Linguistics Language Ideologies and Language Attitudes
by
Paul V. Kroskrity
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 April 2016
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199772810-0122

Introduction

As conceptual tools, language ideologies and language attitudes were created by researchers in the second half of the 20th century to provide a means of treating speakers’ feelings and ideas about various languages and linguistic forms as a critical factor in understanding processes of language change, language and identity, and language in its socioeconomic context. But even though each of these concepts can be viewed as related to a common effort to bring linguistic subjectivity into research once exclusively dominated by objectivist frameworks that attempted to explain linguistic phenomena, without recourse to speakers’ apparent understandings, the two concepts have complementary histories of development. Definitions of both these concepts typically invoke speakers’ feelings and beliefs about language structure or language use. But a close analysis of their distinctive histories and patterned distribution reveals that they have not only very different origins but also significant differences in the way they encourage researchers to focus on distinctive aspects of similar phenomena. In addition to their different histories and arenas of focal concern, the two concepts are typically associated with very different kinds of methodologies. Language attitudes, as a concept, is generally associated with an objectivist concern with quantitative measurement of speakers’ reactions. This concern is surely related to its conceptual origins in social psychology, quantitative sociolinguistics, and educational linguistics. In contrast, the concept of language ideologies is associated with qualitative methods such as ethnography, conversational analysis, and discourse analysis, as will be exemplified in the various sections of this article. This methodological reliance on qualitative methods is certainly related to its association with linguistic anthropology, interpretive sociology, and systemic functional linguistics. Also in contrast to the history of application for the concept of language attitudes, language ideologies—in accord with its anthropological origins—has tended to emphasize how speakers’ beliefs and feelings about language are constructed from their experience as social actors in a political economic system, and how speakers’ often-partial awareness of the form and function of their semiotic resources is critically important. While students of language ideologies read them both from speakers’ articulate explications (e.g., in interviews or conversational interaction) and from comparatively unreflecting, habitual discursive practice, students of language attitudes tend to measure reactions through more standardized and objective forms of data collection (survey, extended interview, matched guise test, and the analysis of sociophonetic samples). Apart from the social sciences, research in the humanities has also taken up language as a cultural phenomenon and has added a historical as well as an ideological dimension to the study of the emergence of awareness regarding the use of urban dialects and other local linguistic forms, perhaps as symbolic pushback to sociolinguistic globalization.

Some Key Texts and Edited Collections

Though both concepts are still very important to researchers interested in understanding sociolinguistic processes such as language change, language shift, or linguistic revitalization, there is no introductory text devoted to either. The listed works are some of the more widely used texts that attempt to convey significant concepts through case studies. Baker 1992 provides a resource both for specialists and nonspecialists alike that argues for a more central role of language attitudes in studies of multilingualism, language maintenance and loss, and language planning. Like Baker 1992, Garrett 2010 also critically surveys research on language attitudes, with more of an emphasis on methods. For language ideologies, Schieffelin, et al. 1998 combines an influential collection of exemplary case studies with an insightful introduction that overviews the development of the field. Blommaert 1999 complements that collection with an anthology composed mostly of works by European scholars who treat explicit language ideologies. Focusing on the making of linguistic authority, Gal and Woolard 2001 illustrates how language ideologies enable the construction of various publics.

  • Baker, Colin. 1992. Attitudes and language. Multilingual Matters 83. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

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    Important overview of the origins and concerns of research on language attitudes.

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    • Blommaert, Jan, ed. 1999. Language ideological debates. Language, Power, and Social Process 2. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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      An early and highly significant edited collection featuring work on explicit language ideologies and their contestation.

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      • Gal, Susan, and Kathryn A. Woolard, eds. 2001. Languages and publics: The making of authority. Encounters. Manchester, UK: St. Jerome.

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        An important and focused anthology on authoritative uses of language in the public sphere.

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        • Garrett, Peter. 2010. Attitudes to language. Key Topics in Sociolinguistics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511844713Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          An outstanding textbook-type treatment of the history and proliferation of research on language attitudes, by one of its most prolific scholars.

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          • Garrett, Peter, Nikolas Coupland, and Angie Williams. 2003. Investigating language attitudes: Social meanings of dialect, ethnicity, and performance. Cardiff, UK: Univ. of Wales Press.

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            An excellent study and overview of relevant research and research methods, with a special emphasis on Welsh and English.

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            • Schieffelin, Bambi B., Kathryn A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity, eds. 1998. Language ideologies: Practice and theory. Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics 16. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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              This edited collection, revised from an earlier 1992 special issue of Pragmatics, is the most widely used book on the topic.

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              Early Research on Language Attitudes

              Emerging earlier, language attitudes began as a concept introduced in social psychology by Gordon Allport, who was a psychologist interested in understanding personality and prejudice in shaping subjects’ reactions. Allport 1935 developed the concept as a necessary alternative to strictly behavioral accounts. It was elaborated by the social psychologist and psycholinguist Wallace Lambert in Lambert, et al. 1960 and Lambert 1967 in controlled experiments with a variety of languages and spread to research in educational psychology, second-language acquisition, and perhaps most notably sociolinguistics. William Labov used this notion to understand the social meaning of phonological variation in speech communities such as Martha’s Vineyard and New York City, as anthologized in Labov 1972. But even though he produced analyses that relied on the detection of linguistic attitudinal differences and similarities, Labov did not explicitly define language attitudes. Though published much later, Garrett, et al. 2003 (cited under Some Key Texts and Edited Collections) usefully defines attitude as “an evaluative orientation to a social object of some sort . . . potentially an evaluative stance that is sufficiently stable to allow it to be identified and in some sense measured.” This definition and this history of conceptual development call attention to the objectivist projects for which a definitive concept treating speakers’ evaluation, either latent or explicit, of linguistic variables was needed. Labov, for example, could demonstrate the “social motivation” of a sound change based on most New York City speakers’ positive evaluations of linguistic variables (such as the pronunciation of postvocalic /r/) identified with the middle class, as in Labov 1963 and Labov 1966—case studies from Martha’s Vineyard and New York City, respectively. For Labov, these positive evaluations allowed him to understand and disclose the power of “linguistic prestige” in its influence on lower-middle-class speakers, who clearly recognized such variables as exemplary in their “careful” speech but who only approximated these ideals in their more spontaneous and relatively unmonitored speech. But whether it was Labov’s “extended interview” method of data collection or Lambert’s “matched guise” method, in which subjects evaluated audio recordings of the same bilingual Canadian speaker who encoded “the same” brief messages in French and English to measure the relative prestige of each language, the emphasis on quantitative measurement remained constant.

              • Allport, Gordon W. 1935. Attitudes. In A handbook of social psychology. Edited by Carl Murchison, 798–844. International University Series in Psychology. Worcester, MA: Clark Univ. Press.

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                This author crafted the concept of attitude that was incorporated into the notion of language attitude.

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                • Labov, William. 1963. The social motivation of a sound change. Word 19.3: 273–309.

                  DOI: 10.1080/00437956.1963.11659799Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  A classic study that explains sociolinguistic change and phonological variation on Martha’s Vineyard.

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                  • Labov, William. 1966. The social stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

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                    This is the first major study to show differences in language attitudes due to socioeconomic-class differences and their influence on patterns of class and stylistic stratification in the pronunciation of phonological variables. Second edition published in 2006 (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press).

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                    • Labov, William. 1972. Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

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                      Classic works of correlational sociolinguistics, on the basis of research on Martha’s Vineyard and in New York City, that used language attitudes.

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                      • Lambert, Wallace E. 1967. A social psychology of bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues 23.2: 91–109.

                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1967.tb00578.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        An early attempt to summarize insights gained from language attitude studies of bilinguals.

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                        • Lambert, Wallace E., Richard C. Hodgson, Robert C. Gardner, and Samuel Fillenbaum. 1960. Evaluational reactions to spoken language. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 60.1: 44–51.

                          DOI: 10.1037/h0044430Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          The first study that deployed the method of “matched guise” to determine attitudes held by bilingual French Canadians toward the languages in contact (French and English) in order to show the influence of language in influencing listeners’ judgments about a speaker’s ethnicity, social class, and personality.

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                          Early Elaboration of Language Attitudes Research

                          As the study of language attitudes became more accepted and proved useful in its pioneering applications, it underwent a period featuring theoretical refinement and elaboration as well as extension to new topical concerns. The key fields in which this elaboration was occurring included social psychology—the birthplace of the language attitudes concept—as well as the adjacent academic enterprise of applied linguistics. In addition, sociolinguistics was interested in further applications of language attitudes to the study of linguistic variation.

                          Social Psychology and Applied Linguistics

                          The promise of exploring speakers’ subjective reactions with the methodological rigor of quantitative approaches propelled language attitudes toward a wide range of topics. In an overview of the period, Baker 1992 (cited under Some Key Texts and Edited Collections) notes the spread of language attitudes to eight topical foci. These can be analytically divided into two broad areas that can be distinguished by rather different disciplines. The first of these broader areas concerns the social psychology of linguistic attitudes and their implications for applied linguistic practice such as language teaching. The three foci that fall into this broad area are (1) attitudes toward learning a new language, such as in Anisfeld and Lambert 1961 for Hebrew; (2) attitudes toward specific minority languages, as exemplified by Giles 1977; (3) attitudes toward language lessons, as in Williams 1976; and (4) attitudes of parents toward language learning. Colin Baker’s list of research in this area could also be expanded to include two additional areas: (1) further research on attitude theory and (2) methodological surveys, exemplified by Agheyisi and Fishman 1970, which examine ways to collect relevant data on language attitudes. Regarding attitude theory, DeFleur and Westie 1963 provides a theoretical survey and attempts to analytically divide such studies into those more preoccupied by an observable probability and those that use attitudinal data to attempt to detect more-latent processes. Triandis 1971 considers the role of such factors as the source, message, channel, and audience in shaping attitude formation and change.

                          • Agheyisi, Rebecca, and Joshua A. Fishman. 1970. Language attitude studies: A brief survey of methodological approaches. Anthropological Linguistics 12.5: 137–157.

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                            An overview of methods associated with research on language attitudes.

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                            • Anisfeld, Moshe, and Wallace E. Lambert. 1961. Social and psychological variables in learning Hebrew. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 63.3: 524–529.

                              DOI: 10.1037/h0043576Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              Representative study of language attitudes in language-learning situations.

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                              • DeFleur, Melvin L., and Frank R. Westie. 1963. Attitude as a scientific concept. Social Forces 42.1: 17–31.

                                DOI: 10.2307/2574941Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                One of the early articles that argued for the study of attitudes at a time that experimental psychology was dominated by behaviorist approaches that tended to avoid mentalist claims.

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                                • Gardner, Robert G., and Wallace E. Lambert. 1972. Attitudes and motivation in second-language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

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                                  Summarizes important findings in work on learners’ attitudes and motivation in second-language acquisition.

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                                  • Giles, Howard. 1977. Language, ethnicity, and intergroup relations. European Monographs in Social Psychology 13. London: Academic Press.

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                                    Language attitudes used to develop theories of language and group identity.

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                                    • Lambert, Wallace E., Robert C. Gardner, Robert Olton, and Kenneth Tunstall. 1968. A study of the roles of attitudes and motivation in second-language learning. In Readings in the sociology of language. Edited by Joshua A. Fishman, 136–314. The Hague: Mouton.

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                                      Lambert and associates developed the method of matched-guise testing that allowed scientists to test subjects’ attitudes toward different languages in a controlled environment.

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                                      • Triandis, Harry C. 1971. Attitude and attitude change. Wiley Foundations of Social Psychology. New York: Wiley.

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                                        Book by an important social psychologist who had influence on the study of cultural difference and attitudes.

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                                        • Williams, Frederick. 1976. Explorations of the linguistic attitudes of teachers. Series in Sociolinguistics. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

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                                          A resource for looking at second-language acquisition, with a focus on the teachers rather than the students.

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                                          Sociolinguistics

                                          A second broad area of development for research involving language attitudes was the emerging field of sociolinguistics. Within this area fall four topical foci as identified in Baker 1992 (cited under Some Key Texts and Edited Collections): (1) attitude toward language variation, dialect, and speech style; (2) attitude toward language groups, communities, and minorities; (3) attitude toward uses of a specific language; and (4) attitude toward language preference. During this period of elaboration and extension to sociolinguistics, the authors of Labov 1972 and Wolfram 1969 used language attitudes in their description of the structure and use of African American Vernacular English in New York City and Detroit, respectively. In addition, Bright 1976, Gumperz 1958, Gumperz 1972, and Hymes 1974 extended the application of language attitudes to new theoretical concerns as well as to new ethnographic areas such as India and Native America. Trudgill 1972 and Trudgill 1974 analyze social dialects in Norwich, United Kingdom, and complement urban research by William Labov, by illuminating the language attitudes of speakers who attribute a form of covert prestige to vernacular forms that are not indexed to wealth or power. Trudgill 1972 documents the pattern of linguistic variation especially in regard to social class, while Trudgill 1974 takes up the role of gender differences in linguistic variation and how this dynamic affects the rate and nature of linguistic change especially with regard to the influence of state-sponsored standard languages.

                                          • Bright, William. 1976. Variation and change in language. Language Science and National Development. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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                                            Studies of Native American and South Asian language communities in which multilingualism, social dialects, and language attitudes are described and explored.

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                                            • Cooper, Robert L., and Joshua A. Fishman. 1974. The study of language attitudes. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 1974.3: 5–20.

                                              DOI: 10.1515/ijsl.1974.3.5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              An overview of some of the key themes and methods associated with the study of language attitudes through the early 1970s.

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                                              • Gumperz, John J. 1958. Dialect differences and social stratification in a North Indian village. American Anthropologist 60.4: 668–682.

                                                DOI: 10.1525/aa.1958.60.4.02a00050Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                Early publication on language attitudes as they influenced regional and class variation in India.

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                                                • Gumperz, John J. 1972. Language in social groups: Essays by John J. Gumperz. Language Science and National Development. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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                                                  A collection of essays by a foundational figure of linguistic anthropology. In these chapters, Gumperz applies language attitudes to the social complexity of India as well as in comparative formulations of a notion of a speech community.

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                                                  • Hymes, Dell H. 1974. Foundations in sociolinguistics: An ethnographic approach. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

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                                                    A collection of chapters by Hymes, who was one of the most influential figures in the history of linguistic anthropology studies that use a notion of language attitudes in the development of a concept of the speech community as an organization of diversity, as well as in his “speech event” model of ethnographic approaches to language use.

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                                                    • Labov, William. 1972. Language in the inner city: Studies in the Black English vernacular. Conduct and Communication 3. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

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                                                      This is a collection of the author’s sociolinguistic studies on Black English. Many of these treat language attitudes toward Black English Vernacular (BEV), as well as the structure and use of BEV and the related language attitudes of African Americans.

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                                                      • Shuy, Roger W., and Ralph W. Fasold, eds. 1973. Language attitudes: Current trends and prospects. Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Press.

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                                                        A collection of articles that display the importance of language attitudes in sociolinguistic research.

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                                                        • Trudgill, Peter. 1972. Sex, covert prestige and linguistic change in the urban British English of Norwich. Language in Society 1.2: 179–195.

                                                          DOI: 10.1017/S0047404500000488Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          An important article that develops the notion of covert prestige—a cultural value that speakers in some conditions extend to vernacular and local forms of language, in contrast to the overt prestige that Labov observed in the attitudes of most speakers to the state-endorsed standard language forms.

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                                                          • Trudgill, Peter. 1974. The social differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 13. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                            A monographic treatment that examines class differences in Norwich and the allegiance of some classes of speakers to local vernacular forms by virtue of their “covert linguistic prestige.”

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                                                            • Wolfram, Walt. 1969. A sociolinguistic description of Detroit Negro speech. Urban Language 5. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

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                                                              A landmark study of African American English, on the basis of original research in Detroit.

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                                                              More-Recent Work on Language Attitudes

                                                              In the last three decades of the 20th century, the school of language attitudes continued to expand, intensifying in areas where it had previously taken hold while also taking root in new arenas of academic research. Sociolinguistic research during this period continued to feature a significant emphasis on language attitudes as it further explored linguistic variation and social dialects, including stylistic ones. In addition to this development, language attitudes began to take on new life in the more qualitative research characteristic of the ethnography of communication within linguistic anthropology and adjacent fields. Also at this time, representing a temporary convergence of research in cultural anthropology and linguistics, a school of folk linguistics emerged as part of a revalorization of folk knowledge.

                                                              Folk Linguistics

                                                              Partially as an expansion of topical foci as well as a reaction to the declaration of the irrelevance of speakers’ explicit language ideologies by some prominent sociolinguistic scholars such as William Labov, Henry Hoenigswald (Hoenigswald 1966) had earlier proposed the study of what he called “folk linguistics” as a more thorough means of describing folk theories of language structure and practice. This approach anticipated and converged with later developments in anthropology, such as ethnoscience and cognitive anthropology. Like other “ethnoscientists” of the period, Paul Kay (Kay 1987) emphasized the role of linguistic terminology as evidence of the cultural categories used by social actors. A closely related endeavor, cognitive anthropology, as exemplified by D’Andrade 1987, also highlighted the importance of language as a gateway to a people’s mental models of nature and culture. Folk linguistics, with its interest in speakers’ explicit awareness, was an intellectual forerunner of the interest in linguistic ideologies that emerged considerably later. Works such as Silverstein 1981 would take up this interest in speakers’ awareness of their linguistic structures and practices. More recently, even as the language ideologies movement was taking shape, Niedzielski and Preston 2000 is an important volume on the general topic of folk linguistics, which converges with some similar themes found in the literature on language ideologies.

                                                              • D’Andrade, Roy. 1987. A folk model of the mind. In Cultural models in language and thought. Edited by Dorothy Holland and Naomi Quinn, 112–148. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511607660.006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                An example of the cognitive anthropology of the late 20th century.

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                                                                • Hoenigswald, Henry M. 1966. A proposal for the study of folk linguistics. Paper presented at the UCLA Sociolinguistics Conference held in 1964 at the Univ. of California–Los Angeles and in Lake Arrowhead, CA. In Sociolinguistics: Proceedings of the UCLA Sociolinguistics Conference, 1964. Edited by William Bright, 16–26. The Hague: Mouton.

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                                                                  The first article, emerging from an important conference on sociolinguistics, that makes a programmatic call for research on folk linguistics.

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                                                                  • Kay, Paul. 1987. Linguistic competence and folk theories of language: Two English hedges. In Cultural models in language and thought. Edited by Dorothy Holland and Naomi Quinn, 67–77. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511607660.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    A representative article in cognitive anthropology and its emphasis on folk models.

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                                                                    • Niedzielski, Nancy A., and Dennis R. Preston. 2000. Folk linguistics. Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1515/9783110803389Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      The most comprehensive exposition of a folk linguistics approach.

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                                                                      • Preston, Dennis R. 1993. The uses of folk linguistics. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 3.2: 181–259.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1473-4192.1993.tb00049.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        The author discusses the utility of understanding speakers’ folk linguistics in applied linguistic contexts such as second-language instruction.

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                                                                        • Silverstein, Michael. 1981. The limits of awareness. Working Papers in Sociolinguistics 84. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

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                                                                          An extended discussion of the need to understand the linguistic awareness of speakers as a significant factor in language change. Reprinted in Linguistic Anthropology: A Reader, edited by Alessandro Duranti (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001).

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                                                                          Sociolinguistics and Language and Politics

                                                                          In the later part of the 20th and the early 21st centuries, the study of language attitudes is further developed not as a final goal of research but as a necessary means of making sense of linguistic variation and change. Attempting to further explore linguistic variation as a product not just of a person’s positional identity in a social system (e.g., class, gender, generation) but also of their stylistic performance in interaction, Eckert 2012 and Eckert and Rickford 2001 make use of more-qualitative methods and a focus on socially indexed style to understand the creative dynamics of language attitudes in action. Though concern is still expressed for rigorous methods for revealing language attitudes, such as in Garrett 2005, and for data collection that uses standardized sociolinguistic interviews to gather data on students’ and teachers’ perceptions of various social dialects, such as of Welsh English in Garrett, et al. 1995 and Garrett, et al. 1999, there is a growing sense of the complexity of linguistic variation and the need to develop new methods and theoretical frames. Labov 1990 attempts to understand complex forms of linguistic variation in a wide variety of ways, including attempts to weigh the effect of a speaker’s multiple identities as a gendered person as well as a person of a particular social class. Toward a similar end, Giles, et al. 1991 offers an overview of accommodation theory, which is developed to gauge the extent of accommodation and convergence of difference between two speakers of divergent sociolinguistic backgrounds. Rickford 1986 takes a different approach by suggesting the use of more-ethnographic approaches in conjunction with an emphasis on speakers’ social networks. Taking the longer view provided by historical approaches, other scholars have found value in seeing language attitudes as shaped by historical debates and social processes. Crawford 1992, for example, explores the history of intolerance for linguistic diversity in the United States, by examining the words of those who have argued and continue to argue for “English-only” policies and practices. Focusing on the rise of “received pronunciation” as a national standard in England, Mugglestone 1995 examines how indexical connections to class, educational institutions, literacy, and literature contributed to the eventual dominance of this social dialect.

                                                                          • Crawford, James, ed. 1992. Language loyalties: A source book on the official English controversy. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                            Overviews the explicit focus on language attitudes behind the official English movement and contains many documents and chapters devoted to historical efforts to suppress linguistic diversity within the United States.

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                                                                            • Eckert, Penelope. 2012. Three waves of variation study: The emergence of meaning in the study of sociolinguistic variation. Annual Review of Anthropology 41:87–100.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145828Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              Prior sociolinguistic research may be periodized into an older correlational stage and a more recent, ethnographically grounded one. The author also argues for the need of a stage in which sociolinguistic variability is also a means of constructing social meaning in context.

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                                                                              • Eckert, Penelope, and John R. Rickford, eds. 2001. Style and sociolinguistic variation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                A collection of studies by various authors considering the role of genre, audience, and identity as factors in producing and accounting for linguistic variation.

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                                                                                • Garrett, Peter. 2005. Attitude measurements / Messung von Einstellungen. In Sociolinguistics: An international handbook of the science of language and society / Soziolinguistik: Ein internationales Hanbuch zur Wissenschaft von Sprache und Gesellschaft. Edited by Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Mattheier, and Peter Trudgill, 1251–1260. Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft 2. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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                                                                                  A brief overview of mostly quantitative methods used to research language attitudes.

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                                                                                  • Garrett, Peter, Nikolas Coupland, and Angie Williams. 1995. “City harsh” and “the Welsh version of RP”: Some ways in which teachers view dialects of Welsh English. Language Awareness 4.2: 99–107.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/09658416.1995.9959872Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    An important study of language attitudes associated with various social dialects of Welsh English.

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                                                                                    • Garrett, Peter, Nikolas Coupland, and Angie Williams. 1999. Evaluating dialect in discourse: Teachers’ and teenagers’ responses to young English speakers in Wales. Language in Society 28.3: 321–354.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/S0047404599003012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      A study of teachers’ and students’ evaluations of the Welshness and likeability of speakers, as judged from recorded narratives.

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                                                                                      • Giles, Howard, Nikolas Coupland, and Justine Coupland. 1991. Accommodation theory: Communication, context, and consequence. In Contexts of accommodation: Developments in applied sociolinguistics. Edited by Howard Giles, Justine Coupland, and Nikolas Coupland, 1–68. Studies in Emotion and Social Interaction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511663673.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        An introductory chapter to a book that presents accommodation theory—a research focus on why and when interacting speakers’ linguistic forms converge.

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                                                                                        • Labov, William. 1990. The intersection of sex and social class in the course of linguistic change. Language Variation and Change 2.2: 205–254.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/S0954394500000338Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          This article attempts to disentangle linguistic variation that can be attributed either to sex or social class and to understand the relative influence of each.

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                                                                                          • Mugglestone, Lynda. 1995. Talking proper: The rise of accent as a social symbol. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                            A detailed history of the rise of “received pronunciation” as a national standard in Britain, through the proscription of competing social forms. The book includes chapters on the characteristics of “Ladylike” accents and on the role of literature and literacy inspired norms of pronunciation. Second edition first published in 2003.

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                                                                                            • Rickford, John R. 1986. The need for new approaches to social class analysis in sociolinguistics. Language & Communication 6.3: 215–221.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/0271-5309(86)90024-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              The author critiques conventional class analysis as limited and suggests the importance of using alternatives such as network analysis and ethnography.

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                                                                                              Ethnography of Communication

                                                                                              Though research on language attitudes is often associated with quantitative approaches, it also appears in more-qualitative work, especially in research from the “ethnography of communication” tradition and the closely related paradigm of language socialization. Representing the former school, Gossen 1971 demonstrates cultural variability in the metalanguage of Chamula speech genres by detailing an elaborate classification along the dimension of heat, in which the “hottest” forms were the most fixed text and the “coldest” were the least structured forms of everyday speech. Representing the latter, Schieffelin and Ochs 1986 collects a variety of case studies, based on original research, that display cultural variation in the role that parents and other caretakers are to play in socializing their children to speak in culturally appropriate ways. Definitions of speech communities typically appealed to a shared set of evaluative norms for speaking that functioned very much like language attitudes. Qualitative methods such as ethnography are necessary to contextualize speakers’ language use and speech variation within various language and speech communities, such as the African American speech community in the United States. Within that community, John Rickford (Rickford 1999) explored the social evolution of the distinctive features of African American linguistic structures and practice, while Morgan 1994 offers an insider’s critique of the sociolinguistic neglect of stylistic variation within a community that was mostly polylectal yet was often represented as if its speakers spoke only a single dialect. Examining language attitudes in other national contexts, Macaulay 1997 examines speech communities in Scotland and the routine influence of English in Great Britain. On the basis of research in the People’s Republic of China, Liang 2015 provides an ethnographic study of language attitudes toward a diversity of regional and local languages at a time when the government is heavily promoting a standardized national language. The ethnographic approach has also been used in multicultural institutions, such as in Rampton 1995 in London schools, where teenagers use linguistic resources and language attitudes to create and celebrate a linguistic hybridity that creatively syncretizes their heritage languages into a playful youth dialect. Other research, such as in Woolard and Gahng 1990, has used ethnographic methods in combination with more-conventional quantitative methods to better contextualize research findings on changing language attitudes in Catalonia (Spain).

                                                                                              • Gossen, Gary H. 1971. Chamula genres of verbal behavior. In Toward new perspectives in folklore. Edited by Américo Paredes and Richard Bauman, 145–167. Publications of the American Folklore Society, Bibliographical and Special Series 23. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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                                                                                                An example of an approach from the ethnography of speaking that treats linguistic variation related to genre.

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                                                                                                • Liang, Sihua. 2015. Language attitudes and identities in multilingual China: A linguistic ethnography. New York: Springer.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-12619-7Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  Monographic treatment of speakers’ attitudes toward a variety of languages in a multilingual context.

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                                                                                                  • Macaulay, Ronald K. S. 1997. Standards and variation in urban speech: Examples from Lowland Scots. Varieties of English around the World 20. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1075/veaw.g20Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    An examination of language attitudes pertaining to national standards and regional and class variation in the Scottish Lowlands.

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                                                                                                    • Morgan, Marcyliena. 1994. The African-American speech community: Reality and sociolinguistics. In Language & the social construction of identity in Creole situations. Edited by Marcyliena Morgan, 121–148. CAAS Special Publication 10. Los Angeles: Univ. of California.

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                                                                                                      An examination of language attitudes toward various languages and registers by African Americans, and the sociolinguists who have analyzed their speech practices.

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                                                                                                      • Rampton, Ben. 1995. Crossing: Language and ethnicity among adolescents. Real Language. London: Longman.

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                                                                                                        An important study of linguistic hybridity among youth in a multiethnic school.

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                                                                                                        • Rickford, John R. 1999. African American Vernacular English: Features, evolution, educational implications. Language in Society 26. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                          Comprehensive look at distinctive linguistic and sociolinguistic features of African American Vernacular English (AAVE), as well as the role of language contact.

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                                                                                                          • Schieffelin, Bambi B., and Elinor Ochs. 1986. Language socialization. Annual Review of Anthropology 15:163–191.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1146/annurev.an.15.100186.001115Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            Excellent review article of the development of this linguistic anthropological specialization, devoted to the different cultural patterns of how people are socialized to use their languages.

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                                                                                                            • Wolfram, Walt, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. 2006. American English: Dialects and variation. 2d ed. Language in Society 25. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                              Textbook treatment of linguistic variation, with some attention to popular misconceptions.

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                                                                                                              • Woolard, Kathryn A., and Tae-Joong Gahng. 1990. Changing language policies and attitudes in autonomous Catalonia. Language in Society 19.3: 311–330.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/S0047404500014536Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                The authors compare matched-guise samples from 1980 and 1987 to gauge changes in language attitudes due to language policy changes.

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                                                                                                                Research on Language Ideologies in Linguistic Anthropology

                                                                                                                The concept of language ideologies first emerged in a 1979 conference volume chapter in which Michael Silverstein defined “linguistic ideologies” as “sets of beliefs about language articulated by users as a rationalization or justification of perceived language structure and use” (Silverstein 1979). He argues that linguists needed to recognize the role of speakers’ partial awareness of their language in order to understand such historical linguistic changes as the development of the Javanese honorific system or the loss of second-person pronouns such as “thee” and “thou” in English. While Silverstein opened the door to the consideration of social forces on speakers’ beliefs and practices regarding language, scholars still needed to connect the theme of awareness to considerations of the material world, including the role of economic value and pervasiveness of social inequality. A sociocultural anthropologist, Sherry Ortner (Ortner 1984), detailed the changes that were occurring in anthropological theory as it moved from more of a preoccupation with symbolic anthropology to a greater concern for practice theories that viewed cultural activity as more situated in political-economic structures. Sociological studies such as Giddens 1979 were developing practice theories that attempted to achieve an analytical balance in the representation of human agency within social systems. Neo-Marxist perspectives became staples of sociocultural theory, as in the influential Bourdieu 1977 and Bourdieu 1984 (both cited under Convergence of Language-Ideological Research in Other Fields), and they also inspired some of the earliest research in the tradition of language ideologies as a way of integrating these concerns with the now-legitimated interests in speakers’ awareness of linguistic systems. These early works included Gal 1979, an examination of language shift in Oberwart—a Hungarian-speaking community in Austria in which gender and generational differences account for changing language attitudes in the context of socioeconomic change and rapid language shift. Gumperz 1982 also studies the dynamic role of language attitudes as dialectically connected both to political economic forces at the macro level and to interactional strategies involving code switching and situational identities. Examples of early articles in the language ideologies school include Hill 1985, which examines how Mexicano (Nahuatl) speakers in Mexico deploy an imposed linguistic purism to conceal their lack of a full command of the language due to their need as laborers to remove themselves from their indigenous villages to work in urban areas, and Woolard 1985, which seeks explanations for why language attitudes in Barcelona consistently valorized Catalan even through decades of subordination during the Franco regime. Irvine 1989 exposes the inadequacy of Saussurean views of language that emphasized its relationship to the ideational but ignored its connection to the material world, using numerous examples (including the praise poems of Senegalese griots) to demonstrate that linguistic acts can acquire material value. By the late 1980s a sufficient number of publications had begun to focus on the political-economic contributions of linguistic forms and practices, such that Gal 1989, a well-known overview, could depict a more robust treatment of the relationship of language to political-economic factors.

                                                                                                                • Gal, Susan. 1979. Language shift: Social determinants of language change in bilingual Austria. Language, Thought, and Culture. New York: Academic Press.

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                                                                                                                  An early monograph that treated the role of political-economic change and bilingual speakers’ strategies in the production of language shift.

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                                                                                                                  • Gal, Susan. 1989. Language and political economy. Annual Review of Anthropology 18:345–367.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1146/annurev.an.18.100189.002021Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    A review article that highlights the emerging emphasis on the economic value of language.

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                                                                                                                    • Giddens, Anthony. 1979. Central problems in social theory: Action, structure, and contradiction in social analysis. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1007/978-1-349-16161-4Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      An important volume of social theory that attempts to balance the social system with individual agency. Its treatment of practical and discursive consciousness was incorporated into language-ideological theory.

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                                                                                                                      • Gumperz, John J. 1982. Discourse strategies. Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511611834Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        A collection of studies by the author—a foundational figure in linguistic anthropology. Many of these feature the role of social network, political-economic change, and methods, including evaluation by member-analyst “judges.” A definite forerunner to language-ideological research.

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                                                                                                                        • Hill, Jane H. 1985. The grammar of consciousness and the consciousness of grammar. American Ethnologist 12.4: 725–737.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1525/ae.1985.12.4.02a00080Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Author examines neo-Marxist theories that consider the penetration of the state economy into the peasant worlds of Mexicano (Nahuatl) villages, as measured by the influence of Spanish.

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                                                                                                                          • Irvine, Judith T. 1989. When talk isn’t cheap: Language and political economy. American Ethnologist 16.2: 248–267.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1525/ae.1989.16.2.02a00040Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Challenges the Western tendency to think of language and thought rather than language as a social action that has economic value.

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                                                                                                                            • Ortner, Sherry B. 1984. Theory in anthropology since the sixties. Comparative Studies in Society and History 26.1: 126–166.

                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/S0010417500010811Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              Influential overview of twenty years of the history of cultural theory. It is very useful background for understanding the transition from the early linguistic-ideological research to the language ideologies movement later in the 20th century.

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                                                                                                                              • Silverstein, Michael. 1979. Language structure and linguistic ideology. Paper presented at a conference held in Chicago in April 1979. In The elements: A parasession on units and levels, April 20–21, 1979; Including papers from the Conference on Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR, April 18, 1979. Edited by Paul R. Clyne, William F. Hanks, and Carol L. Hofbauer, 193–247. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

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                                                                                                                                This article represents an early formulation of “linguistic ideology”—the nucleus of the emerging field of language ideologies.

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                                                                                                                                • Silverstein, Michael. 1985. Language and the culture of gender: At the intersection of structure, usage, and ideology. In Semiotic mediation: Sociocultural and psychological perspectives. Edited by Elizabeth Mertz and Richard J. Parmentier, 219–259. Language, Thought, and Culture. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-491280-9.50016-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Linguistic ideology applied to the American English phenomenon of generic “he.”

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                                                                                                                                  • Woolard, Kathryn A. 1985. Language variation and cultural hegemony: Toward an integration of sociolinguistic and social theory. American Ethnologist 12.4: 738–748.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1525/ae.1985.12.4.02a00090Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    An examination and interpretation of new data suggesting the maintenance of high prestige for Catalan through an extensive history of using Castilian Spanish in state institutions.

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                                                                                                                                    Convergence of Language-Ideological Research in Other Fields

                                                                                                                                    At approximately the same time as “language ideologies” is evolving, related approaches emphasizing ideology are also occurring within the fields of cultural anthropology and education, especially in the study of academic and other literacies. Representative of some cultural anthropologists of the period, Renato Rosaldo (Rosaldo 1988) used ideology in part because it seemed to permit a dynamic focus on multiplicity, contestation, and change—in contrast to the relatively inert and uniformist concept of “culture” inherited from anthropology’s past. Similarly, Shirley Brice Heath (Brice Heath 1983) embraces an ideological approach because she wants to emphasize several different cultural forms of literacy that occur in the United States, as well as their implications for educational success. Similarly, Street 1984 also develops a practice-based approach to multiple literacies, recognizing their differential connections to social class, political power, and state institutions. Bernstein 1975 produces a neo-Marxist interpretation of how social class conditions linguistic reproduction. Though the linguist Benjamin Lee Whorf published much of his research ten to twenty years earlier, Whorf 1956 retrospectively anthologizes the ever-popular question of linguistic relativity and the way that particular languages influence the habitual thought worlds, or worldviews, of their speakers. While formal linguistics has largely caricatured Whorf’s position as an extreme form of linguistic determinism that can be easily dismissed, language-ideological theorists have found Whorf to be an important forerunner of research on language ideologies. Rumsey 1990 finds that Whorf’s “fashions of speaking” are very useful for understanding grammatical structures and discourse practices that contrast dramatically between English and an Australian Aboriginal language. Like Rumsey 1990, Silverstein 2000 finds in Whorf’s work a mediating role of language ideologies between the routines of cultural practice and the language-particular structures that are the grammatical resources of the language, but in his close analysis of Whorf’s writings the author finds significant evidence that establishes Whorf as one the earliest scholars to recognize the significance of linguistic ideologies.

                                                                                                                                    • Bernstein, Basil. 1975. Class, codes and control. Vol. 3, Toward a theory of educational transmissions. Primary Socialization, Language and Education 4. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.4324/9780203011430Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Neo-Marxist theoretical approaches to the role of educational institutions in the reproduction of class difference.

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                                                                                                                                      • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. Outline of a theory of practice. Translated by Richard Nice. Cambridge Studies in Social Anthropology 16. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511812507Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        A key source for practice theory and the exploration of how everyday activities reproduce social difference and inequality.

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                                                                                                                                        • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1984. Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. Translated by Richard Nice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                          A classic study of how people manifest their social class through the display of socially cultivated dispositions.

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                                                                                                                                          • Brice Heath, Shirley. 1983. Ways with words: Language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                            An important study of different literacies associated with ethnicity and class, as well as their implications for educational success.

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                                                                                                                                            • Rosaldo, Renato. 1988. Ideology, place, and people without culture. Cultural Anthropology 3.1: 77–87.

                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1525/can.1988.3.1.02a00070Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              A cultural anthropologist explores ideology as a dynamic alternative to a focus on (uniformist) cultural representation because of its ability to treat multiple perspectives in contact and contention.

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                                                                                                                                              • Rumsey, Alan. 1990. Wording, meaning, and linguistic ideology. American Anthropologist 92.2: 346–361.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1525/aa.1990.92.2.02a00060Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Applies the notion of linguistic ideology to a contrastive analysis of the grammar and discourse of English and an Australian Aboriginal language.

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                                                                                                                                                • Silverstein, Michael. 2000. Whorfianism and the linguistic imagination of nationality. In Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities, and identities. Edited by Paul V. Kroskrity, 85–138. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.

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                                                                                                                                                  A detailed look at Whorf, the scholar most often identified with linguistic relativity, which makes a strong case for him as a forerunner of a language ideologies approach. His view of language and worldview is contrasted with the political scientist Benedict Anderson’s (Imagined Communities, New York: Verso, 1991) linguistic nationalism.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Street, Brian V. 1984. Literacy in theory and practice. Cambridge Studies in Oral and Literate Culture 9. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                    Like Brice Heath, Street approaches literacies as multiple and argues for their study both in their cultural and political-economic contexts to better understand them.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Whorf, Benjamin L. 1956. Language, thought, and reality. Edited by John B. Carroll. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

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                                                                                                                                                      An important collection of Whorf’s writings on linguistic relativity and linguistic determinism.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Woolard, Kathryn A. 1989. Double talk: Bilingualism and the politics of ethnicity in Catalonia. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                        Examines bilingualism in Catalan and Castilian and compares the language politics underlying bilingualism to other cases (e.g., Welsh and Galician).

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                                                                                                                                                        Critical Discourse Analysis—a Convergent School from the Humanities

                                                                                                                                                        At about the same time that language-ideological theory was coming together in the United States, a comparable development was occurring in Europe that is usually known as critical discourse analysis (CDA). Most of the practitioners are text-based linguists who work in language and literature departments or in other fields in humanities. Theorists in this school often rely on work by such influential scholars as Pierre Bourdieu, Louis Althusser, and Antonio Gramsci. These social theorists emphasize social inequality and power relations and figure prominently in CDA theorizing. One of the earliest CDA works is Fairclough 1989. Both in this early text and in Fairclough 2013, where the CDA paradigm is more fully evolved and elaborated, CDA displays many similarities but also important differences with work in the school of language ideologies. Another influential work in this school is Wodak 2009, in which the author reads hegemony directly from the discursive moves of European politicians both in public and backstage settings. In contrast to this more direct approach, van Dijk 2008 offers a sociocognitive approach that views the role of language ideologies as mediating between discourse structures and forms of social inequality. Though similar to CDA in attempting to connect language with power and social inequality, the language ideologies approach differs from CDA in its emphasis on awareness, its recognition of multiple and contesting ideologies, and its preferred use of ethnographic approaches to collecting and interpreting data, as opposed to textual analysis. Therefore, even though CDA is an attempt to engage issues of political power and social inequality, it can also be considered a distinct field on the basis of differing theoretical concerns and preferred methods. Perhaps because it relies on a somewhat distinctive textual analysis that is more specialized than ethnographic approaches, its practitioners have produced books explicitly devoted to methods. Verschueren 2012 is a comprehensive treatment of how texts can be mined for ideological analysis. Wodak and Meyer 2001 surveys a range of methods used in a variety of CDA case studies.

                                                                                                                                                        • Fairclough, Norman. 1989. Language and power. Language in Social Life. London: Longman.

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                                                                                                                                                          One of the most frequently cited works of CDA, by a leading proponent. This approach emphasizes how power is displayed through language, particularly as used in texts and media.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Fairclough, Norman. 2013. Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. 2d ed. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                            Anthologizes many key articles produced by one of the main theorists of CDA.

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                                                                                                                                                            • van Dijk, Teun A. 1993. Principles of critical discourse analysis. Discourse & Society 4.2: 249–283.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/0957926593004002006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              A widely read article that explains CDA as an attempt to understand the role of discourse in the reproduction of sociopolitical dominance.

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                                                                                                                                                              • van Dijk, Teun A. 2008. Discourse and power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

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                                                                                                                                                                The role of discourse and media in the reproduction of power relations by dominant elites. An anthology of writings by a founding figure of CDA and the exemplary practitioner of the sociocognitive model version of that school.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Verschueren, Jef. 2012. Ideology in language use: Pragmatic guidelines for empirical research. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                  One of the only works devoted to methodology in language-ideological research. The methods discussed here are more for textual analysis, as in CDA, than for the ethnographic work that is more typical of language-ideological approaches.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Wodak, Ruth. 2009. The discourse of politics in action: Politics as usual. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1057/9780230233683Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    The author treats the everyday discourse of overt and backstage politics and political identities on the “European stage,” including the discourses associated with the European parliament.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Wodak, Ruth, and Michael Meyer. 2001. Methods of critical discourse analysis. London: SAGE.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.4135/9780857028020Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      A survey of some of the methods used by CDA practitioners.

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                                                                                                                                                                      More-Recent Developments on Language Ideologies within Linguistic Anthropology

                                                                                                                                                                      Since the turn of the 20th century, research on language ideologies has expanded to new topical concerns and has become one of the more pervasive theoretical frames in linguistic anthropology and related fields. Taking a reflexive turn by examining language ideologies underlying the research of Western researchers, Kroskrity 2000 is an edited collection that turns attention to the role of language ideologies in European and Euro-American discourses, including language philosophy, the political construction of national boundaries, political campaign rhetoric, and anthropological scholarship itself. Irvine and Gal 2000 analyzes the role of such semiotic strategies as iconization, erasure, and fractal recursivity as productive language-ideological processes that have been deployed by political figures to rationalize national boundaries both in Africa and Macedonia. Schieffelin 2000 examines the missionary use of indigenous literacy as a means of undermining Kaluli culture in the Bosavi highlands of Papua New Guinea. Philips 2000 examines the language ideologies underlying Tongan civil court cases involving profane language, demonstrating how state prosecution of these cases aligns the state with the moral values of traditional family life. Turning to critical studies of academics, Silverstein 2000 (cited under Convergence of Language-Ideological Research in Other Fields), Errington 2000, and Kroskrity 2000 examine the implicit language ideologies used by the political scientist Benedict Anderson, the social anthropologist Ernest Gellner, and the social anthropologist Edward P. Dozier, respectively. Bauman and Briggs 2003, a very influential book, reexamines much of modern Western language philosophy as historically situated language-ideological projects, extending this analysis to the founders of folklore and anthropology in the United States. The purifying discursive strategies of John Locke, Johann Gottfried Herder, the Grimm brothers, and Franz Boas—among others—reveal the relevant political-economic contexts in which to interpret these works as ideologically saturated. In addition, two areally centered volumes have been produced that feature language-ideological research in the regions of the Pacific (Makihara and Schieffelin 2007) and indigenous North and Meso-America (Kroskrity and Field 2009).

                                                                                                                                                                      • Bauman, Richard, and Charles L. Briggs. 2003. Voices of modernity: Language ideologies and politics of inequality. Studies in the Social and Cultural Foundations of Language 21. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511486647Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Reexamines leading figures in language philosophy (e.g., Locke and Herder), folklore (Henry Schoolcraft and the Grimm brothers), and anthropology (Boas) and their metadiscursive attempts to purify language for political-economic motives.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Errington, Joseph. 2000. Indonesian(s’) authority. In Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities, and identities. Edited by Paul V. Kroskrity, 205–228. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Provides a language-ideological critique of Standard Indonesian as an omni-available state-endorsed language. The author reveals that rather than a neutral language, Standard Indonesian continues to show disproportionate influence from traditional elites as well as representatives of a globalized economy.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Irvine, Judith T., and Susan Gal. 2000. Language ideology and linguistic differentiation. In Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities, and identities. Edited by Paul V. Kroskrity, 35–83. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                            One of the most frequently cited works in the language-ideological canon, in part because of its analysis of productive semiotic strategies of ideological use such as erasure and fractal recursivity.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Jackson, Jennifer. 2013. Political oratory and cartooning: An ethnography of democratic processes in Madagascar. New Directions in Ethnography 4. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                              A detailed case study of changing campaign styles of rhetoric due to culture contact, and the reevaluation of indigenous discourse as less transparent than the Western emphasis on direct speech.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Kroskrity, Paul V., ed. 2000. Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities, and identities. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                A collection of case studies by leading figures in language-ideological research that take a reflexive turn, focusing on Western practices, agents of modernization, and state institutions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Kroskrity, Paul V., and Margaret C. Field, eds. 2009. Native American language ideologies: Beliefs, practices, and struggles in Indian country. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  An edited collection of studies from Native American communities, including some in the United States, Canada, and Guatemala.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Makihara, Miki, and Bambi B. Schieffelin, eds. 2007. Consequences of contact: Language ideologies and sociocultural transformations in Pacific societies. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    A collection of case studies demonstrating the connection between language-ideological change and the social transformation of a variety of Pacific societies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Philips, Susan U. 2000. Constructing a Tongan nation-state through language ideology in the courtroom. In Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities, and identities. Edited by Paul V. Kroskrity, 229–257. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      An ethnographic study of how Tongan courts help legitimate state rule by prosecuting cases of “bad language” in public settings, thereby representing the traditional moral order.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Schieffelin, Bambi B. 2000. Introducing Kaluli literacy: A chronology of influences. In Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities, and identities. Edited by Paul V. Kroskrity, 293–327. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Outstanding study of missionary influence on an indigenous group in Papua New Guinea.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Silverstein, Michael. 1993. Metapragmatic discourse and metapragmatic function. In Reflexive language: Reported speech and metapragmatics. Edited by John A. Lucy, 33–58. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511621031.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          A useful analytical typology for metapragmatics—an important aspect of discursive language ideologies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Language Attitudes and Ideologies in the Expression of Style and Identities

                                                                                                                                                                                          An important and consistent emphasis in the scholarly traditions both of language attitudes and language ideologies has been the exploration of how linguistic and stylistic resources are used by speakers in the production of various identities. Early research in the late 20th century by John Gumperz and many of his students, as collected in Gumperz 1982, called anthropological attention to the importance of looking at code switching as an important resource in the interactional construction of relevant identities for speakers who control a linguistic repertoire of choices linked to social identities. In some cases, as with Alim 2004, in which the African American community is properly described by detailing a cultural emphasis on style shifting within a repertoire, this inclusion of style was an ethnographic improvement over earlier research that typically represented African Americans as single-style speakers. This inclusion of a linguistic repertoire and attention to code switching rather than a single language figures in other significant studies, such as Kroskrity 1993, Shankar 2008, and Zentella 1997. These publications represent studies of language attitudes/ideologies in Native American, South Asian American, and New York City’s Puerto Rican multilingual communities, respectively, and demonstrate how multilingual resources are used in acts of identity construction for members of these communities. Milroy 2000 is an article that contrasts the indexical orders of English as spoken in the United States and Britain, where the most-salient tropes are race and class, respectively. In other scholarship, Alim, et al. 2010 demonstrates how hip-hop performances become a context for using linguistic resources for identity production. Other studies demonstrate how language attitudes/ideologies and their associated communicative practices can cross boundaries. Cutler 1999 examines the appropriation of African American English as the authentic language of hip-hop performance and its indexed identity. Leap 2013 details the emergence and globalization of a register/language indexed to the expression of gay identity.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Alim, H. Samy. 2004. You know my steez: An ethnographic and sociolinguistic study of styleshifting in a Black American speech community. Publication of the American Dialect Society 89. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            An important ethnographic study that treats what is conventionally regarded as code switching between a range of languages and styles in the African American speech community.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Alim, H. Samy, Jooyoung Lee, and Lauren Mason Carris. 2010. “Short fried-rice-eating Chinese MCs” and “good-hair-havin Uncle Tom niggas”: Performing race and ethnicity in freestyle rap battles. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 20.1: 116–133.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1548-1395.2010.01052.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Examines how linguistic resources are deployed in the production of racial identities publicly performed in combative rap contests.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Cutler, Cecilia A. 1999. Yorkville Crossing: White teens, hip hop and African American English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3.4: 428–442.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/1467-9481.00089Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                The author examines how white teens appropriate African American English in their production of performed hip-hop identities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Gumperz, John J., ed. 1982. Language and social identity. Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics 2. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  An edited collection of case studies of gender, ethnic, and professional identities. This is an older collection of case studies that treat a variety of identities and the way they are expressed through language choices such as bilingual code switching (in Montreal) and style shifting in job interviews and other sites of interethnic interaction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kroskrity, Paul V. 1993. Language, history, and identity: Ethnolinguistic studies of the Arizona Tewa. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Author develops notion of “repertoire of identities” for treating examples of situational identity in a multiethnic Native American community.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Leap, William L. 2013. Globalization and gay language. In The handbook of language and globalization. Edited by Nikolas Coupland, 555–574. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Examines the effect of globalization on the language used by gay men in a variety of settings.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Milroy, Lesley. 2000. Britain and the United States: Two nations divided by the same language (and different language ideologies). Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 10.1: 56–89.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1525/jlin.2000.10.1.56Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        The author maintains that there are very different ideological criteria used to evaluate the speech of minority peoples. In the United States, race is an especially important indexical, whereas in Great Britain social class receives more emphasis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Shankar, Shalini. 2008. Speaking like a model minority: “FOB” styles, gender, and racial meanings among Desi teens in Silicon Valley. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 18.2: 268–289.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/j.1548-1395.2008.00022.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          The author examines the range of styles and the options of style shifting available to Desi (South Asian American) teens who reside in the Silicon Valley, California.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Zentella, Ana Celia. 1997. Growing up bilingual: Puerto Rican children in New York. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            A classic study of multilingualism and the varying evaluations of hybridity in a bilingual community.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Topical Foci

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Because language attitudes and language ideologies figure significantly in almost all linguistic and communicative activity, there is little wonder that these concepts have been used to address a wide range of topical foci. One crosscutting theme that unites several of these topics is a theme of heightened linguistic awareness. This occurs when the speakers of destabilized minority and indigenous languages need to construct projects of linguistic revitalization, renewal, and reclamation. It can also occur when speakers perform narratives, songs, or other works of verbal art and must contextualize their performances to changing historical circumstances. Another crosscutting theme is the role of language attitudes and ideologies as resources in projects of colonization, state control, and resistance to these forces. And yet another productive theme concerns ideologies of hybridity and whether or not globalizing forces reduce linguistic diversity or enhance it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Language Ideologies and Language Revitalization

                                                                                                                                                                                                            One area in which language ideologies have become very prominent concerns issues of why and how languages and their speakers experience language shift and language attrition and respond to language revitalization. Since speakers’ understanding of their heritage languages and their importance crucial, the life and death of languages are very much tied up in the values and meanings these languages have for their speakers. Sallabank 2013 examines the language attitudes/ideologies associated with the endangered languages of the Channel Islands. Dorian 1998 is an important article on the corrosive effect of Western language ideologies; it maintains that nation-states have often promoted the death of indigenous and other minority languages through ideologies that degrade them because they do not represent the powerful or because bilingualism is derogated by the state as superfluous or is even represented as harmful. Kulick 1992 also explores the political-economic side of language shift, from an indigenous language of Papua New Guinea to the state-supported Tok Pisin. Other studies explore the meaning of language death and the emphasis on language revitalization in a variety of Native American and First Nations settings. Dauenhauer and Dauenhauer 1998 portrays the difficulties of language revitalization programs for Northwest Coast groups such as the Tlingit. Meek 2007 demonstrates the unintended consequences of a Canadian-supported program designed to honor and certify Kaska indigenous elders as traditional speakers, but the program ends up encouraging youth to roles of spectatorship rather than to linguistic engagement with the elders. Meek 2010 takes a more comprehensive look at Kaska revitalization efforts and the sometimes subtle ways that textbook conventions and pedagogical models get uncritically adopted without inquiry into indigenous alternatives. Perley 2011 provides a study of language revitalization in a severely endangered language community (Maliseet) that is the author’s heritage language “home” community. Other studies have researched societies in which there are increasing numbers of L2 heritage language learners who learn their language through books and classroom activities, thus displaying the tensions that can emerge between L1 speakers who are socialized to the language in the home and the L2 speakers who did not grow up with the language. Two such studies from western Europe, where the phenomenon is especially pronounced, are McEwan-Fujita 2010, which studies Scottish, and O’Rourke and Ramallo 2013, which looks at Galician in Spain and the language-ideological conflicts between these two categories of speakers. Finally, Duchêne and Heller 2008 provides an edited collection consisting of studies in which speakers discursively construct their heritage languages as endangered. Interestingly, these discourses exist both in small, indigenous communities where the heritage language is truly endangered and in dominant societies where the language actually enjoys state support. In the latter case, the discourse often reflects a dominant group’s discomfort with increasing levels of internal diversity, or new influences that have ridden the wave of globalization.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dauenhauer, Nora Marks, and Richard Dauenhauer. 1998. Technical, emotional, and ideological issues in reversing language shift: Examples from southeast Alaska. In Endangered languages: Language loss and community response. Edited by Lenore A. Grenoble and Lindsay J. Whaley, 57–98. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139166959.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                              One of the earliest studies to reveal the difficulties and anxieties associated with language revitalization projects in Native American communities, here in southeastern Alaska.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Dorian, Nancy C. 1998. Western language ideologies and small-language prospects. In Endangered languages: Language loss and community response. Edited by Lenore A. Grenoble and Lindsay J. Whaley, 3–21. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139166959.002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                One of the earlier articles to identify western European language ideologies as a cause of language endangerment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Duchêne, Alexandre, and Monica Heller, eds. 2008. Discourses of endangerment: Ideology and interest in the defence of languages. Advances in Sociolinguistics. London: Continuum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An edited collection with many case studies of truly endangered languages and some whose speakers choose to represent noncontracting languages as nevertheless threatened.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kulick, Don. 1992. Language shift and cultural reproduction: Socialization, self, and syncretism in a Papua New Guinean village. Studies in the Social and Cultural Foundations of Language 14. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Explores the political-economic change and the emergent indexing of Tai’ap and Tok Pisin to distinct social worlds during a process of language shift.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • McEwan-Fujita, Emily. 2010. Ideology, affect, and socialization in language shift and revitalization: The experiences of adults learning Gaelic in the Western Isles of Scotland. Language in Society 39.1: 27–64.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/S0047404509990649Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Contrasts the ideological evaluation of revitalization from the perspectives of traditional and “new” speakers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Meek, Barbra A. 2007. Respecting the language of elders: Ideological shift and linguistic discontinuity in a Northern Athapascan community. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 17.1: 23–43.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1525/jlin.2007.17.1.23Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The author looks at changing patterns of language socialization in the Kaska community in the Canadian Yukon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Meek, Barbra A. 2010. We are our language: An ethnography of language revitalization in a Northern Athabaskan community. First Peoples. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Book-length critical ethnography of a First Nations language community’s efforts at language revitalization.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • O’Rourke, Bernadette, and Fernando Ramallo. 2013. Competing ideologies of linguistic authority amongst new speakers in contemporary Galicia. Language in Society 42.3: 287–305.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/S0047404513000249Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A detailed comparison of language ideologies regarding authority and identity, comparing traditional and “new” (L2) speakers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Perley, Bernard C. 2011. Defying Maliseet language death: Emergent vitalities of language, culture, and identity in eastern Canada. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A linguistic anthropologist who is also a heritage language speaker provides a critical analysis of the language endangerment literature as he analyzes revitalization efforts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sallabank, Julia. 2013. Attitudes to endangered languages: Identities and policies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139344166Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Many studies emphasizing language attitudes toward endangered languages, especially those of the Channel Islands (e.g., Jersey and Guernsey), in the United Kingdom.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Linguistic Racism and Colonialism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                At the end of the 20th century and into the first decades of the 21st, language ideologies approaches have been recruited to disclose and analyze forms of racism that represent largely discursive practices designed to rationalize a social hierarchy and further reproduce social inequality. Related to linguistic racism and a forerunner of its modern practices, linguists during European colonization often produced linguistic analyses that rationalized European domination and promoted racial hierarchies, as analyzed in Errington 2007. Kroskrity 2013 treats some of the scholarship on Central California Indians produced during the US assimilationist period as a form of linguistic racism directed at Native Americans by representatives of a settler-colonial state. In doing so, this study builds on important earlier research in Meek 2006 both on explicit and covert racism in media representations of Native American and their cultures. Jane H. Hill is a key figure in studies of linguistic racism, and Hill 1998 reveals patterns of covert racism in public representations of Spanish and its speakers. Hill 2008 extends this analysis to other forms of racism and other minority groups, in a book-length treatment of the subject that develops a language-ideological approach to forms of linguistic racism in the United States and can explain why everyday speakers typically do not see any harm in the more covert forms of linguistic racism or why they forgive those who clearly use overtly racist language in public space if they later disclaim any racist motivation and implore hearers to forgive the mistake. While Hill’s work focuses on the meanings these forms of linguistic racism have for dominant society members, Urciuoli 2013 concentrates on the meanings of the various languages in the linguistic repertoire of Puerto Ricans living in the United States. In a site-specific ethnographic study, Barrett 2006 shows how linguistic racism is part of the social inequality between personnel in an Anglo-owned Mexican restaurant. In that study, kitchen staff often have to deal with essentialized identities that are attributed to them because of their language, but in Bucholtz 1999 and Bucholtz 2001, linguistic markers of race are appropriated for presentations of self that foreground other identities, such as being masculine or “nerdy.” Bonilla and Rosa 2015 examines the affordances of social media as a medium of protest and documentation over acts of apparent racism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Barrett, Rusty. 2006. Language ideology and racial inequality: Competing functions of Spanish in an Anglo-owned Mexican restaurant. Language in Society 35.2: 163–204.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/S0047404506060088Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A rich ethnographic study of the multiple ideologies of Spanish as used in the context of a particular restaurant.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bonilla, Yarimar, and Jonathan Rosa. 2015. #Ferguson: Digital protest, hashtag ethnography, and the racial politics of social media in the United States. American Ethnologist 42.1: 4–17.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/amet.12112Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Looks at the possibilities and pitfalls of social media as a form of digital protest over acts of racism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bucholtz, Mary. 1999. You da man: Narrating the racial other in the linguistic production of white masculinity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3.4: 443–460.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/1467-9481.00090Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Examines the appropriation of African American style for displays of masculinity by white men.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bucholtz, Mary. 2001. The whiteness of nerds: Superstandard English and racial markedness. In Special issue: Discourses of whiteness. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11.1: 84–100.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1525/jlin.2001.11.1.84Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Looks at the use of superstandard forms of English to convey a nerdy identity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Errington, Joseph. 2007. Linguistics in a colonial world: A story of language, meaning, and power. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1002/9780470690765Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An overview of colonial linguistics—linguistics in the service of colonizing groups who want to rationalize their domination by naturalizing racial hierarchies and social inequality.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hill, Jane H. 1998. Language, race, and white public space. American Anthropologist 100.3: 680–689.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1525/aa.1998.100.3.680Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The author looks at “Mock Spanish” as a covert racist practice that elevates English speakers and racializes Hispanics as different and inferior.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hill, Jane H. 2008. The everyday language of white racism. Blackwell Studies in Discourse and Culture 3. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1002/9781444304732Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An important book that develops a coherent language-ideological theory of linguistic racism that includes not only overt racist talk but also covert linguistic racism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kroskrity, Paul V. 2013. Discursive discriminations in the representation of Western Mono and Yokuts stories: Confronting narrative inequality and listening to indigenous voices in Central California. Journal of Folklore Research 50.1–3: 145–174.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.2979/jfolkrese.50.1-3.145Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Examines a form of linguistic racism directed at the storytelling traditions indigenous to Central California, by two scholars who wrote as salvage linguists/folklorists.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Meek, Barbra. 2006. And the Injun goes “How!”: Representations of American Indian English in white public space. Language in Society 35.1: 93–128.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/S0047404506060040Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Documents the linguistic structures, lexical choices, and prosodic styles used in the speech of Native American characters in US mass media representations. The author discusses these as harmful stereotypes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Urciuoli, Bonnie. 2013. Exposing prejudice: Puerto Rican experiences of language, race, and class. Long Grove, IL: Waveland.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An important work that demonstrates through awareness the language attitudes and ideologies that Puerto Ricans have about English and Spanish. Originally published in 1996 (Boulder, CO: Westview).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Standards and States, Dialects, Registers, and Speech Economies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Language ideologies inform the standardized languages of most nation-states as well as the alternative local languages with which they alternate or compete. Blom and Gumperz 1972 provides an early Norwegian case study of the use of interactional code switching between a standard and regional dialect. Lippi-Green 2012 provides examination of standard-language ideology as it operates in various professional (educational, legal, governmental) and media (Disney animated movies) contexts. The common pattern, as analyzed earlier in studies of English such as Milroy and Milroy 2012, on the authority that accrues to standard languages through their association with the hegemonic institutions of the state, involves both the elevation of the standard and the denigration of all other dialects and languages. Silverstein 1996 explores the explicit ideologies that valorize the hegemonic function and commodification of US English. Other research has called attention to the language ideologies that inform state ideologies toward minority languages. Messing 2007 examines alternating and occasionally contradictory official-language ideologies toward indigenous languages in Mexico. Turning to an African context, Spitulnik 1998 studies how precious radio time in Zambia is allocated to various national and international languages by the state. Providing alternatives to the standardizing regimes are attempts to valorize local dialects, as in Crowley 2012, a study of Scouse in Liverpool. Finally, Jaffe 1999 explores Corsica’s efforts to implement policies that would deliberately avoid a national standard, seeking instead a language policy—very difficult to implement— that makes all regional forms equally valued by the state and its institutions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Blom, Jan-Petter, and John J. Gumperz. 1972. Social meaning in linguistic structures: Code-switching in Norway. In Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication. Edited by John J. Gumperz and Dell Hymes, 407–434. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An important example of interactional sociolinguistic scholarship demonstrating the social meaning of two Norwegian registers—one a standard and the other a regional dialect.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Crowley, Tony. 2012. Scouse: A social and cultural history. Liverpool, UK: Liverpool Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This book is a historical sociolinguistic study of the emergence of the Liverpool dialect as a cultural phenomenon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Jaffe, Alexandra. 1999. Ideologies in action: Language politics on Corsica. Language, Power, and Social Process 3. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1515/9783110801064Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Author analyzes language planning on Corsica as that nation seeks an alternative to a national standard language but experiences difficulties in teaching and promoting a polynomic alternative that treats all regional dialects as equals.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Jaworski, Adam, Nikolas Coupland, and Dariusz Galasiński, eds. 2004. Metalanguage: Social and ideological perspectives. Papers presented at the third Cardiff Roundtable in Sociolinguistics, held 1–3 June 1998 at the Univ. of Wales Conference Centre, Newtown, UK. Language, Power, and Social Process 11. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An outstanding collection of case studies that explore speakers’ evaluations of linguistic forms and registers as expressed in metalanguage and explicit ideologies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lippi-Green, Rosina. 2012. English with an accent: Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States. 2d ed. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Looks at how the standard-language ideology functions to discriminate against nonstandard English and other languages in a wide variety of institutional and media contexts. Originally published in 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Messing, Jacqueline. 2007. Multiple ideologies and competing discourses: Language shift in Tlaxcala, Mexico. Language in Society 36.4: 555–577.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/S0047404507070443Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This article examines the multiple and sometimes contradictory official-language ideologies expressed in Mexican policies toward indigenous languages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Milroy, James, and Lesley Milroy. 2012. Authority in language: Investigating standard English. 4th ed. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The authors develop the concept of standard-language ideology as a strategy for elevating the standard language and denigrating other linguistic varieties. First published in 1985 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Silverstein, Michael. 1996. Monoglot “standard” in America: Standardization and metaphors of linguistic hegemony. In The matrix of language: Contemporary linguistic anthropology. Edited by Donald Brenneis and Ronald K. S. Macaulay, 284–306. Boulder, CO: Westview.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An important article for understanding the language-ideological forces behind standardization and the commoditization of standard languages.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Spitulnik, Debra. 1998. Mediating unity and diversity: The production of language ideologies in Zambian broadcasting. In Language ideologies: Practice and theory. Edited by Bambi B. Schieffelin, Kathryn A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity, 163–188. Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics 16. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Examines the state allocation of radio broadcasting time within a developing nation characterized by superdiversity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Enregisterment

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In the early 21st century, researchers acted on the need for concepts that were useful in recognizing the way that speakers internally differentiated their languages into “registers” capable of indexing social groups and cultural values. Previous work on regional and urban dialects tended to reify them as linguistic objects rather than to view them as the interaction of historical circumstances and speakers’ emerging awareness of their distinctive linguistic attributes. In 2003, Asif Agha introduced the concept and defined enregisterment as the process “through which a linguistic repertoire becomes differentiable within a language as a socially recognisable register of forms” (Agha 2003), and Silverstein 2003 uses the concept in relation to the author’s own notion of indexical order as a necessary means to represent the articulation of micro- and macro-sociological orders. Agha 2005 further develops the dynamics of enregisterment, treating it as a resource for speakers that is analogous to voice. Many studies have found enregisterment as a preferred means of theorizing the development and deployment of social and regional dialects. For example, a historical study, Beal 2009, analyzes the enregisterment and commodification of Northern English dialects. Clark 2013 also examines written genres and the emerging cultural value indexed to a regional dialect from the West Midlands region of England. Remlinger 2009 focuses on the identity work performed by the Copper Country dialect of northern Michigan. Johnstone 2013 uses historical records and analysis of contemporaneous discourse to explore the processes of enregisterment that permit speakers to use various linguistic features of Pittsburghese to assume the cultural values of local identity. Complementing these studies of the enregisterment of regional linguistic forms is Urciuoli and LaDousa 2013, a review article that applies enregisterment to workplace settings.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Agha, Asif. 2003. The social life of cultural value. In Special issue: Words and beyond: Linguistic and semiotic studies of sociocultural order. Language & Communication 23.3–4: 231–273.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/S0271-5309(03)00012-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Focusing on British “received pronunciation,” this article introduces and develops the concept of enregisterment as a process that includes the formulation and communication of cultural value across social groups.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Agha, Asif. 2005. Voice, footing, enregisterment. In Special issue: Discourse across speech events: Intertextuality and interdiscursivity in social life. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 15.1: 38–59.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1525/jlin.2005.15.1.38Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Further developing the concept of enregisterment, the author clarifies the process of how registers of language expand and otherwise change according to patterns of language use in social life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Beal, Joan C. 2009. Enregisterment, commodification, and historical context: “Geordie” versus “Sheffieldish.” American Speech 84.2: 138–156.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1215/00031283-2009-012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Using 19th-century textual data from Newcastle and Sheffield, the author examines the historical enregisterment of urban dialects in these northern English cities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clark, Urszula. 2013. ’Er’s from off: The indexicalization and enregisterment of Black Country dialect. American Speech 88.4: 441–466.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1215/00031283-2691433Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exploring the cultural value of a regional dialect from the West Midlands region of England, the author examines the conscious use of speakers who use those dialect forms in several written genres.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Johnstone, Barbara. 2013. Speaking Pittsburghese: The story of a dialect. Oxford Studies in Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945689.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The author examines the history of the Pittsburgh dialect as a process of enregisterment involving phonological, lexical, and syntactic levels of analysis, as well as forms of linguistic practice that became indexed to the city.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Remlinger, Kathryn. 2009. Everyone up here: Enregisterment and identity in Michigan’s Keweenaw Peninsula. American Speech 84.2: 118–137.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1215/00031283-2009-011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Investigating the historical, economic, and ideological processes leading to dialect awareness of Copper Country English and its enregisterment, the author views this register as an icon of local values and identity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Silverstein, Michael. 2003. Indexical order and the dialectics of sociolinguistic life. In Special issue: Words and beyond: Linguistic and semiotic studies of sociocultural order. Language & Communication 23.3–4: 193–229.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1016/S0271-5309(03)00013-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The author treats the concept of the indexical order and the enregisterment of linguistic forms as a critical point of articulation between the micro and macro social orders.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Urciuoli, Bonnie, and Chaise LaDousa. 2013. Language management/labor. Annual Review of Anthropology 42:175–190.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-092412-155524Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The authors overview scholarship on language in workplace settings as a resource for commodification, as a form of cultural capital, and as a metalinguistic resource for analyzing neoliberal economic practices.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Language Attitudes and Ideologies in the Study of Verbal Art

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Verbal art has been described both as the ideational treasure house of a culture and as a culturally valorized site of emergent culture. The studies in this subsection represent a range of uses of verbal art as a means of maintaining, defending, and extending traditional cultural practices. Kroskrity 2009 details how a Western Mono (Central California) elder recontextualizes a traditional story for a novice audience, as one would find in revitalization contexts. Nevins 2013 focuses attention on the different language ideologies of storytelling interpretation exercised by indigenous storytellers, and the salvage linguists who recorded their stories. Kroskrity 2012 conveys a range of uses, contexts, and struggles associated with storytelling as a means of cultural reproduction in various Native American language renewal contexts. Black 2012 analyzes an instance of verbal art as therapy for AIDS patients in South Africa who can use the verbal-art frame to construct a space for talking about their condition that might not otherwise be available to them. Also on the theme of verbal art as an enabling channel, Alim, et al. 2009 anthologizes studies testifying to an increasingly global hip-hop “nation,” which recontextualizes the genre’s potential for social critique to many different national contexts. Several authors consider the language and cultural ideologies of verbal aesthetics and performance used by poets. In Italy, Pagliai 2000 and Pagliai 2010 ethnographically grounds the presentation of Tuscan contrasto—a public song duel between poets—and analyzes it both as a form of social critique and artistic cooperation. Anthony Webster examines the poetics and performance aesthetics of Navajo poets who publicly perform works in this relatively new genre. In Webster 2009, he develops a comprehensive analytic approach not only by studying the use of Navajo, English, and Nav-lish (a hybridized register) as linguistic resources, but by studying performance differences in the telling of the same poem as recontextualized to different audiences. A rather different set of themes occur in the work of Joel Kuipers, who has produced a monograph that details how the Indonesian Weyewa minority use verbal art in the construction of authoritative rituals (Kuipers 1990) and how the Indonesian government has suppressed most forms of verbal art in this community as subversive because they construct indigenous leaders as authority figures (Kuipers 1998).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Alim, H. Samy, Awad Ibrahim, and Alastair Pennycook, eds. 2009. Global linguistic flows: Hip hop cultures, youth identities, and the politics of language. New York: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A wide variety of case studies that show both the globalization of hip-hop influence throughout the world but also the culture-specific forms and uses that the global genre takes on in these different national contexts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Black, Steven P. 2012. Laughing to death: Joking as support amid stigma for Zulu-speaking South Africans living with HIV. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 22.1: 87–108.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1111/j.1548-1395.2012.01140.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Examines the verbal art of joking as members of a group living with HIV attempt to find ways of talking about what is traditionally unspeakable.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kroskrity, Paul V. 2009. Embodying the reversal of language shift: Agency, incorporation, and language ideological change in the Western Mono community of Central California. In Native American language ideologies: Beliefs, practices, and struggles in Indian country. Edited by Paul V. Kroskrity and Margaret C. Field, 190–210. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Analyzes both life history and storytelling performance data provided by a Mono speaker and language activist, in an attempt to bring individual agency into the literature on language ideologies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kroskrity, Paul V., ed. 2012. Telling stories in the face of danger: Language renewal in Native American communities. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An edited collection that provides a variety of Native American case studies that show local ideologies of the importance of verbal-art genres for the maintenance of languages and communities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kuipers, Joel C. 1990. Power in performance: The creation of textual authority in Weyewa ritual speech. Conduct and Communication. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Closely examines through an ethnographic and linguistic analysis the structure and performance of Weyewa (Indonesian) religious performance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kuipers, Joel C. 1998. Language, identity, and marginality in Indonesia: The changing nature of ritual speech on the island of Sumba. Studies in the Social and Cultural Foundations of Language 18. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511558191Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Detailed study of Indonesia’s marginalization of all Sumbanese ritual genres, both through overt force and hegemonic institutions such as schools.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nevins, M. Eleanor. 2013. What no coyote story means: The Borderland genre of traditional storytelling. In Lessons from Fort Apache: Beyond language endangerment and maintenance. By M. Eleanor Nevins, 152–186. Wiley-Blackwell Studies in Discourse and Culture 5. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An ethnographically based and language-ideologically informed appreciation of a traditional indigenous storytelling tradition and its use as a commentary on culture contact and change.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Pagliai, Valentina. 2000. Lands I came to sing: Negotiating identities and places in the Tuscan “contrasto.” Pragmatics 10.1: 125–146.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1075/prag.10.1.07pagSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Examines the modern practices of dueling Tuscan poets.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Pagliai, Valentina. 2010. Conflict, cooperation, and facework in contrasto verbal duels. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 20.1: 87–100.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1548-1395.2010.01050.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Explores the interactional and formal means by which Tuscan poets collaborate with one another or express their refusal to do so.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Webster, Anthony K. 2009. Explorations in Navajo poetry and poetics. Albuquerque: Univ. of New Mexico Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A variety of studies, many ethnographically based, that reveal the language ideologies that Navajo poets use in constructing and performing their poems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Language, Globalization, Hybridity, and Inequality

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Forces such as linguistic nationalism and globalization not only promote contact between peoples and languages, they also tend to reproduce social inequalities between them. Blommaert 2010 views globalization as a challenge to older sociolinguistic paradigms and as an opportunity to address the mobility of speakers and their languages. Meanwhile, Garrett 2013 emphasizes the very different meanings that globalization and its linguistic consequences can have for speakers in different parts of the world. Duchêne 2008 analyzes the international discourses and language ideologies that underlie UN treatment of linguistic minorities. Other works deal with a variety of ways we can recognize and ameliorate social inequality. Hymes 1996 develops the notion of “narrative inequality” to indicate how some narrative norms are supported by dominant institutions such as schools while others are stigmatized or suppressed. Linguistic-landscape studies have emerged to examine the significance of written-language displays such as signage in public spaces, typically in urban areas. Two collections of case studies of linguistic-landscape studies survey the variety of ways languages can be laminated to social space to accomplish either globalization or localization. Explicitly contexted within late capitalism, Jaworski and Thurlow 2010 includes case studies of linguistic landscape that broaden the semiotic range to include not just signage and billboards but also monuments, and designed space as well as the metadiscourses that occur within those landscapes. Shohamy and Gorter 2009 is a larger collection that includes twenty chapters, mostly case studies, by various authors. The book includes sections devoted to theory, methodology, policy, identity and awareness, and new directions. Moving from the exterior landscape of urban streets to the interior space of urban classrooms, researchers have produced language-ideological accounts of linguistic hybridity in US bilingual classrooms. Razfar 2005 reads both explicit and implicit ideologies from interview data and Spanish-English bilingual classroom interaction, and Martínez 2013 is a study of a bilingual middle-school classroom in East Los Angeles where students’ language ideologies appear to display a contradiction between reproducing a pejorative dominant-society view of their hybrid Spanglish practice and counter hegemonic discourses that contest that view and valorize hybridity. From conflicting ideologies within classrooms and within the heads of bilingual students to conflicts within a culturally diverse workplace, Roberts, et al. 1992 provides examples of linguistic and discursive discrimination in the workplace, as well as some best practices to overcome discrimination.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Blommaert, Jan. 2010. The sociolinguistics of globalization. Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511845307Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A monograph that discusses a new type of sociolinguistics of mobility that is especially designed for understanding the social inequality that drives globalization.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Duchêne, Alexandre. 2008. Ideologies across nations: The construction of linguistic minorities in the United Nations. Language, Power, and Social Process 23. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A study of the ideologies expressed in international discourses that are deployed by nation-states in their treatment of minority groups.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Garrett, Peter. 2013. Meanings of “globalization”: East and West. In The handbook of language and globalization. Edited by Nikolas Coupland, 447–473. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The author considers the diverse meanings of globalization and attitudes toward it as a consequence of geopolitical location.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hymes, Dell H. 1996. Ethnography, linguistics, narrative inequality: Toward an understanding of voice. Critical Perspectives on Literacy and Education. Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Examines the different evaluations of narrative that reproduce patterns of social inequality, and endorses the use of ethnography to critique linguistic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Jaworski, Adam, and Crispin Thurlow, eds. 2010. Semiotic landscapes: Language, image, space. Advances in Sociolinguistics. London: Continuum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A collection of case studies in the emerging school of linguistic landscape, in which researchers look at the role of embedding language in social space for various purposes, including identity construction and projection. Includes case studies from Ireland, Wales, Israel, and Jamaica.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Martínez, Ramón Antonio. 2013. Reading the world in Spanglish: Hybrid language practices and ideological contestation in a sixth-grade English language arts classroom. In Special issue: Multiple publics, multiple voices: Exploring perspectives on race and identity in urban schools and communities. Linguistics and Education 24.3: 276–288.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.linged.2013.03.007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Author examines the role of hybridity in a classroom context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Razfar, Aria. 2005. Language ideologies in practice: Repair and classroom discourse. Linguistics and Education 16.4: 404–424.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.linged.2006.04.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The author examines the use of implicit and explicit language ideologies in the conduct of a bilingual classroom.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Roberts, Celia, Evelyn Davies, and Tom Jupp. 1992. Language and discrimination: A study of communication in multi-ethnic workplaces. Applied Linguistics and Language Study. London: Longmans.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An overview with sample analyses and suggestions for bridging cultural distance in workplace settings. Focus is on workplace settings in the United Kingdom, but with comparative observations about the United States and Australia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Shohamy, Elana, and Durk Gorter, eds. 2009. Linguistic landscape: Expanding the scenery. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This is an edited collection of studies about the public representation of languages in signage and other material forms.

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