- LAST REVIEWED: 12 May 2017
- LAST MODIFIED: 30 January 2014
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199796953-0057
- LAST REVIEWED: 12 May 2017
- LAST MODIFIED: 30 January 2014
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199796953-0057
Along with drug trafficking and arms dealing, human trafficking has been described as one of the most profitable crimes in the world. A 2003 address to the United Nations by US President George W. Bush demonstrates the substantial attention garnered by human trafficking in international politics. In his speech, Bush said, “There’s a special evil in the abuse and exploitation of the most innocent and vulnerable. The trade in human beings for any purpose must not be allowed to thrive in our time.” As this statement suggests, the issue of human trafficking has been cast alongside the proverbial “war” against terrorism, narcotics, and human smuggling. Furthermore, in recent years, the issue of human trafficking has become a major focal point for international and national policy concerns, and for a growing number of special interest groups and organizations. Yet the high standing of human trafficking has also made it vulnerable to a variety of political agendas. Although the practice of human trafficking has a long history, it has only been since the enactment of the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (part of the Palermo Protocols) in 2000 that there has been a concerted effort to examine and evaluate interventions to counter human trafficking. While it has been widely acknowledged as a crime that challenges fundamental human rights, the issue of human trafficking remains mired in a number of pragmatic legal, social, and political challenges.
Textbooks and Journal Issues
Human trafficking is the subject of much research, debate, and advocacy in diverse disciplines and fields, such as law, sociology, human rights, criminology, politics, migration studies, gender, and public health. There are a number of books, academic and nonfiction, on human trafficking, as well as a growing number of special journal issues that have been dedicated to the issue. There are, in fact, more than sixty English-language books on human trafficking, ranging from personal accounts of trafficking victims to examinations of the intricacies of trafficking in persons. Works such as Bales and Soodalter 2009 argue that human trafficking is virtually omnipresent but remains hidden from the public eye. This book offers a number of American-based examples that highlight how difficult it can be to detect victims of trafficking, who are sometimes hidden in plain sight (as in a case of dishwashers in a local restaurant). But through the wide range of accounts from victims, traffickers, and various experts, the authors offers a number of suggestions for how people can become aware of these cases, and what they can do to help prevent the continued exploitation of trafficked persons. In addition, Brysk and Choi-Fitzpatrick 2011 examines human trafficking primarily from an American perspective, using a predominantly legalistic and human rights approach. Similarly, Scarpa 2008 offers a nuanced human rights and legal examination of human trafficking within a European context. Winterdyk, et al. 2012 is an edited textbook that addresses a broad range of issues that relate to trafficking in persons in an international context. Meanwhile, one of the few books to focus on male trafficking is Nikolic-Ristanovic 2009, based on the work of the author and her team of researchers from the Victimology Society of Serbia. Finally, van Dyne and Spencer 2011 is an edited text that includes a host of articles that embrace a critical approach and tend to view human trafficking as an enduring type of economic crime where the “human body” is interpreted as being a commodified product that is used for trade and/or collateral. See also Doezema 2010 and Zimmerman and Watts 2003.
Bales, Kevin, and Ron Soodalter. The Slave Next Door: Human Trafficking and Slavery in America Today. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.
This is predominately an awareness-raising book that approaches human trafficking as a “modern day” form of slavery. The target audience is the general public, and the aim is raising awareness of the issue and motivating commitment to implement the laws on human trafficking, particularly in the United States.
Brysk, Alison, and Austin Choi-Fitzpatrick, eds. From Human Trafficking to Human Rights: Reframing Contemporary Slavery. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.
Rather than offering descriptive overviews of human trafficking, the contributors to this volume shift their focus to viewing the problem as a human rights and social justice dilemma. The breadth of themes covered range from examining human trafficking as a larger structural issue relating to the global economy, foreign policies, human security, migration, labor, and gender relations.
Doezema, Jo. Sex Slaves and Discourse Masters: The Construction of Trafficking. London: Zed, 2010.
This book, appropriate for graduate-level training and scholars of human trafficking, provides a critical, historical examination of the role of “myth” and ideology in the construction of the issue of human trafficking, including an examination of how the “ghost” of white slavery shaped the UN Protocol definition.
Nikolic-Ristanovic, Vesna, ed. Male Trafficking in Serbia. Belgrade, Serbia: Victimology Society of Serbia, 2009.
Grounded in a victimological framework, this book offers an informative account of male victims of trafficking in Serbia. The seven main themes discussed include assistance for victims, education, prosecution, prevention, monitoring, research, and the establishment of a central database. Also included are a number of recommendations and conclusions for advancing the rights and protection of male trafficked victims.
Scarpa, Silvia. Trafficking in Human Beings: Modern Slavery. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Embracing a legal approach to human trafficking, particular attention is given to the efforts of the Council of Europe and the European Union. Scarpa also explores the definitional challenges and limitations of the various laws and international agreements. The book concludes with a call for more and better research around trafficking and its victims.
van Dyne, Petrus, and Jon Spencer, eds. Flesh and Money: Trafficking in Human Beings. Nijmegen, The Netherlands: Wolf Legal, 2011.
This edited collection includes thirteen contributions from recognized experts throughout Europe. The chapters address trafficking in such countries as Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Czech Republic, and the Ukraine. The editors, in particular, offer a critically reflective discourse calling for a shift away from conventional approaches to recognizing that in some instances trafficking “can even result in less harm” (p. 15).
Winterdyk, John, Benjamin Perrin, and Philip Reichel, eds. Exploring the International Nature, Concerns, and Complexities. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 2012.
This edited book comprises twelve chapters representing contributions from a panel of international experts. The books covers a wide range of issues, including challenges of defining human trafficking, techniques used to protect and support victims, efforts to explain human trafficking, the experiences of victims of trafficking, and strategies for the enforcement and prosecution of offenders.
Zimmerman, Cathy, and Charlotte Watts. WHO Ethical and Safety Recommendations for Interviewing Trafficked Women. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2003.
The targeted audience for this report includes service providers, researchers, and news media. In consultation with individuals working on human trafficking and violence against women, the report outlines recommendations for interviewing trafficked women.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
How to Subscribe
Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here.
- African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights and the Af...
- Agreements, Bilateral and Regional Trade
- Agreements, Multilateral Environmental
- Arctic Region
- Armed Opposition Groups
- Aut Dedere Aut Judicare
- Bandung Conference, The
- Children's Rights
- Civil Service, International
- Collective Security
- Command Responsibility
- Common Heritage of Mankind
- Complementarity Principle
- Conspiracy/Joint Criminal Enterprise
- Constitutional Law, International
- Consular Relations
- Contemporary Catholic Approaches
- Continental Shelf, Idea and Limits of the
- Cooperation in Criminal Matters, Cross-Border
- Courts, International
- Crimes against Humanity
- Criminal Law, International
- Cultural Rights
- Cyber Warfare
- Debt, Sovereign
- Development Law, International
- Disputes, Peaceful Settlement of
- Drugs, International Regulation, and Criminal Liability
- Early 19th Century, 1789-1870
- Economic Law, International
- Enforcement of Human Rights
- Environmental Compliance Mechanisms
- Environmental Institutions, International
- Environmental Law, International
- European Arrest Warrant
- Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights Treaties
- Feminist Approaches to International Law
- Financial Law, International
- Foreign Investment
- Freedom of Expression
- French Revolution
- General Customary Law
- General Principles of Law
- Grotius, Hugo
- Habeas Corpus
- History of International Law, 1550–1700
- Hostilities, Direct Participation in
- Human Rights
- Human Rights and Regional Protection, Relativism and Unive...
- Human Rights, European Court of
- Human Rights, Foundations of
- Human Trafficking
- Hybrid International Criminal Tribunals
- Immunity, Sovereign
- Indigenous Peoples
- Institutional Law
- International and Non-International Armed Conflict, Detent...
- International Court of Justice
- International Criminal Court, The
- International Criminal Law, Complicity in
- International Humanitarian Law
- International Humanitarian Law, Targeting in
- International Investment Agreements, Fair and Equitable Tr...
- International Investment Arbitration
- International Investment Law, Expropriation in
- International Law, Aggression in
- International Law, Anthropology and
- International Law, Climate Change and
- International Law, Dispute Settlement in
- International Law, Hegemony in
- International Law, Marxist Approaches to
- International Law, Military Intervention in
- International Law, Peacekeeping in
- International Law, Proportionality in
- International Law, Reasonableness in
- International Law, Recognition in
- International Law, Self-Determination in
- International Law, State Responsibility in
- International Law, State Succession in
- International Law, the State in
- International Law, the Turn to History in
- International Law, Trade and Development in
- International Law, Unequal Treaties in
- International Law, Use of Force in
- International Trade and Human Rights
- Intervention, Humanitarian
- Investment Protection Treaties
- Islamic Law and Human Rights
- Jurisprudence (Judicial Law-Making)
- Jus Cogens
- Law of the Sea
- Law of Treaties, The
- League of Nations, The
- Lebanon, Special Tribunal for
- Liability for International Environmental Harm
- Maritime Delimitation
- Martens Clause
- Medieval International Law
- Mens Rea, International Crimes
- Military Necessity
- Military Occupation
- Modes of Participation
- Most-Favored-Nation Clauses
- Multinational Corporations in International Law
- Nationality and Statelessness
- Natural Law
- New Approaches to International Law
- Non liquet
- Nonstate Actors
- Nuclear Proliferation
- Nuremberg Trials
- Organizations, International
- Palestine (and the Israel Question)
- Peace Treaties
- Political Science, International Law and
- Protection, Diplomatic
- Public Interest, Human Rights, and Foreign Investment
- Rational Choice Theory
- Russian Approaches to International Law
- Sanctions, International
- Soft Law
- Space Law
- Spanish School of International Law (c. 16th and 17th Cent...
- Sports Law, International
- State of Necessity
- Superior Orders
- Territorial Title
- Theory, Critical International Legal
- Transnational Corruption
- Treaty Interpretation
- Ukrainian Approaches
- Underwater Cultural Heritage
- Unilateral Acts
- Universal Jurisdiction
- Uti Possidetis Iuris
- Vatican and the Holy See
- Victims' Rights, International Criminal Law, and Proceedin...
- Watercourses, International
- Western Sahara