerdts and Lisa Matthewson, 30–42. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                                                                                                                                      A study of the prosody of an Okanagan text reveals that speakers meter the amount of information produced at a given time by means of intonation units.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Beck, David. 1999. Words and prosodic phrasing in Lushootseed narrative. In Studies on the phonological word. Edited by T. Alan Hall and Ursula Kleinhenz, 23–46. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                                                                                        The syntactic word and phonological word are not equivalent in Lushootseed. Unstressed variable-category words are treated as affixes within a prosodic unit, thus obscuring the difference between clitic and affix.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Beck, David. 2010. Communicative structure in Lushootseed syntax: Thematicity and focalization. In Information structure in indigenous languages of the Americas: Syntactic approaches. Edited by José Camacho, Rodrigo Gutiérrez-Bravo, and Liliana Sánchez, 41–65. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1515/9783110228533Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Drawing on secondary-source data from Lushootseed, this paper shows that selection of the clausal predicate in Lushootseed is governed by a condition that requires the main predicate to be rhematic, i.e., presenting new information, resulting in a wide range of nonverbal predicates in this language.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Beck, David, and David Bennett. 2007. Extending the prosodic hierarchy: Evidence from Lushootseed narrative. Northwest Journal of Linguistics 1:1–34.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Drawing on Thom Hess’s collection of Lushootseed tapes, this paper presents phonetic and morphosyntactic evidence for the phonological paragraph. Utterance-level F0 peaks decline over the length of the paragraph and are reset to mark the beginning of a new discourse-level prosodic unit.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Caldecott, Marion Gerda. 2009. Non-exhaustive parsing: Phonetic and phonological evidence from St’át’imcets. PhD diss., Univ. of British Columbia.

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                                                                                                                                                                              This dissertation presents phonetic documentation of the prosody of Lillooet, including phrase-level intonation, stress, and boundary effects.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Koch, Karsten. 2008. Intonation and focus in Nɬeʔkepmxcin (Thompson River Salish). PhD diss., Univ. of British Columbia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Based on an extensive collection of conversations and sentences elicited using innovative methods, Koch examines focus constructions from the viewpoint of phonetics, syntax, and semantics. His evidence shows that focus is marked syntactically by leftmost position in the intonational phrase, rather than phonologically by primary sentential accent.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Shaw, Patricia A. 2004. Inside access: The prosodic role of internal morphological constituency. In The nature of the word: Studies in honor of Paul Kiparsky. Edited by Kristin Hanson and Sharon Inkelas, 241–272. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Based on Musqueam (Halkomelem) data from Wayne Suttles, this paper gives evidence from stress, vowel reduction, epenthesis, infixation, and reduplication that the prosodic system requires reference to an internal domain defined by the left edge of the morphological root.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Thomason, Lucy, and Sarah G. Thomason. 2004. Truncation in Montana Salish. In Studies in Salish linguistics in honor of M. Dale Kinkade. Edited by Donna B. Gerdts and Lisa Matthewson, 354–376. Univ. of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17. Missoula: Univ. of Montana.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    A rule of truncation in Southern Interior Salish languages deletes everything after the stressed vowel of a word, especially in colloquial speech. The process is not specific to a morphological category but applies across all word classes. A general constraint blocks truncation if too much information would be lost.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Language, Cognition, and Culture

                                                                                                                                                                                    Sixteen of the twenty-three Salish languages were spoken in the Northwest Coast cultural area, an area well researched by anthropologists. The other seven languages are in the Plateau cultural area, though some cultural motifs span the two areas. Topics of particular significance are colors, as discussed in Galloway 1993 and Galloway 2007; numeral classifiers, as discussed in Anderson 1999 and Gerdts and Hinkson 2004; kinship terms, as discussed in Suttles 2004 and van Eijk 2010; place names, as discussed in Galloway 1993 and Richardson and Galloway 2011; special lexical domains, as discussed in Galloway 1993 and Suttles 2004; and cosmology, as discussed in van Eijk 2001.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Anderson, Gregory D. S. 1999. Reduplicated numerals in Salish. International Journal of American Linguistics 65:407–448.

                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1086/466401Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      Two patterns of reduplication are posited for Proto-Salish numbers: CV reduplication for counting animals and CVC reduplication for counting people. The patterns have been preserved in some languages, but replaced by lexical suffixes used as numeral classifiers in others.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Galloway, Brent D. 1993. A grammar of Upriver Halkomelem. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        This reference grammar of Halkomelem is notable for its detailed ethnosemantic analyses. Especially noteworthy are over two hundred pages covering topics like flora, fauna, environment, religion, emotions, bodily functions, speech events, color terms (including charts), and place names (with accompanying maps).

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Galloway, Brent D. 2007. Metaphors as cognitive models in Halkomelem color adjectives. In The anthropology of color: Interdisciplinary multilevel modeling. Edited by Robert E. MacLaury, Galina V. Paramei, and Don Dedrick, 397–405. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          This detailed study of color based on Munsell chips shows that Upriver Halkomelem speakers refer to colors in terms of culturally sanctioned conventionalized metaphors. Variation in saturation is expressed independently of variation in brightness. Colors are regarded as processes, and morphological devices for modifying them include stative, inceptive, continuative, and diminutive.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gerdts, Donna B., and Mercedes Q. Hinkson. 2004. Salish numeral classifiers: A lexical means to a grammatical end. STUF 57:247–279.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            This paper gives a detailed categorization of the twenty numeral classifiers used in Halkomelem, developing a system based on size, shape, and function, and then shows that the same cognitive mechanisms are used for classifiers throughout Salish.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Richardson, Allan, and Brent Galloway. 2011. Nooksack place names: Geography, culture, and language. Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              This work starts with a welcome introduction to the Nooksack people and their language and the primary sources drawn on, and then details over 150 places, giving the linguistic etymology and an ethnohistorical treatment of each, followed by an insightful discussion of the cultural significance and semantics of geographical features.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Suttles, Wayne. 2004. Musqueam reference grammar. Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Suttles was the foremost scholar of Coast Salish culture, and the data in his grammar of Halkomelem are contextually rich and semantically interesting. The grammar also contains sections on place names, personal names, kinship terms, the calendar, and expressions of movement and location in relation to water.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • van Eijk, Jan P. 2001. Who is súnuɬqaz’? A Salish quest. Anthropological Linguistics 43:177–197.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Van Eijk blends information from his Lillooet consultants and a search of the literature on Coast Salish cosmology to provide details of a large snake-like animal with heads on each end with the power to cause deadly convulsions in people who encounter it and show fear.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • van Eijk, Jan P. 2010. Lillooet kinship terms. In A Festschrift for Thomas M. Hess on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Edited by David Beck, 211–225. Whatcom Museum Publications 21. Bellingham, WA: Whatcom Museum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    This paper gives a list of kinship terms in Lillooet with comments on their morphology and semantics.

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