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Childhood Studies Race and Ethnicity
by
Anoop Nayak

Introduction

It is widely accepted that race is a fictitious category used to divide the human population in ways that may benefit some at the expense of others. Despite appeals to a common humanity, many people continue to give meaning to the fallacy of race to the extent that it remains a central organizing principle in modern society. Ethnicity, on the other hand, refers to the cultural habits of a particular group such as language, diet, music, rituals, pastimes, family, and kinship relations. Importantly, ethnicity is practiced in diverse ways and is not an unchanging, fixed, or bounded category. Appropriately, the work cited here approaches race and ethnicity as fluid and unstable categories in the lives of children and young people. It asks a set of critical questions, such as: How do children and young people view race? What difference does ethnicity make to childhood and youth? What role does racism and anti-racism play in young lives? Is race still a valuable concept for understanding future generations who are living in a rapidly globalizing, multicultural environment? As this entry demonstrates, race and ethnicity are ever-present in young lives and afford important ways for understanding children and young people’s transitions into adulthood.

General Overviews

There are very few specific overviews, anthologies, reference works, or textbooks on race, children, and young people. However, there are a number of key volumes addressing the topic of race and ethnicity that offer benchmark publications from which those working in the fields of children and youth can draw on. The best of this work is characterized by an ability to carefully distinguish among different theoretical approaches to the topic and provide conceptual clarity on terms such as race, racism, ethnicity, anti-racism, and multiculturalism. Although not without criticism, Miles 1989, on racism; Banton 1987, an account of racial theories; and Malik 1996, which examines the emergence of the term race, each offer clear definitions of race terminology. Solomos 1993 explores the politics of race in postwar Britain and Europe, showing how the issue of migration is taken up by the state. These ideas are further elaborated in Gilroy 1995, which demonstrates that when the question of race and immigration appears in political debate, it is always construed as a problem. For Gilroy this problematic representation comes to define black youth in post-imperial Britain. Toward the end of the 1990s, other work such as Solomos and Back 1996 (cited under Textbooks) and later Mac an Ghaill 1999 began to develop nuanced understandings of race and ethnicity, largely inspired by the post-structuralist readings of identity evident across the arts, humanities, and social sciences. Together, this body of work offers a useful means for understanding how terms such as race and racism are deployed and come to take on new meaning over time.

  • Banton, Michael. Racial Theories. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

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    This book outlines various understandings of race including pseudo-biological readings, as well as Marxist interpretations that regard racial inequalities in a similar structural fashion to social class injustices. Although the book is no longer up to date, given recent developments in race and ethnic studies, it is an established text that provides useful insights into theories of race in France, Britain, South Africa, and the United States.

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  • Gilroy, Paul. “There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack”: The Cultural Politics of Race and Nation. London: Routledge, 1995.

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    First published in 1987 by Unwin Hyman, this classic book was the first of its kind to argue that blackness and Britishness were not mutually exclusive categories, especially for second-generation migrants. In this sense, Ain’t No Black paved the way for new understandings of the intersections between race, ethnicity, and national identity with some insightful critiques of left-wing anti-racism.

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  • Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin. Contemporary Racisms and Ethnicities: Social and Cultural Transformations. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press, 1999.

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    The book introduces the reader to the changing academic and political representations of race, ethnicity, and racism. It makes a distinction between earlier material approaches to race and more recent postmodern explanations. Moving beyond black/white binaries of race, the final chapter turns to the experiences of young people as it considers the perspectives of new generations.

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  • Malik, Kenan. The Meaning of Race: Race, History and Culture in Western Society. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1996.

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    Malik considers how the idea of race was historically popularized through forms of imperialism, colonialism, and slavery. He considers early links between science and race that were later to culminate in Nazism and the Holocaust. The author relies on a predominantly Marxist analytic framework to consider how fixed ideas of “race” and “culture” tend to arise from contradictions inherent in the system of global capital.

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  • Miles, Robert. Racism. London: Routledge, 1989.

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    The aim of this book is to set out a case for the continued salience of racism as a concept in sociological analysis. Miles provides a historical review of the origin and uses of the concept and an evaluation of approaches to theorize it. In particular, he explores different types of racism, including ideological, institutional, political, cultural, and economic expressions.

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  • Solomos, John. Race and Racism in Britain. 2d ed. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1993.

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    Productively explores the sociology of race in Britain and Europe through a historical framework. Solomos turns his attention to the postwar period and the changing dynamics of race and racism being mobilized across Europe. The book contains a useful chapter outlining how black youth were constructed as “muggers” and racially confined to “their” allotted space in the inner city.

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Textbooks

There are a series of useful introductory textbooks on race and ethnicity aimed at a student market. Each text has a particular emphasis. Although youth and childhood is not a core focus of the editions, most collections discuss the topic or at least furnish the reader with relevant themes that can be taken further. For example, Bhattacharyya, et al. 2002 and Garner 2010 each examine the power of race and racism in contemporary society. Mason 1995 and Ratcliffe 2004 approach the subject of race through social arenas such as the labor market, housing, and welfare. In contrast, Solomos and Back 1996 draws heavily on popular media and culture to present a theoretically charged account of race and racism in the modern world. To this extent, these texts help situate the field by highlighting race as a social construct imbued with power that continues to haunt the contemporary moment.

  • Bhattacharyya, Gargi, John Gabriel, and Stephen Small. Race and Power: Global Racism in the Twenty-First Century. London: Routledge, 2002.

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    Targeted at an undergraduate audience, this book considers how race operates in the global economy. It focuses on debates on whiteness, racialization, consumption, and migration.

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  • Garner, Steve. Racisms: An Introduction. London: SAGE, 2010.

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    This recent book is aimed at undergraduates seeking to understand the meaning of racism, the different forms it takes, and how they can apply these insights to work they might be undertaking. It serves as a useful introduction to debates on race and racism, including scientific racism, institutional racism, new racisms, nationalism, whiteness, and Islamaphobia.

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  • Mason, David. Race and Ethnicity in Modern Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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    Although focused on British race relations, this edition defines terms and concepts while providing a brief history of migration and ethnic diversity in the United Kingdom. Clearly presented, it contains chapters on race and employment, education, housing, health, and citizenship up to the 1990s.

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  • Ratcliffe, Peter. “Race,” Ethnicity and Difference: Imagining the Inclusive Society. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press, 2004.

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    Takes a broad social policy outlook in examining how race operates in the areas of housing inequality, educational disparities, labor market differentials, policing, and the criminal justice system. Alongside clear definitions of terms such as race, ethnicity, and racism, the book also contains chapters on migration, refugees, and asylum.

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  • Solomos, John, and Les Back. Racism and Society. London: Macmillan, 1996.

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    A valuable account that draws richly on popular culture and media. The book considers different theoretical perspectives on race, including neo-Marxist, feminist, and post-structuralist approaches along with clear discussions of racism, anti-racism, and multiculturalism. There is also a chapter on identity, hybridity, and new ethnicities that is especially useful for theorizing the relationship among children, young people, and ethnicity.

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Anthologies

There are several anthologies on race and ethnicity containing seminal articles in the field. Cashmore and Troyna 1982 was an early intervention into the field that later led others, as in Back and Solomos 2000 and Cashmore and Jennings 2001, to focus explicitly on race and racism. Murji and Solomos 2005 examines the concept of racialization, while two Open University collections are perhaps symptomatic of the shift from identity politics and materialist accounts of race (Braham, et al. 1992) toward cultural engagements with post-structuralist thinking (Donald and Rattansi 1993). This latter work paved the way for work on new ethnicities as further signalled by Brah, et al. 1999 and Cohen 1999.

  • Back, Les, and John Solomos. Theories of Race and Racism: A Reader. London: Routledge, 2000.

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    Containing contributions from a number of key thinkers in the field, this edition is divided into six sections. This includes work on the origins and transformation of race; sociology, race, and social theory; racism and anti-Semitism; colonialism, race, and the Other; feminism, difference, and identity; and changing boundaries and spaces. As the text includes some classic essays, it offers a useful amalgamation of sources.

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  • Brah, Avata, Mary Jane Hickman, and Mairtin Mac an Ghaill, eds. Thinking Identities: Ethnicity, Racism and Culture. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1999.

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    Divided into four sections and ten chapters, this volume draws on essays from sociology as well as media and cultural studies. It contains work on national identities, migration, social divisions, and cultural interactions. Interestingly, it is one of the first editions to include a section that critically deconstructs whiteness as an ascendant marker of race privilege in young lives.

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  • Braham, Peter, Ali Rattansi, and Richard Skellington, eds. Racism and Antiracism: Inequalities, Opportunities, and Policies. London: SAGE, 1992.

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    This collection is concerned with structural disadvantage and the relationship between race and trade unions, employment, housing, careers, immigration, social work, the law, and equal opportunities policies. Its focus, then, is on structural forms of discrimination.

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  • Cashmore, Ellis, and James Jennings, eds. Racism: Essential Readings. London: SAGE, 2001.

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    An extensive volume containing thirty-eight entries on racism with an emphasis given to race in America. The edition includes work in psychology, history, education, sociology, sociobiology, and science. It also contains an essay on discussing race and racism in classroom settings by Beverly Daniel Tatum.

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  • Cashmore, Ernest, and Barry Troyna, eds. Black Youth in Crisis. London: Allen & Unwin, 1982.

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    Following urban risings in a number of multi-ethnic inner-city areas in the United Kingdom, this early intervention sought to examine what was perceived as a “crisis” surrounding black youth.

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  • Cohen, Philip, ed. New Ethnicities, Old Racisms? London: Zed Books, 1999.

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    This edited collection considers the prevalence and persistence of racism in a multicultural world. It documents the hidden histories of racism, the role of popular culture, and the impact of migration and globalization on local areas. The edition also contains chapters on gender, multiculturalism, and youth violence.

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  • Donald, James, and Ali Rattansi, eds. “Race,” Culture and Difference. Race, Education and Society Series. London: SAGE, 1993.

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    This Open University edition includes a series of important essays on race and ethnicity. In many respects, the collection is notable for prying open the idea of race beyond Marxist-structuralist frames of thinking and canvassing the emergent approaches evident in post-structuralist, feminist, and psycholanalytic understandings of identity and difference.

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  • Murji, Karim, and John Solomos. Racialization: Studies in Theory and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

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    Racialization has become a commonplace term in race and ethnic relations. Part of the reason for its popularity is that by speaking about racialization, authors recognize that they are referring to race-making processes rather than race as a scientific object or incontrovertible fact. This collection considers different usages of the term racialization with chapters on children and young people (chapters 5, 7, and 8).

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Reference Works

Cashmore 2004 amasses a vast amount of topics that fall under the remit of race and ethnic studies. Each entry provides a concise essay from an author on a particular concept, event, or debate. Montgomery and Kellett 2009 provides more extensive essays on children and young people aimed at a graduate market. Sigler 1987 offers an international overview of race relations from different parts of the world.

  • Cashmore, Ellis. Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. London: Routledge, 2004.

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    Containing numerous entries completed by a wide range of authors, this reference book offers summaries of ideas, debates, events, and figures in race and ethnic studies. Short entries on children and youth subcultures can also be found with links to further reading and relevant areas for cross-referencing.

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  • Montgomery, Heather, and Mary Kellett, eds. Children’s and Young People’s Worlds: Developing Frameworks for Integrated Practice. Bristol, UK: Policy, 2009.

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    Aimed at master’s degree students, this edition contains a variety of essays on childhood and youth, including chapters on race, ethnicity, and young people as well as on youth, religion, and multiculture (chapters 6 and 12).

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  • Sigler, Jay A. International Handbook on Race and Race Relations. New York: Greenwood, 1987.

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    This is an early but truly international compendium on race relations. Its strength lies in pulling together work on race from a plethora of countries, including places such as Trinidad, Brazil, Fiji, Japan, Sudan, Russia, India, Malaysia, and Thailand, where work on race can be hard to come by.

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Journals

Most academics working in the area of childhood, race, and ethnicity tend to publish in a wide range of social science journals appropriate to their disciplines. Along with popular journals related to children and young people such as the Journal of Youth Studies and Children, Youth and Environments are some specific journals in race and ethnic studies. Although not dedicated to the study of childhood, Ethnicities and Ethnic and Racial Studies both contain occasional essays on racism and young people, with the latter being the premier journal in the field. Similarly, the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, which focuses on diasporas and multicultural encounters, may include perspectives related to young migrants and asylum-seeking children. In this respect, Race Ethnicity and Education is a useful resource as it showcases a number of school-based accounts concerning multiculturalism and the role of racism in the lives of children and young people. The electronic Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity is a student-led law journal offering practical discussion, thinking, and writing, while Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts brings cross-disciplinary perspectives to the area.

Public Policy

Along with international doctrines on human rights, global citizenship, and policies of social equity, children and young people have been the focus of public policy research on race and ethnicity. MacDonald, et al. 1989 provides some highly valuable insights aimed at tackling racism in children and young people’s peer groups that is useful for teachers, youth workers, and social workers. MacPherson 1999 reshaped the landscape of the UK public sector with regard to race relations and yields important insights on what institutions must actively do to challenge racism, unwitting or otherwise. Cantle 2005 and Parekh 2000 each offer different visions for future generations, with the former stressing the need for deeper integration and the latter emphasizing the value of living with difference in a multiethnic global economy. Hawkins 1996 provides an illustration of more localized initiatives aimed at preventing hate crimes among adolescents from minority ethnic backgrounds.

  • Cantle, Ted. Community Cohesion: A New Framework for Race and Diversity. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

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    Cantle concludes, somewhat controversially, that many British Muslim communities were living “parallel lives” that ran alongside but did not interact with the white ethnic majority. He insists that an integrationist framework of community cohesion must become a key pillar of British race policy in recent times.

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  • Hawkins, Darnell F. Ethnicity, Race, Class and Adolescent Violence. Boulder: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, 1996.

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    This report into hate crime and violence among US adolescents examines the relationships among young people, ethnicity, and class. It recommends age-specific policies of prevention and points out that access to resources is more significant than any minor genetic variables between ethnic groups.

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  • MacDonald, Ian A., Reena Bhavnani, Lily Khan, and Gus John. Murder in the Playground: The Report of the MacDonald Inquiry into Racism and Racial Violence in Manchester Schools. London: Longsight, 1989.

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    Following the death of Ahmed Iqbal Ullah, a young Asian child stabbed to death on a school playground by a white student, this seminal report sought to identify the motivations behind the murder. It concluded that the murder was racially motivated and skillfully examined the way in which locality, whiteness, and class created the conditions under which such an atrocity could occur.

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  • MacPherson, William. The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry: Report of an Inquiry by Sir William MacPherson of Cluny. London: Stationery Office, 1999.

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    This landmark report was conducted in the aftermath of the racist murder of the black British teenager Stephen Lawrence in 1993. The report concluded that, along with the young white perpetrators who committed the act, the police were also guilty of what it identified as “institutional racism”—an issue that was to lead to changes in the law and public sector practice.

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  • Parekh, Bhikhu C. The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain: The Parekh Report. London: Runnymede Trust, 2000.

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    This influential report considered the future of multiculturalism and role of the nation-state on the cusp of the millennium. It argued for a cosmopolitan, outward-looking definition of Britishness in keeping with contemporary forms of transnationalism and globalization. However, after the London bombings on 7 July 2005, there was a retreat into more insular and traditional notions of citizenship.

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Cultural Studies

Some of the most theoretically developed insights on race and ethnicity in young lives have emerged out of work in cultural studies. Alongside the renowned CCCS Collections, there is a series of monographs, essays, and volumes in cultural studies that focus explicitly on race and youth culture. Many of these authors were also based at the University of Birmingham’s Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS). Examples in this vein include path-breaking studies examining how young people draw on black culture as a resource and marker of resistance (Hebdige 1979). This work emphasizes the longstanding role black music and cultural style play in Western youth formations (Jones 1988, Bose 2003, Nayak 2003) and urban life more generally (Chambers 1988). A feature of this work is the culturally hybrid forms of youth identity, what Hall 1993 terms “new ethnicities,” practiced among not only young black people (Mercer 1994) but also youth more generally as they creatively engage with the forces of globalization

  • Bose, Martina. “‘Race’ and Class in the ‘Post-subcultural’ Economy.” In The Post-Subcultures Reader. Edited by David Muggleton and Rupert Weinzierl, 167–180. Oxford: Berg, 2003.

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    Derived from interviews with participants in the music scene in Manchester, England, this study argues that post-subcultural accounts of youth should not overlook the race and class disparities that lead to social exclusion on the urban dance scene.

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  • Chambers, Ian. Popular Culture: The Metropolitan Experience. London: Routledge, 1988.

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    Literary and visual account of media signs that denote the influence of black culture on urban life and young people in Britain and the United States.

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  • Cohen, Philip. Rethinking the Youth Question: Education, Labour and Cultural Studies. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1997.

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    This book draws heavily on ideas of race and class for understanding the plight of postwar youth and their attitudes about authority, education, work, leisure, and locality.

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  • Hall, Stuart. “New Ethnicities.” In “Race,” Culture and Difference. Edited by James Donald and Ali Rattansi, 252–259. Race, Education and Society Series. London: SAGE, 1993.

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    This seminal article paved the way for complex understandings of racial identity and ethnicity. Drawing on post-structuralist and psycholanalytic insights, Hall offers a new template for approaching the study of race in youth and popular culture that focuses on the multiplicity and fluidity of youth identities.

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  • Hebdige, Dick. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Methuen, 1979.

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    This classic semiotic study exposes how many white youths’ subcultural creativity is often founded on an unseen and unacknowledged borrowing of black culture.

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  • Jones, Simon. Black Culture, White Youth: The Reggae Tradition from JA to UK. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1988.

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    Based in a multicultural neighborhood, this ethnography investigates the lives of a youth subculture of white Rastafarians who perform as reggae aficionados. It shows how, for many young people living in working-class areas, the dominant signifiers of Englishness and nationalism are being supplanted by the symbolic creativity of black culture evident in musical and stylistic forms.

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  • Mercer, Kobena. Welcome to the Jungle: New Positions in Black Cultural Studies. London: Routledge, 1994.

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    In a series of essays, Mercer provides a rich and accomplished account of black culture in film, music, fashion, gay subculture, and politics. For example, his chapter on the cultural politics of black hairstyles is testimony to the creativity of black youth as stylistic pioneers and as agents of resistance to a wider world of white conformity.

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  • Nayak, Anoop. “‘Ivory Lives’: Economic Restructuring and the Making of Whiteness in a Post-Industrial Youth Community.” European Journal of Cultural Studies 6.3 (2003): 305–325.

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    This article explores the racialization of white youth, including those who affirm an image of white respectability through parental home ownership and a strong work ethic; those deemed “not-quite-white” as a consequence of unemployment and living in the “urban jungle”; and those who seek to escape whiteness through embracing the black cultural styles made available through hip-hop and globalization. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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CCCS Collections

Early work in cultural studies is exemplified in the politically orientated scholarship deriving from the Centre of Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, where studies on youth subcultures and social class (Clarke 1976), ethnicity and racism (Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies 1982), and crime and disorder (Hall, et al. 1978) made significant inroads into understanding what Cohen 1997 (cited under Cultural Studies) later termed “rethinking the youth question.” Together, these collections offered a paradigm-shifting approach to race relations by shifting the focus from the problem of immigration and minority ethnic groups to the problem of racism and social class disparity.

  • Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. London: Hutchinson, 1982.

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    This landmark collection was important for putting the issue of race alongside class as an organizing principle in the construction of the English nation-state. These insights became particularly useful for understanding the limits of academic approaches in a number of disciplines that construed black youth as “deficient,” a “problem,” or a source of “moral panic.”

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  • Clarke, John. “The Skinheads and the Magical Recovery of Community.” In Resistance through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-War Britain. Edited by Stuart S. Hall and Tony Jefferson, 99–102. London: Hutchinson, 1976.

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    In this groundbreaking collection, Clarke considers how skinhead subculture, with its obsession with laboring clothing styles and white territoriality, selectively reaffirms the core values of the traditional English working class. However, he maintains that in adopting this style, white youth are actually involved in a symbolic attempt to recreate aspects of the parental culture through an imaginary understanding of past traditions that entails a “magical recovery of community.”

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  • Hall, Stuart M., Chas Critcher, Tony Jefferson, John Clarke, and Brian Roberts. Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State, and Law and Order. Critical Social Studies Series. London: Macmillan, 1978.

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    A meticulous account of how the term mugging was transplanted from New York City to the United Kingdom, where it then became deployed by popular media to explain the criminal activities of black youth. The study offers a clear example of the racialization of black youth and inner-city disorder.

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Education

The field of education has been an important site for multicultural policy and anti-racist practice. This is unsurprising, as schools and other pedagogical arenas have witnessed racist stereotyping that has led to black underachievement, ritualistic name-calling on playgrounds and in classrooms, derogatory representations of racialized “others” in textbooks, and forms of racist conflict and resistance. The work in this section seeks to expose, challenge, and ameliorate racism. For clarity, the section is divided into accounts of race and ethnicity in the early years and elementary school; scholarship that focuses on middle, secondary, and high school teaching; and recent work on young people, race, and religion.

Elementary and Early Years Schooling

There are now a number of important studies exploring race and ethnicity in children’s lives. This includes significant studies that reveal how even very young children can perpetrate racism, often through discriminatory forms of name-calling in multiethnic primary schools (Connolly 1998), mainly white localities in the United Kingdom (Gaine 1995, Troyna and Hatcher 1992), and preschool classes in the United States (Van Ausdale and Feagin 2002). It also includes work on the schooling of African-Caribbean youth (Nehaul 1996) and essays on anti-racism and education (Griffiths and Troyna 1995). Recent studies suggest that while more positive attitudes toward those that are “mixed race” are in development (Ali 2003), many white people continue to use their race and class privileges to gain structural advantages in the state schooling system.

  • Ali, Suki. Mixed-Race, Post-Race: Gender, New Ethnicities and Cultural Practices. Oxford: Berg, 2003.

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    Valuable contribution that queries the concept of “mixed-race” by showing how children understand and manage mixedness and can move toward “post-race” identity.

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  • Byrne, Bridget. White Lives: The Interplay of “Race,” Class and Gender in Everyday Life. London: Routledge, 2006.

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    Based on interviews in southern England, this study explores how middle-class white mothers use race privilege to secure schooling advantages for their children. At the same time, the study reveals how some selective aspects of multiculturalism might be seen as desirable to expose children to, but this is always qualified by the larger structures of whiteness and bourgeois elitism.

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  • Connolly, Paul. Racism, Gender Identities, and Young Children: Social Relations in a Multi-Ethnic, Inner-City Primary School. London: Routledge, 1998.

    DOI: 10.4324/9780203264614Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Shows how young children might deploy racist and sexist language in urban primary schools to effect power and prestige in peer settings.

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  • Gaine, Chris. Still No Problem Here. Stoke-on-Trent, UK: Trentham, 1995.

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    Update of Gaine’s early book, No Problem Here (1987), which demonstrated how many educators and a number of education authorities in mainly white areas labored under the misguided belief that if there are few minority ethnic children, then racism is not a problem.

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  • Griffiths, Morwenna, and Barry Troyna, eds. Antiracism, Culture and Social Justice in Education. Stoke-on-Trent, UK: Trentham, 1995.

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    Useful edited collection containing essays by well-known education figures writing on racism and anti-racism in primary, secondary, and higher education institutions.

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  • Nehaul, Kamala. The Schooling of Children of Caribbean Heritage. Stoke-on-Trent, UK: Trentham, 1996.

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    Based on observations of twenty-five children of Caribbean descent in primary schools, the author argues that black underachievement, while a reality, can be transformed through new approaches to race, childhood, and the curriculum.

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  • Troyna, Barry, and Richard Hatcher. Racism in Children’s Lives: A Study of Mainly White Primary Schools. London: Routledge, 1992.

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    A seminal research account that implodes the idea of children as innocent subjects by exploring how even young children draw on racist language and ideas. The authors usefully distinguish between “hot” name-calling, where racism is used in heated exchanges or arguments between peers, and “cold” name-calling, where it is deployed in a mundane, everyday fashion.

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  • Van Ausdale, Deborah, and Joe R. Feagin. The First R: How Children Learn Race and Racism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.

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    This book punctures the idea that children are free from the bonds of race. Based on observations of preschool children ages three to six years in a US day-care center, the authors show how children learn about race and can come to articulate it among their peer group.

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Middle and High School

Early work on middle and high school children began by examining the lives of young black and Asian men (Mac an Ghaill 1988) and women (Fuller 1982). This later came to include studies on black masculinity (Sewell 1997) and the institutional aspects of school-based racism (Solomos 1988). In response, some scholars, such as Gillborn in the United Kingdom and Donaldson in the United States (Gillborn 1995, Donaldson 1996), focused explicitly on the practice of anti-racism. More recently, this anti-racist work extended to challenge the normative status of whiteness (Nayak 1999) and the force of colonial legacies. This tendency can also be seen in Dolby 2001, an account of young people negotiating post-Apartheid transformations in the new South Africa.

  • Dolby, Nadine. Constructing Race: Youth, Identity, and Popular Culture in South Africa. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001.

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    This research, undertaken in post-Apartheid South Africa, challenges the simplistic understandings of culture sometimes articulated in education policy and the curriculum. Dolby argues that, for young people, race is not fixed in the past but a point of problematic negotiation in the new South Africa.

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  • Donaldson, Karen B. McLean. Through Students’ Eyes: Combating Racism in United States Schools. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.

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    Profiles how students might use racism and discusses the ways in which educators can challenge these forms of hostility.

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  • Fuller, Mary. “Young, Female and Black.” In Black Youth in Crisis. Edited by Ernest Cashmore and Barry Troyna, 87–99. London: Allen & Unwin, 1982.

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    An early account of young black women in the English education schooling system that draws on subcultural theories to consider and describe their experiences.

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  • Gillborn, David. Racism and Antiracism in Real Schools: Theory, Policy, Practice. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press, 1995.

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    A committed approach to anti-racism that reveals the type of race activity that is going on in the schooling system.

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  • Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin. Young, Gifted, and Black: StudentTeacher Relations in the Schooling of Black Youth. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press, 1988.

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    Based on extensive interviews and observations with young black and South Asian men and women, the author considers how ideas of race are communicated in student–teacher relations and the different positions young people adopt in response to racist stereotypes.

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  • Nayak, Anoop. “‘White English Ethnicities’: Racism, Anti-Racism and Student Perspectives.” Race, Ethnicity and Education 2.2 (1999): 177–202.

    DOI: 10.1080/1361332990020202Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Focusing on ethnographic research with two groups of children (ages nine to twelve years and sixteen to seventeen years), this study is one of the first to consider how whiteness operates in youth peer groups. It shows how anti-racism is seen by white children as an “anti-white” practice and offers routes forward for a more meaningful engagement with anti-racism.

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  • Sewell, Tony. Black Masculinities and Schooling: How Black Boys Survive Modern Schooling. Stoke-on-Trent, UK: Trentham, 1997.

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    Considers the different responses young black men have in a schooling system that is largely structured on white norms. The author argues that this impacts the types of masculinity young black men take up in relation to education and school.

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  • Solomos, John. “Institutionalised Racism: Policies of Marginalisation in Education and Training.” In Multi-Racist Britain. Edited by Philip Cohen and Harwant S. Bains, 156–194. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1988.

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    Argues that policy interventions have ignored the impacts of racism on black youth’s educational and employment aspirations and instead focused on their supposed “underachievement” and cultural “inadequacies.”

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Race, Religion, and Schooling

A recent development in school-based accounts has been to explore the ways in which racism can overlap with religious intolerance. In post-9/11 years, studies have explored the identities and experiences of Muslim boys (Archer 2003), the politics of Arab American youth (el-Haj 2006), and the way in which children and young people may create religious divisions and forms of faith-based identification in the modern world (Nayak 2009).

  • Archer, Louise. Race, Masculinity and Schooling: Muslim Boys and Education. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press, 2003.

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    Derived from interviews with Muslim boys, this study shows how the demonization of race and religion can lead some boys to enact street-style masculinities based on resistance to teachers and authority figures.

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  • el-Haj, Thea Renda. “Race, Politics, and Arab American Youth: Shifting Frameworks for Conceptualizing Educational Equity.” Educational Policy 20.1 (2006): 13–34.

    DOI: 10.1177/0895904805285287Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article argues that educators need to consider the way in which global and national events impinge on the lives of Arab American youth. It is suggested that policies of social justice cannot operate at only a national scale but need to pay particular attention to transnational events. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Nayak, Anoop. “Youth, Religion and Multiculture.” In Children and Young People’s Worlds: Developing Frameworks for Integrated Practice. Edited by Heather Montgomery and Mary Kellett, 199–217. Bristol, UK: Policy, 2009.

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    This subcultural study discusses Muslim youth, young Rastafarians, Irish sectarianism, and Christian “metal heads.” It shows how religion is not simply a point of demarcation in young lives but something that is creatively negotiated within and across children and young people’s peer groups.

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Geography

As a discipline, geography has its roots in empire and imperialism. However, since the 1970s there has been a focus on race and ethnicity that, from the late 1980s onward, was to become increasingly critical of racist and colonial practices in the past and present. The work includes attempts to understand why fieldwork and geographical research with young people are always a racially marked practice (Abbott 2006, Benwell 2009) and how we might move toward antiracist geographies (Kobayshi and Peake 2000) that displace or expose whiteness as a dominant structuring category of power in modernity (Nayak 2008). Through personal childhood memories of “growing up white” (Frankenberg 1993; see also Twine 1996) or national and global testimonies on religion (Hopkins 2007) and ethnicity in Western and developing countries (Jeffrey and Dyson 2008), geographers are today critically rethinking the role of race and racism. Frequently, this entails valuable accounts of race and place derived from interviews with respondents, including white, black, and South Asian British youth residing in different localities (Watt 1998); African American mothers in deprived urban areas (Roberts 2008); and even privileged African American female students raised in the comfort of the US suburbs (Twine 1996). Nayak 2008 focuses on race relations among young people in a mainly white post-industrial setting and shows how anti-racism can be made useful to children in these peripheral places.

  • Abbott, Dina. “Disrupting the ‘Whiteness’ of Fieldwork in Geography.” Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 27.3 (2006): 326–341.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9493.2006.00265.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Discussing an undergraduate field trip to the Gambia, the author considers the postcolonial heritage of fieldwork and some of the problematic assumptions students might bring to these places based on a sense of white superiority. Available online by subscription.

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  • Benwell, Matthew C. “‘Race’ or Race: Reflections on (Self-) Censorship and Avoidance in Research with Children.” Children’s Geographies 7.2 (2009): 229–233.

    DOI: 10.1080/14733280902765539Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this short viewpoint piece, the author critically reflects on how he dealt with the thorny question of race and racism when conducting research with children in post-Apartheid South Africa.

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  • Frankenberg, Ruth. “Growing Up White: Feminism, Racism and the Social Geography of Childhood.” Feminist Review 45 (1993): 51–84.

    DOI: 10.2307/1395347Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Uses the personal testimonies of white feminists from the southern United States to understand the role that white privilege plays in the making of whiteness and the geography of childhood. Available online by subscription.

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  • Hopkins, Peter E. “Young People, Masculinities, Religion and Race: New Social Geographies.” Progress in Human Geography 31.2 (2007): 163–177.

    DOI: 10.1177/0309132507075362Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A detailed evaluation of work undertaken in the discipline that considers how a renewed focus on religion adds complexity to earlier work on the geographies of race and ethnicity. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Jeffrey, Craig, and Jane Dyson, eds. Telling Young Lives: Portraits of Global Youth. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2008.

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    This collection takes an innovative methodological approach, focusing on the biography of a single, young respondent in different parts of the world to explore migratory movements, social change, religion, ethnicity, and growing up in developing areas. Each essay provides a snapshot of the life of a young person with brief links to further reading.

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  • Kobayashi, Audrey, and Linda Peake. “Racism Out of Place: Thoughts on Whiteness and an Antiracist Geography in the New Millennium.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 90.2 (2000): 392–403.

    DOI: 10.1111/0004-5608.00202Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The authors consider how the Columbine High School massacre that took place in the US town of Littleton, Colorado, was represented as a particularly shocking event because the suburb was constructed as white and thus synonymous with safety and “ordinary” family life and supposedly devoid of urban youth problems. Available online by subscription.

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  • Nayak, Anoop. “Young People’s Geographies of Racism and Anti-Racism: The Case of North East England.” In New Geographies of Race and Racism. Edited by Claire Dwyer and Caroline Bressey, 269–282. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2008.

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    The study explores how children and young people come to understand and utilize racism and anti-racism in their everyday lives. It argues that place-based understandings of popular anti-racism are more likely to be relevant to young people than the more abstract and generic policies evident at national levels, which are seen as proscriptive.

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  • Roberts, Dorothy E. “The Racial Geography of Child Welfare: Toward a New Research Paradigm.” Child Welfare 87.2 (2008): 125–150.

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    Drawing on interviews with African American women in a Chicago neighborhood, this article shows how an intensification of child welfare services can be greeted in contradictory fashion as a source of dependency, a mode of parental regulation, and a service that is ultimately damaging to long-term social relations that become fixed by a racial geography of welfare.

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  • Twine, France Winddance. “Brown Skinned White Girls: Class, Culture and the Construction of White Identity in Suburban Communities.” Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 3.2 (1996): 205–224.

    DOI: 10.1080/09663699650021891Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article considers how middle-class African American young women, as a consequence of a privileged suburban upbringing, come to identify as white. The author describes how they are “cocooned” within structures of whiteness that enable them to have access to advantages that may not be available to other black young women. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Watt, Paul. “Going Out of Town: Youth, ‘Race,’ and Place in the South East of England.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 16.6 (1998): 687–703.

    DOI: 10.1068/d160687Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Drawing on seventy interviews with young people from black, South Asian, and white backgrounds, this highly insightful article reveals the ways in which different places are racialized in young people’s imagination and the different attitudes they hold toward these spaces.

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History

There are a number of studies on the history of race, as cited under General Overview. When it comes to exploring how race figures in the past lives of children and young people, examples include narratives of French colonial encounters in Africa (White 1999); accounts of British imperial attitudes toward childhood in the 19th century (McClintock 1995), in which whiteness is held up as superior; and books that explore the salience of colonial histories for children and young people in the present (Gordon 1997). In the aftermath of World War II, Cohen 1988 identifies the postcolonial legacy that continues to shadow many white working-class youth as they draw on ideas of an imagined “golden age” and the belief that Britain once was and still should be “white.” As a useful counterpoint, Fehrenbach 2005 considers the presence of black occupation children after Hitler. Globally, we can consider the continuum of exploitation that has seen black children used for exploitative labor in Zimbabwe (Grier 2006) and the impact that the enforced removal of indigenous children from their parents has had on Aboriginal communities in Australia (Krieken 1999). These examples illustrate the way in which nation-states are implicated in forms of racism, as evidenced in Marsden 1990, which examines how race is made manifest in children and young people’s textbooks in 19th- and 20th-century Britain. Gilroy and Lawrence 1988 offers a more positive portrait by showing how popular music, by way of the cultural history of “two-tone,” can be seen to bring young people together and form a popular anti-racism.

  • Cohen, Philip. “The Perversions of Inheritance: Studies in the Making of Multi-Racist Britain.” In Multi-Racist Britain. Edited by Philip Cohen and Harwant S. Bains, 9–120. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1988.

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    A theoretically sophisticated historical narrative exploring the contradictions of racism and anti-Semitism. This extended essay looks at how race and ethnicity are played out in the youthful imagination to enable certain white youth to feel they are the natural inheritors of the state and any benefits that may entail.

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  • Fehrenbach, Heide. Race after Hitler: Black Occupation Children in Postwar Germany and America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.

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    Nazi Germany was widely recognized to be a Fascist state that allowed for the persecution of Jews and other minority groups. In the aftermath of World War II, this study considers the plight of black occupation children in Germany and the United States.

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  • Gilroy, Paul, and Errol Lawrence. “Two-Tone Britain: White and Black Youth and the Politics of Anti-Racism.” In Multi-Racist Britain. Edited by P. Cohen and H. S. Bains, 121–155. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1988.

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    This popular history of two-tone music focuses on youth activism and antiracist politics.

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  • Gordon, Lewis R. Her Majesty’s Other Children: Sketches of Racism from a NeoColonial Age. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.

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    Using personal memory, philosophy, and cultural analysis, Gordon offers ideas from which to transcend the vestiges of racism.

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  • Grier, Beverly Carolease. Invisible Hands: Child Labor and the State in Colonial Zimbabwe. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2006.

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    This study considers the exploitation of black children in the colonial state of Zimbabwe. It focuses in particular on the issue of child labor and the manner in which children’s rights may be denied.

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  • Krieken, Robert van. “The ‘Stolen Generations’ and Cultural Genocide: The Forced Removal of Australian Indigenous Children from Their Families and Its Implications for the Sociology of Childhood.” Childhood 6.3 (1999): 297–311.

    DOI: 10.1177/0907568299006003002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article examines the historical abuses committed by white settlers in Australia on indigenous communities and their offspring. It is argued that these abuses amounted to a form of cultural genocide in which the knowledge and skills held by elders about the natural environment were effectively erased. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Marsden, William. “Rooting Racism into the Educational Experience of Childhood and Youth in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.” History of Education 19.4 (1990): 333–353.

    DOI: 10.1080/0046760900190404Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Explores how a number of education textbooks aimed at children consistently denigrated racialized others throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • McClintock, Anne. Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. London: Routledge, 1995.

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    An excellent account of how race, class, gender, and sexuality were inscribed into the colonial mission. A chapter focusing on commodity racism and imperial advertising also shows how ideas around childhood and children could be deployed to market goods.

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  • White, Owen. Children of the French Empire: Miscegenation and Colonial Society in French West Africa, 1895–1960. Oxford: Clarendon, 1999.

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    Throughout the 19th century, France continued to exert imperial control over parts of the African continent. This book discusses how sexual relations between French colonizers and African women were part of a wider exploitation that would impact a new generation of children born under French governance.

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Music

Music has long been a space for thick multicultural interactions between young people, be it in dance halls and discos in Shanghai (Farrer 1999), the British-Asian underground scene (Huq 2006, Kaur and Kalra 1996), French hip-hop events (Huq 2006), Latino cultural spaces in the United States (Valdivia 2003), nightclubs and house parties on the New York student Desi scene (Maira 2002), or Goan beach parties for travelers, tourists, and backpackers in India (Saldanha 2007). Moreover, music is itself a product of global flows and forces that transcend the borders of nation-states. The international range of this work is reflected in studies of multicultural Western nation-states such as Sweden, France, Austria, and the United States (Bjurström 1997, Huq 2006, Horak 2003, Maira 2002, Valdivia 2003) as well as research undertaken in developing countries, including parts of Africa, the Far East, and South Asia (Niang 2006, Farrer 1999, Saldanha 2007).

  • Bjurström, Erling. “The Struggle for Ethnicity: Swedish Youth Styles and the Construction of Ethnic Identities.” Young: Nordic Journal of Youth Research 5.3 (1997): 44–58.

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    Considers the role that ethnicity plays in the formation of Swedish youth culture, particularly for immigrant groups who may use hip-hop music to rework national identity. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Farrer, James. “Disco ‘Super-Culture’: Consuming Foreign Sex in the Chinese Disco.” Sexualities 2.2 (1999): 147–165.

    DOI: 10.1177/136346079900200201Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    In this account of Chinese disco, the author argues that young people in Shanghai—rather than turning their back on traditional Chinese culture—are actually seeking out new forms of cosmopolitanism that reflect positively on who they are and might become. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Horak, Roman. “Diaspora Experience, Music and Hybrid Cultures of Young Migrants in Vienna.” In The Post-Subcultures Reader. Edited by David Muggleton and Rupert Weinzierl, 181–191. Oxford: Berg, 2003.

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    Examines how young migrants to the multicultural city of Vienna engage in diasporic folk and hip-hop music depending on context and situation.

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  • Huq, Rupa. “European Youth Cultures in a Post-Colonial World: British Asian Underground and French Hip-Hop Music Scenes.” In Global Youth? Hybrid Identities, Plural Worlds. Edited by Pam Nilan and Carles Feixa, 14–31. London: Routledge, 2006.

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    This chapter looks at second-generation ethnic minority young people, including hip-hop youth in France and members of the British Asian underground scene in the United Kingdom, whose lives are shaped by different national multicultural policies where there is an emphasis on assimilation in France and tolerance of multiculturalism in Britain.

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  • Kaur, Raminder, and Virinder S. Kalra. “New Paths for South Asian Identity and Musical Creativity.” In Dis-Orientating Rhythms: The Politics of the New Asian Dance Music. Edited by Sanjay Sharma, John Hutnyk, and Ashwani Sharma, 217–231. London: Zed Books, 1996.

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    Examines the transnational dimensions of South Asian music around the world and the multiple points of location taken up by young Asian people.

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  • Maira, Sunaina. Desis in the House: Indian American Youth Culture in New York City. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002.

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    Discusses the emergence of Desis parties, which have become a popular pastime among second-generation South Asian students attending American colleges. The Desis party is portrayed as a hybrid meeting place that blends Hindi film music, break-dancing, and North Indian bhagra music. The author discusses the part that gender and ethnicity play in these new and creative interactions.

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  • Niang, Abdoulaye. “Bboys: Hip-Hop Culture in Dakar, Sénégal.” In Global Youth? Hybrid Identities, Plural Worlds. Edited by Pam Nilan and Carles Feixa, 167–185. London: Routledge, 2006.

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    The author argues that hip-hop offers young people in the developing world a complex framework for creative expression, pointing to the limits of simply reading it as a negative influence or championing it as a heroic form of resistance.

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  • Saldanha, Arun. Psychedelic White: Goa Trance and the Viscosity of Race. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

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    This book draws on the philosophic work of Deleuze and actor network theory to explore how race emerges in northwestern India through events that occur on the global trance scene populated by young people.

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  • Valdivia, Angharad N. “Radical Hybridity: Latinas/os as the Paradigmatic Transnational Post-Subculture.” In The Post-Subcultures Reader. Edited by David Muggleton and Rupert Weinzierl, 151–165. Oxford: Berg, 2003.

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    Considers the way in which young Latinos in the United States carve out distinct spaces for music and dance away from the mainstream. These spaces are seen as mixed and multicultural and can include Mexicans, Chileans, Columbians, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, and others.

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Psychology

Psychology and psychoanalysis recognize that racism is not only lived socially but also psychically experienced at the emotional level that may elicit shame, trauma, guilt, distrust, hatred, fear, and desire. Perhaps above all this work reveals the ambivalence of racism as a social practice, both for perpetrators and young victims. For clarity, this section is divided into work on Children and Childhood and entries on Youth and Adolescents.

Children and Childhood

Work in this vein has used particular psychological theories to interpret prejudice in children’s lives (Aboud 2008, Barrett and Davis 2008), including the way in which it is negotiated by ethnic minority children in encounters with white friends and neighbors (Watters, et al. 2009). Often this process can involve a splitting of identity, as seen in Fanon 1970, a groundbreaking account first published in 1952, and subsequent work on black masculinity (Jefferson 1996). At times this work has produced interesting findings that go “against the grain”—for example, the discovery that black children in segregated schools may show a preference toward those with white skin and its embodied markers (Clark and Clark 1950) or the realization that children do not simply learn racism from their parents (Hirschfeld 2008). In Hirschfeld 1998, race is a social and psychological process that is always in the making.

  • Aboud, Frances E. “A Social-Cognitive Development Theory of Prejudice.” In Handbook of Race, Racism, and the Developing Child. Edited by Stephen M. Quintana and Clark McKown, 55–71. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008.

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    Draws on Piaget’s work on cognitive development to understand how children develop racial attitudes.

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  • Barrett, Martyn, and Stephanie C. Davis. “Applying Social Identity and Self-Categorization Theories to Children’s Racial, Ethnic, National, and State Identifications and Attitudes.” In Handbook of Race, Racism, and the Developing Child. Edited by Stephen M. Quintana and Clark McKown, 72–110. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008.

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    The authors draw on social identity theory to interpret children’s racially informed attitudes across different sociocultural contexts.

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  • Clark, Kenneth B., and Mamie P. Clark. “Emotional Factors in Racial Identification and Preference in Negro Children.” The Journal of Negro Education 19.3 (1950): 341–350.

    DOI: 10.2307/2966491Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This early psychological study achieved iconic status for the impact it was believed to have had on the US Jim Crow ruling that blacks should be treated as “separate but equal.” Using dolls in integrated and segregated schools, the authors found that children in all-black schools show a preference to white dolls and hence that segregation is damaging to their self-esteem. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks. Translated by Charles Lam Markmann. London: Paladin, 1970.

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    Groundbreaking psychoanalytic study that famously includes the author’s own reaction as a black man when he was traveling on a bus and a white child turned to his mother in horror and exclaimed, “Look Mama, a Negro!” Fanon uses this insight, among others, to demonstrate how such events can lead black people to feel apart from themselves and engage in psychic forms of self-loathing.

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  • Hirschfeld, Lawrence A. Race in the Making: Cognition, Culture, and the Child’s Construction of Human Kinds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998.

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    This book explores how children conceptualize difference and the way in which race is cognitively understood and socially practiced.

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  • Hirschfeld, Lawrence A. “Children’s Developing Conceptions of Race.” In Handbook of Race, Racism and the Developing Child. Edited by Stephen M. Quintana and Clark McKown, 37–54. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008.

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    This account challenges the popular perception that racism is transmitted from parents to children who then uncritically absorb these ideas.

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  • Jefferson, Tony. “From ‘Little Fairy Boy’ to ‘The Complete Destroyer’: Subjectivity and Transformation in the Biography of Mike Tyson.” In Understanding Masculinities. Edited by Mairtin Mac an Ghaill, 153–167. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press, 1996.

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    This psychoanalytic reading of black masculinity examines the transition from childhood to manhood through the biography of former African American world heavyweight champion Mike Tyson.

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  • Watters, Charles, Rosa Hossain, Rupert Brown, and Adam Rutland. “Crossing Thresholds: Acculturation and Social Capital in British Asian Children.” In Theorizing Identities and Social Action. Edited by Margaret Wetherell, 198–219. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

    DOI: 10.1057/9780230246942Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Combining Puttnam’s theory of “bridging” and “bonding” capital with quantitative and qualitative data, the authors argue that ethnic minority children are largely inclined toward integration, challenging the prevailing view that immigrant communities turn only to their own communities.

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Youth and Adolescents

Research has explored how black youth manage and resist the stigmata of race as a negative discourse in modern society (Crocker and Major 1989). Such forms of discrimination can be made manifest in youth peer groups through explicit and implicit practices (McGlothlin, et al. 2008). Even so, some writers remain wary of reducing blackness to a type of essentialism that renders the victim pathological (Robinson 1997, Tizard and Phoenix 1993), since those children who experience racism are likely to be prone to low self-esteem (Crocker and Major 1989).

  • Crocker, Jennifer, and Brenda Major. “Social Stigma and Self-Esteem: The Self-Protective Properties of Stigma.” Psychological Review 96.4 (1989): 608–630.

    DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.96.4.608Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    These authors challenge the commonly held perception that children who endure stigmatization based on racial discrimination necessarily suffer from low self-esteem.

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  • McGlothlin, Heidi, Christina Edmonds, and Melanie Killen. “Children’s and Adolescents’ Decision-Making about Intergroup Peer Relationships.” In Handbook of Race, Racism and the Developing Child. Edited by Stephen M. Quintana and Clark McKown, 424–451. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008.

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    This chapter explores the consequence of racial bias in children’s peer-group relations.

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  • Robinson, Lena. “Black Adolescent Identity and the Inadequacies of Western Psychology.” In Youth in Society: Contemporary Theory, Policy and Practice. Edited by Jeremy Roche and Stanley Tucker, 151–157. London: SAGE, 1997.

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    Provides a critique of psychological studies of childhood by documenting how Western-centered approaches are based around the image of the ideal white, middle-class child as the social norm.

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  • Tizard, Barbara, and Ann Phoenix. Black, White or Mixed Race? Race and Racism in the Lives of Young People of Mixed Parentage. London: Routledge, 1993.

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    Based on interviews with young people, this study questions the psychological assumption that children of mixed-heritage are confused about their identity, arguing instead that many have a positive sense of who they are.

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Sport

Sport has been a central arena for the making of national identities, most chillingly exemplified in the attempt to create a sporting Aryan ideal through the vigorous exercises disseminated to Hitler youth in Nazi Germany. Sport and leisure are then enshrined nationalism (Carrington and MacDonald 2001; Millington, et al. 2008), becoming a site where crude and uninformed ideas of race and ethnicity can proliferate. This includes a pseudo-biological racism that sees some bodies as necessarily physically superior or inferior to others (Millington, et al. 2008) and myths about black sporting prowess that also permeate young people’s imagination (Harrison and Lawrence 2004). Carrington 2010 notes that popular cultural perceptions that certain racial groups have an aptitude toward particular sports because of the perceived advantages they are thought to inherit ultimately detracts from their sporting success. In response, a number of academics have instead tried to investigate the low participation rates of ethnic minority children and young people in particular sports (Fleming 1991, McGuire and Collins 1998) and combined these insights with feminist interventions exploring South Asian and Afro-Caribbean young women’s experiences. This trait is seen in recent work on sporting inclusion that has turned to religious forms of discrimination and an emergent interest in the participation of Muslim girls and young women in sport around the world (Benn, et al. 2011; Dagkas, et al. 2011).

  • Benn, Tansin, Gertrud Pfister, and Haifaa Jawad, eds. Muslim Women and Sport. London: Routledge, 2011.

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    This edited collection brings together an array of international work on Muslim girls and women who participate in sport, with many chapters representing the first publications from their country of focus.

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  • Carrington, Ben. Race, Sport and Politics: The Sporting Black Diaspora. Theory, Culture & Society Series. London: SAGE, 2010.

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    This valuable book shows how the idea of black people having innate physical abilities was used to detract from their hard work and achievements. The author reveals how today black sporting prowess has itself become a marketable commodity in and of itself, largely due to its appeal to youth.

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  • Carrington, Ben, and Ian MacDonald, eds. “Race,” Sport, and British Society. London: Routledge, 2001.

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    An edited collection collating essays on race and sport in British society that includes entries on nationalism and racism with regard to the law, cricket, rugby, football, and journalism.

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  • Dagkas, Symeon, Tansin Benn, and Haifaa Jawad. “Multiple Voices: Improving Participation of Muslim Girls in Physical Education and School Sport.” Sport, Education and Society 16.2 (2011): 223–239.

    DOI: 10.1080/13573322.2011.540427Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This policy-based study explores the factors that can improve participation in school sports and physical education among Muslim girls. More flexible rules on clothing, awareness of religious customs and parental considerations, better communication, and a sensitivity to body and religious consciousness as girls get older are identified as factors that would better enable participation.

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  • Fleming, Scott. “Sport, Schooling and Asian Male Youth Culture.” In Sport, Racism, and Ethnicity. Edited by Grant Jarvie, 30–57. London: Falmer, 1991.

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    The main contribution of this piece is that it avoids homogenizing Asian boys’ attitudes to sports by outlining a range of competing masculinities, including those who are treated as “victims,” the academic “boffins,” and “street-kids” who choose to develop a street-wise gang mentality that draws on Caribbean youth in its dress and style. Each of these personas results in different attitudes to sport and schooling.

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  • Harrison, Keith C., and Suzanne M. Lawrence. “College Students’ Perceptions, Myths, and Stereotypes about African American Athleticism: A Qualitative Investigation.” Sport, Education and Society 9.1 (2004): 33–52.

    DOI: 10.1080/1357332042000175809Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Based on a survey with 301 university students, this study explores how white American young people perceive black athleticism. As there are a number of popular stereotypes surrounding the black body, this article offers some insight into how young white people imagine blackness and thereby construct an image of black identity. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • McGuire, Brendon, and David Collins. “Sport, Ethnicity and Racism: The Experience of Asian Heritage Boys.” Sport, Education and Society 3.1 (1998): 79–88.

    DOI: 10.1080/1357332980030105Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    Based on interviews with elementary and high school students, this study suggests that the low rates of participation by South Asian boys in sports have less to do with racism and forms of cultural exclusion and more to do with parental attitudes that focus more on academic prowess and schooling success. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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  • Millington, Brad, Patricia Vertinsky, Ellexis Boyle, and Brian Wilson. “Making Chinese-Canadian Masculinities in Vancouver’s Physical Education Curriculum.” In Special Issue: Boys, the Body, Sport and Schooling. Edited by Richard Light. Sport, Education and Society 13.2 (2008): 195–214.

    DOI: 10.1080/13573320801957095Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article examines the salience of racialized stereotypes surrounding the bodies of young people from Chinese, Taiwanese, and Hong Kong backgrounds in the British Columbia state education system and the types of changes policy educators might have to make to challenge common perceptions. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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Urban Sociology

Urban sociologies of youth have tended to draw on ethnographic methods combining interviews, observations, and thick description as well as historical and visual analysis to produce dense and multilayered accounts of race and ethnicity in young lives. This includes invigorating studies of youth cultural hybridity where style, language, music, and dress are creatively reworked in successive local–global interactions in the production of “new ethnicities” (Alexander 1996, Back 1996, Hewitt 1986). As Bassi 2008 demonstrates through a vivid account of the British Asian gay youth scene, black identities can no longer be understood simply through the lens of race but must now be subjected to the intersections of gender, class, sexuality, and other social relations. The theme of intersectionality can be traced in Weis 2004, a longitudinal ethnography exploring how the young people the author first interviewed in a US steel town have managed the break-up of industry. As this example shows, urban sociologists also foreground the darker impact that globalization and economic restructuring are having on the lives of impoverished children and young people in Canada (Dillabough and Kennelly 2010), Britain (Nayak 2003), France (Wacquant 2008), and the United States (Pinderhughes 1997) as they adapt to post-industrial transformation and the accompanying risks of drugs, racism, crime, gang violence, homelessness, and unemployment.

  • Alexander, Claire E. The Art of Being Black: The Creation of Black British Youth Identities. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996.

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    Based on firsthand research with a group of black British young men, Alexander evaluates the cultural stereotypes surrounding black masculinity and considers the way these tropes are negotiated by the respondents who are subjected to their influence.

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  • Back, Les. New Ethnicities and Urban Culture: Racism and Multiculture in Young Lives. Race and Representation 2. London: UCL, 1996.

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    Derived from meticulous ethnographic research in two South London neighborhoods, this book investigates the way in which young people’s dress, language, deportment, and musical interests are culturally hybrid products that are the result of sustained multicultural interaction over time. Nevertheless, the study also shows how racism continues to operate as a point of symbolic closure in youth communities and can still be seen to run alongside some forms of multicultural participation.

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  • Bassi, Camila. “The Precarious and Contradictory Moments of Existence for an Emergent British Asian Gay Culture.” In New Geographies of Race and Racism. Edited by Claire Dwyer and Caroline Bressey, 209–222. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2008.

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    This chapter offers an insight in the lives of gay, bisexual, and lesbian Asian youth by exploring the urban gay scene in the multicultural West Midlands region of England.

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  • Dillabough, Jo-Anne, and Jacqueline Kennelly. Lost Youth in the Global City: Class, Culture and the Urban Imaginary. London: Routledge, 2010.

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    Canadian ethnographic study of Toronto and Vancouver exploring how immigrant, homeless, and low-income youth navigate the changing terrain of the city in which class polarization and racial demarcation are increasingly visible.

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  • Hewitt, Roger. White Talk, Black Talk: Inter-Racial Friendship and Communication amongst Adolescents. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

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    This study considers the transformation in young people’s use of language that emerges as a consequence of living in multicultural societies. Hewitt demonstrates how young people deploy racism through a variety of social exchanges in peer-group cultures.

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  • Nayak, Anoop. Race, Place and Globalization: Youth Cultures in a Changing World. Oxford: Berg, 2003.

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    This spatial ethnography considers how children and young people living in post-industrial places negotiate the process of globalization and economic restructuring by enacting differing forms of whiteness embodied in youth subcultural styles and practices.

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  • Pinderhughes, Howard. Race in the Hood: Conflict and Violence among Urban Youth. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.

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    Based on surveys and focus group interviews in different New York neighborhoods with Italian American, African American, and Albanian American young people, this study examines how conflict can be negotiated either by forms of tolerance and cooperation or turf wars and ensuing racial hatred.

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  • Wacquant, Loïc. Urban Outcasts: A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2008.

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    The study explores how advanced cities such as Chicago and Paris are bearing the cost of long-term racism, high youth unemployment, and urban impoverishment that has arisen in neighborhood ghettos in which young people are marginalized as urban outcasts.

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  • Weis, Lois. Class Reunion: The Remaking of the American White Working Class. New York: Routledge, 2004.

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    Weis returns to the young people she interviewed in 1985 to see how her respondents negotiate post-industrial transformations. She discovers that few people have crossed class borders and that the expression of white privilege has been a common response to delineate white subjects from new immigrants entering the neighborhood.

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Youth Work

Along with the field of education, youth and social work is an area subject to anti-racist and multicultural policy intervention. A number of writers have produced websites and toolkits for tackling racism among young people in youth club settings as illustrated in Rupra 2004. Alongside such practical approaches can also be found scholarly interventions based on ethnographic research and racist name-calling (Back 1990) and racist violence (Hewitt 1996). Other works have focused on the youth service itself to examine the structural aspects of sexism and racism through the experiences of black young women (Parmar 1988) or examined how youth workers themselves understand government initiatives on antiracist policies aimed at engendering more integrated cohesive communities (Thomas 2007).

  • Back, Les. Racist Name Calling and Developing Anti-Racist Initiatives in Youth Work. Research Paper in Ethnic Relations 14. Coventry, UK: Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick, 1990.

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    Based on ethnographic interactions and observations with young people, this highly insightful report focuses on racist name-calling among children, offering antiracist frameworks that youth workers can deploy to challenge racial prejudice.

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  • Hewitt, Roger. Routes of Racism: The Social Basis of Racist Action. Stoke-on-Trent, UK: Trentham, 1996.

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    An empirically grounded report that examines the social processes by which racist ideas are transformed into racist action. The study identifies perceived feelings of white injustice as a central component of young people’s participation in racist violence.

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  • Parmar, Prathibha. “Gender, Race and Power: The Challenge to Youth Work Practice.” In Multi-Racist Britain. Edited by Philip Cohen and Harwant S. Bains, 197–210. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1988.

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    Drawing on black feminist theory, this early chapter stakes a claim for youth services to recognize the experiences of young Afro-Caribbean and South Asian women who tend to be treated as “invisible youth” by public services or culturally stereotyped in ways that do not figure with the lived experiences.

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  • Rupra, Mandeep. “I Ain’t Racist But . . .” A Toolkit to Assist Youth Workers to Deal with Racist Incidents. Leicester, UK: Mandeep Rupra Consulting, 2004.

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    This antiracist toolkit for youth workers uses case studies and other relevant resources for challenging racism in youth clubs.

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  • Thomas, Paul. “Moving on from ‘Anti-Racism’? Understandings of ‘Community Cohesion’ Held by Youth Workers.” Journal of Social Policy 36.3 (2007): 435–455.

    DOI: 10.1017/S0047279407001080Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This article examines how youth workers in Oldham, England, understand national policy on “community cohesion” and in doing so suggests they have moved on from earlier, more simplistic understandings of anti-racism toward a critical multiculturalism. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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LAST MODIFIED: 03/23/2012

DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199791231-0113

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