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Victorian Literature The Oxford Movement
by
Elisabeth Jay

Introduction

An 1833 bill to suppress a number of Irish bishoprics seemed to threaten the disestablishment of the Church of England. A group of clergy, who regarded the church as something more than either a man-made institution, or the “Church Invisible” of all true believers, sounded the alarm. Spearheaded by Hurrell Froude, John Keble, and Cardinal J. H. Newman (all sometime fellows of Oriel College, Oxford), and later joined by Edward Pusey, the so-called Oxford Movement disseminated their theological views to fellow clergy by means of tracts. Appealing to the teaching of the Catholic Church of Antiquity, they sought for a via media, or middle way, which allowed the interpretation of the doctrines of the Anglican Church, formed at the Reformation, in a spirit compatible with being a true member of the Universal Catholic Church, instituted by Christ and his apostles as a means for God to reveal Himself, and, through the Sacraments of Baptism and Eucharist to impart His grace. Newman’s Tract XC (1841) and his acceptance into the Roman Catholic Church in 1845, severely tested the concept of the via media, but the Movement continued to influence the wider Anglican communion, evolving over the years in response to fresh developments such as Ritualism and Anglo-Catholicism. The Oxford Movement’s distrust of contemporary reformers’ contempt for precedent (“liberalism”); its conviction of the primacy of faith over reason in matters of religious belief; its desire to preserve the mystery and beauty of creation in the face of reductive rationalism; its misgivings about education as a moral panacea, all struck chords with broader 19th-century cultural impulses. In origin, however, the Oxford Movement posed a dogmatic challenge, and subsequent scholarship has often responded combatively and with marked personal investment. Keble’s widely read collection of poems, The Christian Year (1827) predated the Oxford Movement, as did Newman’s famous poem, “Lead, kindly light,” but they remind us that these men used writing as their primary means of communication—their sermons were written, not extempore affairs. Their emphasis on discerning the spirit behind the word, and on reading God through His Creation, predisposed several of the first generation (and some notable followers) to poetry. Their conviction that literature could play an important part in directing minds to God, liberated female followers such as Charlotte Yonge and Christina Rossetti to give complex expression to the notion of silent self-sacrifices as the ideal mode of service for the Christian woman.

General Overviews

In the aftermath of the Oxford Movement’s first phase, generally viewed as defined by Cardinal Newman’s secession from the Anglican Church in 1845, there were a series of accounts by those interested in justifying their own allegiances, or the paths of leaders with whom they had been intimately acquainted. Modern accounts are usually less avowedly partisan but still frequently colored by a personal religious affiliation.

Nineteenth Century

It would be a mistake to look for objectivity in any of these accounts. Conybeare 1853 is a partly satirical sketch, which has nevertheless been heavily mined by ecclesiastical historians for the statistics it offers. The teleological accounts of Newman 1967 and Williams 1892 are designed to justify their subsequent ecclesiastical and theological positions. Mozley 1882 (not as yet available in a modern edition) has the status of Oxford common room gossip, and Pattison 1988 is colored by the author’s disillusionment. Although it is incomplete, Church 1970 is generally regarded as the finest historical account.

  • Church, R. W. The Oxford Movement: Twelve Years, 1833–1845. Edited by Geoffrey Best. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

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    Written at Pusey’s behest, to counter Mozley 1882. Unfinished and posthumously published in 1891. Church believed that Newman was driven out of Oxford rather than impelled by his own convictions and that Newman’s defection dealt the movement a fatal blow.

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  • Conybeare, William John. “Church Parties.” Edinburgh Review 98 (1853): 273–342.

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    Witty analysis of the leading parties of the mid-19th-century Church of England. Estimates their relative numbers and includes brief summaries of their doctrinal positions. Includes a Tractarian spotter’s guide. An annotated version by Arthur Burns can be found in From Cranmer to Davidson: A Church of England Miscellany (edited by Stephen Taylor, Woodbridge, UK: Boydell, 1999), pp. 213–386.

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  • Mozley, Tom. Reminiscences of Oriel College and the Oxford Movement. 2 vols. London: Longmans, Green, 1882.

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    Anecdotal memoirs by a one-time Tractarian who became Cardinal Newman’s brother-in-law. Offers amusing thumbnail sketches of many of those involved. Newman, who is the movement’s hero, and Pusey both disliked it.

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  • Newman, J. H. Apologia Pro Vita Sua: Being a History of His Religious Opinions. Edited by Martin J. Svaglic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967.

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    Newman’s self-centered account of his involvement in the Oxford Movement until he became a Roman Catholic. He wrote it to defend himself from Charles Kingsley’s accusation of duplicity. Editor’s introduction offers the history of the book’s composition. Copiously annotated and provides much supplementary contextualizing material.

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  • Pattison, Mark. Memoirs of an Oxford Don. Edited by Vivian Hubert Howard Green. London: Cassell, 1988.

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    Writing as a former adherent, Pattison later saw the Oxford Movement as oppressing Oxford for fifteen years and finally swept away with Newman’s defection in 1845.

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  • Williams, Isaac. The Autobiography of Isaac Williams, as Throwing Further Light on the History of the Oxford Movement. Edited by Sir George Prevost. London and New York: Longmans, Green, 1892.

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    Retrospective account of the changing relationships between the original leaders. Williams’s own High Church background, his admiration for Keble and his strong disapproval of the “defections” to Rome of Cardinal Newman and others, strongly color his account, which ends with the division between staunch Anglicans and the defectors. Available online.

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Modern Era

Chadwick 1971 supplies a succinct guide to the events marking the Oxford Movement’s progress. Faught 2003 and O’Connell 1969 truncate their accounts in 1845 when, in their opinion, J. H. Newman’s defection ended the movement. Rowell 1983 and Rowell 1986, by contrast, explore both the subsequent lives of the leaders and the work of a second generation influenced by them. Chadwick 1990 and the Victorian Web make no claim to being comprehensive but nevertheless offer a wide-ranging commentary on aspects of the movement. The name and electronic form of the Catholic Encyclopedia might prompt the unwary into taking it for a modern appraisal, whereas its general flavor has more in common with Victorian accounts.

  • Catholic Encylopedia.

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    This version of the Catholic Encyclopedia (1917) has been composed by individual volunteers transcribing original entries from this project. Florid, full of unsourced quotations and opinions. Also available on CD-ROM.

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    • Chadwick, Owen. The Victorian Church: Part I. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1971.

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      First four chapters are devoted to a magisterial narrative of the ecclesiastical and political context for the Oxford Movement, and there is also an examination of the main events and issues.

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    • Chadwick, Owen. The Spirit of the Oxford Movement: Tractarian Essays. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

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      Wide-ranging collection of occasional essays, dating back to 1960, written by a leading scholar of the movement. Where relevant, the essays are separately cited. Particularly useful essay (pp. 135–154) on the style, contents, and underlying motivation of a series of 19th-century histories of the Oxford Movement.

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    • Faught, C. Brad. The Oxford Movement: A Thematic History of the Tractarians and Their Times. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003.

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      Sees the formal phase of the Oxford Movement as ending in 1845. Treats the movement under the headings of five key areas in which it affected English society more broadly: politics, religion and theology, friendship, society, and missions.

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    • O’Connell, M. R. The Oxford Conspirators: A History of the Oxford Movement 1833–45. London: Macmillan, 1969.

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      As the title suggests, this narrative by a North American Roman Catholic, is readable but fatally in thrall to the elegant phrase. Views the movement as quintessentially English and only possible as a product of the University of Oxford.

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    • Rowell, Geoffrey. The Vision Glorious: Themes and Personalities of the Catholic Revival in Anglicanism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

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      A useful corrective to the implicit assumption that the movement began to wane with J. H. Newman’s secession. Offers essays on the continuity of an Anglican Catholic tradition, including the contributions of John Keble, Edward Pusey, Newman, and John Mason Neale, and extending to work in the slums and missionary work abroad.

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    • Rowell, Geoffrey, ed. Tradition Renewed: The Oxford Movement Conference Papers. London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1986.

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      Three essays address the High Church Anglican tradition’s relation with the Oxford Movement. Its theology, its spiritual, sacramental, and liturgical contributions, and its relevance to the religious life are also treated. There are comments on its politics and sociology and also appraisals of its legacy by Evangelical and Methodist theologians.

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    • Victorian Web. The Nineteenth-Century High Church: Tractarianism, the Oxford Movement, and Ritualism.

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      The contents of this developing website are variable in quality. Authorial responsibility is taken for some of the following entries: Tractarianism, its leaders, ritualism, women’s religious orders, architects associated with the Tractarians, and High Church novelists and poets.

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    Bibliographies

    Shattock 1999 is the most comprehensive guide to the authors associated with the Oxford Movement and additionally supplies individual bibliographies for the important figures. Shattock’s broad remit is complemented by the more specific foci of Crumb 1988 and North 2003. Crumb 1988 is exhaustive within the limits indicated by his title. North 2003 is invaluable for checking details of periodicals that the Oxford Movement were published in.

    • Crumb, Lawrence, N. The Oxford Movement and Its Leaders: A Bibliography of Secondary and Lesser Primary Sources. American Theological Bibliography Series 24. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1988.

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      Offers 5,688 citations, chronologically organized, covering publications up until 1987. Limits Oxford Movement to 1833–1850 and confines its leadership to Keble, Newman, and Pusey. Excludes most of the primary sources (see Primary Sources). Indexed by author, subject, and periodical title.

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    • North, John S., ed. The Waterloo Directory of English Periodicals and Newspapers, 1800–1900. Series 2. Waterloo, ON: North Waterloo Academic Press, 2003.

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      Very detailed entries on the editors, mission, content, and religious orientation of periodicals. Includes full details of publication (publishes, size, price, departments) with an image of the title page. Available online and as a CD-ROM.

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    • Shattock, Joanne, ed. The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature. Vol. 4, 1800–1900. 3d.ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

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      See “The Oxford Movement and the High Churchmen” (pp. 2637–2649). Lists major and minor figures, providing page references for further listings for prominent authors. Gives details, with dates, of the magazines at various times edited by Tractarians and associated with the movement’s ethos (p. 2639).

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    Biographies

    The leaders of the Oxford Movement opposed personality cults. But Victorian enthusiasm for biography was combined with Tractarian emphasis on the process of sanctification to produce an almost inevitable interest in the way this was exemplified in individual lives. Keble, Pusey, and Williams led notably retiring lives, but Newman’s high profile as an Anglican preacher, the drama of his conversion, and his capacity to enjoy the cut and thrust of argument have continued to make him an attractive subject for biographers.

    Prosopography

    Many studies of the Oxford Movement are effectively structured by means of addressing the part played by each of the leaders. Faber 1933 and Newsome 1993 make a virtue of this by openly approaching the topic through group biography.

    • Faber, Geoffrey. The Oxford Apostles: A Character Study of the Oxford Movement. London: Faber & Faber, 1933.

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      Readable narrative by F. W. Faber’s great nephew. Sees Newman’s personality as central to the story and so ends his account in 1845. Relies heavily on Mozley 1882 (cited under Nineteenth Century) and Faber family papers.

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    • Newsome, David. The Parting of Friends: The Wilberforces and Henry Manning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1993.

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      An account of personal dramas that exemplifies the Evangelical origins of many of those touched by the Oxford Movement. Also demonstrates how, outside Oxford, a far wider group than Newman-centered histories allow was affected by the church’s upheaval. Movingly written intellectual history.

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    Hurrell Froude

    Froude died of tuberculosis in 1836, but he acted as a catalyst for the Oxford Movement, largely by firing two other fellows of Oriel College, J. H. Newman and John Keble, with his enthusiasm for a Catholic interpretation of Anglicanism.

    John Keble

    Keble was more influential as a presence than in writing, which has made life difficult for his biographers. Yonge 1871 captures something of this, although from a young girl’s perspective rather than a fellow academic or clergyman’s perspective. Battiscombe 1963 crafts an engaging tale. Griffin 1987 works more by assertion than detailed argument and proof.

    • Battiscombe, Georgina. John Keble: A Study in Limitations. London: Constable, 1963.

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      Written in the style of a popular biography. The major drawback is that it offers no individual references to the manuscript material used.

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    • Griffin, John. John Keble: Saint of Anglicanism. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1987.

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      Claims to be a revisionist interpretation, seeing Keble’s Tractarian phase as a radical break from his father’s High Church teaching, and his post-1845 militant criticism of Roman Catholicism as designed to keep others in the Anglican fold rather than following Newman to Rome. Discusses Keble’s poetry.

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    • Yonge, Charlotte Mary. Musings over the ‘Christian Year’ and ‘Lyra Innocentium’ Together with a few Gleanings of Recollections of the Rev. John Keble, Gathered by Several Friends. Oxford and London: J. Parker, 1871.

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      Offers anecdotes and impressions rather than a full-spun biography. More importantly, this is Charlotte Mary Yonge’s most sustained nonfiction attempt to capture the nature of Keble’s domestic and parochial life as experienced by the teenage girl who was to publicize his teachings through her prolific writings.

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    John Henry Newman

    Each of these biographies necessarily devotes only a portion to Newman’s work, as a leader of the Oxford Movement prior to his conversion to Roman Catholicism. Chadwick 1983 provides a useful introduction, although the format does not allow space to back up assertions with detailed evidence. Ker 1988 benefits from its author’s unrivalled knowledge of Newman’s own writings, while Gilley 1990 aims to set Newman in his wider cultural context. Cornwell 2010 proves how contentious a figure Newman continues to be.

    Edward Bouverie Pusey

    Pusey’s reclusive life within Christ Church College, Oxford, after the early death of his wife and daughter, explains why there have been comparatively few attempts to produce full-scale biographies of a man who was in many ways an anomaly in the Oxford Movement. Liddon 1893–1897 is hagiographic, but its sheer wealth of detail has meant that recent accounts have been revisionist rather than groundbreaking. The essays in Butler 1983 deliberately address perceived gaps in the account, and Forrester 1989 has an iconoclastic bias.

    • Liddon, Henry Parry. The Life of Edward Bouverie Pusey. 4 vols. Edited by J. O. Johnston, R. J. Wilson, and W. C. E. Newbolt. London: Longmans Green, 1893–1897.

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      Monumental work, written by a loyal disciple of Pusey’s. Avoids details of his personal life, preferring to celebrate Pusey’s role in the Oxford Movement.

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    • Butler, Perry, ed. Pusey Rediscovered. London: SPCK, 1983.

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      Acknowledges Pusey as both an enigmatic and controversial figure. Collection deliberately addresses a range of topics concerning Pusey’s life and work that was neglected in Liddon 1893–1897. Includes his intellectual and religious life, his personal relations, and his interest in church building and colonial bishoprics.

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    • Forrester, David A. Young Dr. Pusey. London: Mowbray, 1989.

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      Challenges Liddon’s Oxford Movement–centered view of Pusey’s life and work. Inclined to judge Pusey’s personal life from the point of view of the late 20th century and so exaggerates his eccentricity.

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    Isaac Williams

    Although there have been a number of unpublished theses devoted to Williams, Jones 1971 remains the standard biography, which offers an account of his writings and pursues an argument about the nature of the Oxford Movement’s work in rural parishes.

    • Jones, Owain, W. Isaac Williams and His Circle. London: SPCK, 1971.

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      Argues that Oxford Movement principles not only continued to be practiced after Newman’s conversion but that they had been embedded in the work of the “Bisley School” of clergy in Gloucestershire, which Williams joined in 1842. Includes a chapter on his prose and poetry.

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    Primary Sources

    The rapid growth of online editions means that it is now possible to sample these texts relatively easily and so gain a sense of the busy literary industry the movement generated. Keble 1931 is the symbolic start of the Oxford Movement and Froude 1838–1839 is an early publication that caused alarm about the implications of this new movement within the Anglican Church. Newman 1978–2006 reveals the practical processes by which the movement took hold. Newman, et al. 1833–1841 demonstrates the development of the movement’s theology and together with Copeland, et al. 1841–1863, and Keble, et al. 1838–1885 speak to the intensity of the movement’s desire to reeducate the clergy. Newman 1844–1845, Plain Sermons (Williams and Copeland 1839–1848), and Lyra Apostolica (Newman 1836, cited under Poetry) also had the needs of the laity in mind.

    • Copeland, W. J., W. F. Audland, C. L. Cornish, and J. Barrow, eds. The Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology. 88 vols. Oxford: John Henry Parker, 1841–1863.

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      This series, intended to reprint the theological works of the leading High Church, post-Reformation divines, was never completed. Some volumes available online.

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    • Froude, R. H. Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude. 4 vols. Edited by J. H. Newman and John Keble. London and Derby, UK: J. G. & F. Rivington, 1838–1839.

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      Publication by leading Tractarians on their friend’s literary remain. Tarred the Oxford Movement with Froude’s vehemently expressed hatred of the Protestant Reformation, and the suspicion that it necessarily led to the exaggerated penitential practices he described in his journal.

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    • Keble, John. National Apostasy Considered in a Sermon Preached in St. Mary, Oxford, before His Majesty’s Judges of Assize on Sunday July 14, 1833. London and Oxford: A. R. Mowbray, 1931.

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      Published by Keble only after seeking his brother’s approval, it allegedly remained uncut in Pusey’s library (see Liddon 1893–1897, cited under Edward Bouverie Pusey) but is nonetheless seen as the symbolic opening event of the Oxford Movement.

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    • Keble, John, J. H. Newman, E. B. Pusey, and C. Marriott, eds. The Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church: Anterior to the Division of the East and West. 48 vols. London: J. G. & F. Rivington, 1838–1885.

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      Works by thirteen Early Fathers of the English Church, translated by Tractarians to draw attention to the true roots of Anglicanism in the universal Catholic Church. Appendix to Volume 1 of Liddon 1893–1897 (cited under Edward Bouverie Pusey) lists individual contributors and translators.

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    • Newman, John Henry. Lives of the English Saints. 4 vols. London: James Toovey, 1844–1845.

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      Tractarians felt that intercession of saints was an Anglican doctrine undervalued by Protestantism. This project was initiated by Newman, who wrote the first two. The thirty-three lives also include two by Mark Pattison. All the contributory authors are listed in Volume 6 of A. W. Hutton’s edition, 1900–1901. Some volumes available from Google Books, and further websites offer individual saints’ lives. Kessinger published a scanned reprint in 2007.

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    • Newman, John Henry. The Letters and Diaries of John Henry Newman. Edited by Charles Stephen Dessain. 31 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1978–2006.

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      Volumes 1 to 10 belong to Newman’s Anglican phase, although the remaining volumes also contain allusions to the period of his engagement with the Oxford Movement. The letters of the early phase of the movement show Newman’s part in inventing its blueprint.

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    • Newman, John Henry, John Keble, and William Palmer. Tracts for the Times. 6 vols. London: J. G. & F. Rivington, 1833–1841.

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      Starting as short, sharp, polemical broadsides, these became longer essays, producing accumulations of scholarly evidence, often from the Church Fathers, to back up their Catholic reading of the Anglican Church’s teaching. Those by Newman are available online.

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    • Williams, Isaac, and W. J. Copeland, eds. Plain Sermons by the Contributors to the Tracts for the Times. 10 vols. London: J. G. & F. Rivington, 1839–1848.

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      The contributors were John and Thomas Keble, Pusey, Newman, Sir George Prevost, and R. F. Wilson. Individual contributions identified by letter of alphabet. Copeland had not contributed to the tracts. Volumes 1 and 3 can be found online at AnglicanHistory.org.

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    Modern Anthologies

    Chadwick 1960, Fairweather 1964, and Chapman 2006 are primarily concerned with representing the Oxford Movement’s doctrines. The introduction in Chadwick 1960 remains unsurpassed by either Fairweather 1964 or Chapman 2006, although both usefully extend the repertoire of Tractarian texts for the modern reader. The introduction in Jay 1983 provides a historical context, and the selection is designed to demonstrate the prose style of individual Tractarians in the course of illustrating doctrinal positions.

    • Chadwick, Owen. The Mind of the Oxford Movement. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1960.

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      Chooses brief excerpts from Tractarian writers to illustrate their thinking on faith, the authority of the church, and sanctification. Selection privileges the doctrinal over the polemical. Good introduction, assessing individual contributions to the movement, the teaching of the tracts, and the movement’s influence.

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    • Chapman, Raymond, ed. Firmly I Believe: An Oxford Movement Reader. Norwich, UK: Canterbury, 2006.

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      Short extracts arranged to illuminate the theological doctrines of the Oxford Movement. Trawls beyond the leaders to the writings of the movement’s supporters.

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    • Fairweather, E. R., ed. The Oxford Movement. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.

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      Texts and extracts from selected sermons, tracts, and books by Tractarian writers. Supplements the usual suspects with William George Ward and Robert Isaac Wilberforce.

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    • Jay, Elisabeth, ed. The Evangelical and Oxford Movements. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

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      Introductory essay giving the intellectual and political history of these movements. Lengthy extracts, selected to show the imprint lent to the Oxford Movement by individual writers and their style. Includes Tract 87 by Williams, Tract 89 by Keble, Newman’s “The Tamworth Reading Room,” and Pusey’s sermon on the Eucharist.

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    Theology

    It is virtually impossible to discuss the Oxford Movement without mentioning its theological concerns, but the following books prioritize this aspect of their work. Nockles 1994 provides a theological genealogy for the movement. Pereiro 2008 tracks their concept of “ethos” throughout their doctrine, while Hardelin 1965 focuses on their understanding of the Eucharist. Toon 1979 examines the changing dynamic and emerging doctrinal differences between Evangelicalism and the Oxford Movement. Thomas 1991 and Ker and Merrigan 2009 show that it is not easy or sensible to discuss Tractarian Newman and Roman Catholic Newman as two separate entities.

    • Hardelin, Alf. The Tractarian Understanding of the Eucharist. Stockholm, Sweden: Almqvist and Wiksell, 1965.

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      A lucid account of the development of Tractarian thought.

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    • Ker, Ian, and Terence Merrigan, eds. The Cambridge Companion to John Henry Newman. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

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      Comprehensive introduction to Newman’s theology covered in thirteen essays by major Newman scholars. Essays treat a theme, such as “justification” or “authority” in the church and show how Newman’s thinking developed over his lifetime.

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    • Nockles, Peter. The Oxford Movement in Context: Anglican High Churchmanship, 1760–1857. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

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      Traces the continuation of a lively High Church tradition from 18th century into the Victorian period and examines the theological differences between orthodox High Churchmen and the Tractarians.

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    • Pereiro, James. “Ethos” and the Oxford Movement: At the Heart of Tractarianism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

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      Explores a central Tractarian concept and offers a biographical exemplar. Examines whether Tractarianism should be viewed as reform or revival. Analyzes Tractarianism’s theory of knowledge and demonstrates how “ethos” was practiced in Newman and other Tractarians’ attitudes to key doctrinal debates.

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    • Thomas, Stephen. Newman and Heresy: The Anglican Years. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

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      Newman detected parallels with the early church’s struggles against heresy in his own battle with “liberalism” and Protestantism. Thomas argues that Newman’s conversion to Rome was a change in his perception of heresy and a realization of the applicability of his own polemic to his Anglican self.

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    • Toon, Peter. Evangelical Theology 1833–1856: A Response to Tractarianism. London: Marshall, Morgan & Scott, 1979.

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      Charts Evangelical reactions in successive stages, moving from suspicion to open conflict. Assesses their principal theological disagreements with Tractarianism. Concludes that despite common ground, their differing views on what constituted authority, the route to salvation, and the Protestant or Catholic nature of the Anglican inheritance were bound to lead to conflict.

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    Worship

    The doctrinal basis behind these developments is discussed elsewhere in this bibliography (see Theology). The movement’s opponents deliberately confused Tractarian interest in the Visible Church with the focus on church architecture and rubrics of worship. Bentley 1978 and Yates 1999 both investigate the relationship between Tractarian doctrine and ritualist practice, Yates 1999 offers statistical evidence by which to assess continuities, while Bentley 1978 focuses on the legal processes in which Anglicanism became embroiled. White 1962, Webster and Elliott 2000, and Victorian Web are particularly useful in teasing out the relations between those primarily interested in ecclesiastical architecture and those motivated by Tractarian doctrine and also in identifying the architects closely associated with building churches according to Tractarian principles. Davies 1996 offers a comprehensive account of British worship practices within which to locate the Tractarian contribution. Chadwick 1990 and Watson 1997 concentrate on the hymnology of the Oxford Movement.

    • Bentley, James. Ritualism and Politics in Victorian Britain: The Attempt to Legislate for Belief. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.

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      Explains the way in which ritualistic practice could be derived from Tractarian sacramentalism, or the notion that material phenomena were symbols and channels of grace. Traces the legal attempts to curb ritualist excesses and assesses the consequences for Anglican worship and clerical rights.

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    • Chadwick, Owen. “Lead, Kindly Light.” In The Spirit of the Oxford Movement: Tractarian Essays. By Owen Chadwick, 86–98. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

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      Gives the textual and musical history of a hymn, composed by Newman as a poem written in “a transient state of mind.”

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    • Davies, Horton. Worship and Theology in England. Vol. 2, From Watts and Wesley to Maurice, 1690–1850; and From Newman to Martineau, 1850–1900. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1996.

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      Attributes restoration of the centrality of the Eucharist and re-introducton of Anglican daily service to the Oxford Movement (Watts to Wesley, pp. 243–284). Second part of the volume has a chapter discussing Anglo-Catholic trends in Anglican worship, ritualism, and the ceremonial in Anglican religious communities (pp. 114–138).

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    • Victorian Web. Victorian Architecture.

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      Provides useful listings of architects associated with the Oxford Movement and the various churches they built.

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    • Watson, J. R. “The Oxford Movement, and the Revival of Ancient Hymnody.” In The English Hymn: A Critical and Historical Study. By J. R. Watson, 355–386. Oxford: Clarendon, 1997.

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      Starts with showing movement doctrine as expressed in its hymnology. Offers aesthetic evaluation of various movement hymns. Section devoted to John Mason Neale’s significant contribution of hymns derived from ancient and medieval sources.

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    • Webster, Christopher, and John Elliott. “A Church as it Should Be”: The Cambridge Camden Society and its Influence. Stamford, UK: Shaun Tyas, 2000.

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      Fifteen essays by architectural historians reviewing the history and achievements of the society. Also offers a listing of all known members of the society.

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    • White, James F. The Cambridge Movement: the Ecclesiologists and the Gothic Revival. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1962.

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      An account of the Cambridge Camden Society, founded to promote the study of ecclesiastical architecture. Particularly useful in tracing the relation of its members to the Oxford Movement and to ritualism. Notes that none of the Oxford Movement’s leaders were interested in the aesthetics of church architecture.

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    • Yates, Nigel. Anglican Ritualism in Victorian Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

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      Includes a detailed account of the relationship between Anglican ritualism and the earlier phases of the Oxford Movement. Provides useful diocesan statistics for churches with Tractarian incumbents before 1870 correlated with their degree of ritualist practices after 1874.

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    Sociopolitics of the Oxford Movement

    The social and political implications of the Oxford Movement have been the subject of considerable debate. Whereas Peck 1933 concentrates on the secular implications of doctrinal differences from the Evangelicals, Kenny 1957 alleges that spiritual rather than temporal issues had always been the central concern. Skinner 2004 directly challenges Kenny’s thesis. The contributions to Blair 2004 also address Keble’s thinking on such matters as education, Erastianism, and “ethos.” Butler 1982 restores the importance to Gladstone’s thinking of his connection with the Tractarians, neglected in his first biography by the agnostic, John Morley, but also pointed to the paradox of Gladstone’s increasing espousal of liberal ideas antipathetic to the movement. Reed 1996 offers a revisionist reading in which the Oxford Movement became a radical cultural force.

    University Education

    By the time Newman 1976 was published, its author was a Roman Catholic educator, but it is clear that the system he envisaged derived from the “ethos” of Oxford, as described in Nockles 1997. Prickett 2004 addresses Keble’s vision of more accessible education and Rowell 2000 details the practical means adopted by Tractarians who founded Keble College to counter the threats presented to their ideal by the university reforms of the 1850s.

    • Newman, John Henry. The Idea of a University. Edited by I. T. Ker. Oxford: Clarendon, 1976.

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      This originated in lectures on the purpose of higher education. His ideal university largely derived from the system he had experienced at Oxford. Ker’s useful introduction offers a historical context for Newman’s educational philosophy.

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    • Nockles, P. B. “The Great Disruption: The University and the Oxford Movement.” In The History of the University of Oxford. Vol. 6. Nineteenth-Century Oxford, Part 1. Edited by M. Brock and M. C. Curthoys, 195–267. Oxford: Clarendon, 1997.

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      Sees the movement as having a clear and coherent vision and idea of a university, where the cultivation of moral excellence and purity of doctrine was privileged over intellectual attainment. Claims that the reforms of the 1850s rather than 1845 saw the movement’s defeat in Oxford.

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    • Prickett, Stephen. “Keble’s Creweian Oration of 1839: The Idea of a Christian University.” In John Keble in Context. Edited by Kirstie Blair, 19–32. London: Anthem, 2004.

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      Uses the oration Keble gave at the ceremony marking Wordsworth’s honorary degree to show Keble arguing for a more socially inclusive educational program to arrive at his ideal university.

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    • Rowell, Geoffrey. “‘Training in Simple and Religious Habits’: Keble and its First Warden.” In The History of the University of Oxford. Vol. 7. Nineteenth-Century Oxford, Part 2. Edited by M. Brock and M. C. Curthoys, 171–191. Oxford: Clarendon, 2000.

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      Traces the establishment of a college by those anxious to provide education on church principles for poorer students, deemed especially important by Tractarians after the abolition of religious tests.

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    Anglican Sisterhoods

    The Banerjee entry on the Victorian Web provides a historical account. Feminism has rather changed the framework of the analysis since A. M. Allchin wrote of a “silent” rebellion (Allchin 1958). D’Amico 1999 suggests that a lively controversy fueled Christina Rossetti’s writings about the subject. Mumm 1999 uses archival evidence to build on the claim made by Vicinus 1985 that sisterhoods provided an empowering model for women wanting to do meaningful work beyond the home.

    • Allchin, A. M. The Silent Rebellion: Anglican Religious Communities, 1845–1900. London: SCM Press, 1958.

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      Considers why Anglican sisterhoods preceded male communities by some twenty years. Analyzes the reactions of the 19th-century church.

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    • Banerjee, Jacqueline. Women’s Religious Orders in Victorian Britain. Victorian Web.

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      A level-headed website summary of the history of the development of Anglican nunneries, with useful bibliography.

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    • D’Amico, Diane. “Rossetti and the Convent Question.” In Christina Rossetti: Faith, Gender, and Time. By Diane D’Amico, 43–66. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999.

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      Sets Rossetti’s writings about the convent life and the nun in the context of the religious debate of her time.

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    • Mumm, Susan. Stolen Daughters, Virgin Mothers: Anglican Sisterhoods in Victorian Britain. London and New York: Leicester University Press, 1999.

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      Based on archives of twenty-eight religious communities, this charts the growth of the sisterhood movement from its inception in 1845, until 1900, when their full-time staff numbered some 10,000 women. Claims that by the 1860s “sisterhood” had begun to threaten the notion of the domestic as the only proper sphere for women.

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    • Vicinus, Martha. “Church Communities: Sisterhoods and Deaconess’ Houses.” In Independent Women: Work and Community for Single Women, 1850–1920. By Martha Vicinus, 46–84. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

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      Examines role of High Church Anglican convents and concludes that they presented a powerful model to Victorian women of their right to chose celibacy, live communally, and do meaningful work.

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    Sexuality

    Celibacy for the clergy was advocated by some Tractarians, notably J. H. Newman. In Protestant England the promulgation of this pre-Reformation ideal, in addition to the founding of sisterhoods, provoked considerable hostility. Faber 1933 seems to have been the first to suggest in print that in some cases antipathy to marriage may have been temperamental rather than ideological. Disputing David Alderson’s historicizing account of Victorian sexual mores (Alderson 1998), Dellamora 1990 claims that private correspondence suggests that Tractarians were aware of and discussed the distinction between the homosocial and the homosexual. Miller 2000 argues that in practice Tractarians demonstrated a wide range of gendered behavior.

    • Alderson, David. Mansex Fine: Religion, Manliness, and Imperialism in Nineteenth-Century British Culture. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1998.

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      Argues that close friendships between men only became suspect in the later 19th century and that accusations of effeminacy, as directed at Newman and Faber, should not be read as implying homosexual tendencies. See especially pp. 74–82.

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    • Dellamora, Richard. Masculine Desire: The Sexual Politics of Victorian Aestheticism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1990.

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      Claims that the sexual implications of homosocial attraction were discussed in private correspondence.

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    • Faber, Geoffrey. “Virginity and Friendship.” In The Oxford Apostles: A Character Study of the Oxford Movement. Edited by Geoffrey Faber, 215–232. London: Faber & Faber, 1933.

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      Discusses notions of homosexuality in Greek literature and 1930s psychology en route to suggesting that Hurrell Froude dealt with his natural inclinations through religious sublimation and the idealization of virginity. Sees Newman as better able to deal with such sexual proclivities than Froude or the young F. W. Faber.

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    • Miller, Lori M. “The (Re)Gendering of High Anglicanism”. In Masculinity and Spirituality in Victorian Culture. Edited by Andrew Bradstock, Sean Gill, Anne Hogan, and Sue Morgan, 27–43. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000.

      DOI: 10.1057/9780230294165Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Challenges reductive stereotyping and argues that High Church Anglicans manifested a range of attitudes to the gendered expression of religion.

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    Romanticism

    The dedication to Wordsworth and the aesthetic principles articulated in Keble’s Lectures on Poetry (see John Keble) combined with Newman’s description in his Apologia of the nature of the appeal of Walter Scott, Coleridge, Southey, and Wordsworth to his generation (see Nineteenth Century), have occasioned much discussion as to the kind of influence Romanticism exerted on the Oxford Movement. Bright 1979 disavows the influence, claiming that the phenomena are parallel instances of a common spirit of the age. Prickett 1976 and Fraser 1986 concentrate on Romanticism’s gift: a language in which to express the movement’s concept of the church. Goodwin 1987, who thinks the connection has been overstressed, concurs with Gilley 1983 in finding Keble’s usage conservative. Gill 1994 concentrates on the reasons why Tractarians were keen to enlist Wordsworth for their cause.

    • Bright, Michael S. “English Literary Romanticism and the Oxford Movement.” Journal of the History of Ideas 40.3 (1979): 385–404.

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      Argues that rather than Romanticism influencing the Oxford Movement, they are both similar, linked manifestations of a zeitgeist that saw a movement from reason to feeling. Claims that religion, for a variety of reasons, responds less speedily than literature to the spirit of the age.

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    • Fraser, Hilary. “Theology: Keble, Newman, and the Oxford Movement.” In Beauty and Belief: Aesthetics and Religion in Victorian Literature. By Hilary Fraser, 7–66. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

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      Discusses the Tractarian project of making the church “poetical.” Keble and Newman differently influenced by a Romantic inheritance. Keble’s decision to remain within Anglicanism and Newman’s decision to depart for Rome are related to their different concepts of the poetic.

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    • Gill, Stephen. “Wordsworth, Coleridge, and ‘Catholic Truth’: The Role of Frederick William Faber.” Review of English Studies 45 (1994): 204–220.

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      Notes the appropriation of Wordsworth’s poetry by different religious groups and a sustained attempt in the early 1840s by Faber to edit Wordsworth’s poetry in accordance with Tractariansm. When Faber became a Roman Catholic, Wordsworth repudiated him.

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    • Gilley, Sheridan. “John Keble and the Victorian Churching of Romanticism.” In An Infinite Complexity: Essays in Romanticism. Edited by J. R. Watson, 226–239. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1983.

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      Regards Keble as selecting certain Romantic values while rejecting others and through his own writings, making them “safely Anglican.”

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    • Goodwin, Gregory. “Keble and Newman: Victorian Tractarian Aesthetics and the Romantic Tradition.” Victorian Studies 30.4 (1987): 474–494.

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      Claims connection between Romanticism and Tractarians has been overemphasized. Whereas Keble’s application of Romanticism to Scripture and the Fathers was too conservative to appeal to Victorians, Newman was skeptical of any system, whether nature or literature, that seemed to offer safety only to be found in the Roman Catholic Church.

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    • Prickett, Stephen. Romanticism and Religion: The Tradition of Coleridge and Wordsworth in the Victorian Church. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

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      Offers a detailed study of the nature of Keble’s debt to Wordsworth and of the far-reaching influence of Coleridge’s writings about the church and the metaphorical language it was couched in.

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    Literary Influence

    Chapman 1970 is a useful introduction to the authors influenced by the movement. Jay 1986 concentrates on how particular doctrines manifested themselves. Landow 1980 helps the reader appreciate 19th-century biblical exegesis, vital to the understanding of much writing of the period.

    • Chapman, Raymond. Faith and Revolt: Studies in the Literary Influence of the Oxford Movement. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1970.

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      This largely narrative history includes such movement stalwarts as Keble and Yonge, together with the work of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the novels of J. H. Shorthouse but also covers converts to Rome, opponents of the movement, and those who ultimately rejected its influence such as J. A. Froude and Clough.

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    • Jay, Elisabeth. Faith and Doubt in Victorian Britain. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 1986.

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      Account, with textual examples, of the links between Oxford Movement doctrine and the imaginative literature it inspired. See especially pp. 24–51.

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    • Landow, George. Victorian Types, Victorian Shadows: Biblical Typology in Victorian Literature, Art, and Thought. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980.

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      Does not deal separately with the Oxford Movement, on the grounds that their elaborate typological interpretations of the Bible did not differ much from that of the Evangelicals. Nevertheless a seminal book for understanding Victorian typology. Devotes a section to Hopkins (pp. 179–187).

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    Poetry

    Newman 1836 is an anthology of Oxford Movement poetry designed to alert readers to a church in danger. Fairchild 1957–1962 and Tennyson 1981 convey the range of those who might be included under the umbrella of Tractarian poets. Fairchild 1957–1962 offers an informative if sometimes slightly dispiriting assessment of religious poetry. The groundbreaking Tennyson 1981 still considered religious poetry a minor genre, but Edgecombe 1996 makes larger claims. Prickett 2002 is a positioning of Tractarian poetry within the greater Victorian tradition that makes a claim for its canonicity. The appearance of Blair and Mason 2006 offered further support for this claim.

    • Blair, Kirstie, and Emma Mason. Special Issue: Tractarian Poets. Victorian Poetry 44 (2006).

      DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273942.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Includes essays on Keble, Faber, Hopkins, Christina Rossetti, and Charlotte Yonge. One essay treats the theme of celibacy.

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    • Edgecombe, Rodney Stenning. Two Poets of the Oxford Movement: John Keble and John Henry Newman. Madison, NJ: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996.

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      First chapter is on the nature of Tractarian poetry, then this study devotes two chapters to Keble’s The Christian Year (Keble 1827, cited under John Keble) and two to Newman’s contributions to Lyra Apostolica (Newman 1836).

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    • Fairchild, Hoxie Neale. Religious Trends in English Poetry. Vols. 4–5. New York: Columbia University Press, 1957–1962.

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      Volume 4: 1830–1880. Christianity and Romanticism in the Victorian Era. Volume 5: 1880–1920. Gods of a Changing Poetry. Slightly misleading dates: Volume 4 contains Keble, but Hopkins is in Volume 5. Illustrates Anglo-Catholic doctrines through the poetry of a wide variety of its followers. Devotes a chapter to Christina Rossetti despite believing her corpus very uneven. Very broad study but also very opinionated.

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    • Newman, J. H., ed. Lyra Apostolica. Derby, UK: Henry Mozley, 1836.

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      A collection of poems first published in a Tractarian organ, the British Magazine. Contributors include J. H. Newman, John Keble, Isaac Williams, R. H. Froude, William Bowden, and Robert Wilberforce. Arranged thematically, and individual contributions are identified by Greek letters. Available online at Archive.org.

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    • Prickett, Stephen. “Tractarian Poetry.” In A Companion to Victorian Poetry. Edited by Richard Cronin, Alison Chapman, and Antony H. Harrison, 279–290. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.

      DOI: 10.1111/b.9780631222071.2002.00019.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Good anecdotes about the leading Tractarian poets. Outlines Tractarian theories of poetry, and places its leading exponents within the greater Victorian tradition. Some knowledge of European Romanticism helps in understanding this essay.

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    • Tennyson, G. B. Victorian Devotional Poetry: The Tractarian Mode. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

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      Examines the theory and aesthetics of Tractarian poetry, believing it to be as much a cause and symptom as a result of the Oxford Movement. Separate chapters on John Keble, J. H. Newman, Isaac Williams, five poets of the 1840s, and a postscript on Christina Rossetti and Gerard Manley Hopkins.

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    John Keble

    The Christian Year (Keble 1827) predated the Oxford Movement, but Blair 2007 explains its importance, both theologically and in literary terms, for Tractarianism and a wider Victorian readership. After the fairly downbeat estimate of Keble’s poetry in Martin 1976, Edgecombe 1996 redirected attention to the aesthetics of The Christian Year. Blair 2003 and Blair 2004 have continued to pursue this interest across the spectrum of Keble’s poetic output. Keble 1912 suggests that Keble’s aesthetics are regaining canonical stature.

    • Blair, Kirstie. John Keble in Context. London: Anthem, 2004.

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      Contains essays on Keble and Tractarian politics, Keble’s Tractarian prose, Lyra Innocentium, and a section of essays devoted to Keble’s literary heirs and successors.

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    • Blair, Kirstie. “Keble and The Christian Year.” In The Oxford Handbook of English Literature and Theology. Edited by Andrew Hass, David Jasper, and Elisabeth Jay, 607–623. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

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      Considers the pervasive influence of this poetry collection, particularly its intervention in the realms of politics and theology. Notes the long-lasting impact on Victorian poetry of his thoughts on emotional affect.

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    • Blair, Kirstie. “The Rhythm of Faith.” Essays in Criticism 53.2 (2003): 129–150.

      DOI: 10.1093/eic/53.2.129Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Sees Keble’s poetry as reassuringly formal and controlled for Victorian readers but argues that his poetry was subsequently neglected precisely because it differed from the broken verse of the poets of “faith and doubt.”

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    • Edgecombe, Rodney Stenning. Two Poets of the Oxford Movement: John Keble and John Henry Newman. Madison, NJ: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996.

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      Two chapters on the poetic quality of Keble’s The Christian Year (1827).

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    • Keble, John. The Christian Year. London, 1827.

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      This 1827 collection of unsung hymns, arranged according to the church calendar, predated the advent of the Oxford Movement. But its immense popularity was responsible for disseminating Tractarian convictions far beyond immediate adherents. Available online via many websites.

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    • Keble, John. Keble’s Lectures on Poetry 1832–1841. Translated by Edward Kershaw Francis. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1912.

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      Delivered in Latin as Oxford Professor of Poetry. Dedicated to Wordsworth, they spell out Keble’s view of poetry’s intimate relationship with religion.

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    • Martin, Brian, W. John Keble: Priest, Professor, and Poet. London: Croom Helm, 1976.

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      Describes Keble’s theology, literary criticism, and poetry. Values his criticism above his poetry. Identifies similarities to Wordsworth’s poetic theories, save that Keble spoke primarily of poetry as a private experience.

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    Christina Georgina Rossetti

    McGann’s 1983 claims that Rossetti was not a Tractarian but that her religious views led to the eclipse of her reputation set two (sometimes interwoven) agendas afloat. Lootens 1996 explores the processes of literary and religious canonization as potentially analogous. Harrison 1988 attempts to mediate between McGann’s view that Rossetti’s Tractarianism had been exaggerated and Tennyson’s claiming her as a true (though minor) poet working in the movement’s devotional poetic mode (see Poetry). To Palazzo 2002 and Roe 2006, by presenting Tractarianism as one of the influences to which her times exposed her, Harrison 1988 was dangerously close to depriving her of agency. Palazzo 2002, Roe 2006, Arseneau 1993, and Arseneau 2004 all agree that Tractarianism was important to Rossetti, though their studies differ in the areas of the poetry where they find this influence acting most strongly. D’Amico and Kent 2006 provides a useful recent summary of the critical work done on the importance of Tractarianism to Rossetti.

    • Arseneau, Mary. “Incarnation and Interpretation: Christina Rossetti, the Oxford Movement, and Goblin Market.” Victorian Poetry 31.1 (Spring 1993): 79–93.

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      Argues against readings that have bracketed off this poem from Rossetti’s religious poetry, seeing it instead as suffused with Rossetti’s sacramental understanding of the world learned from Tractarian habits of thought.

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    • Arseneau, Mary. Recovering Christina Rossetti: Female Community and Incarnational Poetics. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

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      Identifies Tractarian theology, aesthetics, and worship as a formative influence on her early and mid-career poetry.

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    • D’Amico, Diane, and David A. Kent. “Rossetti and the Tractarians.” In Special Issue: Tractarian Poets. Victorian Poetry 44 (2006): 93–103.

      DOI: 10.1353/vp.2006.0011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Brief account of the evidence linking Rossetti to the Tractarians followed by a detailed appraisal of the critical work in this area.

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    • Harrison, Antony H. Christina Rossetti in Context. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

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      Sees Tractarianism as part of the heterogeneous mixture of ideologies to which her age exposed her.

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    • Lootens, Tricia. “Competing Sainthoods, Competing Saints: The Canonization of Christina Rosetti.” In Lost Saints: Silence, Gender and Victorian Literary Canonization. By Tricia Lootens, 158–184. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.

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      Sees parallels between literary and religious canonization. Claims that Rossetti’s canonizers domesticated her poetry and muted her voice by a dehistoricizing process that ignored the religious debates and conflicts she was involved in.

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    • McGann, Jerome J. “The Religious Poetry of Christina Rossetti’s.” Critical Inquiry 10 (1983): 127–144.

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      Uses historicism to explain the decline of Rossetti’s reputation even as Hopkins, a poet who admired her, rose in status. Asserts that Rossetti was not really a Tractarian, but she retained Evangelical sympathies. Her espousal of premillenarian views meant that she became sidelined as her theological views grew less fashionable.

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    • Palazzo, Lydia. Christina Rossetti’s Feminist Theology. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

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      Argues against the assumption that Rossetti passively accepted Tractarian teaching, and presents her as increasingly engaged in theological critique. Presents Tractarianism as responsible for the deep-seated ambiguity of her responses to biblical interpretation and many gendered issues.

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    • Roe, Dinah. “‘Real Things Unseen’: The Tractarian Influence.” In Christina Rossetti’s Faithful Imagination: The Devotional Poetry and Prose. By Dinah Roe, 8–29. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

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      Agrees with Tennyson and Harrison that Tractarian doctrines of reserve and analogy infuse her writing but also shares Palazzo’s desire to restore agency to Rossetti. Particularly interested in Rossetti’s use of typological readings of the Bible.

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    Gerard Manley Hopkins

    Groves 2006 provides the clearest guide through the biographical and literary critical material surrounding the claim that Hopkins was influenced during his undergraduate years in Oxford by contact with Tractarianism. Sulloway 1972 provides a useful checklist of significant Tractarian dates, Nixon 1994 produces interesting primary material for this early period of Hopkins’s life, while Johnson 1997 argues that Tractarianism continued to make itself felt in Hopkins’s later work. Fraser 1986 immediately follows her chapter on Tractarian aesthetics (see Poetry), by which it is illuminated.

    • Fraser, Hilary. “Epistemology and Perception: Gerard Manley Hopkins.” In Beauty and Belief: Aesthetics and Religion in Victorian Literature. By Hilary Fraser, 67–106. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

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      Sees Hopkins engaging directly with the relation between the religious and the aesthetic by formulating the theory of “inscape” where he resolves the problematic tension between self-consciousness and transcendental reality.

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    • Groves, Peter. “Hopkins and Tractarianism.” In Special Issue: Tractarian Poets. Victorian Poetry 44 (2006): 105–112.

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      Thorough review of the critical literature linking Hopkins with the Tractarians. Points to different strands that cannot be solely aligned with Tractarianism, such as the interest in patristics. Concludes that the Anglo-Catholic and ritualist issues of the 1860s provided a perfect vessel for a headstrong young undergraduate’s rebellious tendencies.

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    • Johnson, Margaret. Gerard Manley Hopkins and Tractarian Poetry. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate 1997.

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      Concentrates on the poetry rather than the lives of poets with a common background in Anglo-Catholicism, some of whom, like Hopkins, converted. Includes Christina Rossetti and J. H. Newman, Richard Watson Dixon, and Digby Mackworth Dixon. Argues that Tractarian imagery and aesthetics continue into Hopkins’s late poetry.

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    • Nixon, Jude, V. Gerard Manley Hopkins and His Contemporaries: Liddon, Newman, Darwin, and Pater. New York: Garland, 1994.

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      Uses fresh material from the journals of Henry Parry Liddon, Pusey’s biographer, to throw light on Hopkins’s undergraduate years. Traces connections between Liddon’s Christological teaching and emphases in Hopkins’s early poetry.

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    • Sulloway, Alison. Gerard Manley Hopkins and the Victorian Temper. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972.

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      Argues that Hopkins should be seen as a Victorian writer rather than a forerunner of modernism. First chapter considers the influence of Tractarianism during Hopkins’s years at Oxford. Also provides two appendices giving a Tractarian chronology and a history of the “Tractarian wars.”

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    Fiction

    Maison 1961 and Wolff 1977 do not pretend to offer more than summary accounts of a portion of 19th-century literary history: they offer brief biographical sketches and plot summaries. Nevertheless, the listings they give of authors who wrote from a Tractarian position (or wrote to pillory it) offer a list of sources beyond the capacity of this bibliography. It is important to note that because they are covering the gamut of religious positions, they place Newman’s satirical fictional account of his Tractarian phase in Loss and Gain (1847) in a chapter dealing with Roman Catholic fiction. The groundwork for their surveys had been capably laid by Baker 1932, which charts both changing religious preoccupations and novelistic fashions.

    • Baker, Joseph Ellis. The Novel and the Oxford Movement. Princeton Studies in English 8. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1932.

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      Pioneering doctoral dissertation. Covers early Tractarian fiction, the Evangelical fictional backlash, the movement’s alliance with Tory principles, Benjamin Disraeli’s fiction, Newman’s novels, the new hostility of the 1850s, Charles Kingsley’s liberalism, Yonge’s fiction, anti-intellectualism, the representation of the Oxford Movement in Trollope’s fiction, ritualism, sensationalism, John Henry Shorthouse, and John Mason Neale.

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    • Maison, Margaret. Search Your Soul, Eustace! A Survey of the Religious Novel in the Victorian Age. London and New York: Sheed and Ward, 1961.

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      A survey of Victorian religious fiction written, as its title suggests, in popular mode. Claims that it was the “Oxford Movement which really launched the religious novel” (p. 3). Church of England chapter privileges Tractarian novels and their attackers.

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    • Wolff, Robert Lee. Gains and Losses: Novels of Faith and Doubt in Victorian England. London: John Murray, 1977.

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      Deals with early Tractarian novelists William Gresley and Francis Paget as well as Charlotte Yonge, Elizabeth Sewell, and Felicia Skene before dealing with the representation of the Tractarians by Margaret Oliphant and Benjamin Disraeli, J. H. Shorthouse, and Walter Pater as High Church aesthetes. Includes a short section on anti-Tractarian fiction. See especially pp. 111–197.

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    Charlotte Mary Yonge

    Jordan, et al. 2007 observes that Yonge’s entire prolific output, which involved writing educational nonfiction and stories for the poor as well as the middle and upper classes while editing the long-lived magazine The Monthly Packet, formed an extension of the Tractarian project. Dennis 1992 argues that Yonge’s first biographer, Christabel Coleridge, took the Tractarian impetus behind her life’s work so much for granted that she underplayed its importance. Coleridge 1903 provides a useful appendix containing a chronological listing of Yonge’s immense oeuvre. As it develops, the Letters of Charlotte Mary Yonge site will provide a wonderful resource for tracking Yonge’s involvement with the Oxford Movement. Jay 2006 and Johnson 2007 each trace the detailed workings of Oxford Movement principles in one of her novels. Wells-Cole 2000 examines Yonge’s approach to gender and provides further evidence for the popular argument that Tractarianism could potentially serve to liberate women rather than silence them.

    • Coleridge, Christabel. Charlotte Mary Yonge. London: Macmillan, 1903.

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      Contains Yonge’s own early memories, a brief life by a younger disciple, and assorted letters. Appendix B (pp. 355–368) provides a bibliography of Yonge’s works.

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    • Dennis, Barbara. Charlotte Yonge (1823–1901) Novelist of the Oxford Movement: A Literature of Victorian Culture and Society. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 1992.

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      An account of Yonge’s output written to redress the way in which her original biographer, Christabel Coleridge, underplayed Yonge’s significance in actively promoting and recording the developmental phases of the Oxford Movement.

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    • Jay, Elisabeth. “Charlotte Mary Yonge and the Tractarian Aesthetic.” In Special Issue: Tractarian Poets. Victorian Poetry 44 (2006): 43–59.

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      Yonge was unable to find a distinctive voice in poetry, but she believed prose had an important role to play in the Tractarian aesthetic. The Heir of Redclyffe (1853) operates as a Tractarian reading primer, where both characters and readers are taught to “read aright.”

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    • Johnson, Maria Poggi. “The Case for Anglicanism in Charlotte Yonge’s Historical Fiction.” In Characters & Scenes: Studies in Charlotte M. Yonge. Edited by Julia Courtney and Clemence Schultze, 143–157. Abingdon, UK: Beechcroft, 2007.

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      Extends the case for considering Yonge as an apologist for the Tractarian via media through an examination of an understudied historical novel, The Armourer’s Prentice (1884), which was set in England on the brink of the Reformation.

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    • Jordan, Ellen, Charlotte Mitchell, and Helen Schinske. “‘A Handmaid to the Church’: How John Keble Shaped the Life and Work of Charlotte Yonge, the ‘Novelist of the Oxford Movement.’” In John Keble in Context. Edited by Kirstie Blair, 175–191. London: Anthem, 2004.

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      From the experience of transcribing and editing Yonge’s correspondence, the authors argue that all Yonge’s writing was designed to further church principles and that Keble’s early influence saved Yonge from a drabber and more confined existence.

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    • Wells-Cole, Catherine. “Angry Young Men: Anger and Masculinity in the Novels of Charlotte M. Yonge.” In Masculinity and Spirituality in Victorian Culture. Edited by Andrew Bradstock, Sean Gill, Anne Hogan, and Sue Morgan, 71–84. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000.

      DOI: 10.1057/9780230294165Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Study on how Yonge uses anger to probe the problematic formation of masculine identity in the face of new social realities.

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    • Yonge, Charlotte Mary. Letters of Charlotte Mary Yonge.

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      An ongoing online edition, expertly annotated.

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      Art

      The extent of the Oxford Movement’s influence on the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, both collectively and individually, is a contested matter. Grieve 1969 challenges the Brotherhood’s own distancing pronouncements by tracing connections of three of its members. Bronkhurst 2006 focuses on the connections Holman Hunt made during a period in Oxford, and Errington 1984 suggests that Millais may have been influenced by a sermon of Pusey’s. Mane-Wheoki 2008 sees other members of the Brotherhood’s flirtation with the Oxford Movement as more a matter of circumstance than conviction.

      • Bronkhurst, Judith. William Holman Hunt: A Catalogue Raisonné of Paintings. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006.

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        Claims that during 1851–1852, Holman Hunt mixed with leading Tractarians. Also provides an interpretation of the Tractarian-related symbolism in his 1852 painting New College Cloisters.

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      • Errington, Lindsay. Social and Religious Themes in English Art, 1840–1860. New York and London: Garland, 1984.

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        Speculates that Millais’s contentious painting, Christ in the House of His Parents (1849–1850) was inspired by a sermon of Pusey’s he had heard in Oxford in the summer of 1849. See pp. 244–292.

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      • Grieve, Alistair. “The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the Anglican High Church.” Burlington Magazine 111 (1969): 292–295.

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        In the face of the Brotherhood’s denial of any connection, Grieve traces specific personal links, often giving rise to particular paintings or uses of symbolism, in three works by D. G. Rossetti, Millais, and James Collinson.

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      • Mane-Wheoki, Jonathan. “The Light of the World: Mission and Message.” In Holman Hunt and the Pre-Raphaelite Vision. Edited by Katharine Lochnan and Carol Jacobi, 113–132. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.

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        Pre-Raphaelite dalliance with the Oxford Movement, brought about by the advice of William Dyce, the ritualism of Marylebone where they worked, and the patronage of Thomas Combe, an Oxford lay member. Detects irony in Anglo-Catholics naming their 1889 collection of essays, edited by Charles Gore, Lux Mundi, despite their distrust of Hunt’s painting.

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      LAST MODIFIED: 03/02/2011

      DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199799558-0049

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