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Victorian Literature Charlotte Brontë
by
Sharon Aronofsky Weltman, Doris Raab

Introduction

Charlotte Brontë (b. 1816–d. 1854) was the eldest of the three Brontë sisters (Charlotte, Emily, and Anne) whose books have been regarded as masterpieces of the English novel for over 160 years. The daughter of Rev. Patrick Brontë and Maria Branwell Brontë, Charlotte grew up the third of six children in Haworth Parsonage in Yorkshire, England. In 1824 Charlotte, Emily, and their two older sisters, Maria and Elizabeth, went off to school at Cowan Bridge (later depicted as Lowood School in Jane Eyre) but were removed in less than one year because conditions at the school were hastening the tragic deaths of the older girls from tuberculosis. Back home, Charlotte began writing tales about imaginary kingdoms with her younger siblings (Emily, Anne, and brother Branwell). She continued her education at Roe Head School, where she made lifelong friends and later taught. In 1842 Charlotte and Emily traveled to Brussels to study at Constantin Heger’s boarding school; there she was also later employed as a teacher. Unhappy, she developed feelings for the married Heger (providing material for her later novels). Brontë returned home in 1844, completing her first novel, The Professor (written 1845–1846, published posthumously in 1857), and publishing with her sisters Poems of Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell (1846), which sold only two copies. Undaunted, the three women followed up with a novel each, all published in 1847, and all now classics. Charlotte’s was Jane Eyre, an immediate sensation. She followed this success with Shirley in 1849 and Villette in 1853. Yet her private life was full of sorrow: in 1848 she lost Branwell and Emily; Anne died in 1849. In 1854 Charlotte Brontë married Rev. A. B. Nicholls, curate of Haworth, but she passed away the same year from pneumonia. Brontë’s fiction is most noted for her portrayal of passion, her subversive commentaries on Victorian women’s roles, and her narrative innovation, although she also deals with issues of empire, class, education, gender, and religion.

General Overviews

Religion, passion, class, and postcolonialism are popular critical topics for each of Brontë’s works, as these representative general studies demonstrate. Eagleton 2005, on Marxism in Brontë, reads her novels through their depiction of class antagonism, while Glen 2004 historicizes her. Both Peschier 2005 and Thormählen 1999 consider how Brontë’s religion affects her novels, although Peschier provides more historical context. Duthie 1975 similarly relies on biography to study the impact of Brussels on the novels. Gezari 1992 interrogates the relationship between physical bodies and social discourses. Martin 1966 delves into the tension between passion and reason throughout Brontë’s writings, while Miller 2003 dismantles the myths surrounding Brontë, and Kucich 1987 redefines the relationship between passion and repression in her works.

  • Duthie, Enid L. The Foreign Vision of Charlotte Brontë. London: Macmillan, 1975.

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    Argues that although Brontë’s stay in Brussels did not create her genius, it did expose her to material most suited to her creative powers. Begins with biographical chapters on her stay in Brussels, followed by an examination of its impact on her novels, from diction to characters and settings. Includes select bibliography.

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  • Eagleton, Terry. Myths of Power: A Marxist Study of the Brontës. Rev. ed. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

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    Suggests Brontë’s novels attempt to balance middle-class reason and Romantic sentiments. Conflicts in the novels reflect tensions between landed and industrial ruling classes. Five chapters on Brontë’s novels.

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  • Gezari, Janet. Charlotte Brontë and Defensive Conduct: The Author and the Body at Risk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

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    Shows how Brontë’s novels use the body as the site where social conflicts are worked out.

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  • Glen, Heather. Charlotte Brontë: The Imagination in History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

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    Thorough examination of Brontë’s works in historical context. Brontë’s juvenilia highlights interest in the history of “spectral others” that continues throughout her career (p. 25).

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  • Kucich, John. Repression in Victorian Fiction: Charlotte Brontë, George Eliot, and Charles Dickens. Berkley: University of California Press, 1987.

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    Argues that repression and passion in Victorian novels are not at odds; instead, repression heightens internal emotional responses in a way not accessible in public interactions. In the section on Brontë, Kucich contends that the characters choose interior spaces for emotional release as an escape from social powers.

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  • Martin, Robert Bernard. The Accents of Persuasion: Charlotte Brontë’s Novels. London: Faber & Faber, 1966.

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    Four chapters approach Brontë’s novels thematically; their overarching theme is the conflict between reason and passion. Finds Shirley least successful, in part due to third-person narration.

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  • Miller, Lucasta. The Brontë Myth. New York: Knopf, 2003.

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    Influential study discussing various myths surrounding the Brontës’ lives, examining the myth Charlotte herself creates. Critiques Gaskell’s portrayal of Brontë, offering a profusion of primary texts tracing Charlotte Brontë’s life.

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  • Peschier, Diana. Nineteenth-Century Anti-Catholic Discourses: The Case of Charlotte Brontë. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

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    Examines nonfiction anti-Catholic influences on Brontë; extensive primary material, including newspapers that Brontë read. Also reads anti-Catholicism in Villette, Shirley, and The Professor.

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  • Thormählen, Marianne. The Brontës and Religion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

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    Analyzes the Brontës’ experiences with religion and its depiction in their novels. Large portions dedicated to Charlotte, with the final chapter devoted to St. John Rivers.

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Biographies

Charlotte Brontë’s life attracted critical attention from early in her career, in part due to speculation about the identity of Currer Bell, her pseudonym. Gaskell 1997 remains essential; despite obscuring controversial aspects of the life, it is written by a great novelist who knew her subject personally. More scholarly are the highly regarded Gérin 1987, which sets out to correct the errors in Gaskell’s biography, and Winnifrith 1988, which includes information not in the earlier works due to the release of new documents. Gordon 2008 and Fraser 2008 are the most recent additions with updated approaches; Moglen 1976 offers useful commentary on the relationship of Brontë’s life and works. Barker 1996 provides a detailed and thoroughly researched contextual study of Charlotte Brontë and her family.

  • Barker, Juliet. The Brontës. New York: St. Martin’s, 1996.

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    This widely read and meticulously researched group biography provides important contextual information about Charlotte Brontë and her family, including their lives at the Haworth Parsonage Museum (of which Barker was librarian and curator).

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  • Fraser, Rebecca. Charlotte Brontë: A Writer’s Life. New York: Norton, 2008.

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    Usefully examines how opinions of Charlotte Brontë have and have not changed since the 1857 publication of Gaskell 1997. Addresses Brontë’s life within a feminist framework, examining limitations placed on Victorian women, showing a modern audience the way her own society saw her.

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  • Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn. The Life of Charlotte Brontë. Edited by Winifred Gérin. London: Penguin, 1997.

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    First published in 1857 (London: Smith, Elder), this biography is by Brontë’s friend Elizabeth Gaskell, a highly regarded novelist. Offers essential contemporary insights, but elides Brontë’s unrequited love for the married Heger. This edition also includes a useful introduction by Winifred Gérin.

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  • Gérin, Winifred. Charlotte Brontë: The Evolution of Genius. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.

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    Highly respected older biography, providing a comprehensive portrait of Charlotte Brontë’s life, especially elements that Gaskell 1997 hides and misconstrues. Rehabilitates Mrs. Heger and Branwell, depicting the complexity of Brontë’s life. Includes a useful bibliography of secondary sources.

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  • Gordon, Lyndall. Charlotte Brontë: A Passionate Life. London: Virago, 2008.

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    Argues against the notion that Charlotte Brontë lived a somber and cloistered life, arguing that hers was much more complex and passionate. Relies on documents from the Brontë parsonage, Gaskell’s biography (Gaskell 1997), and Brontë’s letters.

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  • Moglen, Helene. Charlotte Brontë: The Self Conceived. New York: Norton, 1976.

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    Examines the intersection of Brontë’s works and life, constructing a parallel to Byron, who influenced her work. Suggests that all her works reflect her desired relationship with Heger.

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  • Winnifrith, Tom. A New Life of Charlotte Brontë. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1988.

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    Sets out to rectify the errors found in Gérin 1987 (but recognizes its usefulness and quality). Thorough and detailed, documents Bronte’s life from birth to death certificate. Includes significant new information from recently released primary materials.

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Editions and Letters

Brontë’s novels appear in a superabundance of editions; the best come with annotations and scholarly supplements. The Oxford Shirley (Brontë 2007) and The Professor (Brontë 2008) provide fine critical introductions by the editors. Of the many excellent editions of Jane Eyre, two stand out: Brontë 1996 and Brontë 2000; both include primary resources and critical articles. Similarly, the Broadview Villette (Brontë 2005) includes critical and historical contexts. Of great importance to researchers is Brontë 1995–2004, a collection of her letters that is the most widely used and inclusive.

  • Brontë, Charlotte. The Letters of Charlotte Bronte, with a Selection of Letters by Family and Friends. Edited by Margaret Smith. 3 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995–2004.

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    The standard source for Brontë’s letters, beginning when she was thirteen and continuing throughout her literary career.

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  • Brontë, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Edited by Beth Newman. Boston: Bedford, 1996.

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    Includes historical contexts as well as articles from five different critical perspectives: feminist (Gilbert), psychoanalytic (Sadoff), deconstructionist (Schwartz), cultural-critical (Michie), and Marxist (Fraiman). Each of these articles also has a corresponding explanation of the theory. Excellent teaching edition.

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  • Brontë, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Edited by Richard J. Dunn. 3d ed. New York: Norton, 2000.

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    Useful for its inclusion of contextual supplements (role of governesses, reviews of and responses to Brontë’s writings) as well a variety of articles from critics such as Sandra Gilbert, Adrienne Rich, and Jerome Beatty, and a selected bibliography.

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  • Brontë, Charlotte. Villette. Edited by Kate Lawson. Peterborough, ON: Broadview, 2005.

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    Superior because of the variety of primary material on publication and historical/political context, including anti-Catholicism, surveillance, women and work, and so on.

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  • Brontë, Charlotte. Shirley. Edited by Herbert Rosengarten and Margaret Smith. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

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    The best edition, with an introduction by Janet Gezari. Only edition available with any supplementary critical material.

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  • Brontë, Charlotte. The Professor. Edited by Margaret Smith and Herbert Rosengarten. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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    The most scholar-friendly edition of The Professor available. Includes a critical introduction by Margaret Smith.

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Collected Essays and Journals

For 19th-century reviews and responses, the best source remains Allott 1974. There is also no shortage of collected essays on Jane Eyre. Many of these collections’ articles overlap, especially Glen 1997 and Michie 2006, the latter of which has the advantage of being more up to date. Gates 1990 offers helpful material on all of Brontë’s writings and is especially valuable for including 19th-century reviews; Bloom 2007 supplies a wide array of critical approaches. For a wide survey of historical and critical information, The Cambridge Companion to the Brontës (Glen 2002) is a valuable resource for researchers and students alike. Among the many scholarly journals that publish frequently on Brontë, Brontë Studies is the most obvious resource.

  • Allott, Miriam, ed. The Brontës: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974.

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    Rich compendium of 19th-century reviews and other responses to the Brontës, with an excellent long introduction contextualizing the material and drawing connections. Includes a chronology and other research tools.

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  • Bloom, Harold, ed. Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre. Modern Critical Interpretations. New New York: Chelsea House, 2007.

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    Includes biographical and primary documents along with excerpts from major critical interpretations of Jane Eyre; authors include Nina Auerbach, Adrienne Rich, and Terry Eagleton. Useful bibliography.

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  • Brontë Studies.

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    This venerable specialty journal for Brontë criticism affiliated with the Brontë Society includes peer-reviewed articles as well as news and notices; over a hundred articles on Charlotte Brontë from 2002 to 2009 alone. Previously Brontë Society Transactions.

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  • Gates, Barbara Timm, ed. Critical Essays on Charlotte Brontë. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1990.

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    A variety of articles on each of Brontë’s works, including her juvenilia. Some contemporary reviews.

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  • Glen, Heather, ed. Jane Eyre. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 1997.

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    Features articles on an assortment of subjects by eminent critics such as Mary Poovey and Elaine Showalter. Since many are reprinted classics of modern criticism, the earliest being from 1977, they provide insight into changes in critical thought regarding Jane Eyre.

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  • Glen, Heather, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Brontës. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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    A collection of essays tracing the trajectory of the Brontës’ life and works, beginning with a chapter on Haworth by Juliet Barker. Several chapters compare works, such as Stevie Davies’s chapter on Wuthering Heights, Agnes Grey, and The Professor. One chapter is devoted to Shirley and Villette; the rest focus on ideology and character, women writers, religion, and the Brontë Myth.

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  • Michie, Elsie B., ed. Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre: A Casebook. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

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    Reprints an impressive variety of classic articles by such eminent scholars and writers as Cora Kaplan, Sally Shuttleworth, Beth Newman, Helena Michie, Patsy Stoneman, and Joyce Carol Oates, analyzing the confessional tradition, class and sexuality, history, and the novel’s echoes in Wide Sargasso Sea.

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Reference Works

The Victorian Web overview of Charlotte Brontë offers the most detailed, expansive, and reputable online source for those interested in Charlotte Brontë. The Bronte Sisters Web remains useful, although out of date, for its links to a broad range of Brontë resources. Crump 1982–1986 is a very useful three-volume bibliography, packed with information in short annotations that cover materials from a broad spectrum, including foreign-language publications and other bibliographies. Passel 1979 is much briefer but still rich source for concise explanations of Brontë materials.

  • Crump, R. W. Charlotte and Emily Brontë: A Reference Guide. 3 vols. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1982–1986.

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    Extremely thorough annotated bibliography on Charlotte and Emily Brontë. Includes articles, books, other bibliographies, and foreign-language publications. Divided chronologically: the first volume covers 1846–1915, the second 1916–1954, and the third 1955–1983.

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  • Bronte Sisters Web.

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    Academic portal website maintained by Mitsuhara Matsuoka of Nagoya University in Japan. Provides links to and descriptions of online Brontë resources, including international Brontë societies. Offers a helpful electronic concordance of Brontë’s works. Last updated in 2007; some links broken.

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    • Passel, Anne. Charlotte and Emily Brontë: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1979.

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      Divided into separate sections for each sister and further organized by individual works. Provides information on primary resources and includes a handy bibliography of other bibliographies.

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    • Victorian Web. Charlotte Bronte: An Overview.

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      Features many articles situating Brontë historically, ranging from responses to Brontë’s novels in contemporary periodicals to Victorian religious ideology in her fiction, contributed by academics internationally. Convenient sections (“Biography,” “Gender Matters,” “Visual Arts,” etc.) make this reputable site readily navigable.

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    Desire and Sexuality

    Charlotte Brontë’s treatment of desire has long been a source of critical fascination. Both Kucich 1985 and Lane 2002 argue against traditional psychological theories that mark introversion or distaste for social interactions as negative, collapsing binaries of passion and reserve as well as passion and hatred. Maynard 1984 demonstrates Brontë’s skill in representing desire and sexuality throughout her career. Responding to Maynard, Shuttleworth 1996 situates Brontë within the context of Victorian psychology in relation to sexuality and insanity.

    • Kucich, John. “Passionate Reserve and Reserved Passion in the Works of Charlotte Brontë.” ELH 52.4 (1985): 913–937.

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      Key essay arguing Freudian psychology (viewing “refusal of self-expression” negatively) does not apply to Brontë’s oeuvre (p. 913). Rather, passion and reserve are “parallel” and at times “interchangeable” in Brontë’s works, revealing the instability of the opposition itself (p. 913). Uses Foucault to argue that reserve enables characters to fracture systems of power.

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    • Lane, Christopher. “Charlotte Brontë on the Pleasure of Hating.” ELH 69.1 (2002): 199–222.

      DOI: 10.1353/elh.2002.0008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Examines hatred in Brontë, especially how antagonism to social relationships is presented non-pejoratively. Contends that this passionate treatment of misanthropy extends across Brontë’s works. Explores contradictions between seclusion and characters’ narcissism, which draws them to society to find images of themselves.

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    • Maynard, John. Charlotte Brontë and Sexuality. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

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      Groundbreaking work demonstrating Brontë’s artistry in openly dealing with issues of desire and sexuality throughout her canon.

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    • Shuttleworth, Sally. Charlotte Brontë and Victorian Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

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      Highly respected book placing Brontë’s novels within the context of Victorian psychology, particularly constructions of sexuality and insanity.

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    Style, Genre, and Form

    Particularly useful on Brontë’s style is Bock 1992, which rejects the critical tendency to read the novels biographically, focusing instead on techniques of storytelling; Tromly 1982 already argues that her works use the autobiographic form without connecting the form to her life. In contrast, Lamonica 2003 returns to biography to show Brontë using family in her novels to define selfhood. Peters 1973 still remains valuable for demonstrating how Brontë innovates form by joining poetry and prose. Griffiths 2007 discusses Brontë’s manipulation of nonverbal forms such as paintings. Buzard 2005 reads the novels as autoethnography.

    • Bock, Carol A. Charlotte Brontë and the Storyteller’s Audience. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1992.

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      Dismisses the view of Brontë as confessional writer (includes a detailed appendix chronicling such sources); instead portrays her as storyteller. Focuses on techniques that perpetually force the audience to recognize the novel as a narrative, such as addressing the reader, frame tales, and extratextual tableaus.

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    • Buzard, James. Disorienting Fiction: The Autoethnographic Work of Nineteenth-Century British Novels. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.

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      Four chapters in this innovative book examine Brontë’s novels as autoethnographies that negotiate national identity.

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    • Griffiths, Siân B. “Dissolving Pearls: Charlotte Brontë’s Textual Hieroglyphics.” Women’s Writing 14.1 (2007): 49–69.

      DOI: 10.1080/09699080701195629Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Contends that Brontë calls on her readers to decode the text just as Lucy Snowe and M. Paul interpret paintings. Also examines Brontë’s use of hieroglyphs to work outside of words.

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    • Lamonica, Drew. “We Are Three Sisters”: Self and Family in the Writing of the Brontës. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2003.

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      A biographical contextual study; several chapters devoted to Charlotte Brontë’s novels explore family as defining selfhood.

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    • Peters, Margot. Charlotte Brontë: Style in the Novel. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973.

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      Brontë’s novels innovate by blending prose and poetry; Peters argues that the polarized style reflects Brontë’s own divided self. Her novels remain popular because modern society is still obsessed with the divided nature of man.

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    • Tromly, Annette. The Cover of the Mask: The Autobiographers in Charlotte Brontë’s Fiction. Victoria, BC: English Literary Studies, University of Victoria, 1982.

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      Contends that Brontë’s novels are not autobiographical in nature, but exploit the autobiographic form, as each narrator exerts control over the story and manipulates it.

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    Juvenilia

    The Brontë siblings wrote extensively during their youth, and the primary source for these materials remains the three-volume collection Brontë 1983–1991. The stories known as the “Glass Town Saga” and the “Tales of Angria” (1826–1835) echo throughout Brontë’s mature output, although she jettisons their aristocratic world for more somber narratives dealing with everyday life, according to Arvan-Andrews 2009. Many critics consider how these early texts prefigure Brontë’s canonical works. Williams 1987 sees the novels’ social issues in Brontë’s juvenilia. Alexander 1991 points to Brontë’s continued interest in art, while Brown 1998 analyzes how Brontë’s treatment of the early physical manuscripts becomes part of Villette’s narrative strategy. Carlson 1998 suggests the tales provide a space for her to explore erotic fantasies.

    • Alexander, Christine. “Art and Artists in Charlotte Brontë’s Juvenilia.” Brontë Society Transactions 20.4 (1991): 177–204.

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      Examines Brontë’s early fascination with art and its origins, arguing that throughout the juvenilia Brontë employs a pictorial perspective.

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    • Arvan-Andrews, Elaine. “The ‘Lure of the Fabulous’: Gift-Book Beauties and Charlotte Brontë’s Early Heroines.” Women’s Writing 16.2 (2009): 263–282.

      DOI: 10.1080/09699080902978328Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Contends that Brontë imitated the silver-fork novel in her early depictions of aristocratic women, using these figures to mock female overconsumption and materialism; yet these works also demonstrate her movement toward the plain heroines of her novels, more focused on interiority.

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    • Brontë, Charlotte. An Edition of the Early Writings of Charlotte Brontë. 3 vols. Edited by Christine Alexander. Oxford: Blackwell, 1983–1991.

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      Divides Brontë’s juvenilia by years and offers select reproductions of pages from the manuscripts. Volume 1 contains writings from 1826 to 1832; Volume 2, Part 1 from 1833 to 1834, and Part 2 from 1834 to 1835.

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    • Brown, Kate E. “Beloved Objects: Mourning, Materiality, and Charlotte Brontë’s ‘Never-Ending Story.’” ELH 65.2 (1998): 395–421.

      DOI: 10.1353/elh.1998.0010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Links Brontë’s juvenilia to Villette through the letters Lucy Snowe “buries.” Examines the juvenilia’s production more than content: the Angrian tales provide a tool for mourning the deaths of Charlotte’s sisters, Maria and Elizabeth Brontë. The books as material objects “keep grief alive” but also modify the loss into an “absurd satisfaction” (p. 399).

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    • Carlson, Susan Anne. “Incest and Rage in Charlotte Brontë’s Novelettes.” In Creating Safe Space: Violence and Women’s Writing. Edited by Tomoko Kuribayashi and Julie Tharp, 60–78. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.

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      Argues that Brontë’s novelettes (1836–1839) function as a subconscious “outlet for her erotic … oedipal fantasies” and masochism (p. 61).

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    • Williams, Meg Harris. “Book Magic: Aesthetic Conflicts in Charlotte Brontë’s Juvenilia.” Nineteenth-Century Literature 42.1 (1987): 29–45.

      DOI: 10.1525/ncl.1987.42.1.99p0073mSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Argues that Brontë’s juvenilia highlight her interest in narrative tensions. Maps Brontë’s literary creators in her juvenilia and defines the ways in which this world of magic interacted with Victorian issues.

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    Jane Eyre

    Jane Eyre (1847) is Brontë’s most famous novel, widely taught and the focus of a huge body of criticism. Despite some early reservations by contemporary reviewers concerned with its seeming coarseness and rebelliousness from its first publication through many modern retellings, this novel has captured the public’s interest and affection. Scholarship on Jane Eyre runs the gamut of theoretical perspective. In recent years Jane Eyre’s afterlife has become even more prominent, not only with scholarly treatments (such as Stoneman 1996, a publication of eight stage adaptations, cited in Adaptations) but also with popular appropriations.

    Genre and Form

    Although genre and form in Jane Eyre have received less critical attention recently, they remain vibrant topics in Brontë studies generally. Beaty 1996 presents a thorough and lucid look at the variety of genres used and discarded in the novel; Ashe 1988 places the opening chapters at the center of the narrative. Craig 1993 compellingly looks at logophobia within the novel. Massé 1992 explores masochism in the Gothic. Dale 1986 discusses Brontë’s narrative technique in terms of evasion of normative paths.

    • Ashe, Frederick L. “Jane Eyre: The Quest for Optimism.” Studies in the Novel 20.2 (1988): 121–130.

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      Looks at the significance of the Jane’s childhood in her later development of morality.

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    • Beaty, Jerome. Misreading Jane Eyre: A Postformalist Paradigm. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1996.

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      Examines the variety of genres that influenced the novel (gothic, governess, autobiography), and how it breaks from them. Additionally discusses issues of narration that arise from the shift between character and narrator (young Jane and older Jane).

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    • Craig, Randall. “Logophobia in Jane Eyre.” Journal of Narrative Technique 23.2 (1993): 92–113.

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      Discusses two competing dangers of language: its failure to articulate properly what occurs and its “explosive power to reveal rather than distort,” arguing that language, in either form, has “destructive powers” in Jane Eyre, making even Jane unreliable (p. 93–94).

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    • Dale, Peter Allan. “Charlotte Brontë’s ‘Tale Half-told’: The Disruption of Narrative Structure in Jane Eyre.” Modern Language Quarterly 47.2 (1986): 108–129.

      DOI: 10.1215/00267929-47-2-108Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Examines Brontë’s use of narrative delay in conjunction with preconceived notions of the narrative path. Argues that Brontë “establishes … fundamental patterns of desire” that cannot be properly completed, allowing her to “evade” the “recognition of the imagination’s limits” (p. 110). Reprinted in Glen 1997 (cited under Collected Essays and Journals).

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    • Massé, Michelle A. “Looking Out for Yourself: The Spectator and Jane Eyre.” In In the Name of Love: Women, Masochism, and the Gothic. By Michelle A. Massé, 192–238. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.

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      A chapter on Jane Eyre in this book on Freudian masochistic beating fantasies in Gothic literature considers Jane’s healthy refusal of Rochester’s domination.

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    Women and Power

    Jane Eyre has generated an abundance of iconic feminist criticism; space permits only a small representative sampling here. Gilbert 2000 remains a classic for gender and Jane Eyre, highlighting its complex relationship to feminism. Levine 2000 and Jung 2007 connect the book to various aspects of Victorian society. Clarke 2000 situates Jane Eyre’s discourse on women within the context of other works. Grudin 1977 contends that restraint wins over passion in Jane Eyre.

    • Clarke M. Micael. “Brontë’s Jane Eyre and the Grimms’ Cinderella.” Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900 40.4 (2000): 695–710.

      DOI: 10.2307/1556246Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Responds to critics who view the ending of Jane Eyre as a failure to live up to the early feminist expectations. Argues that instead of bringing the mythical down to the domestic, Brontë raises the domestic to the mythic. Also examines thematic interrelationships between Jane Eyre and the Grimms’ Cinderella.

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    • Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.

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      Groundbreaking feminist book devotes four chapters to Charlotte Brontë (obviously taking its title from Jane Eyre’s Bertha Mason, interpreted psychologically as Jane’s double). The chapter on Jane Eyre by Gilbert (first published in 1977 in Signs) situates it in the tradition of A Pilgrim’s Progress, but Brontë rejects Bunyan’s philosophy, as represented by St. John Rivers.

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    • Grudin, Peter. “Jane and the Other Mrs. Rochester: Excess and Restraint in Jane Eyre.” Novel: A Forum on Fiction 10.2 (1977): 145–157.

      DOI: 10.2307/1344783Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Views Jane Eyre as a didactic text that subordinates passion to restraint. Bertha represents passion unreined as well as those negative traits that cannot be expressed in Jane.

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    • Jung, Sandro. “Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre, the Female Detective and the ‘Crime’ of Female Selfhood.” Brontë Studies 32.1 (2007): 21–30.

      DOI: 10.1179/147489307x157897Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Views Jane as a detective who interrogates Rochester’s authority, contending that the qualities that form her as a detective also mark her as a criminal within the ideology of the Victorian middle class.

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    • Levine, Caroline. “‘Harmless Pleasure’: Gender, Suspense, and Jane Eyre.” Victorian Literature and Culture 28.2 (2000): 275–286.

      DOI: 10.1017/S1060150300282028Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Parallels the novel with the public revelation of Currer Bell’s identity, suggesting that both employ suspense in order to disrupt Victorian regulation of women.

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    Adaptation

    Stoneman’s extensive work on Jane Eyre and adaptation has helped propel critical work on the subject, first through her highly influential Bronte Transformations (Stoneman 1996), which traces the cultural afterlife of Jane Eyre; later through Stoneman 2007, her edition of eight stage adaptations from the 19th century; and finally in Stoneman 2008, a discussion of Bertha’s public transformations. Allen and Felluga 2005 examines a current Broadway musical adaptation, while Rubik and Mettinger-Schartmann 2007 looks at the wide variety of forms Jane Eyre takes, including some of the plays published in Stoneman’s anthology as well as discussions of Jasper Fforde’s novel. Hateley 2005 offers another source for critical insight on Fforde’s novel and norms. Like Stoneman, Maurel 2009 also considers Bertha/Antoinette in Wide Sargasso Sea, focusing on romantic motifs.

    • Allen, Emily, and Dino Franco Felluga. “Jane Eyre: Now and Forever; or, The Strange Afterlife of Gothic.” Romanticism on the Net 34–35 (May 2004).

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      Examines Jane Eyre: The Musical (2000) as a kitsch hybrid of novel and opera.

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    • Hateley, Erica. “The End of The Eyre Affair: Jane Eyre, Parody, and Popular Culture.” Journal of Popular Culture 38.6 (2005): 1022–1036.

      DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-5931.2005.00174.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Suggests that Fforde uses a variety of discourses (including issues of authorship and narrative form) surrounding Brontë/Jane Eyre in order to reinforce traditional conventions.

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    • Maurel, Sylvie: “The Other Stage: From Jane Eyre to Wide Sargasso Sea.” Brontë Studies 34.2 (2009): 155–161.

      DOI: 10.1179/147489309X431566Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Argues that Rhys frees the romantic motifs in Jane Eyre through a transition from wintry to tropical settings, proposing that Bertha is similarly transformed.

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    • Rubik, Margarete, and Elke Mettinger-Schartmann, eds. A Breath of Fresh Eyre: Intertextual and Intermedial Reworkings of Jane Eyre. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2007.

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      An essay collection devoted to adaptations of Jane Eyre from shortly after its publication to current co-options of the text. Includes critical discussions of novels such as Fforde’s The Eyre Affair as well as analyses of visual and dramatic productions.

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    • Stoneman, Patsy. Brontë Transformations: The Cultural Dissemination of Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights. New York: Prentice Hall, 1996.

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      Important book tracing the afterlives of the two texts and the variety of forms they take with large sections devoted to Jane Eyre. Begins by examining plays produced in the 19th century and divides chapters based on time period, following the trajectory of Jane Eyre in public and cultural discourses with particular attention paid to class, race, and gender.

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    • Stoneman, Patsy, ed. Jane Eyre on Stage, 1848–1898: An Illustrated Edition of Eight Plays with Contextual Notes. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2007.

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      Provides not only the full text of the eight plays but also excellent critical commentary, facsimiles of manuscript pages, detailed explanations of how the adaptations alter the original, contemporary reviews of the productions, and background on the playwrights.

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    • Stoneman, Patsy. “Jane Eyre’s Other: The Emergence of Bertha.” In The Brontës in the World of Arts. Edited by Sandra Hagan and Juliette Wells, 197–211. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2008.

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      Looks at ways different forms of media have depicted Bertha, from stage adaptations to novels and movies. Examines the impact of Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea on later works that focus on Bertha.

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    Masculinity and Control

    While Jane and feminism has long been a critical hot topic, it has only been in the past decade or so that Rochester has received much individual critical attention. Of particular interest is Kendrick 2003, which seeks to rehabilitate Rochester by reading the ways in which he alters and informs masculinity. In contrast, Leggatt and Parkes 2006 details Rochester’s attempts to confine and control Jane while she seeks freedom. Scaff 2002 likewise takes on Rochester’s and St. John’s attempts to hold Jane, analyzing their failure to do so in rhetorical terms. Wylie 1999 intriguingly analyzes Bertha as Rochester’s double rather than Jane’s.

    • Kendrick, Robert. “Edward Rochester and the Margins of Masculinity in Jane Eyre and Wide Sargasso Sea.” In The Brontës. Edited by Patricia Ingham, 203–215. London: Longman, 2003.

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      Examines how Rochester manipulates and transforms his relationship to norms of masculinity.

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    • Leggatt, Judith, and Christopher Parkes. “From the Red Room to Rochester’s Haircut: Mind Control in Jane Eyre.” English Studies in Canada 32.4 (2006): 169–188.

      DOI: 10.1353/esc.0.0008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Contends that a variety of masculine forces seek to control Jane (Brocklehurst, Rochester, St. John), suggesting that Jane responds to such forces by turning to images of freedom to “escape feeling enclosed or commodified” as she seeks a “balance” between society and freedom (p. 169).

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    • Scaff, Susan V. “Echoes of Aristotle: Rochester’s Rhetorical Ploys in Jane Eyre.” Brontë Studies 27.2 (2002): 113–120.

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      Evaluates two scenes in which first Rochester and then St. John employ classical rhetoric to convince Jane; analyzes their failures in terms of their use of Aristotle.

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    • Wylie, Judith. “Incarnate Crimes: Masculine Gendering and the Double in Jane Eyre.” Victorians Institute Journal 27 (1999): 55–69.

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      Rather than reading Bertha as Jane’s double, Wylie contends that she figures as Rochester’s double and can be “linked to masculine repression” (p. 56).

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    Religion

    Critics have long been divided on whether or not Jane Eyre critiques religion, and, if so, to what extent. Franklin 1995 suggests that the text highlights the struggles between various religious opinions. Searle 2006 explores the conflicts that arise between romance and Christianity. Gibson 1999, Griesinger 2008, and Vejvoda 2003 integrate Brontë’s life and culture with her depiction of religion. Peters 2004 interrogates the basis of Jane Eyre’s religious subversion, while Hughes 1964 rejects the overt Christianity as a simple overlay that obscures older religions.

    • Franklin, J. Jeffrey. “The Merging of Spiritualities: Jane Eyre as Missionary of Love.” Nineteenth-Century Literature 49.4 (1995): 456–482.

      DOI: 10.1525/ncl.1995.49.4.99p0114sSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Teases out Brontë’s use of a variety of spiritualities, including colloquial, supernatural, and Christian (which predominates), arguing that the novel reflects a contest between them.

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    • Gibson, Mary Ellis. “Henry Martyn and England’s Christian Empire: Rereading Jane Eyre through Missionary Biography.” Victorian Literature and Culture 27.2 (1999): 419–442.

      DOI: 10.1017/S106015039927204XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Provides a detailed account of Martyn’s memoirs and the ways in which Victorian culture co-opted the images and ideology expounded therein, critiquing and expanding upon early critics’ contention that he functions as a model for St. John Rivers.

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    • Griesinger, Emily. “Charlotte Bronte’s Religion: Faith, Feminism, and Jane Eyre.” Christianity and Literature 58.1 (2008): 29–59.

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      Discusses the ways in which Christianity—and Brontë’s relationship with it—inflects the feminist elements of the novel, detailing the emergence of evangelicalism, Brontë’s personal relationship to religion, and the connection between Brontë’s spirituality and Jane’s spiritual Bildungsroman.

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    • Hughes, R. E. “Jane Eyre: The Unbaptised Dionysos.” Nineteent-Century Fiction 18 (1964): 347–364.

      DOI: 10.1525/ncl.1964.18.4.99p0208tSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Asserts that the apparent Christian narrative is superimposed on the Greek: Rochester figures as Dionysus and St. John as Apollo.

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    • Peters, John G. “‘We Stood at God’s Feet Equal’: Equality, Subversion, and Religion in Jane Eyre.” Brontë Studies 29.1 (2004): 53–64.

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      Argues that Jane Eyre is not subversive due to an anti-Christian tone or due to its radical visions of gender and class equality, but rather due to its version of Christianity, wherein all are equal.

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    • Searle, Alison. “An Idolatrous Imagination? Biblical Theology and Romanticism in Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre.” Christianity and Literature 56.1 (2006): 35–61.

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      Examines the tension between Romanticism and evangelical tones in Jane Eyre, contending that Brontë uses “a biblical understanding of the imagination,” and that the text seeks to “balance [a] fear of idolatry with a positive appreciation of the imagination” (p. 35).

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    • Vejvoda, Kathleen. “Idolatry in Jane Eyre.” Victorian Literature and Culture 31.1 (2003): 241–261.

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      Provides a detailed account of Brontë’s views and relationship with Catholicism and argues that Brontë uses Victorian concerns and fascination with Catholicism to underscore the idolatry found in Protestantism, specifically in terms of gender, courtship, and marriage.

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    Nationalism and Empire

    Bertha has inspired extensive critical commentary on Brontë’s depiction of the colonized subject, often in connection with gender concerns. The most famous is Spivak 1985, to which Meyer 1990 directly and influentially responds. Thomas 2008 discusses the connection between race, gender, and Englishness. Kroeg 2007 and Michie 1992 move beyond the West Indies to examine how the novel reflects English conceptions of the Irish. Thomas 2004 and Zonana 1992 both detail the ways in which the novel reflects issues of slavery.

    • Kroeg, Susan M. “The ‘Irish Concern’ in Jane Eyre.” Women’s Writing 14.1 (2007): 70–90.

      DOI: 10.1080/09699080701195645Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Connects Brontë’s depiction of the plight of the governess in Victorian society with the public perception of Ireland, arguing that the governess holds a similar role domestically to the role of Ireland in the Empire.

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    • McKee, Patricia. “Racial Strategies in Jane Eyre.” Victorian Literature and Culture 37 (2009): 67–83.

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      Looks at the ambiguous and unfixed nature of racial criteria that Brontë employs and matches this with Victorian ideas on race which was similarly complex in nature.

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    • Meyer, Susan L. “Colonialism and the Figurative Strategy of Jane Eyre.” Victorian Studies 33.2 (Winter 1990): 247–268.

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      Often reprinted in collections, this key essay responds to Spivak 1985, arguing for the complexity of the novel’s figurative use of race and its importance in understanding the politics of Jane Eyre.

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    • Michie, Elsie. “From Simianized Irish to Oriental Despots: Heathcliff, Rochester, and Racial Difference.” Novel: A Forum on Fiction 25.2 (1992): 125–140.

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      Examines the ways in which Rochester and Heathcliff reflect colonial discourses, suggesting that while the majority of overt allusions to empire center on the orient, these serve to cloak the Brontës’ examination of Ireland and Empire in the aftermath of the potato famine. Argues that both characters move from positions in which they are opressed to roles of dominance (colonized to colonizer).

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    • Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. “Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialism.” Critical Inquiry 12.1 (1985): 243–261.

      DOI: 10.1086/448328Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      This groundbreaking essay uses Jane Eyre as a vehicle to demonstrate the problems with Western feminist criticism that focuses on the individual’s subjectivity, calling instead for a feminist critique of imperialism.

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    • Thomas, Sue. Imperialism, Reform, and the Making of Englishness in Jane Eyre. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

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      Links genre, gender, and empire, examining Jane Eyre in historical context. Includes chapters on slavery, Bertha’s relationship to her tropical origins, and two adaptations.

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    • Thomas, Tracy. “‘Reader, I Buried Him’: Apocalypse and Empire in Jane Eyre.” Critical Survey 16.2 (2004): 59–77.

      DOI: 10.3167/001115704782351636Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      An interdisciplinary examination of the role of slavery in Jane Eyre, which uses such imagery not only to parallel white female oppression but also to interrogate Victorian ideology surrounding gender and empire.

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    • Zonana, Joyce. “The Sultan and the Slave: Feminist Orientalism and the Structures of Jane Eyre.” Signs 18.3 (1992): 592–617.

      DOI: 10.1086/494821Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Influential essay suggesting that Jane’s response to colonialism and oppression is not to “redeem” the “enslaved woman” but rather to save the “despotic man who has been led astray” by “Western Ideology” (p. 593).

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    Class and Capitalism

    While discussions of class in Jane Eyre may seem overshadowed by feminist and postcolonial treatments, class nonetheless remains a central critical issue, often in relation to gender or empire. Like feminists, Marxist scholars disagree on the extent of Brontë’s critique. Klaus 2005 and Politi 1997 both argue that subversion ultimately loses out to dominant ideology as Jane either turns to concern for the individual (Klaus) or simply returns to traditional views of class (Politi). Schlossberg 2001 discusses the power of economics and economic theory in Jane Eyre, as does Vanden Bossche 2005, which responds to Politi. Godfrey 2005 and Poovey 1988 detail the plight of Victorian governesses, while Marcus 1995 examines abstraction and alienation in the novel’s construction of female subjectivity. See also Eagleton 2005, cited in General Overviews.

    • Godfrey, Esther. “Jane Eyre, from Governess to Girl Bride.” Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900 45.4 (2005): 853–871.

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      Examines how discourses of femininity and subversion are intricately tied to class in Jane Eyre, noting that only the upper and middle class can use/manipulate gender roles.

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    • Klaus, H. Gustav. “Mrs. Rochester and Mr. Cooper: Alternative Versions of Class, History and Rebellion in the ‘Hungry Forties.’” Literature and History 14.1 (2005): 1–13.

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      Contextual study arguing that, while Jane chastises others for mistreating the lower classes in her speeches to her aunt and family, she ultimately rejects the working class. Critiques the novel for focusing on the individual rather than addressing working-class problems, ultimately reaffirming class distinctions.

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    • Marcus, Sharon. “The Profession of the Author: Abstraction, Advertising, and Jane Eyre.” PMLA 110.2 (1995): 206–219.

      DOI: 10.2307/462911Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Reads the construction of Jane’s (and Brontë’s) female subjectivity through a Marxist and Lacanian analysis of the novel’s moment’s of alienation and abstraction, specifically through Jane’s advertising herself as a governess and Brontë’s engagement in the literary marketplace.

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    • Politi, Jina. “Jane Eyre Class-ified.” In Jane Eyre. Edited by Heather Glen, 78–91. New York: St. Martin’s, 1997.

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      Argues that Jane Eyre begins by critiquing the class system but ends by returning to dominant ideology by culminating in Jane’s marriage.

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    • Poovey, Mary. Uneven Developments: The Ideological Work of Gender in Mid-Victorian England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

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      A very influential chapter (reprinted in several anthologies, such as Glen 1997, cited under Collected Essays and Bibliographies) that situates the novel within the 1840s and 1850s, when the plight of the governess gained public traction; links gender to ideology in the role governesses played in the middle class.

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    • Schlossberg, Linda. “‘The Low, Vague Hum of Numbers’: The Malthusian Economies of Jane Eyre.” Victorian Literature and Culture 29.2 (2001): 489–506.

      DOI: 10.1017/S1060150301002133Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Reacts to critics who argue that imagery of food and privation in Jane Eyre relates to feminism and sexuality, arguing instead that it reflects a broader examination of the child’s body, which depicts the realities of Malthusian economics.

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    • Vanden Bossche, Chris R. “What did Jane Eyre Do? Ideology, Agency, Class, and the Novel.” Narrative 13.1 (2005): 46–66.

      DOI: 10.1353/nar.2005.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Responds to Politi 1997, contending that critical study of economics in literature tends to represent it as a “fixed” field of discourse that “represses social reality” (p. 46). Complicates this argument by examining the various discourses of class rather than arguing that the novel does or does not undermine ideology.

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    Shirley

    Brontë’s second novel (1849) marks a shift in style and content, a shift not seen again in her career. She combines a double romantic marriage plot with critique of industrialization. Studies of genre and form in Shirley abound, along with the mainstays of Brontë criticism: gender, class, and religion.

    Religion

    Of specific interest to critics of religion in Shirley is the tension between Dissenters and the established Church of England, which receives attention in Lawson 1989, which suggests that the novel depicts the need for reform in the Church of England and the inability of Dissenters to improve. Rockefeller 2007 investigates the depiction of various religious views, including atheism, dissent, and the Church of England. Rogal 1981–1982 examines the use and silencing of dissent in the novel. Greene 1994 offers a unique reading, arguing that Brontë’s depiction of religion is controversial, as it rewrites Christianity’s empowering women.

    • Greene, Sally. “Apocalypse When? Shirley’s Vision and the Politics of Reading.” Studies in the Novel 26.4 (1994): 350–371.

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      Suggests that Brontë offers a subversive view of religion wherein the Bible sanctions female individuality; uses textual, biographical material to compare Shirley with Brontë’s own discourse with Constantin Heger.

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    • Lawson, Kate. “The Dissenting Voice: Shirley’s Vision of Women and Christianity.” Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900 29.4 (1989): 729–743.

      DOI: 10.2307/450609Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Widely read essay examining the novel’s depiction of the Anglican Church as needing reform, but Dissenters as incapable of improvement. Connects this discussion with middle-class Anglican women’s dissent and their attempt to repair the patriarchal system, even though they are in the established church.

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    • Rockefeller, Laura Selene. “Shirley and the Politics of Personal Faith.” Brontë Studies 32.2 (2007): 106–115.

      DOI: 10.1179/147489307X182853Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Discusses the ways in which Shirley reflects the juvenilia’s examination of death and resurrection. Also analyzes Moore’s atheism and the tension between Dissenters and the Church of England.

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    • Rogal, Samuel. J. “The Methodist Connection in Charlotte Brontë’s Shirley.” Victorians Institute Journal 10 (1981–1982): 1–13.

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      Examines Brontë’s depiction of conflict in the Victorian era, specifically the ways in which citizens attempted to “hold on to the old traditions while, at the same moment, they reached out for some updated variations of those traditions” (p. 1). Analyzes the use of various Methodist hymns in the novel and how such religions are “silenced” by appealing to British nationalism.

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    Class and Capitalism

    Shirley depicts a working-class uprising, so many critics focus on the novel’s class issues. Hiltner 2008, Pionke 2004, Zlotnick 1991, and Rogers 2003 examine the depiction of Luddism in the novel, dissecting its connection to the later Chartism (Hiltner), its espousal of idealism (Pionke), Brontë’s rewriting Luddite history to include women (Zlotnick), and, finally, Luddism’s relationship to Brontë’s depiction of the duke of Wellington (Rogers). Shapiro 1968 investigates the links between public and private discourses in the novel. Ives 1995 delves into the physical aspects of class relations in her discussion of the value of cloth.

    • Hiltner, Ken. “Shirley and the Luddites.” Brontë Studies 33.2 (2008): 148–158.

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      Rather than equating the Luddites in Shirley with Chartism, Hiltner dissects the role of Luddism in the novel, using historical texts that discuss the emergence of mechanization.

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    • Ives, Maura. “Housework, Mill Work, Women’s Work: The Functions of Cloth in Charlotte Brontë’s Shirley.” In Keeping the Victorian House: A Collection of Essays. Edited by Vanessa D. Dickerson, 259–289. New York: Garland, 1995.

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      Ives defines the role of cloth, both its production (public/masculine) and its consumption (private/feminine) in the novel. Argues that Brontë uses cloth to interrogate middle-class values that separate women from productive means.

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    • Pionke, Albert D. “Reframing the Luddites: Materialist and Idealist Models of Self in Charlotte Brontë’s Shirley.” Victorian Review 30.2 (2004): 81–102.

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      Argues that Shirley responds to Luddism and Chartism in idealist modes that “undermine her discussion of single middle-class women” (p. 82).

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    • Rogers, Philip. “Tory Brontë: Shirley and the ‘MAN.’” Nineteenth-Century Literature 58.2 (2003): 141–175.

      DOI: 10.1525/ncl.2003.58.2.141Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Suggests that Shirley reflects Brontë’s support of the Duke of Wellington through allusions to war and military matters, and further argues that the Luddite attack on the mill (and Moore’s subsequent attempt to protect it) “directly reflects Wellington’s Tory hostility to Chartism” (the 1848 corollary to Luddism) (p. 174).

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    • Shapiro, Arnold. “Public Themes and Private Lives: Social Criticism in Shirley.” Papers on Language and Literature 4 (1968): 74–84.

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      Posits that the public crises of the novel are reflected in the private concerns of the romance plots through the effects public concerns have on the individual characters.

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    • Zlotnick, Susan. “Luddism, Medievalism, and Women’s History in Shirley: Charlotte Brontë’s Revisionist Tactics.” Novel: A Forum on Fiction 24.3 (1991): 282–295.

      DOI: 10.2307/1345939Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Examines the ways in which Brontë rewrites history, essentially writing a women’s history, inserting them into the Luddite revolts and disempowering nostalgic medievalist conceptions of history.

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    Women, Power, Place

    Gender criticism on Shirley ties in with a variety of other issues: genre, class, disease, and empire. Argyle 1995, Dolin 1995, and Langer 1997 discuss Shirley’s depiction of women in terms of genre. In response to critics who view Shirley as conservative, Gubar 1976 defines Shirley as subversive, a theme taken up by McLaughlin 2004. Moore 2004 responds that Shirley reinforces patriarchal power through mythic imagery. Dolin 1995 examines Shirley’s innovation on Jane Eyre’s representation of women’s roles. Torgerson 2005 contributes to the discourse of displacement, examining the role of female health in the text. Vanskike 1996 reads Shirley historically in the context of theater.

    • Argyle, Gisela. “Gender and Generic Mixing in Charlotte Brontë’s Shirley.” Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900 35.4 (1995): 741–756.

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      Employs Hans Robert Jauss’s theory that each work within an author’s corpus seeks to improve upon narrative and moral problems in the previous work, arguing that in the Jane Eyre/Shirley/Villette series, Shirley attempts to address the achievement of a “happy end under the pressures of historical and social forces” (p. 754).

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    • Dolin, Tim. “Fictional Territory and a Woman’s Place: Regional and Sexual Difference in Shirley.” ELH 62.1 (1995): 197–215.

      DOI: 10.1353/elh.1995.0005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Shirley expands on Brontë’s discussion of women’s place in Jane Eyre through the use of mixed genres—the regional and the industrial novel—and “contest[s] … the sexual demarcation of fictional territories” (p. 198).

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    • Gubar, Susan. “The Genesis of Hunger, According to Shirley.” Feminist Studies 3.3–4. (1976): 5–21.

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      Argues that Shirley presents the suicidal effects that stem from female “confinement and submission” through the use of images of hunger and starvation (p. 5). Gubar views Shirley as revolutionary, something she argues previous critics have missed. Reprinted in The Madwoman in the Attic (Gilbert and Gubar 2000, cited under Women and Power).

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    • Langer, Nancy Quick. “‘There is No Such Ladies Now-a-days’: Capsizing ‘the Patriarch Bull’ in Charlotte Brontë’s Shirley.” Journal of Narrative Technique 27.3 (1997): 276–296.

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      Argues that Shirley’s failure to achieve narrative cohesion between the two competing forms (social commentary and romance plot) in fact reflects Brontë’s “dismantling” of the “patriarchal social code” as the “narrative conventions” that she refuses to meet are those that reinforce the power of the patriarchy (p. 277).

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    • McLaughlin, Rebecca A. “‘I Prefer a Master’: Female Power in Charlotte Brontë’s Shirley.” Brontë Studies 29.3 (2004): 217–222.

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      Complicates feminist claims that Shirley returns to traditional gender dynamics, arguing that the marriage-plot ending offers a subversive view of women’s power within the normative structure of marriage.

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    • Moore, Tara. “Women and Myth Narratives in Charlotte Brontë’s Shirley.” Women’s Writing 11.3 (2004): 477–492.

      DOI: 10.1080/09699080400200309Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Looks at how the double heroines employ myth, arguing that although Shirley is often viewed as subversive, the specific myths to which she appeals mark her subservience to the patriarchy, whereas Caroline Helstone subverts the patriarchy.

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    • Torgerson, Beth E. “Ailing Women in the Age of Cholera: Illness in Shirley.” In Reading the Brontë Body: Disease, Desire, and the Constraints of Culture. By Beth E. Torgerson, 39–58. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

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      Argues that Shirley is a novel of displacement, a theory propounded by critics such as Terry Eagleton and Susan Gubar. Torgerson offers a new twist, contending that the novel is about women’s health and the necessity of reform, tying female health to national health.

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    • Vanskike, Elliott. “Consistent Inconsistencies: The Transvestite Actress Madame Vestris and Charlotte Brontë’s Shirley.” Nineteenth-Century Literature 50.4 (1996): 464–488.

      DOI: 10.1525/ncl.1996.50.4.99p0189kSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Sees Madame Vestris as a “hermeneutical doppelganger” for Shirley, historicizing Brontë’s insertion of Shirley into the masculine sphere and her subsequent “narrative reversal” (pp. 467–468).

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    Language and Style

    Shirley has attracted critical attention for its unusual melding of forms, which some contend fragment the novel, as well as for its use of dialect, which some readers simply dislike. Smith 1987 and Waddington-Feather 2002 dissect Brontë’s use of dialect to highlight class distinctions and power dynamics. Keen 1990 discusses alterations in storytelling that bind women into traditional spaces. Gilead 1987 remains useful for its examination of the relationship of Jane Eyre and Shirley’s narrative structure.

    • Keen, Suzanne. “Narrative Annexes in Charlotte Brontë’s Shirley.” Journal of Narrative Technique 20.2 (1990): 107–119.

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      Shirley, an “emancipatory fantasy” of female empowerment, makes use of narrative annexes (or “temporary alternate workspaces” for “alternate modes of storytelling” outside the main plots) to “redirect … characters back into a retrograde marriage plot” (p. 107).

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    • Gilead, Sarah. “Liminality and Antiliminality in Charlotte Brontë’s Novels: Shirley Reads Jane Eyre.” Texas Studies in Literature and Language 29.3 (1987): 302–322.

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      Shirley inverts Jane Eyre’s narrative of inheritance as narrative “excesses” and “awkwardness,” “expos[ing] the literary artifices at the heart of novelistic realism” (p. 319).

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    • Smith, Susan Belasco. “‘A Yorkshire Burr’: Language in Shirley.” Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900 27.4 (1987): 637–645.

      DOI: 10.2307/450587Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Discusses Brontë’s use of dialect in Shirley to highlight power imbalances between classes.

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    • Waddington-Feather, John. “The Dialect of Shirley.” Brontë Studies 27.3 (2002): 235–239.

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      Analyzes Brontë’s use of dialect to highlight her commitment to realism as well as her critique of class.

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    Villette

    Charlotte Brontë’s final novel, published in 1853, revisits the source material of her earliest novel. Often viewed as a revision of her first novel, The Professor, Villette is seen by critics as autobiographical, recasting her time spent in Belgium where she became attached to Constantin Heger (often seen as the model for M. Paul). Scholarly approaches to the text reflect the general body of Brontë criticism, with the addition of theatricality, not much explored in relation to the other novels.

    Religion

    Brontë’s relationship with Catholicism comes to the fore in religious studies of the novel, with Lucy Snowe as the only Protestant in a Catholic town. Clark-Beattie 1986 represents received wisdom, arguing that the novel depicts Victorian suspicion of the priesthood. However, recent critical attention complicates the contention that the novel is anti-Catholic. Armitage 2009 suggests that Villette depicts Catholicism and Protestantism as equally obsessed with self-sacrifice, and that the ideal is eventually presented in M. Paul, a Catholic. Edgren-Bindas 2007 similarly argues that the novel depicts Brontë’s fascination with Catholicism. Qualls 1982 demonstrates Brontë’s debt to Pilgrim’s Progress and spiritual autobiography; Dale 1984 also looks to Bunyan, but notes Lucy’s typically Victorian religious doubt. Freedman 2008 and Wang 2001 invoke theological arguments to consider Villette in terms of salvation and the end of the world, while Carpenter 2003 interprets it in terms of menstruation and Biblical allusion.

    • Armitage, Nicholas. “Melting Miss Snowe: Charlotte’s Message to the English Church.” Brontë Studies 34.3 (2009): 209–219.

      DOI: 10.1179/147489309X12470507051742Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Complicates criticism that views Brontë as anti-Catholic, arguing that both Catholics and Protestants in the novel “romanticize self-sacrifice” (p. 209). Armitage suggests that the novel offers a more complex conception of religion that focuses on liberty, embodied in Paul Emanuel.

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    • Carpenter, Mary Wilson. “Playing with Sacred Pages: Menstrual Superabundance in Villette and Dissenting Bible Commentary.” In Imperial Bibles, Domestic Bodies: Women, Sexuality, and Religion in the Victorian Market. By Mary Wilson Carpenter, 71–100. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2003.

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      One chapter in this fascinating book is devoted to Villette’s menstrual imagery in conjunction with allusions to the King James Bible and Vashti’s floods of meaning.

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    • Clark-Beattie, Rosemary. “Fables of Rebellion: Anti-Catholicism and the Structure of Villette.” ELH 53.4 (1986): 821–847.

      DOI: 10.2307/2873176Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Looks at the novel in the context of other anti-Catholic novels, maintaining that “contemporary attitudes toward the power of the priesthood” result in its “association with institutional tyranny” in the novel (p. 821).

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    • Dale, Peter Allan. “Heretical Narrative: Charlotte Brontë’s Search for Endlessness.” Religion and Literature 16.3 (1984): 1–24.

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      Shows that Villette aligns itself with 17th-century literature such as Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, but adds the caveat that the text is firmly rooted in Victorian religious confusion, for it is unclear whether or not Lucy will complete the journey toward salvation.

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    • Edgren-Bindas, Tonya. “The Cloistering of Lucy Snowe: An Element of Catholicism in Charlotte Brontë’s Villette.” Brontë Studies 32.3 (2007): 253–259.

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      Allows that Villette depicts Catholicism negatively, but complicates this simplification by analyzing the nun as Lucy’s double, considering Lucy’s own interest in Catholicism, and noting the positive depiction of M. Paul.

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    • Freedman, Linda. “Reflection and the Aesthetics of Grace in Villette.” Literature and Theology 22.4 (2008): 406–418.

      DOI: 10.1093/litthe/frn011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Reads the novel through Pauline ideology, arguing that giving and receiving are significant in terms of Lucy’s perception of salvation.

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    • Qualls, Barry. “The Terrible Beauty of Charlotte Brontë’s ‘Natural Supernaturalism.’” In The Secular Pilgrims of Victorian Fiction: The Novel as Book of Life. By Barry Qualls, 43-84. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

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      Highly respected book on Victorian novels as revisions of Pilgrim’s Progress; one chapter on Brontë’s debt to Bunyan and Carlyle’s Sartor Resartus deals at length with Villette as spiritual autobiography.

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    • Wang, Lisa. “Unveiling the Hidden God of Charlotte Brontë’s Villette.” Literature and Theology 15.4 (2001): 342–357.

      DOI: 10.1093/litthe/15.4.342Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Views the novel as a journey in which Lucy confronts issues of alienation and loss; analyzes biblical references to the end of the world that illuminate this connection.

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    Nationalism and Empire

    Critical attention to Villette’s depiction of empire focuses on Englishness and the transplanted Englishwoman. Schmitt 1997 teases out connections among national, colonial, and sexual identity. Anderson 2001 situates the novel within Victorian cosmopolitanism. Longmuir 2008 and Lawson and Shakinovsky 2009 offer primary-source material to investigate the representation of national identity abroad. Longmuir 2008 suggests that Lucy is denied a British identity both in England and in Villette. Longmuir 2009 argues that the novel shows the blending of British and French customs with Belgium as intermediary, while Marutollo 2006 explains that it is through her willingness to separate from England that Lucy molds a space for herself in the public realm.

    Genre and Style

    Studies of Villette’s genre and form largely focus on her style. Blackall 1976 dissects Brontë’s experiments with point of view. Heilman 1982 and Klaver 1993 both recognize Brontë’s use of an Austenian style, though she vocally disliked Austen. Brent 2003 demarcates the link Villette makes between visual and textual modes; Heady 2006 similarly argues for Brontë’s ability to merge realist and gothic genres. Preston 1996 comments on the narrator’s reliability by complicating traditional feminist criticism of the novel.

    • Blackall, Jean Frantz. “Point of View in Villette.” Journal of Narrative Technique 6 (1976): 14–28.

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      Views Villette as an experiment in point of view, which highlights various elements of Lucy Snowe’s character and progress.

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    • Brent, Jessica. “Haunting Pictures, Missing Letters: Visual Displacement and Narrative Elision in Villette.” Novel: A Forum on Fiction 37.1–2 (2003): 86–111.

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      Examines the relationship of antivisual rhetoric and narratives, suggesting that the visual “reemerges with a kind of violence that produces formal and psychological ruptures” (p. 89). For Villette, the narrative elisions offer “a picture without words” (p. 90).

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    • Heady, Emily W. “‘Must I Render an Account?’: Genre and Self-Narration in Charlotte Brontë’s Villette.” Journal of Narrative Theory 36.3 (2006): 341–364.

      DOI: 10.1353/jnt.2007.0008Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Examines Brontë’s deployment of the gothic and realism, revealing how she highlights their similarities rather than marking their differences.

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    • Heilman, Robert B. “Tulip-hood, Streaks, and Other Strange Bedfellows: Style in Villette.” Studies in the Novel 14.3 (1982): 223–245.

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      Contends that although Brontë quite vocally disliked Jane Austen and her works, Villette employs Austen’s form of writing in terms of style, dialogue, and wit.

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    • Klaver, Claudia. “Homely Aesthetics: Villette’s Canny Narrator.” Genre 26.4 (1993): 409–429.

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      Proves that in Villette Brontë reworks two previous literary modes: Austen’s feminine marriage plot novel and Burke’s masculine beautiful and sublime, bridging the two through Lucy, who employs the sublime but in the realm of the domestic.

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    • Preston, Elizabeth. “Relational Reconsiderations: Reliability, Heterosexuality, and Narrative Authority in Villette.” Style 30.3 (1996): 386–408.

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      Works within the discourse of 1980s feminist theory, which polarized narrative authority and heterosexual love. Using narrative theories on reliability/unreliability of the narrator, Preston complicates this analysis by arguing that although the text is profeminist, it is not so in simple binary terms that separate female power from heterosexuality.

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    Desire and Sexuality

    Freud, Foucault, and the gothic tend to be the tools used to analyze Villette’s depiction of desire. Almost all these articles invoke Freud or Foucault. Goldfarb 1970 provides a Freudian analysis of Lucy’s abnormal sexuality. Wien 1999 suggests that the gothic, in the form of the nun, unveils the perpetual deferral of desire in the novel. Both Boone 1992 and Henelly 1998 focus on the Foucauldian panoptic surveillance of desire; Matus 1995 offers a postcolonialist argument that the novel’s erotics are bound within the discourse of otherness.

    • Boone, Joseph A. “Depolicing Villette: Surveillance, Invisibility, and the Female Erotics of ‘Heretic Narrative.’” Novel: A Forum on Fiction 26.1 (1992): 20–42.

      DOI: 10.2307/1345603Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Critiques the panoptic state of Villette where M. Paul both watches and informs Lucy of his panoptic view; argues that gaps exist within the Foucauldian-like police state that allow Lucy “a cloak of willed invisibility” in order to “negotiate erotic … and autoerotic quest[s]” (p. 22). Later incorporated into Boone’s Libidinal Currents: Sexuality and the Shaping of Modernism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998).

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    • Goldfarb, Russell M. “Charlotte Brontë’s Villette.” In Sexual Repression and Victorian Literature. By Russell M. Goldfarb, 139–157. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1970.

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      Contends that Brontë presages Freud through the character of Lucy Snow, who represses her sexuality. Posits that the novel depicts Lucy’s attempt to come to terms with her sexuality.

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    • Hennelly, Mark M., Jr. “The ‘Surveillance of Désirée’: Freud, Foucault, and Villette.” Victorian Literature and Culture 26.2 (1998): 421–440.

      DOI: 10.1017/S1060150300002497Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Employing Foucault and Freud, Hennelly discusses interdependence between the “canny” and the “uncanny,” the “panoptic’s dependence on ‘the other, dark side,’” specifically in terms of Villette’s depiction of desire and the surveillance of it (p. 437).

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    • Matus, Jill L. “Looking at Cleopatra: The Expression and Exhibition of Desire in Villette.” In Unstable Bodies: Victorian Representations of Sexuality and Maternity. By Jill L. Matus, 131–156. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1995.

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      Argues that the painting of Cleopatra in Villette reflects the overarching examination of desire and sexuality in the novel, asserting that both are intricately bound by Victorian interest in the Oriental other. Lucy reenacts contemporary discourses of looking and inverts traditional concepts of the gaze.

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    • Marcus, Sharon. Between Women: Friendship, Desire and Marriage in Victorian England. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.

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      An important section of this book on relationships between Victorian women centers on Villette, demonstrating Lucy Snowe’s same-sex desire coupled with her rejection of female friendship.

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    • Wein, Toni. “Gothic Desire in Charlotte Brontë’s Villette.” Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900 39.4 (1999): 733–746.

      DOI: 10.2307/1556271Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Suggests that Brontë’s use of the gothic reflects in part her experience in the literary marketplace where she gains some freedom but is still limited. Asserts that the nun mediates “erotic desire” but that it is “disembodied and endlessly deferred, the possession of the self through substitution” (p. 735).

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    • Weinstone, Ann. “The Queerness of Lucy Snowe.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 18.4 (1995): 367–384.

      DOI: 10.1080/08905499508583403Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Rather than proposing a gay reading of Villette, Weinstone sees it as “anti-straight” (p. 368).

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    Theatricality and Performance

    Villette’s theatrical scenes have bred lively interest. Litvak 1988 and Voskuil 1995 investigate actresses Fanny Kemble and Rachel as the models for Vashti. Hoeveler 2005 intriguingly suggests that Brontë transforms theatrical elements into novelistic forms; Surridge 1995 contends that theatricality enables Lucy’s transformation. Peel 2008 connects the theatrical moments with Brontë’s depiction of female empowerment.

    • Hoeveler, Diane Long. “Smoke and Mirrors: Internalizing the Magic Lantern Show in Villette.” In Gothic Technologies: Visuality in the Romantic Era. Edited by Robert Miles. Praxis Series. College Park: University of Maryland Press, 2005.

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      Argues that the use of “gothic tropes” in the novel reflects “the internalization and critique of gothic theatrical technology,” suggesting that Brontë transforms theatrical elements into the “novelistic universe” (section 14).

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    • Litvak, Joseph. “Charlotte Brontë and the Scene of Instruction: Authority and Subversion in Villette.” Nineteenth-Century Literature 42.4 (1988): 467–489.

      DOI: 10.1525/ncl.1988.42.4.99p0132wSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Important reading of Villette through the actress Fanny Kemble; both she and Brontë used/worked within theatrical modes while disliking theater. In Villette, theatricality holds a similarly complex role due to its own “ideologically heterogeneous character”—its ability to be both “authoritarian” and “subversive” (p. 470).

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    • Peel, Katie R. “The ‘Thoroughly and Radically Incredible’ Lucy Snowe: Performativity in Charlotte Brontë’s Villette.” Victorians Institute Journal 36 (2008): 231–244.

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      Examines the ways in which Lucy uses performativity as a “means of transgression and empowerment,” looking at not only gender categories but also narratological roles (p. 231).

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    • Surridge, Lisa. “Representing the ‘Latent Vashti’: Theatricality in Charlotte Brontë’s Villette.” Victorian Newsletter 87 (1995): 4–14.

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      Contends that theatrical moments in Villette “suggest latent traits” in Lucy, moving her from “spectatorship to action, silence to speech, and self-effacement to self-display” (pp. 4–5).

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    • Voskuil, Lynn M. “Acting Naturally: Brontë, Lewes, and the Problem of Gender Performance.” ELH 62.2 (1995): 409–442.

      DOI: 10.1353/elh.1995.0020Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Discusses the influence of the actress Rachel, suggesting that, for Brontë, performance and the theater “ruptured” the unity of the “inner life,” which ultimately “leav[es] the interior core at odds with its exterior expression” (p. 425). Suggests that Villette’s theatricality, and Brontë’s reading of Rachel in it, offers “a way for women to express what she figured as an emotional interiority” (p. 425).

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    The Professor

    The Professor has received limited critical attention, in part due to what some view as its inferior quality and in part because it is often discarded as a draft of Villette. The majority of criticism has arisen in the 21st century and has focused on narration. The earliest article here, Johnston 1989, investigates the use of the male narrator by the female author, a subject often taken up by later critics. Federico 2003, Cohen 2003, and Kauer 2001 also discuss the use of the male narrator and its effect. Other critical issues arising include slavery and colonialism in Plasa 2000, the role of the professional in Ruth 2003, and the role of portraits in Starzyk 2003.

    • Cohen, William A. “Material Interiority in Charlotte Brontë’s The Professor.” Nineteenth-Century Literature 57.4 (2003): 443–476.

      DOI: 10.1525/ncl.2003.57.4.443Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Argues that Brontë’s use of a male first-person narrator “dramatizes the strangeness of the idea of being inside any body,” what he calls the “paradox” of the link of “immaterial” objects (heart, soul, etc.) bound within the physical form.

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    • Federico, Annette R. “The Other Case: Gender and Narration in Charlotte Brontë’s The Professor.” In The Brontës. Edited by Patricia Ingham, 184–202. London: Longman, 2003.

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      Although narrative authority tends to reaffirm rather than subvert gender, Brontë uses patriarchal writing to reveal its power source. First printed in Papers on Language and Literature 30. 4 (Fall 1994): 323–345.

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    • Johnston, Ruth D. “The Professor, Charlotte Brontë’s Hysterical Text, or Realistic Narrative and the Ideology of the Subject from a Feminist Perspective.” Dickens Studies Annual 18 (1989): 353–380.

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      Argues that the male narrator “renders the repression of the feminine explicit” through an investigation of the “possibility of constructing a feminine subjectivity,” suggesting that such a “hysterical text alienates the reader” (p. 353).

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    • Kauer, Ute. “Narrative Cross-Dressing in Charlotte Brontë’s The Professor.” Brontë Society Transactions 26.2 (2001): 167–168.

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      Seeks to clarify why The Professor was viewed as a failure, arguing that Brontë’s narrative cross-dressing impersonated male authority as she tried to publish it while working under the pseudonym Currer Bell. Dissects the narrative itself, concluding that Crimsworth’s masculinity is unstable.

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    • Plasa, Carl. “Charlotte Brontë’s Foreign Bodies: Slavery and Sexuality in The Professor.” Journal of Narrative Theory 30.1 (2000): 1–28.

      DOI: 10.1353/jnt.2011.0013Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Citing the opening letter of The Professor as a model for the remainder, Plasa contends that although Crimsworth feigns ignorance about what happens to Charles in his move to the colonies, the narrative exemplifies fears about colonial life. Sexuality and gender are bound by slavery metaphors, as Crimsworth dreads that his desire, figured as foreign, will corrupt his English identity.

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    • Ruth, Jennifer. “Between Labor and Capital: Charlotte Brontë’s Professional Professor.” Victorian Studies 45.2 (2003): 279–303.

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      Seeks to fill a critical gap in discourses on professionalism that fail to analyze the connection between the professional and the market, arguing that in The Professor “the protagonist wishes to uncover rather than cover over the price of his intellectual labor” (p. 279).

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    • Starzyk, Lawrence J. “Charlotte Brontë’s The Professor: The Appropriation of Images.” Journal of Narrative Theory 33.2 (2003): 143–162.

      DOI: 10.1353/jnt.2011.0044Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Analyzes Brontë’s use of images and portraits in the creation of identity, specifically in terms of William Crimsworth, asserting that his “iconophilia” serves as both protection and creation of self (p. 158).

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    LAST MODIFIED: 03/02/2011

    DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199799558-0008

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