Psychology Testing and Assessment
by
Vesna Buško
  • LAST REVIEWED: 06 June 2016
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 November 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199828340-0059

Introduction

Testing and assessment of individual differences have been an essential part of professional work of scientists and practitioners in psychology and related disciplines. It is generally acknowledged that psychological tests, along with the existing conceptualizations of measurements of human potentials, are among the most-valuable contributions of behavioral sciences to the society. The majority of psychological phenomena, or theoretical constructs, are not observable directly. Because of their latent nature, they are typically measured indirectly, that is, by registering behavior on appropriate tasks or responses to test items. Psychological testing is regarded as the process of measuring human attributes by procedures designed to obtain a sample of behavior. The meaning of assessment is broader to some extent and includes gathering and integration of test-related data, and those from other sources, to make an evaluation, professional decision, or recommendation about a person. Within more than a century of testing and assessment practice, different conceptual frameworks have been proposed and have served as a foundation of psychological test development, including the methods for evaluation of their usefulness and quality. Despite the controversies surrounding both classical and modern formulations of test theory, they appear to be widely used today and complement each other in designing and evaluating psychological and educational tests. Testing practice is for many reasons an extremely sensitive issue. It is most often not only a professional but also a public issue. Because the decisions based on test results and their interpretations often entail important individual and societal consequences, psychological testing has been the target of profound public attention and a long-standing criticism. The first part of this article introduces General Overviews and Textbooks, representing major aspects of testing theory, methodological principles in test design and evaluation, and the areas of application. Selected Reference Works concern either theoretical foundations of psychological testing, or the assessment issues used related to particular fundamental or applied fields of psychology. Several excellent Journals that specialize in publishing articles on advances in psychometrics, along with theoretical and practical aspects of assessment, are also presented, as well as critical sources of information on measurement instruments and their utility. The article concludes with considerations of Ethical, Societal, and Cultural Issues that are linked to the process of psychological testing and assessment, including the responsibilities of all parties involved in the assessment-data-gathering procedures and the uses of test results.

General Overviews

Literature on testing and assessment in psychology and related social science disciplines is rather abundant and diverse in many respects. Several rather succinct texts are selected here to provide a general insight into the meanings, functions, and conceptual and methodological developments of the area. Megargee 2000 and Segal and Coolidge 2000 give overall accounts of the terms of testing and assessment, with their specific meanings and main areas of application. Jones and Thissen 2007 offers a general overview of psychometrics, with its historical background, core topics, theory, and methods. Haig and Borsboom 2008 introduces a vivid discussion on the nature of measurement in psychology, raising challenging views on the long-lasting issue of its conceptual foundations.

  • Haig, B. D., and D. Borsboom. 2008. On the conceptual foundation of psychological measurement. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives 6.1–2: 1–6.

    DOI: 10.1080/15366360802035471Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    A theoretical and, in a way, philosophical commentary that addresses challenging aspects of the common treatment of measurement procedures in psychology. Refers to associated, intriguing focus articles dealing with fundamental psychometric issues, such as relations of observed test scores to psychological attributes, or construct-concept differentiation.

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    • Jones, L. V., and D. Thissen. 2007. A history and overview of psychometrics. In Psychometrics. Handbook of Statistics 26. Edited by C. R. Rao and S. Sinharay, 1–28. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

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      Presents psychometrics as a discipline of quantitative psychology, with a historical overview of its major classes of methods and models, including the development of the true score and item response formulations of the test theory, and the problems of comparability of test scores and so-called test-linking procedures.

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      • Megargee, E. I. 2000. Testing. In Encyclopedia of psychology. Vol. 8. Edited by A. E. Kazdin, 47–52. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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        The article presents main types of tests and related application settings, with short accounts of their historical background and standards governing test development and evaluation.

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        • Segal, D. L., and F. L. Coolidge. 2000. Assessment. In Encyclopedia of psychology. Vol. 1. Edited by A. E. Kazdin, 264–272. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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          Historical overview of psychological assessment is presented along with main methods, techniques, and strategies used within specific assessment settings and with regard to particular domains of human functioning.

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          Textbooks

          Among the general textbooks, Anastasi and Urbina 1997 and Cronbach 1990 should necessarily be listed for being two of the most authoritative sources on psychological testing and assessment. Kaplan and Saccuzzo 2009 offers an engaging source on all important conceptual and practical aspects of psychological testing.

          • Anastasi, A., and S. Urbina. 1997. Psychological testing. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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            This classic textbook is a dependable introduction to psychological testing, aiming primarily to provide a foundation for proper test use. Includes the basics of test construction, principles of their evaluation, and test score interpretation, along with extensive descriptions of particular measurement instruments within major types of assessment techniques.

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            • Cronbach, L. J., 1990. Essentials of psychological testing. 5th ed. New York: Harper and Row.

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              The classic textbook, a thorough grounding in the principles and application of psychological testing.

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              • Kaplan, R. M., and D. P. Saccuzzo. 2009. Psychological testing: Principles, applications, and issues. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

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                This is a comprehensive textbook on fundamentals of psychological testing, its varied applications, and the existing controversies on testing practice within diverse applied settings. The text is attractive in style and structure, well suited to engage students’ attention and effectively communicate the dynamics of the field.

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                Psychometrics

                Psychometrics refers to a broad scientific field that delves into methods and principles of psychological measurement and studies the appropriateness and usefulness of test scores. The five textbooks are selected here as complementary resources on the problems of the measurement of human behavior and attributes. Nunnaly and Bernstein 1994 is the classic groundwork in the field, and Raykov and Marcoulides 2010 introduces an excellent, up-to-date, and integrative presentation of psychometric theory and multiple latent-variable methods. Both McDonald 1999 and Allen and Yen 2002 present worthy course books on psychometric theory and methods, with the coverage of the latter being mainly focused on classical test theory. An extensive overview on basics of psychometric reasoning, concepts, and methodology is presented in the electronic book An introduction to psychometric theory with applications in R.

                • Allen, M. J., and W. M. Yen. 2002. Introduction to measurement theory. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

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                  Well-organized and concise overview of theoretical foundations and practice of test construction, score transformations, and interpretations, with some discussion on controversies and recent developments in the field. Practical examples, study questions, and computational tasks follow each chapter, making this book well matched to course use within undergraduate and graduate psychometric programs.

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                  • An introduction to psychometric theory with applications in R.

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                    The webpage contains the e-book on basic principles of psychometric theory, methodology, and applications, along with underlying statistical and mathematical concepts, their computational aspects, and utility issues. The site consists of chapters of in-progress texts and a range of teaching/learning materials on R software and psych package.

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                    • McDonald, R. P. 1999. Test theory: A unified treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                      The book gives an extensive overview of psychometrics-related quantitative concepts, methods, and allied computational techniques. Intended mainly for undergraduate and graduate psychology students; requires basic background understanding of statistical, mathematical, and probability concepts and reasoning.

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                      • Nunnally, J. C., and I. H. Bernstein. 1994. Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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                        This textbook is the standard in the area of psychometrics and measurement. It is written as a complete resource on the problems of measurement in behavioral sciences.

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                        • Raykov, T., and G. A. Marcoulides. 2010. Introduction to psychometric theory. London: Routledge.

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                          This text provides a state-of-the-art introduction to educational and psychological testing and measurement theory. The book reflects the developments in psychometric theory of the 1990s and 2000s and introduces a latent variable modeling framework into the area.

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                          Differing Theoretical Perspectives

                          Test theories provide general frameworks for the development of measurement instruments. Rooted in general mathematical and statistical principles, methods, and models, any test theory deals with problems of quantification of human attributes, and the ways to acquire knowledge on studied constructs from their observations, regardless of any substantive theory of human behavior. Lord and Novick 1968 is among the most-influential sources in the history of psychometrics, wherein a number of classical and modern test theory models are thoroughly presented and contrasted. Brennan 2001 gives a detailed treatment of generalizability theory, and Embretson and Reise 2000 introduces principles of item response theory (IRT) with the instances of applications.

                          • Brennan, R. L. 2001. Generalizability theory. New York: Springer.

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                            The book offers a thorough account of generalizability theory as an extension of the classical test theory, along with statistical framework and procedures for the analyses of test-score components of variance, related estimates, and computational methods for deriving indices of validity and dependability of measurements.

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                            • Embretson, S. E., and S. P. Reise. 2000. Item response theory for psychologists. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                              The book explains principles of item response theory (IRT) and surveys current IRT models, estimation methods, and related software. The book is intended for graduate psychology students and professionals who are familiar with the classical test theory and the principles of testing.

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                              • Lord, F. C., and M. R. Novick. 1968. Statistical theories of mental test scores. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

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                                This is the classic work in the field of psychometrics, with probably the largest impact on the practice of testing and assessment. Includes critical discussion and comparisons between particular test-score theories and models. The book also contains the contribution by Allan Birnbaum on different latent trait models with applications in ability testing.

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                                Test Development and Evaluation

                                Most textbooks on testing and assessment include sections on the principles and methods of item and test designing and validation. Several sources are listed here that either give descriptions of basics or discuss alternate, new, or critical views on the usual (contemporary) practice of test construction and usage. Kline 2005 is a general introductory textbook suited for undergraduates, while Netemeyer, et al. 2003 provides an instructive source on the issues involved in developing and validating multi-item, self-report, paper-and-pencil scales of latent constructs. Horn 2005 addresses critical issues related to the practical applications of the principles of measurement. Albeit not quite directly related to the topic of this section, Michell 1986 is suggested here for the implications of the matter discussed on the quantitative meaning and interpretation of composite test scores. Several test construction models are outlined in Veldcamp 2005, whereas the issues of item modeling and item generation methods are extensively discussed in Bejar 2010.

                                • Bejar, I. I. 2010. Recent development and prospects in item generation. In Measuring psychological constructs: Advances in model-based approaches. Edited by S. E. Embretson, 201–226. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                  DOI: 10.1037/12074-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  A broad overview of the substantive basis of item generation methods and their implications for psychometric models. Item generation is argued to serve as an opportunity for testing psychological theories.

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                                  • Horn, J. L. 2005. Neglected thinking about measurement in behavioral science research. In Contemporary psychometrics: A Festschrift to Roderick P. McDonald. Edited by A. Maydeu-Olivares and J. J. McArdle, 101–122. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                    The chapter discusses basic measurement issues that often seem to be overlooked in the research of behavioral scientists, including the effects of statistical and distributional properties on item and test characteristics, such as discriminant power and item intercorrelations.

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                                    • Kline, T. J. B. 2005. Psychological testing: A practical approach to design and evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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                                      The book is conceived as an approachable guide through the processes of test construction and validation. Key measurement concepts, associated statistical procedures, and practical considerations are addressed and illustrated by many examples, with an emphasis placed on practical use of theoretical concepts throughout the text.

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                                      • Michell, J. 1986. Measurement scales and statistics: A clash of paradigms. Psychological Bulletin 100:398–407.

                                        DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.100.3.398Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        This is a theoretical article highlighting the open controversy resulting from different paradigms of measurement. Three theories of measurement are recognized to be existing side by side within psychology: the representational, the operational, and the classical, with each having different implications for the relations between measurement scales and statistics.

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                                        • Netemeyer, R. G., W. O. Bearden, and S. Sharma. 2003. Scaling procedures: Issues and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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                                          Presents a four-step approach for multi-indicator scale development aimed at measuring latent constructs. The approach is elaborated and illustrated with empirical examples attached to each step. The role of theory in scale development is highlighted, and the concepts of scale dimensionality, reliability, and validity are extensively reviewed.

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                                          • Veldkamp, B. P. 2005. Test construction: Automated. In Encyclopedia of statistics in behavioral sciences. Edited by B. S. Everitt and D. C. Howell, 2011–2014. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

                                            DOI: 10.1002/0470013192Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            The article describes steps in psychometric planning within the process of high-stakes test construction. Optimal-test-construction problem has been proposed to be treated by use of methods and strategies for multiple-objective selection problems.

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                                            Testing Applications and Usage

                                            Apart from various theoretical, methodological, and technical aspects of test development and evaluation, there are essential testing application issues that cannot be overestimated. These concern various purposes and uses of tests and the discussion on professional and sound practice of testing and assessment. American Educational Research Association, et al. 1999 is currently probably the best guide for all kinds of users of psychological and educational measurement instruments. Jackson 1996 focuses on the issues of responsible uses of tests and discusses who uses the tests, in which ways, and why.

                                            • American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education. 1999. Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

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                                              This publication offers the most complete account for many procedural, professional, ethical, and societal issues that form the basis for evaluation of testing practice. It is therefore a vitally important reference for professional test developers, sponsors, publishers, users, policymakers, employers, and students in education and psychology.

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                                              • Jackson, C. 1996. Understanding psychological testing. Leicester, UK: British Psychological Society.

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                                                The book is intended for different sorts of users of psychological testing results, including test takers. Focuses mainly on the reasons for testing, issues of test quality, and the proper uses of tests. Includes information on how a prospective user can judge a test.

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                                                Reference Works

                                                The intended audience of the reference guides outlined here is mainly researchers, university trainers, students, practitioners, and other professionals in specific basic and applied fields of psychology. The works presented here represent either broad overviews or more-detailed reviews pertaining to specific areas of measurement of human traits and capacities or are focused on assessment tools developed or typically used within particular areas of psychology. Books and chapters chosen here as general writings bring up common rationale, methodology, and social issues pertinent to the practice of psychological testing and assessment. Aiken and Groth-Marnat 2006 and Cohen and Swerdlik 2005 include overviews of statistical and psychometric basics behind test development, along with accounts of applications of a variety of assessment tools and procedures. Cattell and Johnson 1986 emphasizes functional aspects of assessment, whereas Lubinski 2000 focuses primarily on substantive issues about major human dispositions, their relationships with indices of life accomplishment, and the role of measurement in the advancement of knowledge in these areas.

                                                • Aiken, L. R., and G. Groth-Marnat. 2006. Psychological testing and assessment. 12th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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                                                  An overall introductory source on the principles and practice of testing and assessment, intended mainly for undergraduate-level students of psychology, education, and related disciplines.

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                                                  • Cattell, R. B., and R. C. Johnson, eds. 1986. Functional psychological testing: Principles and instruments. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

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                                                    An edited volume organized in three separable parts covering topics on general psychometric and statistical principles in testing, detailed descriptions of particular assessment methods and instruments pertinent to major domains of human traits and capacities, and the application issues, that is, a portrayal of testing practice within different applied fields.

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                                                    • Cohen, R. J., and M. E. Swerdlik. 2005. Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction to tests and measurement. 6th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

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                                                      A general text on testing, assessment, and measurement, with their conceptual, historical, and methodological foundations, including considerations of ethical and culture-related issues. Varied examples, illustrations, and critical thinking questions are effective in maintaining students’ interest.

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                                                      • Lubinski, D. 2000. Scientific and social significance of assessing individual differences: “Sinking shafts at a few critical points.” Annual Review of Psychology 51:405–444.

                                                        DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.405Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                        The paper gives a critical review of more than a century of research and theoretical inquiry in the scientific literature, speaking of the importance of the assessment on individual differences in human abilities, personality, and interests as key dimensions structuring human behavior and adaptational outcomes.

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                                                        Psychometrics

                                                        By now, the literature on psychometric theory, methodology, and applications is rather extensive and diverse in many ways. Several comprehensive volumes and book chapters are selected here as excellent reference sources for a deliberate inquiry into conceptual and methodological advancements in contemporary psychometrics. Rao and Sinharay 2007 and Maydeu-Olivares and McArdle 2005 give a broad coverage of topics on recent psychometrics methods and related conceptualizations, and Thissen 2003 suggests a metaphoric view of the state of the art in the field. Zumbo and Rupp 2004 focuses on profound theoretical analysis of the reliability and validity concepts. Embretson 2010 introduces new explanatory approaches to the measurement of psychological constructs.

                                                        • Embretson, S. E., ed. 2010. Measuring psychological constructs: Advances in model-based approaches. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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                                                          This edited volume aims to present a range of innovative approaches to measurement based on modern test theory models. Model-based measurement approaches are proposed, which are expected to make measured constructs better matched to substantive theories. The text requires familiarity with test designing and validation issues, and some math background.

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                                                          • Maydeu-Olivares, A., and J. J. McArdle, eds. 2005. Contemporary psychometrics. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                            This edited volume covers advanced topics presented within broad sections, mainly on modern test theory models, factor analysis models, methodology of structural equation modeling, and specific multivariate analysis issues. A valuable source for advanced students and researchers in social and behavioral sciences, and for methodologists from other disciplines.

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                                                            • Rao, C. R., and S. Sinharay, eds. 2007. In Psychometrics. Handbook of Statistics 26. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

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                                                              This handbook highlights recent developments in the theory, methodology, applications, and computational methods in contemporary psychometrics. The articles, by leading experts in the areas included in the volume, can serve as a guide to research scholars, reading material for graduate students, and a thorough source for consultants and practitioners.

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                                                              • Thissen, D. 2003. Psychometric engineering as art: Variations on a theme. In New developments in psychometrics. Edited by Haruo Yanai, 3–18. Tokyo and New York: Springer.

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                                                                The paper portrays important aspects and tasks of quantitative psychology as an integration of art and engineering. Psychometrics is represented as the discipline using design to solve problems arising in modeling the data in the behavioral sciences.

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                                                                • Zumbo, B. D., and A. A. Rupp. 2004. Responsible modeling of measurement data for appropriate inferences: Important advances in reliability and validity theory. In The SAGE handbook of quantitative methodology for the social sciences. Edited by D. Kaplan, 74–93. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                  The authors discuss the core concepts of reliability and validity, along with frequent misunderstandings of the common terms in the measurement literature. They put the concepts into historical context but also provide a unifying view of reliability and validity through the lens of statistical modeling.

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                                                                  Test Theory Frameworks

                                                                  Lewis 2007 offers a short outline of classical test-theory concepts and comparisons to those of item response theory (IRT). Steyer, et al. 1992 explains the basics of the latent state-trait theory. Andrich 1988 gives an excellent introduction to Rasch modeling, focusing on simple logistic model, whereas Bock and Moustaki 2007 and Hambleton, et al. 2000 speak of general IRT framework and applications. McDonald 1999 advocates for unified treatment of major concepts and techniques of test theory, and similarly, Brennan 2007 emphasizes the necessity of integrating current psychometric models. Finally, Borsboom 2008 proposes a conceptual foundation for the entire area of latent variable modeling.

                                                                  • Andrich, D. 1988. Rasch models for measurement. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                    The book explains general principles of Rasch modeling procedures and rationale. The author explicitly relates and compares Rasch models to other more commonly used procedures of measurement in social sciences, such as those derived from Thurstone and Gutmann’s work and from traditional test theory.

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                                                                    • Bock, R. D., and I. Moustaki. 2007. Item response theory in a general framework. In Psychometrics. Handbook of Statistics 26. Edited by C. R. Rao and S. Sinharay, 469–513. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

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                                                                      A general IRT (item response theory) framework with critical assumptions, comparisons to classical test theory approach, and application possibilities is presented. The chapter includes the account of most commonly used IRT models, some of their properties, and a discussion of their roles in estimating item parameters and scoring.

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                                                                      • Borsboom, D. 2008. Latent variable theory. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives 6.1–2: 25–53.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/15366360802035497Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        The paper suggests a conceptual foundation for latent variable modeling formulated as a metatheoretical framework under the more general heading of latent variable theory.

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                                                                        • Brennan, R. L. 2007. Integration of models. In Psychometrics. Handbook of Statistics 26. Edited by C. R. Rao and S. Sinharay, 1095–1098. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

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                                                                          The author argues that integrating the existing measurement and scaling psychometric models is one of the major challenges for contemporary psychometrics.

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                                                                          • Hambleton, R. K., F. Robin, and D. Xing. 2000. Item response models for the analysis of educational and psychological test data. In Handbook of applied multivariate statistics and mathematical modeling. Edited by H. E. A. Tinsley and S. D. Brown, 553–585. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

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                                                                            The chapter introduces the basics of IRT models and underlying logics, assumptions and properties, as well as approaches to parameter estimation and model fit. General areas of application are also briefly described.

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                                                                            • Lewis, C. 2007. Selected topics in classical test theory. In Psychometrics. Handbook of Statistics 26. Edited by C. R. Rao and S. Sinharay, 29–43. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

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                                                                              Classical test theory is reviewed, and the topics on item analysis and estimation methods for item and person parameters under linear as well as nonlinear models are addressed. The paper demonstrates clear similarities between simple, classical test-theory model and popular IRT models.

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                                                                              • McDonald, R. P. 1999. Test theory: A unified treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                The book conveys the author’s main position viewing test theory as an integrated field. The style and organization of the text make it a very good reference source for lecturers of psychometrics and measurement courses at undergraduate and graduate levels.

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                                                                                • Steyer, R., D. Ferring, and M. J. Schmitt. 1992. States and traits in psychological assessment. European Journal of Psychological Assessment 8.2: 79–98.

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                                                                                  The authors proposed an extension of the classical test theory, with the basic idea that each psychological attribute composes trait and state components. The existence of situation and/or interaction effects on any kind of behavior, as suggested by the latent state-trait theory, has important implications for psychological assessment.

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                                                                                  Basic Fields

                                                                                  This section addresses principles, methods, and issues pertaining to psychological testing and assessment within the major domains of human functioning. The titles are selected and organized so as to reflect measurement issues within key fundamental areas of psychology, that is, Intelligence testing and assessment of broadly defined cognitive capacities, measurement in Personality Psychology, and assessment issues in Developmental Psychology.

                                                                                  Intelligence

                                                                                  Familiarity with essential issues of intellectual assessment is of crucial importance for professionals and scientists in psychology and related disciplines, as well as for students preparing for a calling within a broad area of behavioral sciences. Many professional decisions in both academic and applied settings rely on the outcomes of some form of assessment within the domain of cognitive and intellectual functioning. Moreover, knowledge of basics of intelligence testing methodology is essential for comprehending the ways intelligence has been conceptualized. The titles listed below either present overviews of different aspects of development of the field or focus on assessing some narrower or novel constructs. Embretson 2004 presents a broad historical introduction into issues of ability testing since its beginnings, along with some foreseen developments in the area. Another look into the history and prospects of intelligence testing is given in Roberts, et al. 2005. Flanagan and Harrison 2005 is a comprehensive volume providing critical information and necessary knowledge for effective use of intelligence test batteries. Wasserman 2003 addresses applied issues pertaining to the assessment of cognitive and intellectual functioning. Kyllonen and Lee 2005 focuses on novel methods and/or the assessment of novel constructs, Oberauer 2005 debates on measuring working memory, and O’Sullivan 2007 and Orchard, et al. 2009 discusses controversial issues in measuring emotional intelligence.

                                                                                  • Embretson, S. E. 2004. The second century of ability testing: Some predictions and speculations. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives 2.1: 1–32.

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                                                                                    A rather nontechnical discussion of important public-interest issues related to ability measurement. Reviews major developments in test theory, concepts, and methods of ability testing in the 20th century. Predicts that significant changes in test construction, task designs, and construct features and interpretations would be guided by integration of cognitive theory and advances in psychometrics.

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                                                                                    • Flanagan, D. P., and P. L. Harrison, eds. 2005. Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues. 2d ed. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                      This edited handbook gives a thorough conceptual, methodological (validation), and practical overview of the contemporary state of the art of intellectual assessment. The book is intended for practitioners, researchers, university teachers, and graduate students, particularly those specializing in the fields of measurement, cognitive assessment, intelligence, or psychoeducational assessment.

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                                                                                      • Kyllonen, P. C., and S. Lee. 2005. Assessing problem solving in context. In Handbook of understanding and measuring intelligence. Edited by O. Wilhelm and R. W. Engle, 11–26. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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                                                                                        A concise chapter reviewing the approaches to the assessment of problem-solving competencies in more-practical settings, including constructs such as situational judgment, practical intelligence, and critical thinking. Advantages and disadvantages of contextualized assessment are discussed and summarized.

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                                                                                        • Oberauer, K. 2005. The measurement of working memory capacity. In Handbook of understanding and measuring intelligence. Edited by O. Wilhelm and R. W. Engle, 393–408. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                                          This chapter discusses substantive theoretical and empirical issues on the working memory construct, which proved to be particularly successful in predicting and explaining intelligence. Despite the manifold ways currently used to measure working memory capacity, there is a lack of psychometrically sound measures.

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                                                                                          • Orchard, B., C. MacCann, R. Schulte, G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, and R. D. Roberts. 2009. New directions and alternative approaches to the measurement of emotional intelligence. In Assessing emotional intelligence. Edited by C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, and J. D. A. Parker, 321–344. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

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                                                                                            The logic for evaluating validity evidence for emotional-intelligence tests is outlined, with self-report scales and ability-based measures being reviewed by the same criteria. Suggests alternative test-development procedures, including information-processing tasks and new techniques such as perceptual tests, situational judgment test methodology, and several other measurement paradigms.

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                                                                                            • O’Sullivan, M. 2007. Trolling for trout, trawling for tuna: The methodological morass in measuring emotional intelligence. In The science of emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. Edited by G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, and R. D. Roberts, 199–229. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                              The appropriateness of different cognitive approaches to the assessment of emotional intelligence is discussed, including the critique of existing measures; questions of the utility of self-reports and questionnaires; common scoring procedures; prospects of using psychophysiological, developmental, and neurological measures; and the application of advanced psychometrics.

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                                                                                              • Roberts, R. D., P. M. Markham, G. Matthews, and M. Zeidner. 2005. Assessing intelligence: Past, present, and future. In Handbook of understanding and measuring intelligence. Edited by O. Wilhelm and R. W. Engle, 333–360. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                                                The chapter provides a brief overview and a critical analysis of intelligence testing, along with speculations on the future of this scientific endeavor. The gap between theoretically established models of intelligence research and commonly used tests of cognitive abilities is discussed.

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                                                                                                • Wasserman, J. D. 2003. Assessment of intellectual functioning. In Handbook of psychology, volume 10: Assessment psychology. Edited by J. R. Graham, J. A. Naglieri, and I. B. Weiner, 417–442. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

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                                                                                                  The chapter primarily addresses practical issues of intellectual assessment, including a detailed account of major individually administered intelligence tests, diagnostic classification, and intervention issues. The text is intended for graduate students of psychology, education, and related disciplines; practitioners; and users of results of psychological assessment (e.g., medical professionals, parents, teachers, and clients).

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                                                                                                  Personality Psychology

                                                                                                  Personality assessment is rooted in a long-standing recognition that people differ from each other in how they think, feel, and act and are generally disposed to behave in particular ways. As one of the oldest fields in psychology, personality assessment is one of the most extensively studied branches of contemporary psychology. Weiner and Greene 2008 offers a comprehensive guide to personality assessment. Rorer 1990 gives an interesting debate on the philosophical background of personality assessment approaches. Barnett, et al. 2003 looks at personality measurement from the unified validity framework. Beutler and Groth-Marnat 2003 centers on the integration of assessment information about personality as coming from a variety of sources. Schinka and Greene 1997 deals with methodological issues and advances in personality assessment.

                                                                                                  • Barnett, D. W., G. M. Macmann, and F. E. Lentz Jr. 2003. Personality assessment research: Applying criteria of confidence and helpfulness. In Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children: Personality, behavior, and context. 2d ed. Edited by C. R. Reynolds and R. W. Kamphaus, 3–29. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                    The chapter analyzes central theoretical and practical issues defined in terms of confidence and usefulness of decision outcomes related to test use. Fundamental dilemmas for research and professional practice associated with personality measurement are presented, along with suggestions on the strategies for personal and social assessment.

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                                                                                                    • Beutler, L. E., and G. Groth-Marnat. 2003. Integrative assessment of adult personality. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                      An edited book that provides a thorough overview of conceptual and empirical foundations of integrative personality assessment. The volume is rich in research material, case studies, and examples, which makes this source valuable for practitioners and clinicians as well as for students of all levels of experience.

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                                                                                                      • Rorer, L. G. 1990. Personality assessment: A conceptual survey. In Handbook of personality: Theory and research. Edited by L. A. Pervin, 693–720. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                        The chapter discusses the historical development of personality assessment by placing it in the context of changes in the philosophy of science. The “traditional” assessment model, its developments, and also the challenges to that approach, including some alternatives that occurred within different philosophical perspectives, are confronted and reviewed.

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                                                                                                        • Schinka, J. A., and R. L. Greene. 1997. Emerging issues and methods in personality assessment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                          A collection of articles on a range of topics, including the virtues of new (as of the mid-1990s) and revised personality instruments, evolving methods of personality scale development, models of personality, and the appropriate use of complex statistical procedures as applied to data in personality assessment.

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                                                                                                          • Weiner, I. B., and R. L. Greene. 2008. Handbook of personality assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

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                                                                                                            An admirable compilation of the most-common self-reportings and projective measures, covering notes on their history, psychometric foundations, and interpretational and application issues. This book integrates theory and research and underlines the contributions of standardized psychological instruments to the assessment process. An excellent reference guide for both clinicians and psychology students at all levels.

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                                                                                                            Developmental Psychology

                                                                                                            Reynolds and Kamphaus 2003a and Reynolds and Kamphaus 2003b present comprehensive volumes on conceptual and methodological aspects of the assessment of children’s cognitive, affective, and social functioning. Reynolds and Kamphaus 2002 introduces an objective tool for assessing behavior and self-perception of children. Simeonsson and Rosenthal 2001 focuses on the approaches to the assessment of children with special needs.

                                                                                                            • Reynolds, C. R., and R. W. Kamphaus. 2002. The clinician’s guide to the behavior assessment system for children (BASC). New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                              A detailed guide to one of the psychometrically well-documented objective assessment methods, potentially useful within research and practical settings. The BASC is a comprehensive assessment tool, based on a multimethod, multidimensional approach to evaluating behavior and self-perception of children.

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                                                                                                              • Reynolds, C. R., and R. W. Kamphaus, eds. 2003a. Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children: Intelligence, aptitude, and achievement. Vol. 1. 2d ed. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                                This is a highly informative handbook, covering thorough descriptions of all sorts of available assessment tools aimed at measuring varied aspects of cognitive capacities in children. The text includes theoretical and psychometric background, and a critical view of current (2011) approaches to the measurement of children’s behavior and abilities.

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                                                                                                                • Reynolds, C. R., and R. W. Kamphaus, eds. 2003b. Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children: Personality, behavior, and context. Vol. 2. 2d ed. New York: The Guilford Press.

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                                                                                                                  The second volume of the same handbook reviews various assessment methods related to aspects of personality, emotional and social competencies, and contextual behavioral measures. This two-volume handbook is suitable for graduate students, professors, and researchers studying the qualities of assessment and psychodiagnostics in children.

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                                                                                                                  • Simeonsson, R. J., and S. L. Rosenthal, eds. 2001. Psychological and developmental assessment: Children with disabilities and chronic conditions. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                                    An excellent volume enclosing quantitative, qualitative, and ecological approaches to the assessment of children with a variety of special needs. This is a helpful source for students at the graduate level and for practitioners working in the area of child, educational, and clinical psychology.

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                                                                                                                    Applied Psychology

                                                                                                                    This section is devoted to the typical features, tools, and applications of testing and assessment in a variety of life or professional contexts. Assessment practices within major areas of applied psychology are represented by separate subsections, including Educational and Organizational. The following section, devoted to Clinical psychology, includes subsections on Neuropsychological and Developmental Psychopathology testing and assessment, which are also presented for the unique assessment methods developed or typically used within these areas of psychology, and/or unique features of behavioral domains and assessed population.

                                                                                                                    Educational

                                                                                                                      The Brennan 2006 edited volume comprises an exhaustive collection of chapters representing advancements in the field of educational measurement. Mislevy, et al. 2003 presents an elaborate conceptual analysis of the processes related to complex performance assessment. Braden 2003 outlines unique features of assessment in school settings. Angelo and Cross 1993 offers a useful guide through techniques for assessment of students’ learning. Black and Wiliam 2007 discusses the impacts of assessment practices on teaching and learning, and the role of national contexts in these processes. Critical debates contained in Phelps 2005 and Moss, et al. 2005 are intriguing because they take contrasting positions toward current educational-assessment practices. The Cizek 2001 volume presents all key issues and contemporary perspectives on standard setting.

                                                                                                                    • Angelo, T. A., and K. P. Cross. 1993. Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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                                                                                                                      This practical handbook is intended for teachers at all levels. Guidelines include thinking through and assessing personal teaching goals, and creating assessments to achieve those ends. The book offers fifty different classroom assessment techniques for evaluating the attainment of goals, with ready-to-use examples, and practical advice on how to plan, implement, and analyze assessment projects.

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                                                                                                                      • Black, P., and D. Wiliam. 2007. Large-scale assessment systems design principles drawn from international comparisons. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives 5.1: 1–53.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/15366360701293386Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        A systematically organized review, this article provides an extensive report on problems in educational assessment, with specific views from all parties or stakeholders involved. Several key issues are discussed, including the purposes and the quality of assessment and testing; the structure of the assessment system; and the locus, formats, uniformity, and comprehensiveness of the assessment.

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                                                                                                                        • Braden, J. P. 2003. Psychological assessment in school settings. In Handbook of psychology, vol. 10: Assessment psychology. Edited by J. R. Graham, J. A. Naglieri, and I. B. Weiner, 261–290. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

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                                                                                                                          A well-structured chapter that addresses aspects of psychological assessment that distinguish practices in school-based settings from practices in other settings, including specific purposes and current assessment practices, assessment of achievement, and future trends of psychological assessment in schools.

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                                                                                                                          • Brennan, R. L., ed. 2006. Educational measurement. 4th ed. Westport, CT: Praeger.

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                                                                                                                            A valuable volume offering a critical guidance through the field. Provides detailed coverage of key measurement topics structured around main subject areas, including theory and general principles; construction, administration, and scoring; and applications of measurement.

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                                                                                                                            • Cizek, G. J., ed. 2001. Setting performance standards: Concepts, methods, and perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                              Helpful source providing insight into developments in (and the current status of) the setting of performance standards in educational assessment. Covers diverse topics on conceptual foundations, practical questions, and methodological aspects of setting standards in various circumstances, as well as existing social, educational, political, and legal issues and challenges of setting standards.

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                                                                                                                              • Mislevy, R. J., L. S. Steinberg, and R. G. Almond. 2003. On the structure of educational assessment. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives 1.1: 3–62.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1207/S15366359MEA0101_02Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                The article describes the framework for assessment that stresses the interconnections among domain-level models of knowledge, student-level models of performance, and task and measurement models.

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                                                                                                                                • Moss, P. A., D. Pullin, J. P. Gee, and E. H. Haertel. 2005. The idea of testing: Psychometric and sociocultural perspectives. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives 3.2: 63–83.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1207/s15366359mea0302_1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  The authors support a cross-disciplinary perspective on how to conceptualize and evaluate the assessment practices. They exemplify the arguments they propose by contrasting conceptions of learning, reform, and fairness, and trying to put the testing into sociocultural and situational perspective.

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                                                                                                                                  • Phelps, R. P., ed. 2005. Defending standardized testing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                                    The book discusses policies, strategies, and practices of standardized testing in the early 21st century. Common criticisms of testing are presented, along with evidence of benefits and the acknowledged limitations of standardized testing. The authors in this edited volume agree that standardized testing represents beneficial and sometimes superior technology to all available alternatives.

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                                                                                                                                    Organizational

                                                                                                                                    The references listed within this section are primarily intended for psychology students, organizational psychologists who engage in psychological assessment in their daily practice, and other professionals who use the results of the assessment processes and implemented procedures. Klimoski and Zukin 2003 addresses specific aspects of psychological assessment in industrial/organizational settings. Rogelberg 2004 covers topics on test development and validation and related approaches to data treatment and analyses. Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2003 provides detailed guidance on all validation issues pertaining to personnel selection processes, and Guion 1998 provides a thorough view of assessment-based personnel decisions. Price 1997 presents an extensive critical review of measures used within organizational context. Cook and Cripps 2005 is a practical book on assessment practices designed for managers and occupational practitioners.

                                                                                                                                    • Cook, M., and B. Cripps. 2005. Psychological assessment in the workplace: A manager’s guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1002/9780470713105Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Instructive guide intended for managers and human resources professionals, offering a critical review of assessment practices within work and organizational context.

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                                                                                                                                      • Guion, R. M. 1998. Assessment, measurement, and prediction for personnel decisions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                                        A comprehensive and practical sourcebook covering research and applied topics related to assessment-based personnel decisions. The importance of various contextual features, methods used, and the role of psychometric theories in making assessment-based decisions is highlighted throughout the text.

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                                                                                                                                        • Klimoski, R. J., and L. B. Zukin. 2003. Psychological assessment in industrial/organizational settings. In Handbook of psychology, vol. 10: Assessment psychology. Edited by J. R. Graham, J. A. Naglieri, and I. B. Weiner, 317–343. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

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                                                                                                                                          The chapter is devoted to the unique features of assessment within business and organizational settings. Reviews contextual aspects and the specific nature of and approaches to assessment in industrial and organizational settings, as well as professional, psychometric, technical, and legal considerations, and describes the main purposes and tools for assessment in organizational settings.

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                                                                                                                                          • Price, J. L. 1997. Handbook of organizational measurement. International Journal of Manpower 18.4–6: 305–558.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1108/01437729710182260Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            The handbook aims at promoting the standardization of assessment tools and of labels for concepts commonly used in organizational research. The need for improvements in the measurement of organizational constructs is also emphasized.

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                                                                                                                                            • Rogelberg, S. G., ed. 2004. Handbook of research methods in industrial and organizational psychology. 2d ed. Oxford: Blackwell.

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                                                                                                                                              The handbook offers a comprehensive review of research and measurement methodology of interest for organizational researchers. Includes multiple chapters on test development, validation, cross-validation, and cross-cultural methods, as well as modern and sophisticated multivariate and modeling methods.

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                                                                                                                                              • Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. 2003. Principles for the validation and use of personnel selection procedures. 4th ed. Bowling Green, OH: Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

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                                                                                                                                                This document presents an excellent resource on a range of psychological-assessment procedures generally used to make personnel decisions. Provides a complete guidance on procedures for developing and validating tests, including investigating test fairness, validity generalization, and technical issues on test administration and reporting validation data.

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                                                                                                                                                Clinical

                                                                                                                                                The core of psychological assessment is problem solving and decision making. Clinical assessment requires the integration of a wide array of data and testing on diverse areas of knowledge to contribute to answering questions about an individual and facilitating relevant decision making. The source texts selected here include broad reviews on clinical assessment procedures and practices, and also volumes focused on the assessment of specific types of clinically relevant behaviors or specific assessment approaches and methods. The handbook Groth-Marnat 2009 provides an extensive guide for comprehensive psychological evaluation. Dorfman and Hersen 2001 presents a broad collection of reports on well-known and some new instruments within cognitive, personality, and vocational domains. Donovan and Marlatt 2005 deals with assessment issues associated with different kinds of addictive behavior. Haynes and O’Brien 2000 focuses on concepts, underlying assumptions, and strategies of the behavioral-assessment paradigm. Beutler and Groth-Marnat 2003 emphasizes an integrative approach to the assessment process and the use of assessment information, and Wood, et al. 2002 discusses controversies and anticipated changes in the overall practice of clinical assessment at the turn of the 21st century.

                                                                                                                                                • Beutler, L. E., and G. Groth-Marnat. 2003. Integrative assessment of adult personality. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                                                                  This edited volume is devoted to understanding assessment processes as an integration of diverse information and methods, including conceptual translation of discrete findings into a meaningful description of a client, consideration of challenges related to assessing diverse populations, and the use of assessment information to facilitate treatment planning.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Donovan, D. M., and G. A. Marlatt, eds. 2005. Assessment of addictive behaviors. 2d ed. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                                                                    A well-documented book founded on the biopsychosocial model of addiction. Assessment issues covered by this edited volume are dealt with primarily in the context of relapse prevention processes and procedures. In addition to “traditional” and different “consumptive” addictions, the book includes several drug classes and non-substance-related addictive behaviors recognized in the first decade of the 21st century.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Dorfman, W. I., and M. Hersen, eds. 2001. Understanding psychological assessment. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4615-1185-4Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      This volume comprises well-organized reports on the most-valued (some new as of 2001) instruments aimed at measuring cognitive and personality functioning in adults, children, and/or adolescents. Essentials of test construction and evaluation and integrated report writing are also represented. Valuable introductory text for graduate students attending applied courses in testing and assessment.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Groth-Marnat, G. 2009. Handbook of psychological assessment. 5th ed. New York: John Wiley.

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                                                                                                                                                        A well-written and thorough text reviewing major psychological-assessment instruments. The text provides relevant theoretical and practical material necessary for accomplishing a considerable level of practitioner competence.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Haynes, S. N., and W. H. O’Brien. 2000. Principles and practice of behavioral assessment. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

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                                                                                                                                                          The book gives a profound account of the behavioral-assessment paradigm; presents its concepts, goals and applications; discusses assumptions behind specific approaches, methods, and problems assessed; and also considers the issues of causation. Mainly concerned with the use of behavioral assessment in guiding clinical judgments.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Wood, J. M., H. N. Garb, S. O. Lilienfeld, and M. T. Nezworski. 2002. Clinical assessment. Annual Review of Psychology 53:519–543.

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                                                                                                                                                            The article reviews psychological-assessment practice and controversies, including the issue of accountability. The authors discuss conditions and changes in society, the general public, and contemporary science that occurred at the turn of the 21st century, which called for developing new assessment techniques and strategies that are cost effective, scientifically sound, and culturally fair.

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                                                                                                                                                            Neuropsychological

                                                                                                                                                            Neuropsychological assessment aims to draw inferences about the structural and functional characteristics of a person’s brain by evaluating his/her behavior in certain stimulus-response situations. Because of the use of instrumentation and the manipulation of stimulus attributes and response requirement, neuropsychological examination has been viewed as both a refinement and an extension of neurological examination. For many scholars and professionals, the Lezak, et al. 2004 volume is the most important sourcebook on clinical neuropsychological assessment. Stuss and Levine 2002 critically summarizes the current approaches to neuropsychological assessment, focusing on the assessment techniques of frontal-lobe functions of the human brain.

                                                                                                                                                            • Lezak, M. D., D. B. Howieson, and D. W. Loring. 2004. Neuropsychological assessment. 4th ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                              This is the 4th edition of the authoritative and comprehensive book, covering both theoretical and current clinical/practical issues in the field of neuropsychological assessment. The volume is indispensable for clinicians and researchers in the area of neuropsychology and for graduate students in psychological assessment.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Stuss, D. T., and B. Levine. 2002. Adult clinical neuropsychology: Lessons from studies of the frontal lobes. Annual Review of Psychology 53:401–433.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135220Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                The articles give a concise review of the existing approaches to the assessment of brain-behavior relationships, stressing the contributions of current cognitive and affective psychological theories, and recent findings from cognitive neuroscience, to the advancement of neuropsychological assessment.

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                                                                                                                                                                Developmental Psychopathology

                                                                                                                                                                Even though the works listed here could well fit into the sections on Clinical or Educational testing and assessment, it seemed sensible to distinguish several entries providing state-of-the-art assessment information related to child and adolescent psychopathology. In the comprehensive volume Mash and Barkley 2008, a necessarily contextual nature of the assessment of children experiencing problems is underlined, whereas Frick, et al. 2010 emphasizes a construct-driven view of psychological assessment. Reynolds and Kamphaus 2002 gives a detailed account of the behavior assessment system for children (BASC) as a broad assessment tool, and House 2002 focuses on the use of the American Psychological Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed.) in school settings.

                                                                                                                                                                • Frick, P. J., C. T. Barry, and R. W. Kamphaus. 2010. Clinical assessment of child and adolescent personality and behavior. New York: Springer.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-0641-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  The book aims to offer a scientific context for understanding psychological testing with children and adolescents, which in turn should serve as a basis for practical guidelines for using individual assessment tools in clinical practice. Style and organization of the book are mainly suited for psychology students and lecturers.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • House, A. E. 2002. DSM-IV diagnosis in the schools. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                                                                                    The author outlines the principles of diagnostic classification used by DSM-IV as a method of organizing and communicating the knowledge on youth problems and disorders, also stressing complex diagnostic and professional issues typical for school-based practice. The book can be greatly useful for school practitioners and child clinical psychologists.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Mash, E. J., and R. A. Barkley, eds. 2008. Assessment of childhood disorders. New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                                                                                      This edited handbook presents a systematic report of advanced assessment methods and strategies, including descriptive and conceptual background for a broad array of childhood disorders, health risks, and adolescent problems. Can serve as an excellent source for graduate students, practicing clinicians, and behavioral-science researchers.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Reynolds, C. R., and R. W. Kamphaus. 2002. The clinician’s guide to the behavior assessment system for children (BASC). New York: Guilford.

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                                                                                                                                                                        The book demonstrates that the BASC presents a clinically sound approach to assessing a number of both clinical and adaptive domains and dimensions of behavior and personality. The text is intended primarily as a guide for clinicians facing difficult assessment problems in work with children and adolescents.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Journals

                                                                                                                                                                        Practically all scientific journals in the areas of psychology, education, and related social and human sciences publish articles on the development and use of a range of new assessment methods and measurement techniques. Several journals are, however, suggested here because they are particularly devoted to presenting important theoretical and/or methodological contributions to the field of psychological and educational measurement, testing, and assessment. Educational & Psychological Measurement publishes articles on measurement theory, problems, and issues related to all academic disciplines, and Measurement focuses on the interdisciplinary study of measurement in the human sciences. Applied Psychological Measurement often contains reports on innovative measurement techniques and sophisticated methodologies, and Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling is directed toward theoretical and application problems of general psychometric and psychological assessment. European Journal of Psychological Assessment aims to present influential information on tests and assessment measures of interest for both academicians and practitioners. Finally, Journal of Educational Measurement publishes work on psychometrics as applied to measurement in educational settings, Organizational Research Methods focuses on new assessment methods and their application in organizational settings, and Assessment is mainly oriented toward applied clinical-assessment topics.

                                                                                                                                                                        Methods and Techniques

                                                                                                                                                                        Most of the available psychological and educational-assessment methods and techniques are already represented by the textbooks and reference sources listed within sections on assessment in basic and/or applied psychology domains of this review. Two topics are, however, singled out here for their unique contribution and/or obvious importance for contemporary assessment practices and thus for future development. One is devoted to multimethod approaches to psychological measurement, the subject that gained a complete consideration in Eid and Diener 2006, an edited handbook. The other concerns Computerized testing and assessment, which is presented in a separate subsection.

                                                                                                                                                                        • Eid, M. and E. Diener. 2006. Multimethod measurement in psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1037/11383-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          An integrative guide to multimethod measurement in psychological research. Offers a comprehensive treatment of theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of a range of assessment methods and their applications, together with the latest methods and strategies for analyzing multimethod data and the possibilities for implementing multimethod strategies.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Computerized

                                                                                                                                                                          Computer-based testing and the use of the Internet indeed present the utmost innovation in testing and assessment practices in the early 21st century. In view of the many potential benefits of computer-based testing, along with growing technological advancements and an overall increase in literacy skills in information and communications technologies, a change in testing mode seems to be inevitable. It is worth noting, however, that this venture, whenever admitted, is relevant to the extent that it contributes to the major objectives and purposes of the assessment. Bartram and Hambleton 2006 covers the articles on main technical and application aspects of computerized testing, with each focusing on issues of control, quality, security, and technology. Butcher 2003 presents an overview of the uses of computer technology in the context of clinical assessment and different kinds of diagnostic procedures, also discussing the issues of comparability of test score, interview, or other data collected by computer-based vs. traditional methods. Sanders 2007 portrays a foreseen direction of progress in the science of psychometrics that entails maximizing the potential of the computer in test development. Two recent scientific and technical reports (Scheuermann and Pereira 2008 and Scheuermann and Björnsson 2009) attest that a lot of research is still needed in order to ensure a convincing approach to computer-based assessment.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Bartram, D., and R. K. Hambleton, eds. 2006. Computer-based testing and the Internet: Issues and advances. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

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                                                                                                                                                                            The collection of chapters is organized around main themes that define current operational issues, technical advances, and applications of computer-based testing.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Butcher, J. N. 2003. Computerized psychological assessment. In Handbook of psychology, volume 10: Assessment psychology. Edited by J. R. Graham, J. A. Naglieri, and I. B. Weiner, 141–164. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

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                                                                                                                                                                              The chapter discusses several issues, benefits, and risks of the use of computerized testing procedures, including the questions of validity of the outcomes of neuropsychological assessment, narrative reports on personality, or structured interviews.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Sanders, P. 2007. Testing with and without computers. In Psychometrics. Handbook of Statistics 26. Edited by C. R. Rao and S. Sinharay, 1113–1116. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

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                                                                                                                                                                                The chapter discusses prospects of challenges that psychometrics would face in the near future. These include exploiting the increasing potential of computer technology for several aspects of test development, that is, item construction, test assembly, models for data analysis, and reporting of scores.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Scheuermann, F., and J. Björnsson, eds. 2009. The transition to computer-based assessment: New approaches to skills assessment and implications for large-scale testing. Luxembourg: European Communities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  This report, created largely as a result of an expert workshop on important assessment aspects related to the shift from traditional to computer-based testing, includes a comparison between paper-and-pencil tests and computer-based assessment in methodologies, approaches, and effects; gender differences; and adaptive vs. linear computer-based assessment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Scheuermann, F., and A. G. Pereira, eds. 2008. Towards a research agenda on computer-based assessment: Challenges and needs for European educational measurement. Luxembourg: European Communities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    An extensive report composed of articles that consider several perspectives on computer-based assessment (CBA). These include the potential of computer assessment methodologies in improving skill assessment methods; implementation issues, such as experience with large-scale surveys and Internet-based delivery modes; and the assessment tool features and related quality criteria.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Test Reviews

                                                                                                                                                                                    Spies, et al. 2010 is the most comprehensive of the many sources of information about tests. A rather-extensive descriptive list of different types of published measurement instruments is provided in Murphy, et al. 2006. Keyser and Sweetland 1994 offers a valuable source of critical reviews of a majority of available measurement tools currently in use.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Keyser, D. J., and R. C. Sweetland. 1994. Test critiques. Austin, TX: Gale Cengage.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      This ten-volume set includes descriptions of psychological, educational, and business tests, discussing their use and psychometric features; covers critiques of the test and a list of references for further information.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Murphy, L. L., J. C. Impara, and B. S. Plake, eds. 2006. Tests in print. 7th ed. Lincoln: The Buros Institute for Mental Measurements, University of Nebraska–Lincoln.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Serves as a comprehensive bibliography to all known, in-print, commercially available tests; also guides readers to critical, candid test reviews published in the Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY) series; a vital reference for professionals and anyone interested in the critical issues of tests and testing.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Spies, R. A., J. F. Carlson, and K. F. Geisinger, eds. 2010. Mental measurements yearbook. 18th ed. Lincoln: The Buros Institute for Mental Measurements, University of Nebraska–Lincoln.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          The publication is designed to assist professionals in selecting and using standardized tests. It is considered to be among the most-valuable reference series in education and psychology; contains the latest descriptive information and critical reviews of about four thousand new and revised tests in all categories of human traits and capacities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Ethical, Societal, and Cultural Issues

                                                                                                                                                                                          Psychological assessment is based on the application of scientific knowledge of human behavior, abilities, and other attributes to produce descriptions and comparisons among individuals and groups. Psychological science should be used to make decisions with full acknowledgment of its limitations and the legal and human rights of the persons whose lives are influenced. This is the essence of the ethical challenge in psychological assessment. American Educational Research Association, et al. 1999 addresses all relevant professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and employment. Beller 2005 discusses the issue and connotations of test bias, and Reynolds and Ramsay 2003 offers a critical review of the test bias controversy. American Psychological Association 2007 cautions on the gap between testing principles and the realities of high-stakes testing in educational settings. Naglieri, et al. 2003 presents the report of the Internet Task Force of the American Psychological Association (APA) on the state of the art of practices of testing and assessment through the Internet, with special consideration given to ethical and legal issues. The issues in Response Distortion and Faking in noncognitive assessment, and the broad area of Cross-Cultural assessment are presented by several references in separate subsections.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education. 1999. Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            The Standards include guidelines and principles developed by psychologists, educators, and researchers whose main objective was to promote excellence in the area of educational and psychological assessment, to achieve and maintain ethical testing practices by the whole community, and to create a framework for the evaluation of testing procedures.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • American Psychological Association, Office of Public Affairs. 2007. Appropriate use of high-stakes testing in our nation’s schools. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              The text highlights the basic and yet-unanswered question on the long-term effect of high-stakes testing on student achievement. The need for additional research on intended and unintended consequences of testing in educational decision making is stressed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Beller, M. 2005. Test bias detection. In Encyclopedia of statistics in behavioral sciences. Edited by B. S. Everitt and D. C. Howell, 2001–2007. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1002/0470013192Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                Different meanings of fairness in test use are discussed, along with the contemporary professional view of test bias as an aspect of validity. The fairness is shown to be not only a psychometric issue, but also a social value. Hence, alternative views regarding its essential features are expected to persist.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Naglieri, J. A., F. Drasgow, and M. Schmit, et al. 2003. Psychological testing on the Internet: New problems, old issues. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Reviews opportunities provided by the Internet as a means of testing. Nevertheless, as the authors cautioned, all potential advantages become irrelevant if scores are used in ways that are not supported by evidence of validity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Reynolds, C. R., and M. C. Ramsay. 2003. Bias in psychological assessment: An empirical review and recommendations. In Handbook of psychology, vol. 10: Assessment psychology. Edited by J. R. Graham, J. A. Naglieri, and I. B. Weiner, 67–93. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    This chapter provides a detailed consideration of the controversial topic of test bias, including divergent ideas and conceptions of bias, and its possible origins, sources, and consequences. The authors stress the difference of test bias from related concepts of unfairness and offensiveness.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Response Distortion and Faking

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dilchert, et al. 2006 and Rothstein and Goffin 2006 review the available research data on the use and predictability of personality measures in personnel selection, with special attention given to the issues of faking and allied kinds of response biases, and potential remedies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Dilchert, S., D. S. Ones, C. Viswesvaran, and J. Deller. 2006. Response distortion in personality measurement: Born to deceive, yet capable of providing valid self-assessments? Psychology Science 48.3: 209–225.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      The article gives an overview of the issues of response distortion and socially desirable responding in personality measurement. The review addresses definitional issues, nomological net of social-desirability measures, individual and situational factors influencing response distortion, and the effects of distortion on criterion and construct-validity indices of personality measures.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Rothstein, M. G., and R. D. Goffin. 2006. The use of personality measures in personnel selection: What does current research support? Human Resource Management Review 16:155–180.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2006.03.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        This review article discusses recent research on the use of personality measures in personnel selection, the effects of faking on the validity of personality assessment outcomes, methods for the detection of faking, and the strategies for handling the problem. The article also addresses the use of new technologies, Internet administration, and the possibilities of computer-adaptive personality assessment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Cross-Cultural

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Various ethical and validity issues often arise when cross-cultural assessment is concerned. Geisinger 2003 brings an overview of fundamental problems of fairness, biases, and measurement invariance across cultures. Lonner, et al. 2004 is a rich online textbook conceived as an official publication of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology. Matsumoto and Juang 2008 offers a comprehensive source on cross-cultural research and the study of culture in psychology.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Geisinger, K. F. 2003. Testing and assessment in cross-cultural psychology. In Handbook of psychology, vol. 10: Assessment psychology. Edited by J. R. Graham, J. A. Naglieri, and I. B. Weiner, 93–117. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          The chapter discusses different meanings, types, and levels of measurement equivalence; the nature of bias; and methods of establishing test-score invariance across cultures. Descriptions of the approaches to test translation and adaptation are also given, along with the Guidelines of the International Test Commission (ITC) for Adapting Tests.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lonner, W. J., D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, and D. N. Sattler. 2004. Online readings in psychology and culture. International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            The website reflects current trends and discussions in cross-cultural psychology and related fields. Includes various units and chapters treating important methodological and conceptual issues on measuring intelligence, creativity, and other human potentials and traits across cultures.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Matsumoto, D., and L. Juang. 2008. Culture and psychology. 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              A well-written cross-cultural psychology textbook. Many chapters discuss assessment issues with regard to various broad and specific human attributes, behavioral tendencies, and adjustment indices in people of differing cultural background.

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