Psychology History of Psychology
by
David C. Devonis, Wade Pickren
  • LAST REVIEWED: 18 December 2014
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 May 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199828340-0064

Introduction

At its inception as a specialty within psychology in the first decades of the 20th century, the history of psychology was usually conceived as an extension of the history of philosophy, with perhaps some special attention given to the development of modern science. Within the last thirty years, the history of psychology has come of age and has become as diverse as its sprawling subject: historical studies have proliferated as psychologists’ activities have expanded and diversified. Alongside the original purpose of delineating the evolution of psychology from the historical roots of science, philosophy, medicine, and other intellectual traditions, recent histories of psychology have been very concerned with describing and explaining the social, organizational, and political context of psychological events and theories. Thus, the scholar of the history of any area of psychology would do well to become acquainted with other specialized literature not only of the specific area of psychology in which the historical events take place, but also of the political, social, and economic systems which condition them. Those with an interest in the history of any area of psychology which is not represented in any part of this necessarily selective article should adopt the attitude of confident pioneering which characterizes the leading historical scholarship in psychology today, school themselves in some basic techniques of historical investigation, and contribute to the further deepening and elaboration of our rich historical record. The timeframe of this article is the period from 1900 onward, mainly in the United States and Western Europe. This article contains a brief orientation and a section on the history of psychology as represented in Textbooks, classic and modern. There are also several sections expanding on the range of essential reference resources: Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, and Bibliographies; Compendia and Readers, along with collections of primary-source excerpts; Journals and blogs; Illustrations, Artifacts, and Archives; Timelines and Rankings of Eminence; Biography and Autobiography; and background about major Professional Organizations connected to the history of psychology. The philosophical context is represented by sections containing critiques of standard textbook history, sections that contextualize psychology’s history within the philosophy of science (see History and Philosophy of Science), a section on disciplinary taxonomy organized around the question of the Unity vs. Diversity of Psychology, and a section on several “crises” in 20th-century psychology. There is a selection of works surveying the transformation of psychology from science to applied technology (see the Transition from Science to Technology, 1880–1970). Histories of Subfields—theoretical and applied, with a special section on clinical psychology—are included, along with sections detailing the history of psychology in the contexts of Race, Ethnicity, and Culture as well as Gender. Finally, the section on Future Directions includes a selection of works pointing toward areas of potential future development in the field.

General Overviews

The selections included here are provided for those who are consulting this article with no prior experience who are seeking a basic orientation to the history of psychology. (It is of course recommended that those embarking on the study of the history of psychology be familiar with some of the essentials of historical scholarship and that they will consult other relevant bibliographies in history in this series and elsewhere.) Hebb 1974, a transcribed talk, is a succinct, practitioner-oriented view, though given nearly forty years ago, of psychology’s then-recent history, while Ash 2003 is lucid and logical in organizing the story of the changes that have occurred in historical approaches to psychology during the recent past. Add to these Roger Smith’s synoptic account (Smith 2013) of the development of psychology within all of its various contexts—philosophical, political, scientific, religious, and psychotherapeutic. Taken together, these selections provide a consensus view of the course of psychology’s history and mention virtually all the ideas and concerns currently in play among historians of psychology.

  • Ash, Mitchell G. 2003. Psychology. In The Cambridge history of science. Vol. 7, The modern social sciences. Edited by Theodore M. Porter and Dorothy Ross, 251–274. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521594424Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    An overview of the development of modern psychology from Continental sources, 1850 to the early 21st century, with emphasis on the change in historians’ views of this development.

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    • Hebb, Donald O. 1974. What psychology is about. American Psychologist 29.2 :70–79.

      DOI: 10.1037/h0035838Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      Hebb’s article outlines what is still the current consensus on the roots of psychology—the psychobiosocial model and the reasons why psychology is, behavior and brain notwithstanding, ultimately the study of the mind. It is a witty précis of the psychological enterprise including virtually all the common tropes, metaphors, and individuals central to the history of psychology. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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      • Smith, Roger. 2013. Between mind and nature: A history of psychology. London: Reaktion.

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        Concise and elegant portrait of the field from its beginnings in Descartes’s philosophy of mind to the early 21st century, weaving together multiple strands of influence with emphasis on the interactions between psychological theorists and their milieus.

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        Textbooks

        The comprehensive textbook, rather than the highly specialized monograph or journal article, was for a long time the primary conduit for historical knowledge within psychology. Generations of psychologists cut their teeth on Boring 1950, a justly famous text, and since it is not only the ur-text of the history of psychology and also the object of much later criticism, it is included here. Murphy 1949, in its original version as well as its later revisions, is an accessible choice for understanding the classic early synthesis of philosophy and psychology favored by psychology’s early historians (and those of its practitioners with a sense of history). This style of textbook organization carried forward well into the 1990s. Of the many modern texts with “History of Psychology” in their titles, Robinson 1995 provides a standard account of philosophical roots of the field, while Jansz and Van Drunen 2004, Pickren and Rutherford 2010, and Devonis 2014 represent the shift toward a contextualized social history of psychology. Hilgard 1987, a compendium that is slightly dated as of the early 21st century, falls somewhere between a text and an encyclopedic handbook and captures a view of psychology as a disciplinary federation better than any other available, besides being rich in detail that only the author, who knew many of the most important figures of the 20th century personally, could provide. Smith 1997 offers a general account of the genesis and range of the human sciences, which along with Jansz and Van Drunen 2004 redresses somewhat the bias toward American psychology implicit and explicit in the other texts mentioned here.

        • Boring, Edwin G. 1950. A history of experimental psychology. 2d ed. New York: Century.

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          Originally published in 1929, Boring’s text broke new ground, foreshortening the ancient past and placing psychology in the history of science. Its many shortcomings—its Germanic bias, its famous introduction of the “Zeitgeist” as a portmanteau explanation, and its relative neglect of applied and clinical psychology—have been roundly criticized, and yet it is an essential work to read to understand later histories.

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          • Devonis, David C. 2014. History of psychology 101, New York: Springer.

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            Devonis’s text breaks with the past by starting in 1927 (with a prelude in 1909) and then summarizing, decade by decade, the path of modern American psychology organized around its main ideas and controversies, from behaviorism versus Gestalt to allegations of torture at Guantanamo. The text also includes a graphic novel–like story of five generations of a fictional American family arriving in the United States in 1909, recounting how psychology and psychologists affected their lives.

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            • Hilgard, Ernest R. 1987. Psychology in America: A historical survey. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

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              As much encyclopedia as history text, Hilgard’s vast and detailed survey of the field by subdiscipline is bracketed by erudite analyses of the development of the complex system of modern psychology and its status as science. He recommends a pluralistic outlook to the student of psychology’s history.

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              • Jansz, Jeroen, and Peter Van Drunen, eds. 2004. A social history of psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

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                As its title indicates, this text is thematically organized around the relation between psychology and its surrounding social matrix and focuses mostly on applied areas including childrearing, delinquency and law, and work. It is particularly strong in discussing issues in terms of their historical evolution and providing perspectives—mostly Dutch—from outside the North American mainstream.

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                • Murphy, Gardner. 1949. Historical introduction to modern psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World.

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                  Murphy was an ecumenical psychologist of the 20th century, and his history is lucid and graceful. Another book first published in 1929, it went into several subsequent editions: this 1949 version is, even though well aged, a good quick outline of the major intellectual determinants of the field and ensconced in a concise historical narrative.

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                  • Pickren, Wade E., and Alexandra Rutherford. 2010. A history of modern psychology in context. New York: Wiley.

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                    A complete modern textbook, Pickren and Rutherford’s text, rich in detail, includes significant coverage of culture and gender and examines critically the role of both academic and governmental institutions as well as movements for social justice in shaping the practice of modern psychology.

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                    • Robinson, Daniel N. 1995. An intellectual history of psychology. 3d ed. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

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                      This text provides clear exposition of the philosophical roots of psychology, though it does not supplant the necessity of reading in primary philosophical sources. Robinson provides a mainstream view of the relation of philosophy and psychology and can serve as the departure point for many subsequent critiques.

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                      • Smith, Roger. 1997. The Norton history of the human sciences. New York: Norton.

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                        Like Hilgard’s, an inclusive textbook which is a polyhistory of many fields, psychology included, full of details and insight.

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                        Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, and Bibliographies

                        Encyclopedias, dictionaries, and bibliographies are indispensable adjuncts to historical scholarship. Leary 2011 is encyclopedic in scope and current; Rieber and Chandy 2012 is rare in that it draws mainly on the work of professional historians of psychology. Kazdin 2000, an edited eight-volume 2000 APA encyclopedia, is a standard reference source not only for general terminology and theory but also for biography, and it is distinguished by its range. Harriman 1946 and Baldwin 1902 are offered as typical and still-useful examples of dictionaries and encyclopedias of their eras. Finally, Teo’s encyclopedia encompasses a kaleidoscopic array of diverse critical perspectives on psychology’s history.

                        • Baldwin, James M., ed. 1902. Dictionary of philosophy and psychology. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan.

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                          Edited by James Mark Baldwin, this (plus the annotated 1981 Harvard University Press edition of William James’ Principles of Psychology) is a sound starting point for forays into the terminology and ideas important to psychology in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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                          • Harriman, Philip L., ed. 1946. Encyclopedia of psychology. New York: Citadel.

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                            Good, wide-ranging collection compiled by an observant generalist who also authored several other contemporary reference works. Will help locate issues important to mid-20th-century psychology.

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                            • Kazdin, Alan, ed. 2000. Encyclopedia of psychology. 8 vols. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                              Published under the aegis of the American Psychological Association, wide in scope and particularly rich in biographical material, it is now sufficiently aged to be an entry point for terminology and personages that will be important to those constructing histories of the recent past.

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                              • Leary, David E. 2011. History of psychology references (focusing primarily on psychology in the United States). In ResearchGate.

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                                This seventy-one-page bibliography compiled by a leading figure in the development of the modern history of psychology for his graduate course in the field misses few if any details. Complete through 2011, it directs the user not only to main sources in history and historiography but also to several other specialist bibliographies.

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                                • Rieber, Robert W., and Anil Chandy, eds. 2012. Encyclopedia of the history of psychological theories. 2 vols. New York: Springer.

                                  DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-0463-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  Wide coverage of many regions of psychology, theoretical and applied, including some which get little or no mention in other standard encyclopedias and dictionaries (e.g., feminism). Includes, likewise, biographical material on individuals that otherwise are not encountered in many standard references.

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                                  • Teo, Thomas, ed. 2014. Encyclopedia of critical psychology. 4 vols. New York: Springer.

                                    DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    This massive work crosscuts all of the spectacular diversity of critical alternative interpretations of psychology that have arisen since the 1970s.

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                                    Compendia and Readers

                                    Some other important compendia are mentioned in other sections of this article: for instance, the Wittenberg Symposium containing Jastrow 1928 (cited under Timelines and Rankings of Eminence) and Morawski 2001 (cited under Future Directions). Here are included those compendia that are more encyclopedic than other multiauthor edited volumes included in this article: Rapaport 1951, as well as Koch and Leary 1985 and Leary 1990, all contain wide-ranging selections commensurate with their eras. Excerpts or full text of primary source materials are found in Dennis 1948, Benjamin 2009, Classics in the History of Psychology, and A Mead Project Reference Page. Benjamin 2006, a history of psychology in letters, is included as a compendium of personal, semiautobiographical data not available in the other sources listed here.

                                    • Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr. 2006. A history of psychology in letters. 2d ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

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                                      Unique addition to the psychological literature, comprised of selections of representative correspondence of many psychologists. It includes the essay “Reading Other People’s Mail: The Joys of Historical Research,” which is an excellent introduction to doing history in this and indeed in any field.

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                                      • Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr. 2009. A history of psychology: Original sources and contemporary research. 3d ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

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                                        Contains many significant historical and current primary source papers relating to the development of scientific psychology in America. Includes both original theory and historiographic commentary.

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                                        • Dennis, Wayne. 1948. Readings in the history of psychology. New York: Century.

                                          DOI: 10.1037/11304-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          Dennis, an important figure in early developmental and geropsychology, assembled a still very useful handbook of intelligently selected brief excerpts of important primary sources, from early philosophy through the 1940s. Includes diagrams as well as text.

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                                          • Green, Christopher, ed. Classics in the history of psychology.

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                                            Site connected with the History of Psychology program at York University, Toronto. Online since 1997 and fully indexed, it contains online-accessible full text and excerpts for many important primary sources in the early and modern history of psychology.

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                                            • Koch, Sigmund, and David E. Leary, eds. 1985. A century of psychology as science. New York: McGraw-Hill.

                                              DOI: 10.1037/10117-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              Full-spectrum collection of essays critically exploring the status of psychology as a science and as a kindred discipline to the humanities, from George Miller on consciousness as “the constitutive problem of psychology” through Rudolf Arnheim on the philosophical, aesthetic Fechner and Elizabeth Sewell on the relation of poetry and psychology. This work was reissued in 1992 by the American Psychological Association for its centennial.

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                                              • Leary, David E., ed. 1990. Metaphors in the history of psychology. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                Unique compilation of several interpretations of the historical meanings and uses of metaphor in psychological discourse across most domains of psychology.

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                                                • Rapaport, David, ed. and trans. 1951. Organization and pathology of thought. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

                                                  DOI: 10.1037/10584-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  Rapaport’s book collects a wide variety of philosophical, psychological, and psychodynamic insights on thinking from the period 1900–1950. Included are primary source excerpts of important works by Buehler, Lewin, Piaget, Bleuler, and other alternative sources of cognitive theory.

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                                                  • Throop, Robert, and Lloyd Gordon Ward. Project inventory arranged by author. In A Mead Project Reference Page.

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                                                    This is the main reference page (last updated 2007) to the papers collected by scholars working on a comprehensive online bibliography of papers relevant to the sociologist George Herbert Mead (1868–1931). The papers, accessible online, go well beyond Mead and contain dozens of primary sources, from 1890 through the 1950s, relevant to psychology.

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                                                    Timelines and Rankings of Eminence

                                                    Many textbooks in the history of psychology contain timelines as organizational devices: Pickren and Rutherford 2010 (cited under Textbooks) contains a timeline for each chapter. The timeline in Brewer 2007 is offered as a typical example: it is very complete. Street 1994 provides a cross-sectional time sampling of events in psychology organized by calendar day. The idea of “The Great Psychologist(s)” has been around for a long time, as evidenced by Joseph Jastrow’s after-dinner lecture on greatness in psychology included in Reymert’s Wittenberg Symposium volume (Jastrow 1928). Robert I. Watson, one of the early pioneers of the modern history of psychology, popularized the idea of “Great Psychologists” in several publications during the 1960s: Haggbloom, et al. 2002 reported on an extensive statistical study to produce what is currently the usually accepted ranking of eminence among psychologists.

                                                    • Brewer, Charles L. 2007. Timeline of the history of psychology. In Exploring psychology. 7th ed. Edited by David Myers, (inside front and rear covers). New York: Worth.

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                                                      Brewer’s timeline, which occupies the inside front and back covers of Myers’ introductory textbook, is a complete and comprehensive representative of this genre.

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                                                      • Haggbloom, Steven J., Renee Warnick, Jason E. Warnick, et al. 2002. The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century. Review of General Psychology 6.2: 139–152.

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                                                        Ranks the top one hundred psychologists in the modern history of psychology based on citation counts and other impact assessments including collegial ratings of eminence. Wundt is tied at 93.5th place with E. G. Boring, John Dewey, and Amos Tversky. Skinner, Piaget, and Freud are ranked first through third, respectively. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                        • Jastrow, Joseph. 1928. Lo, the psychologist! In Feelings and emotions: The Wittenberg Symposium. Edited by Martin Luther Reymert, 434–438. Worcester, MA: Clark Univ. Press.

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                                                          Jastrow, eminent pioneer and popularizer, delivered this address in 1927, advancing the following formula: Newton + Darwin = Great Psychologist. The collection in which it appears is itself indispensable as a reader and general reference for literature on emotion and internal states during the behaviorist era.

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                                                          • Street, Warren R. 1994. A chronology of noteworthy events in American psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                            DOI: 10.1037/11099-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            This idiosyncratic approach to the history of psychology provides a large handful of events in psychology that occurred on each day of the year. It is somewhat of a curiosity but it is also an interest piquer and conversation starter. It is now available as a phone app bundled with the APA Dictionary of Psychology.

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                                                            Illustrations, Artifacts, and Archives

                                                            The history of psychology is well served by several collections of illustrations and artifacts and is well supported by independent archives. Complete illustrated histories are represented here by Popplestone and McPherson 1998, the authors of which are the founders of the Archives of the History of American Psychology at the University of Akron, and by Bringmann, et al. 1997. Rutherford’s website, Psychology’s Feminist Voices, is now the major global site for historical accounts of women past and women present in the field. The Archives of the History of American Psychology is a central repository for materials specifically relating to the history of psychology: its website is included here. Of the three top-ranked psychologists (see Timelines and Rankings of Eminence), only Freud has a comprehensive, organized museum presence (see Freud Museum and Sigmund Freud Museum). The Museum of the History of Psychological Instrumentation and Brass Instrument Psychology at the University of Toronto exemplify online museums specific to the early history of experimental psychology. Finally, the edited volume Baker 2003 blends autobiography with an account of the importance of archival research.

                                                            • Archives of the History of American Psychology.

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                                                              A unique resource for the history of psychology. The website indexes the hundreds of collections of archival documents of both individual psychologists and departments and programs. Extensive photograph and film archives are also maintained and curated. The archives also regularly sponsors exhibitions and conferences at its Akron location.

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                                                              • Baker, David B., ed. 2003. Thick description and fine texture: Studies in the history of psychology. Akron, OH: Univ. of Akron Press.

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                                                                This work weaves biography with institutional history. It is also an excellent introduction to the use of archival biodata. It contains articles by several of the leading current historians of psychology, who comment on the role of archival research in specific psychological contexts.

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                                                                • Bringmann, Wolfgang G., Helmut E. Luck, Rudolf Miller, and Charles E. Early, eds. 1997. A pictorial history of psychology. Hanover Park, IL: Quintessence.

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                                                                  Another comprehensive source for images and artifacts of the history of psychology, especially its European roots.

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                                                                  • Freud Museum, London.

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                                                                    Located in Freud’s last home in London. The website contains much information about the life and times of Freud and access to many artifacts and documents. Descriptions of the varied and changing exhibits are also a feature of the site.

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                                                                    • Museum of the History of Psychological Instrumentation.

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                                                                      This site was a labor of love for its creator, Ed Haupt of Montclair State University in New Jersey. It is a unique repository of information relative to the “brass instrument” era and contains much information from 19th- and early-20th-century catalogs of instrument builders and dealers, both European and American.

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                                                                      • Popplestone, John A., and Marion White McPherson, eds. 1998. An illustrated history of American psychology. Akron, OH: Univ. of Akron Press.

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                                                                        The authors, who founded the Archives of the History of American Psychology, drew on its collections and assembled a comprehensive selection of photographs of individuals, laboratories, and other psychological activities focusing mainly on the 20th century. The accompanying text is engaging and informative.

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                                                                        • Psychology Department Museum: Brass Instrument Psychology at the University of Toronto.

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                                                                          This site is another good source for artifactual information about the early history of psychological instrumentation. It has a particularly good online introduction (by David Pantalony) which contains an excellent bibliography of original and secondary sources relevant to the history of the laboratory tradition in psychology.

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                                                                          • Psychology’s Feminist Voices. Developed and administered by Alexandra Rutherford.

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                                                                            The site serves to document the contributions of women in psychology through brief historical accounts (Women Past) and audio/video accounts of more recent feminist psychologists (Feminist Presence). Through both written and visual resources, the site serves the role of ongoing documentation of the changes happening in psychology around the world through the contributions and activism of women.

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                                                                            • Sigmund Freud Museum, Vienna.

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                                                                              Housed in Freud’s Vienna home at Berggasse 19. The museum is rich in archival material and also sponsors a variety of exhibits, all of which are linked via this website.

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                                                                              Biography and Autobiography

                                                                              For those who agree that history is biography, the history of psychology does not disappoint. There are many book-length biographies and autobiographies of individual psychologists, all useful as sources not only of personal data but of reflections of the social and personal context of psychological discovery. There are far too many of these to recommend any particular one as the best—some are included in this article in other sections (Sarason 1988, an autobiography cited under Clinical Psychology; Aronson 2010, cited under Histories of Subfields: Theoretical Subfields; and Benjamin 1991, a biography of Harry Kirke Wolfe, cited under Teaching of Psychology). A textbook organized along biographical lines is Fancher and Rutherford 2012. Compendia of names, such as that by Benjamin (Biography Subjects: Historical Paper Topics for Students), as well as of autobiographies and biographies, are richly available: Lindzey and Runyan 2007 and Dewsbury, et al. 2006 are offered as examplars of central reference sources in this area. Psychobiography began within psychoanalysis and related fields (e.g., with the well-known studies of eminent individuals by Freud and Erikson) but has since expanded to include several other psychological approaches to theoretically framing the life course: the recent comprehensive handbook Schultz 2006 is an appropriate starting place for understanding these nuanced additions to psychoanalytic psychobiography. Finally, biography is a starting point for estimating importance and influence: Sternberg 2003 and Simonton 2002 offer many approaches to analyzing relative importance, from the intuitive to the overtly quantitative.

                                                                              • Biography Subjects: Historical Paper Topics for Students. Compiled by Ludy T. Benjamin Jr.

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                                                                                Benjamin, mentioned several other places in this and other bibliographies of the history of psychology, provides this comprehensive list of historical figures organized by specialty area and era of activity. It is a good starting point for original research, as many of the names are unique and/or obscure.

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                                                                                • Dewsbury, Donald, Ludy T. Benjamin Jr., and Michael Wertheimer, eds. 2006. Portraits of pioneers in psychology. Vol. 6. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                  Another long-running series of biographies of individual psychologists. This volume contains a comprehensive index of all psychologists covered in the preceding five volumes.

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                                                                                  • Fancher, Raymond E., and Alexandra Rutherford. 2012. Pioneers of psychology. 4th ed. New York: Norton.

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                                                                                    This classic textbook, whose first edition appeared in 1979, is organized around the lives of the founders of different areas of psychology from Descartes through Alan Turing and Ulric Neisser on the cognitive side, and Lillian Gilbreth and Leta Hollingworth on the applied.

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                                                                                    • Lindzey, Gardner, and William McKinley Runyan, eds. 2007. A history of psychology in autobiography. Vol. 9. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1037/11571-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      This series, begun under the editorship of Carl Murchison in 1930 and continuing for more than sixty years, is a rich source of personal data and observations by several dozen leading psychologists. This volume, as its series number indicates, is one of a long line of biographical compendia published under this title over the years: others include The Psychologists (three volumes) by Theodore Krawiec as well as specialized collections such as the autobiographies of teachers of psychology included under Teaching of Psychology.

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                                                                                      • Schultz, William T., ed. 2006. Handbook of psychobiography. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                        Indispensable collection of examples of psychobiography by master practitioners including William McKinley Runyan, Alan Elms, and Ian Nicholson. Both Freudian and non-Freudian approaches are well represented, and nonpsychologists (George W. Bush and Kim Jong-il among others) mix with psychologists as subjects.

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                                                                                        • Simonton, Dean K. 2002. Great psychologists and their times: Scientific insights into psychology’s history. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1037/10466-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          Simonton takes a strongly quantitative approach to history in analyzing the multiple effects of age, citation frequency, and other biodata on research productivity.

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                                                                                          • Sternberg, Robert J., ed. 2003. The anatomy of impact: What makes the great works of psychology great. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1037/10563-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Sternberg, himself an eminent theorist of intelligence and creativity, presents a collection of papers examining the various personal and social determinants of the prominence of ideas, including theoretical orientations, personal leadership and creative styles, and motivation.

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                                                                                            Professional Organizations

                                                                                            The history of psychology, as can be seen from this bibliography, draws on several streams of historical and philosophical thought. Here are listed the primary organizations to contact for information specific to the history of psychology. The membership lists of Cheiron, Division 26 of the APA Society for the History of Psychology, FHHS, and ESHHS overlap to some extent: their websites provide contact information for scholars across all areas mentioned in this bibliography and other features as noted. Many scholars central to the history of psychology belong to multiple organizations often outside of the ones listed here including the main professional societies for history, history of science, history of technology, history of culture, and philosophy of science, and it is recommended that specialized resources in these areas be searched and consulted as well.

                                                                                            Journals

                                                                                            Since as noted in the Introduction, the diversity of interests in historical scholarship in psychology is so wide, many different journals in history, history of science, history of medicine, and general intellectual history are both sources of and outlets for scholarship in the field. Listed here are those journals with specific affiliations or affinities to professional societies in North America and Europe for the history of psychology: History of the Human Sciences, History of Psychology, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, Theory and Psychology, and Isis. Perusal of the references of their contributors, as well as their cumulative indexes which appear from time to time, will direct users to the many other appropriate sources which attract historical scholarship connected to psychology. Another source of growing importance is the electronic publication Advances in the History of Psychology, a harbinger of the future of electronic publication in this field and across all areas of academic activity.

                                                                                            Critical Voices

                                                                                            Until about 1960, the master historical narrative of psychology had as a dominant theme the replacement of philosophy by a confidently advancing science. This view, of course, masked many tensions, which emerged in psychology as a whole as well as among its historians. To date, the most salutary result of a critical approach to the history of psychology has been the stimulation of more social and cultural contextualization in historical writing, and a widening of psychological historians’ field of view. Arranged here in approximately chronological order is a sampling of critiques covering nearly fifty years. Bakan critiqued both scientific methodology and underlying purposes of the field, and his writing informed the critical history of psychology from the start: a good sample of his approach is provided here in Bakan 1967, a compilation entitled On Method. Both Henle 1986 and Harris 2011 share a common desire to correct misrepresentations and inaccuracies in the historical record. The critiques of both clinical psychology and education in Sarason 1981 center on the failure of psychology to put its theories to ethical practical use. Gergen 1983, Kurt Danziger, and the authors collected in Graumann and Gergen 1996 represent a transition to more explicitly postmodern critical approaches. Finally, Smith 1988 and Richards 2010 offer eclectic critiques of psychology and its history.

                                                                                            • Bakan, David. 1967. On method: Toward a reconstruction of psychological investigation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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                                                                                              Bakan, a true polymath, was equally at home in Freudian theory, Spinozan philosophy, Jewish mystical thought, and scientific psychology. This collection of his writings contains many challenges to what he called the “mystery-mastery complex” of psychology that still resonate today.

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                                                                                              • Gergen, Kenneth. 1983. Social psychology as history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 26.2: 309–320.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1037/h0034436Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                An incisive statement of the overt and covert social determinants of psychological theory building, this article is the entry point of social constructivism into social psychology and indeed into psychology as a whole. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                • Graumann, Carl F., and Kenneth J. Gergen, eds. 1996. Historical dimensions of psychological discourse. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511571329Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                  A collection of postmodern critical essays, especially valuable for its inclusion of Nikolas Rose, a sociologist, psychologist, and historian acutely sensitive to the importance of politics in shaping the psychological subject.

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                                                                                                  • Harris, Ben. 2011. Letting go of Little Albert: Disciplinary memory, history, and the uses of myth. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 47.1: 1–17.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1002/jhbs.20470Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    This article follows up on Harris’s well-known 1979 American Psychologist article “Whatever Happened to Little Albert?” and shows how reality can easily become myth through the misapplication of history. Its cautionary message applies to anyone embarking on the history of any event in psychology. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Along with Russell Powell, Nancy Digdon, and Christopher Smithson, Harris has also, in 2014, established the likely identity of “Little Albert” as Albert Barger (rather than Douglas Merritte, as others had claimed). For a full appreciation of Harris’s critical activity, consult his c.v.

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                                                                                                    • Henle, Mary. 1986. 1879 and all that: Essays in the theory and history of psychology. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                      Henle’s work reflects her intimate knowledge of Gestalt psychology, whose founders she knew personally. These engaging essays relate much personal detail while carrying on the historic critique of experimental and behavioral psychology begun by the earliest Gestalt psychologists.

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                                                                                                      • Kurt Danziger.

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                                                                                                        Danziger has taught and inspired many of the most influential scholars in the history of psychology today. A self-proclaimed “marginal psychologist,” Danziger offers a framework for synthesizing multiple cultural influences in “constructing the psychological subject,” the title of the most well known of his many books, listed on this website.

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                                                                                                        • Richards, Graham. 2010. Putting psychology in its place: Critical historical perspectives. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                          A single compendium bringing all critical views, past and current, together. Richards has vast knowledge of the psychological scene, sets the various criticisms in context, and shows, across all areas of the field, the foci of controversy and historical dissent.

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                                                                                                          • Sarason, Seymour. 1981. Psychology misdirected. New York: Free Press.

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                                                                                                            Sarason combined a career in clinical and educational psychology with great sensitivity to historical, social, and political currents. This sharp-edged critique addresses perceived shortsightedness in psychologists’ view of the world and of the individuals in it and stimulated the growth of both community psychology and later critiques of the medical model in clinical psychology.

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                                                                                                            • Smith, Roger. 1988. Does the history of psychology have a subject? History of the Human Sciences 1.2: 147–177.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1177/095269518800100201Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              This wry, trenchant piece brings together decades of criticism of the presumption of psychologists in imagining that sense can be made of psychology’s sprawl. It also conveys a unique British view of the psychological enterprise contrasted with the United States–centered view engendered by the standard textbooks. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                              History and Philosophy of Science

                                                                                                              The most prominent philosophical material evident in the history of psychology today connects to various streams of the philosophy of science. Here are assembled a group of readings which span several interpretations of the term “science” within psychology, all of which also in some way intersect with concepts and concerns in the history of science. Within historical writing, especially in textbooks, the most frequently encountered references are to Thomas Kuhn: Nickles 2002 gathers centrally relevant material about this important philosopher that goes beyond the basic idea of a “paradigm shift.” Smith 1986 details, within the context of behaviorism, the time of transition from naturalism and realism to positivism and operationism. Meehl, probably the modern psychologist most deeply invested in philosophy, connects to several important philosophers of science: he was especially identified with Karl Popper. Meehl 2004 distills the author’s thinking on the relation between science and history. Daston and Lunbeck 2011, Gruber 1981, and Stokes 1997 all represent views of science that contrast with the mainly physicalist and experimentalist view of science embodied in the previous three, and Stokes 1997 specifically addresses the place of applied science within a general scientific framework—important for understanding the strongly applied nature of psychology. Hatfield 2002 reflects the current equilibrium between science and philosophy within the currently dominant cognitive approach. Finally, Burnham 1987, written by a historian of both science and psychology, reveals the difficulties that any science, and psychology in particular, encounters at the interface with popular culture.

                                                                                                              • Burnham, John. 1987. How superstition won and science lost: Popularization of science and health in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                This work by one of the most eminent and prolific modern historians of psychology articulates the multiple scientific streams that combined to produce modern scientific psychology within the framework of a cautionary tale about the resistance of the general public to science bearing gifts.

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                                                                                                                • Daston, Lorraine, and Elizabeth Lunbeck, eds. 2011. Histories of scientific observation. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                  Much is made of the experimental tradition in psychology, but probably much more psychology is observational and conjectural than it is precisely experimental. Daston and Lunbeck’s work redresses this balance and provides, as do all the works in this section, leads to further investigation of this area.

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                                                                                                                  • Gruber, Howard E. 1981. Darwin on man: A psychological study of scientific creativity. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                    Gruber was intensely interested in the relation between individual and scientific creativity. This book is highly representative of this relation and also is a good introductory guide to the Darwinian natural science approach reflected across much of psychology.

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                                                                                                                    • Hatfield, Gary. 2002. Psychology, philosophy, and cognitive science: Reflections on the history and philosophy of experimental psychology. Mind and Language 17.3: 207–232.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/1468-0017.00196Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      Hatfield’s article sums up much of what is contained in the other works in this section and is a good entry point for those wishing to pursue the idea of a longer history of philosophy contributing to science and psychology than the somewhat foreshortened views of modern philosophies of science. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                      • Meehl, Paul. 2004. Cliometric metatheory III: Peircean consensus, verisimilitude and asymptotic method. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55:615–643.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/bjps/55.4.615Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Meehl could lay claim to being the most philosophical of practicing psychologists in the 20th century. This posthumous paper summarizes Meehl’s thinking on the relation between the historical performance of theories and their relative staying power, and perhaps their degree of truth, and the relation of science, philosophy, and history generally in the modern era. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                        • Nickles, Thomas, ed. 2002. Thomas Kuhn. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511613975Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Kuhn, a scientist, historian, and theorist, had much more to contribute to the theory of history of science and psychology than just the “paradigm shift.” This is a comprehensive collection of views of Kuhn’s work connecting it to cognitive science and feminism.

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                                                                                                                          • Smith, Laurence D. 1986. Behaviorism and logical positivism: A reassessment of the alliance. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                            Smith deconstructs a common perception of behaviorism arising directly from logical positivism and shows that many other philosophies and styles of science were involved. It provides many references to the range of philosophical and scientific works underpinning behaviorism and is a good overview of and reference source for the early history of behaviorism, for which a comprehensive history has yet to be written.

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                                                                                                                            • Stokes, Donald. 1997. Pasteur’s quadrant: Basic science and technological innovation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

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                                                                                                                              Stokes focuses on the interplay among theoretical science, practical “bench science,” and applications, necessary to understand the particular place of psychology within the sciences and within its sphere of operations. This work also offers a French counterpoise to the heavy German influence in writing about the roots of psychology.

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                                                                                                                              Unity versus Diversity of Psychology

                                                                                                                              The question of the unity versus the diversity of psychology—and whether psychology can be systematized or not—has interested historians for many years. This short sampling includes two foundational works from 1933, that is, from the middle of the “schools and systems” and “unity of science” eras: Heidbreder 1933, an account of psychology’s now-classic systems in their relatively pristine newness, and Korzybski 1995, a transcendent prospectus for a unity of science and psyche. Historical perspectives on psychology have, since that time, oscillated between those which emphasize the radical separateness of streams of psychological thought—Koch 1981 is an example—and those which, though they hardly achieve it, suggest the possibility of unity either through a new ordering of thematic approaches (the contributors in Ash and Sturm 2007) or through some form of reductionism (Bechtel and Hamilton 2009). Taken together, these create a conceptual background for situating psychology in the modern era.

                                                                                                                              • Ash, Mitchell G., and Thomas Sturm, eds. 2007. Psychology’s territories: Historical and contemporary perspectives from different disciplines. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                                This collection, featuring several European contributions, captures the unstable equilibrium of neuroscience and psychology as it is currently viewed by historians of science and psychology.

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                                                                                                                                • Bechtel, William, and Andrew Hamilton. 2009. Reduction, integration, and the unity of science: Natural, behavioral, social sciences and the humanities. In Handbook of the philosophy of science. Vol. 1, Philosophy of science: Focal issues. Edited by Theo Kuipers, 377–430. New York: Elsevier.

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                                                                                                                                  Ranging widely over the terrain of the unity of science from a generally reductionist perspective, this chapter provides a historical overview of the evolution of the concept as it relates to psychology and cognate domains, especially general systems theory. This chapter is also available for purchase online.

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                                                                                                                                  • Heidbreder, Edna. 1933. Seven psychologies. New York: D. Appleton-Century.

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                                                                                                                                    This is the classic version of the “schools and systems” view, the starting point for future attempts to describe the composition of psychology. All of the “schools” have since melted into the current pot. Heidbreder emphasized the provisional nature of system building, and the historical record bears this out.

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                                                                                                                                    • Koch, Sigmund. 1981. The nature and limits of psychological knowledge: Lessons of a century qua “Science.” American Psychologist 36:257–269.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.36.3.257Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      One version, very accessible, of Koch’s argument that psychology can never cohere, and that it—and its history—are a collection of “psychological studies” rather than a single, unified science. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                      • Korzybski, Alfred. 1995. Science and sanity: An introduction to non-Aristotelian systems and general semantics. 5th ed. Fort Worth, TX: Institute of General Semantics.

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                                                                                                                                        Originally published 1933. Korzybski is impossible to describe in a single slogan or phrase, though the tagline “the map is not the territory” is often mentioned. Visionary and somewhat cultish, Korzybski’s synthesizing approach was influential among psychologists, linguists, and others who developed the systems of psychology of the mid- and late 20th century.

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                                                                                                                                        The Transition from Science to Technology, 1880–1970

                                                                                                                                        While standard Textbooks acknowledge the range of antecedent philosophical influences on psychology back to at least Descartes, focused historical inquiry in psychology was, at least until about twenty years ago, mainly concerned with the 19th-century precursors of modern experimental psychology. Only comparatively recently have historians begun to delineate the major changes that occurred in psychology during and following World War I, often said to be the event that “put psychology on the map.” The following works span the period from approximately 1880 to 1970 and trace a major arc of change in the field from relatively provincial and limited beginnings to worldwide influence. They start with Rieber and Robinson 2001, an edited collection describing the range of influences of Wundt, especially the adaptation of his views to American culture. Green, et al. 2001 assembles several papers considering the complex scientific and philosophical influences beyond Wundt on the development of psychology in the period 1880–1920. The classic text Baritz 1960 is included to illustrate the ways in which society fostered psychology’s emergence as applied technology during its early development. Capshew 1999 in the context of psychology in the United States between World War I and 1969, Geuter 1992 with reference to the transition of academic psychology to applied psychology in Germany in the period 1910–1944, Herman 1996 with reference to the American Cold War period of the 1950s and 1960s, and Rutherford 2009 in connection with the rise of behavioral technologies between 1950 and 1970, all present the case for the transition of psychology from a laboratory science to a powerful, consequential applied technology infiltrating all levels of societies worldwide. Lastly, the collection Pickren and Schneider 2004 examines the interpenetration of “big science” and “big government” and organized, institutionalized psychology—the latest stage of evolution of psychology’s relation to its surrounding society.

                                                                                                                                        • Baritz, Loren. 1960. The servants of power: A history of the use of social science in American industry. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                          An older work by an accomplished historian, its theme is that economic might shapes both scientific theory and practice, in this case in the context of the development of the technologies of applied industrial psychology, 1900–1950. Recommended to be read in conjunction with the even older, and perhaps even better, study of social science in the crucible of society, Robert Lynd’s 1939 “Knowledge for What?”

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                                                                                                                                          • Capshew, James. 1999. Psychologists on the march: Science, practice, and professional identity in America, 1929–1969. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511572944Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            A complete account of the way that psychology grew and expanded into its current form during this time period. Covers World War II and postwar developments thoroughly.

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                                                                                                                                            • Geuter, Ulfried. 1992. The professionalization of psychology in Nazi Germany. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511666872Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              An essential book for understanding the processes by which psychology became professionalized. The fact that the field adapted quickly to post-1933 conditions in Germany suggests an underlying universal dynamic of professionalization relating psychology and society.

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                                                                                                                                              • Green, Christopher D., Marlene Shore, and Thomas Teo, eds. 2001. The transformation of psychology: Influences of 19th century philosophy, technology, and natural science. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1037/10416-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Ranges widely over many contributing factors to the development of psychology c. 1900. Included, along with Wundt, are eugenics, aesthetics, embryology, phrenology, Mach, and Marx. The chapters are written by leading historians of psychology.

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                                                                                                                                                • Herman, Ellen. 1996. The romance of American psychology: Political culture in the age of experts. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

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                                                                                                                                                  Details the growth of psychology’s social presence through examination of the role psychology and psychologists played in several important aspects of Cold War America, including the War on Poverty, women’s liberation, and international covert operations.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Pickren, Wade, and Stanley Schneider, eds. 2004. Psychology and the National Institute of Mental Health: A historical analysis of science, practice, and policy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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                                                                                                                                                    Detailed analysis from several different perspectives of the intersection between psychological theory and practice and social and governmental priorities and funding in the area of mental health.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Rieber, Robert, and David Keith Robinson, eds. 2001. Wilhelm Wundt in history: The making of a scientific psychology. New York: Kluwer/Plenum.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4615-0665-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Wundt was for a long time considered the primary founder of psychology, and many of the first and second generation of American psychologists studied in his lab in Leipzig. This collection is the most current and complete survey of scholarship on Wundt and his influence and includes a bibliography of Wundt’s writings.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Rutherford, Alexandra. 2009. Beyond the box: B. F. Skinner’s technology of behavior from laboratory to life, 1950–1970s. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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                                                                                                                                                        Balanced and complete account of the ways in which operant behaviorism penetrated into many areas of culture and psychological practice. It fills a need for a history of behaviorism, the materials for which are otherwise widely scattered through time and place.

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                                                                                                                                                        Intellectual and Ethical Crises in Psychology

                                                                                                                                                        Psychology is conflicted by nature. Reflecting philosophy and indeed humanity as a whole, it embodies dualities and contradictions that periodically flare into episodes that have been characterized as acute crises. Following is a selection of works that are entry points to the study of some of the central historical crises of the 20th and early 21st centuries organized into those (Crisis 1: Psychology’s Identity Crisis of the 1920s and Crisis 2: Social Psychology at a Crossroads) that are “cold” crises and that involve fundamental faults or schisms that remain internal to the discipline and rarely rise to the level of public rancor and those that are, at least for a time, “hot” (Crisis 3: The Milgram Obedience Studies, Crisis 4: The IQ Controversy in the United States, and Crisis 5: False Memories and Multiple Personalities), spreading outward into the surrounding society.

                                                                                                                                                        Crisis 1: Psychology’s Identity Crisis of the 1920s

                                                                                                                                                        Titchener’s and Vygotsky’s (as summarized by Yasnitsky 2012 and Titchener 1929) approaches represent a point from which subsequent attempts to resolve the crisis of psychology’s identity evolved.

                                                                                                                                                        • Titchener, E. B. 1929. Systematic psychology: Prolegomena. New York: Macmillan.

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                                                                                                                                                          Literally Titchener’s last word on psychology, this posthumously published work, was conceived in 1917 and stakes out the position of an uncompromising science of psychology separate from applications. It is also one of the sources of tension between science and technology in psychology that penetrated all subsequent activity in the field.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Yasnitsky, A. 2012. Lev Vygotsky: Philologist and defectologist: A sociointellectual biography. In Portraits of pioneers in developmental psychology. Edited by W. Pickren, D. Dewsbury, and M. Wertheimer, 109–134. New York: Psychology Press.

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                                                                                                                                                            Vygotsky (b. 1896–d. 1934) assimilated, in writing “The Historical Meaning of the Crisis in Psychology” in 1927, perceptions of psychology in crisis current at that time. There were many instances like this across all cultures in which psychology had begun to emerge as an independent discipline. Yasnitsky’s biographical account contains a good précis of Vygotsky’s views, which are themselves a reflection of the sociopolitical crisis of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and summarizes his sources.

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                                                                                                                                                            Crisis 2: Social Psychology at a Crossroads

                                                                                                                                                            Faye 2012, an account of social psychology’s internal dissensions, dovetails with Gergen’s article “Social Psychology as History,” cited elsewhere in this bibliography in the Critical Voices section.

                                                                                                                                                            • Faye, Cathy. 2012. American social psychology: Examining the contours of the 1970s crisis. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43.2: 514–521.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.shpsc.2011.11.010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              Summary of the stresses and strains that resulted in the emergence of a debate over method and, more importantly, social relevance in the 1970s.

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                                                                                                                                                              Crisis 3: The Milgram Obedience Studies

                                                                                                                                                              The remaining crises all became matters of public debate, which thrust psychology into a wider field of social discourse between 1960 and the early 21st century. Milgram’s obedience studies serve as a proxy for all studies that challenged everyday social practices and self-perceptions in the 1960s and afterward: another that could be cited would be Philip Zimbardo’s prison simulation at Stanford University in 1971. Blass 2004, a biographical study of Milgram, is complemented by Nicholson 2011, a critical appraisal of the ambiguous status of the Milgram studies in psychology and society.

                                                                                                                                                              • Blass, Thomas. 2004. The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. New York: Basic Books.

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                                                                                                                                                                Biography of Milgram, whose experiments on obedience in the early 1960s ignited a continuing debate about the degree to which psychology can simulate (or create) dangerous ethical situations and about its responsibilities in that context.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Nicholson, Ian. 2011. “Torture at Yale”: Experimental subjects, laboratory torment and the “rehabilitation” of Milgram’s Obedience to authority. Theory and Psychology 21.6: 737–761.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1177/0959354311420199Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Account of Milgram’s experiments, which draws on archival sources to uncover Milgram’s own doubts about the ethical status of his work.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Crisis 4: The IQ Controversy in the United States, 1969–1996

                                                                                                                                                                  The question of whether intelligence is a fixed, inherited entity or whether it is modifiable by experience goes back to the beginnings of modern psychology and the contrast between Goddard and Binet: here, Jensen 1969 and Niesser, et al. 1996 bracket a time when this question, fueled by social unrest, figured visibly in public debate and policymaking.

                                                                                                                                                                  • Jensen, Arthur R. 1969. How much can we boost I. Q. and scholastic achievement? Harvard Educational Review 33:1–123.

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                                                                                                                                                                    This is the pivotal article that the late-20th-century debate about intelligence crystallized around.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Niesser, Ulric, Gwyneth Boodoo, Thomas J. Bouchard Jr., et al. 1996. Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist 51.2: 77–101.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.51.2.77Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Report of an American Psychological Association task force convened in 1994 to address issues raised in the spirited debate about intelligence ignited by Jensen and others that loomed large in the psychological landscape. Densely referenced, this article is key to locating the individuals and issues involved.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Crisis 5: False Memories and Multiple Personalities

                                                                                                                                                                      Finally, Hacking 1995 supplies a philosophical and medical context for the emergence of the multiple personality question, another long-standing historical feature of psychology, as a public legal matter in the 1990s. Nathan 2012 deconstructs a public perception of the issue that achieved almost mythic status. The last three controversies are articulated with the narrative of events in modern American psychology in Devonis’s text cited above in Textbooks.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Hacking, Ian. 1995. Rewriting the soul: Multiple personality and the sciences of memory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Philosophical investigation centered on multiple personality and therapy-engendered false memories. Examines, in the context of the history of multiple personality, the question of who should decide the question of whether a person’s consciousness of self is true or not.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Nathan, Debbie. 2012. Sybil exposed: The extraordinary story behind the famous multiple personality case. New York: Free Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Collates the accumulated evidence surrounding the most celebrated multiple personality case of modern times.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Organizational History (APA and APS)

                                                                                                                                                                          The main organization for psychology in America during the 20th century has been the American Psychological Association. Other institutions and organizations of course have been instrumental in psychology’s development: for histories of the influence of large governmental entities and research institutes, consult the works on these areas in the section on the Transition from Science to Technology, 1880–1970. For histories of individual subfields and the organizations and associations connected with them, consult either Dewsbury 1996–2000 mentioned here or the websites and associated materials for individual subfields. Offered here is a selection of basic historical references offered by the APA, including Evans, et al. 1992, a summative volume tracing one hundred years of the Association; Notterman 1997, an edited collection of seminal articles from the flagship APA journal American Psychologist; and Hilgard 1978, a selection of important APA presidential addresses from 1892 to 1978. Additionally, a link is provided to the brief website History of the American Psychological Society (since 2006 the Association for Psychological Science), which was established independently of the APA in 1988.

                                                                                                                                                                          • Dewsbury, Donald A., ed. 1996–2000. Unification through division: Histories of divisions of the American Psychological Association. Vols. 1–5. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1037/10218-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Short histories of many—forty out of fifty-four—of the specialist divisions of the American Psychological Association. These are good for primary orientation to the individuals and issues central to psychologists in these divisions.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Evans, Rand B., Virginia Staudt Sexton, and Thomas C. Cadwaller, eds. 1992. The American Psychological Association: A historical perspective/100 years. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1037/10111-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              Thorough summary of the development of the APA containing contributions by many of the leading historians of the field.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Hilgard, Ernest R., ed. 1978. American psychology in historical perspective: Addresses of Presidents of the American Psychological Association, 1892–1977. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                One of the earliest historical initiatives of the APA, Hilgard’s book presents short biographies of the presidents of the APA along with selected representative addresses. This is continued today via the APA’s website listing of all Presidential Addresses to date, with links to either abstracts or online-readable copies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • History of APS.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  The APS represented, originally, a subgroup of APA members dissatisfied with what was perceived as a relative lack of emphasis on scientific versus clinical practice issues within the APA (see Histories of Subfields: Clinical Psychology). The organization publishes several journals which often include historical material.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Notterman, Joseph M., ed. 1997. The evolution of psychology: Fifty years of the American Psychologist. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1037/10254-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Selection of fifty articles published in the American Psychologist, the primary generalist journal of the APA, from 1946 through 1996, chosen to represent the main initiatives of psychology in theory, practice, and social policy. Many of the most seminal general statements of theory and policy are included.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Histories of Subfields

                                                                                                                                                                                    Although the question of whether psychology is one or many is still open, as addressed in the section Unity versus Diversity of Psychology, practically speaking psychology is a conglomerate of multiple specialties and subspecialties which resist logical classification schemes. One common strategy, employed here, will be to treat those parts of psychology which have longer histories as theoretical subfields and those of more recent vintage as applied ones, with a separate section for each. Of course, today’s theoretical area may become tomorrow’s applied one. Also, since there is substantial overlap between those fields said to generate theory and those said to put it to use, hybridization often occurs, as happened with clinical psychology, which began as a species of applied psychology and rapidly combined with medical psychology, psychiatry, and personality theory to become virtually a separate entity within psychology.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Theoretical Subfields

                                                                                                                                                                                    From the viewpoint of the Organizational History of psychology in the United States, psychology consists of fifty-four divisions arranged around common subjects of study (e.g., developmental psychology, social psychology, history of psychology, psychology of religion), common areas of practice (e.g., military psychology, psychology and law), common professional interests (e.g., consulting psychology, psychology in public service), or shared personal and professional identity (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender [LGBT] psychology, ethnic minority psychology). From a generalist textbook writer’s standpoint, psychology condenses to somewhere between thirteen and thirty areas which can be packaged in chapters. Not all the divisions have comprehensive histories, nor do all the subjects which are textbook chapter headings have pasts of equal length. Thus, subdiscipline histories vary widely in terms of prior historical treatment and theorizing: some, for instance cognitive science, connect to several disciplines outside of psychology as well as to the deepest philosophical and scientific roots of psychology itself, while others are hardly fifty years old. And some theoretical domains, for instance emotion, have never fully cohered, and their histories are scattered over several loosely bound and disparate areas. The selection presented here attempts to say at least something about the histories of the largest number of subfields which are the subjects of generalist textbooks: the twenty-six chapters in Freedheim 2003, a volume of the Handbook of Psychology cited here, are a reasonably close fit to these. Beyond these are included samples of texts in different historiographic styles that go well beyond the essentials cited by the Handbook authors. Boden 2006 examines cognitive science, probably the most prevalent paradigm in psychology today. The autobiography Aronson 2010 emphasizes many important events, individuals, theories, and attitudes in social psychology from a first-person, insider perspective. Yantis 2000 evolves a historical pattern from a collection of essential primary documents in sensation and perception. Rachlin 1991 provides a good outline of the history of behaviorism. Bronfenbrenner, et al. 1986 discusses, in the context of developmental psychology, some of the elements that make histories of subdisciplines problematic. Berlyne 1973, a classic conception of the history of motivation and pleasure, is a witty entry point for a future history of theories of motivation and provides, as well, a useful metaphor for disciplinary evolution. Taylor 2009, a densely textured and nuanced survey of personality theory’s history, rounds out this section.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Aronson, Elliot. 2010. Not by chance alone: My life as a social psychologist. New York: Basic Books.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Insider view of both the persons and theories that combined to form modern social psychology by a central figure in the development of the field between 1960 and the early 21st century. A good companion to the histories of social psychology offered in the several editions of the Handbook of Social Psychology, five of which have appeared since 1935.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Berlyne, Daniel E. 1973. The vicissitudes of aplopathematic and thelematoscopic pneumatology (or, the hydrography of hedonism). In Pleasure, reward, and preference. Edited by Daniel E. Berlyne and K. B. Madsen. 1–33. New York: Academic Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-092550-6.50006-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Berlyne’s classic chapter introduces the idea of the “hedonistic delta,” a metaphor for how many disparate historical sources combine to produce a single area of study—in this case, pleasure. More historians working today should know this model. His coeditor Madsen wrote an excellent “metascientific” history of psychology in 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Boden, Margaret. 2006. Mind as machine: A history of cognitive science. 2 vols. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Erudite magnum opus covering all aspects of the development of the currently dominant cognitive paradigm. Lucid, engaging writing style, but so detailed that a primary orientation via a good history of psychology textbook, and probably also a textbook in cognitive psychology, are recommended.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Frank Kessel, William Kessen, and Sheldon White. 1986. Toward a critical social history of developmental psychology: A propaedeutic discussion. American Psychologist 41.11: 1218–1230.

                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.41.11.1218Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                            Commentary that situates developmental psychology’s disciplinary and theoretical issues in a postmodern framework by leading historians and theorists of the field. Presupposes some familiarity with standard histories of developmental psychology such as can be found in Textbooks in either history or developmental psychology proper. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Freedheim, Donald K., ed. 2003. History of psychology. In Handbook of psychology. Vol. 1. Edited by Irving Weiner. New York: Wiley.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1002/0471264385Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Contains twenty-six chapters written by historians (or practitioners with a sense of history) that outline the main contours of the history of most major subfields, ranging from biopsychology, intelligence, and emotion through school psychology, ethnic minorities, and international psychology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Rachlin, Howard. 1991. Introduction to modern behaviorism. 3d ed. New York: Freeman.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Actually a textbook, but written by an author with historical sensibilities. Reading this in combination with Rutherford 2009 on Skinner (cited under the Transition from Science to Technology, 1880–1970) and Smith 1986 on philosophy (cited under History and Philosophy of Science) will provide a reasonably complete account of the history of behaviorism in the 20th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Taylor, Eugene. 2009. The mystery of personality: A history of psychodynamic theories. New York: Springer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-98104-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Much more than a tracing of Freudian influences; Taylor—an expert on William James and humanistic psychology, as well as on the psychology of religion (see Histories of Subfields: Clinical Psychology)—evolves personality theory from its beginnings in philosophy to current humanistic and transpersonal approaches.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Yantis, Steven, ed. 2000. Visual perception: Key readings. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Covers all aspects of psychology’s historic foundation, the study of perception. Presents primary source material on classical, cognitive, Gestalt, and ecological approaches to the subject and evolves a history from these.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Applied Subfields

                                                                                                                                                                                                    To open this section, Meehl 1989, focused on the forensic domain, is an insightful observation, informed by history, of the uneasy relationship between applied psychology at its interface with other professions and traditions with longer histories. A comprehensive, accessible general textbook in this area is Benjamin and Baker 2004. For the most part, histories of specific areas of applied psychology are summarized in the opening chapters of textbooks or handbooks of their respective subfields, which should be the first choice of those interested in histories in this area. Those interested in the most prominent applied areas of psychology—applied cognition, applied social psychology, and applied educational psychology—are especially advised to start their historical searches in this way. The chapters in Bartol and Bartol 2005 on forensic psychology and in Friedman and Adler 2007 on health psychology are excellent examples of this type and are probably the ones that will be most in demand for users of the present article. The APA series of divisional histories included in the Organizational History section (Dewsbury 1996–2000) is also a primary orienting device to the history of many—though not all—applied areas. Some of psychology’s applied fields have drawn substantial specific historical attention, for instance industrial and organizational psychology, represented here by the edited volume Koppes 2007. Some writers have attempted to place subfield histories in more general historical contexts: Pol 2006 and Pol 2007, comprising a set of articles on environmental psychology, are excellent examples of this approach. Finally, Benjamin and Green 2009 provides a unique perspective on the intersection of applied psychology and popular culture in the context of sport psychology.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bartol, Curtis R., and Anne M. Bartol. 2005. History of forensic psychology. In The handbook of forensic psychology. Edited by Irving B. Weiner and Allen K. Hess, 1–27. New York: Wiley.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Complete and authoritative summary of the evolution of this subfield.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr., and David B. Baker. 2004. From séance to science: A history of the profession of psychology in America. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Introductory orientations to the major applied subfields of psychology. Includes chapters on clinical psychology, school psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, counseling psychology, and a portmanteau chapter mentioning essentials of many other recently developing subfields including forensic psychology and health psychology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr., and Christopher Green, eds. 2009. Psychology gets in the game: Sport, mind, and behavior, 1880–1960. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          A carefully crafted compilation that not only conveys the main dimensions of sports psychology as an applied field in psychology’s early expansionist years, but also offers insight into the relation of psychology and popular culture. Very accessible for beginning students in the history of psychology, it will pique interest while providing a very accurate basic understanding of the history of psychology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Friedman, Howard S., and Nancy E. Adler. 2007. The history and background of health psychology. In Foundations of health psychology. Edited by Howard S. Friedman and Roxane Cohen Silver, 3–19. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Detailed overview of psychology’s most rapidly growing applied area.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Koppes, Laura, ed. 2007. Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Contains eighteen lengthy chapters detailing many areas of application in this area, some of which get only cursory coverage in other reference works, including military psychology, human factors, and the history of teamwork.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Meehl, Paul E. 1989. Law and the fireside inductions (with postscript): Some reflections of a clinical psychologist. Behavioral Sciences & the Law 7:521–550.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1002/bsl.2370070408Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Originally published in Journal of Social Issues 27.4 (1971): 65–100. What happens when well-meaning social science meets entrenched legal tradition. Included in this précis of the cultural divides that must be bridged by applied science is Meehl’s relentless critique of methodology and statistics. A necessary cautionary tale. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Pol, Enric. 2006. Blueprints for a history of environmental psychology (I): From birth to American transition. Medio Ambiente y Comportamiento Humano 7.2: 95–113.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This is the first part of a two-part comprehensive survey of the history of environmental psychology with specific reference to European antecedents. Followed by Pol 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Pol, Enric. 2007. Blueprints for a history of environmental psychology (II): From architectural psychology to the challenge of sustainability. Medio Ambiente y Comportamiento Humano 8.1–2: 1–28.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This second article in Pol’s two-article set continues a comprehensive history of environmental psychology and describes the arc of rapid recent historical change within a subfield while also detailing the interchange between European and North American theories in this change. (In English.)

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clinical Psychology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    By far the largest divide within psychology in the modern era is the experimental/clinical split, which reflects several other antinomies: science/medicine, theory/practice, and pure/applied. Within clinical psychology there is also another division between psychoanalytic and nonpsychoanalytic approaches. And there is a further distinction between clinical psychology carried out in institutions versus private practice. Thus, only a bare minimum of examples of typical histories of clinical psychology can be suggested here. For material relating to Freud, Ellenberger 1970 is offered here as an example of the vast prehistory available, and Roazen 1992 as an example of a unique, rich biographical and archival approach. Norcross, et al. 2010, an updated edition of the APA History of Psychotherapy, is indispensable as a general reference. Grob 1994 is a reasonable and objective account of the institutional care of the mentally ill, while Scull 2005 is an example of critical history in this area: the autobiography Sarason 1988 provides a firsthand account of the development of a career in the field. The unique work Wake 2011 examines the nexus of personal, social, and political factors in clinical practice. Taylor 1999 provides a perspective on the psychological roots of therapies at the margins where psychology stops and religion begins, while Rosner’s work reveals the inseparability of psychoanalysis from the development of modern cognitive therapy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ellenberger, Henri. 1970. The discovery of the unconscious: The history and evolution of dynamic psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A tour de force of psychiatric history and an indispensable reference, fantastically complete in its description of the streams of thought that led onward to theories of the unconscious in Freud and beyond.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Grob, Gerald. 1994. The mad among us: A history of the care of America’s mentally ill. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A thorough and very accessible account of the evolution of care of mental illness from colonial times to the present, by a master historian who has written several other specialized works in this area.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Norcross, John, Gary R. VandenBos, and Donald K. Freedheim, eds. 2010. History of psychotherapy: Continuity and change. 2d ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Two sections on the general history of psychotherapy from 1860 to the early 21st century are followed by sections on theory, research, practice (including sections on patients classified by lifespan stages as well as by specific disorders), and education and training. Nineteen chapters and forty-nine subdivisions in all—a rich basic resource.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Roazen, Paul. 1992. Freud and his followers. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Originally published in 1975. Draws on archival materials and interviews to present as complete a view as there is of the range of psychodynamic approaches in the 20th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Rosner, Rachel I. 2012. Aaron T. Beck’s drawings and the psychoanalytic origin story of cognitive therapy. History of Psychology 15.1: 1–18.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1037/a0023892Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Drawing on unpublished sources such as drawings, Rosner demonstrates the persistence of psychoanalytic thinking in Aaron Beck’s conceptualization of cognitive therapy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sarason, Seymour. 1988. The making of an American psychologist: An autobiography. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A sympathetic and realistic self-portrait by a practicing clinical psychologist with great historical sensitivity, which contains, implicitly, a history of the evolution of applied clinical psychology from 1942 through 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Scull, Andrew. 2005. Madhouse: A tragic tale of megalomania and modern medicine. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A terrifying tale of psychiatry gone wrong: a counterbalance to overoptimism about treatment’s past as well as its future prospects by an eminent critical historian-sociologist. Like Grob’s (preceding reference), Scull’s collected works are recommended historical reading in this domain.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Taylor, Eugene. 1999. Shadow culture: Psychology and spirituality in America. Washington, DC: Counterpoint.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Taylor, an accomplished historian both of William James and of the origins of psychotherapy in America, provides the historical background to the development of alternative therapies and humanistic/transpersonal psychology in the context of a general history of spirituality.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Wake, Naoko. 2011. Private practices: Harry Stack Sullivan, the science of homosexuality, and American liberalism. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A new departure in the history of clinical psychology, Wake’s work, part biography, part social history, reveals the tensions inherent in the relation between personal sexual needs and public persona in the career of one of the most underrated individuals who shaped modern clinical psychology, Harry Stack Sullivan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Race, Ethnicity, and Culture

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Culture and gender were virtually entirely absent from the canonical textbook histories that shaped the historical view of the field through the 1970s, and the effects of this lack still linger. However, significant additions have since been made. A sea change in American social attitudes regarding race in the 1960s provided an opportunity for a dialogue about racial and cultural issues to begin within psychology, and this has gradually become reflected in historians’ thinking. A good general orientation to the issues in this section can be found in Pickren and Rutherford 2010 (cited under Textbooks). Regarding race, all students and practitioners of psychology should know the classic work Guthrie 2003. Jackson and Weidman 2004 provides a wide-ranging overview of the relation of race and psychology. Turner 2007 shows the depth of psychological involvement in organized racism outside of the discipline, while the article Winston 1998 reveals the exclusionary attitude prevalent among some individuals at the highest administrative levels within psychology. Pickren 2004 captures the ambiguities of the process of including culture within the psychological establishment, while the collection Brock 2006 (cited under International and Indigenous Psychologies) and the article Brock 2010 are essential reading for understanding the modern role of culture in the historiography of psychology as well as in psychology’s relation to its surrounding society.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Brock, Adrian. Presentism and diversity in the history of psychology. Paper presented at the 42nd annual meeting of CHEIRON: The International Society for the History of the Behavioral and Social Sciences, LeMoyne College, Syracuse, NY, 24–27 June 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Brock’s article questions how far history can change in response to legitimate needs for inclusion of different, discordant views. It is the one paper to read to grasp the essence of the cultural problem of the history of psychology and of the field as a whole (unpublished MS, available from adrian.c.brock@ucd.ie).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Guthrie, Robert V. 2003. Even the rat was white: A historical view of psychology. 2d ed. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          From its first edition in 1976 to this most recent one, this book remains the essential resource for beginning a study of race and racism in American psychology. As hinted by its title, its focus is on the African American experience.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Jackson, John P., Jr., and Nadine M. Weidman. 2004. Race, racism, and science: Social impact and interaction. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Comprehensive survey of the terrain of racial issues in science generally and psychology particularly. Contains extensive bibliographies and a section with original documents.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Pickren, Wade E. 2004. Between the cup of principle and the lip of practice: Ethnic minorities and American psychology, 1966–1980. History of Psychology 7:45–64.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1037/1093-4510.7.1.45Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The early history of the relation of ethnic minorities and psychology was largely exploitative. After 1950 there was a gradual change toward understanding and inclusion, but as Pickren’s article shows, it was—and continues to be—a slow and difficult process. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Turner, William H. 2007. The funding of scientific racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. Champaign: Univ. of Illinois Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Turner has devoted years to uncovering the interlocking system of funding of scientific racism—the practice of justifying racial prejudice through often-specious science—involving psychologists, among others, in obscure networks of influence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Winston, Andrew S. 1998. “‘The defects of his race’: E. G. Boring and anti-Semitism in American psychology, 1923–1953.” History of Psychology 1:27–51.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1037/1093-4510.1.1.27Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Winston, an eminent general historian of psychology in many domains, uncovers, via archived letters and other documents, the implicit and explicit prejudices—racial, ethnic, and religious—operating at the highest echelons of academic psychology in the early 20th century. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  International and Indigenous Psychologies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  While all successful psychologies are indigenous, that is, matched to the cultural and historical context in which they occur, in recent years the term indigenous psychology has come to refer to the efforts by psychologists in many countries to develop psychological science and practice in the local/national cultural traditions. Since World War II, psychologists in places as diverse as India, Mexico, South Africa, China, and Korea have been actively working to create psychologies true to their particular cultural settings. Several of the authors in the edited volume Brock 2006 explore the challenges of indigenous psychologies, while other authors describe the histories of psychology in particular countries as part of the spread of the discipline in the 20th century. Kim and Berry 1993 collected fifteen autobiographical accounts by leaders of psychology in countries around the world that provide insight into how and why psychologists felt the need to develop indigenous psychologies. With the growth of psychology internationally have come histories of psychology unique to particular countries, at times with unique historiographical emphases. Four examples of international historiography can be found in Pickren 2010 special issue of History of Psychology entitled International Historiography of Psychology. The history of psychology in India is an example of the complexities of scientific and professional development in a postcolonial setting, as described by Sinha 1998. Durganand Sinha was the best-known figure of psychology in India for the last forty years of the 20th century, and his work is indispensable for understanding the history of psychology in India. More recently, Dalal and Misra 2010 recounted how the long, rich cultural and religious history of India continues to inform the current movement to create indigenous Indian psychology. The Philippines has seen the development of one of the most innovative and dramatic efforts to create an indigenous psychology. Pe-Pua and Protacio-Marcelino 2000 offers an insightful narrative of the efforts by Enriquez and his colleague Alfred Lagmay to take a completely indigenized approach to psychology that draws on the language, customs, and mores of the Philippines. Pickren 2009 historicizes efforts to create indigenous psychologies by placing them within a global context of events since World War II. Long 2013 shows the fragility of indigenous psychological ideas when confronted with international corporate forces. Finally, Bhatia 2002 draws on the work of critical theorists to illustrate how Western psychologists have created distance between their work and that of Asian psychologists in order to justify their dominance of the field.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bhatia, Sunil. 2002. Orientalism in Euro-American and Indian psychology: Historical representations of “natives” in colonial and postcolonial contexts. History of Psychology 5:376–398.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1037/1093-4510.5.4.376Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The author offers a critical analysis of the construction of the “Other” by American and European psychologists. The processes of such constructions result in a perpetuation of the hegemony of Western practices in psychology. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Brock, Adrian, ed. 2006. Internationalizing the history of psychology. New York: New York Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Most psychology available in English is American or Eurocentric, and movement away from these biases toward a thoroughly international psychology is still far away. This volume details current efforts toward moving the center of discourse about the history of psychology from Western cultures to the world at large. The chapters most recommended are those by authors outside of the United States and Europe.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dalal, Ajit K., and Girishwar Misra. 2010. The core and context of Indian psychology. Psychology in Developing Societies 22:121–155.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1177/097133360902200105Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The authors are well-known leaders of contemporary psychology in India. Here they explicate the historical origins of the movement now known as Indian psychology. They explain the philosophical, religious, and spiritual roots of Indian psychology and show how understanding it is inextricable from understanding the broader history of India. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kim, Uichol, and John W. Berry, eds. 1993. Indigenous psychologies: Research and experience in cultural context. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          One of the first volumes to explicitly address indigenous psychology, the book has fifteen autobiographical accounts of the challenges and dangers that are inherent in importing psychology to cultures that are metaphysically and culturally different. Each author recounts how Western psychology had to be adapted and sometimes rejected in order to make it fit in a new cultural context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Long, Wahbie. 2013. Rethinking relevance: South African psychology in context. History of Psychology 16.1: 19–35.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1037/a0029675Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Long marshals sociopolitical theory to explain how “relevance” shifted its meaning from a term identifying black cultural elements in South African psychology to one reflecting the homogenization of indigenous African psychology into a global, corporate psychological system.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Pe-Pua, Rogelia, and Elizabeth Protacio-Marcelino. 2000. Sikolohiyang Pilipino (Filipino psychology): A legacy of Virgilio G. Enriquez. Asian Journal of Social Psychology 3:49–71.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/1467-839X.00054Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Enriquez was one of the creators of Sikolohiyang Pilipino or Filipino psychology that sought to establish a psychology true to Filipino culture and history. The authors place the work of Enriquez and his students and colleagues within the larger history of the Philippines and provide concrete examples of how a psychology can be indigenized from within, that is, based on the local culture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Pickren, Wade E. 2009. Indigenization and the history of psychology. Psychological Studies 54:87–95.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1007/s12646-009-0012-7Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The author uses the work of Sinha, Misra, Enriquez, and other leaders of indigenous psychology movements around the world to reflect on the intertwining of political, social, and religious in the development of psychology in North America. American psychology, it is argued, is as much an indigenous psychology, subject to similar processes of development as psychology in other, quite distinct, cultures. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Pickren, Wade E. 2010. Special issue: International historiography of psychology. History of Psychology 13.3.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The special issue has four articles that each provide a description of the history of psychology in the relevant country along with extensive bibliographies of historical scholarship published by scholars from that country. The articles cover Brazil, Italy, Spain, and the Czech Republic. Articles available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sinha, Durganand. 1998. Changing perspectives in social psychology in India: A journey towards indigenization. Asian Journal of Social Psychology 1:17–31.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/1467-839X.00003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sinha’s account describes the development of modern psychology in India after the country won its independence from the United Kingdom. He articulates the now well-known concept of indigenization processes that occur in the human sciences. In the case of psychology, it was shaped in India by both internal factors, such as the philosophical traditions and political expediencies of India over many centuries, and by external factors, such as the British influence from the long period of colonization. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gender

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The history of gender-related topics in psychology is another area which was entirely absent from the history of psychology fifty years ago. Regarding women specifically, social discrimination against women found resonance at the highest administrative and organizational levels of the discipline: E. G. Boring—dubbed “Mr. Psychology” by his peers and for a long time the only really prominent historian of the field—provided the definitive statement and justification for exclusion in his 1951 paper, which has been reprinted multiple times, including in his collection of autobiographical material, Boring 1961. Since that time, numerical gender parity has been achieved in psychology, and numerous initiatives to establish gender equity in the field have arisen and are reflected in historical work, which, however, is mainly focused on practitioners and not on the history of psychology’s relation to and effects on women generally. Scarborough and Furumoto 1987, a classic work on women within psychology, is cited here along with Johnston and Johnson 2008, an account of the second generation of American female psychologists. Johnson and Johnston 2010 is an innovative historiography on how the second generation challenged received notions about women and their work in mid-century American psychology. These authors’ two articles, along with the bibliography in the contextual textbook Pickren and Rutherford 2010 (cited under Textbooks), can provide a starting point for historians pursuing investigations of the history of psychology and women that go beyond psychology’s professional borders. Recent conceptions of feminism within psychology are treated thoroughly by Eagly, et al. 2012. Over this same time span, LGBT people have become more visible, individually and in groups, in society as a whole and in psychology in particular. Spiegel 2002 is essential for understanding the forces that combined to bring LGBT psychology to light: Minton 2002 is the primary scholarly source for the detailed history of homosexuality in recent social science and psychology in particular, and Wake 2011 on Harry Stack Sullivan (cited under Histories of Subfields: Clinical Psychology) should also be consulted for insights. However, this area of psychology’s history is still at its very beginning. Somewhat in reaction to the emergence of feminism in psychology, a psychology of men and masculinity also gained prominence beginning in the mid-1970s, and Cochran 2010 is offered here as a starting point for its historical investigation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Boring, Edwin G. 1961. The woman problem. In Psychologist at large: An autobiography and selected essays of a distinguished psychologist. Edited by Edwin G. Boring, 185–193. New York: Basic Books.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      When Edwin G. Boring said, in the original article published in the American Psychologist in 1951, that women did not measure up to men in terms of their scientific productivity, he unleashed a mighty force. This paper can also be found among the fifty representative papers in the Notterman 1997 collection in the section on Organizational History. It is necessary to read in order to situate the many critiques that it has engendered.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Cochran, Sam. 2010. Emergence and development of the psychology of men and masculinity. In Handbook of gender research in psychology. Edited by Joan C. Chrisler and Donald R. McCreary, 43–58. New York: Springer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Good short history of the psychology of men as it developed in recent psychology, bracketed in this comprehensive handbook on gender in psychology by equally well-informed chapters on the development of the psychologies of women and LGBT issues.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Eagly, Alice H., Asia Eaton, Suzanna M. Rose, Stephanie Riger, and Maureen C. McHugh. 2012. Feminism and psychology: Analysis of a half-century of research on women and gender. American Psychologist 67.3: 211–230.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1037/a0027260Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This article outlines the main currents of feminism that have shaped discourse on gender over the past fifty years. It is useful for theorists of gender and feminism as well as for students of history, for whom it will provide a useful organizational framework. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Johnston, Elizabeth, and Ann Johnson. 2008. Searching for the second generation of American women psychologists. History of Psychology 11.1: 40–72.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1037/1093-4510.11.1.40Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Continues and expands on the work of Scarborough and Furumoto in seeking women’s presence in professional psychology. The references are particularly complete and informative regarding scholarship concerning women in psychology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Johnson, Ann, and Elizabeth Johnston. 2010. Unfamiliar feminisms: Revisiting the National Council of Women Psychologists. Psychology of Women Quarterly 34:311–327.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2010.01577.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The authors deploy a distinctive feminist historiography to explore questions of feminism and activism among second-generation female psychologists. They challenge the accepted notion that female psychologists of this generation were antifeminist and lacked an activist spirit. Many female psychologists of this period, on the contrary, raised issues of gender differences, advocated for the distinctive contributions of women to psychology, and created new possibilities for female psychologists after World War II. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Minton, Henry L. 2002. Departing from deviance: A history of homosexual rights and emancipatory science in America. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Minton is a leading scholar of homosexuality vis-à-vis science and society in the United States. This work describes how the pioneering sexologists and psychologists—including Alfred Kinsey and Evelyn Hooker—contributed to a more free and just world for LGBT individuals. Extensively referenced.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Scarborough, Elizabeth, and Laurel Furumoto. 1987. Untold lives: The first generation of American women psychologists. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pioneering study of the internal history of women psychologists at the time of the discipline’s founding.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Spiegel, Alix. 2002. 81 Words. This American Life 204, National Public Radio.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This two-installment set of radio talks explain the circumstances that led the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from the DSM-II in 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Teaching of Psychology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Much of psychology’s identity is connected to its academic heritage. Psychologists have been actively reflective about teaching since the beginnings of the modern discipline. The works included here expand on the organizational histories embodied in the Unification through Division series (Dewsbury 1996–2000, cited under Organizational History), and also are a good source for the “fine texture” of the history of psychology, since they often are focused on the mundane, everyday activities of psychologists that, unnoticed, accumulate into a history of practice. Included here are Seashore 1910, an early commentary by one of psychology’s great pioneers on the teaching of the foundation course, and Benjamin 1991, another exemplary biography of an early-20th-century psychologist whose career was intimately bound to his teaching. Puente, et al. 1992 offers a series of essays surveying teaching in America through the 20th century, while the APA has sponsored a unique series of autobiographies of practicing teachers active today (American Psychological Association 2005–2011). White 2008 is a departmental history capturing the continuity and change embodied in a single academic setting, Beloit College in Wisconsin, through the successive activities of its teachers. Specific pedagogical techniques for teaching the history of psychology abound: the teaching resources page of the Society for the History of Psychology is offered here as a finding aid, while Ranney 2008 discusses the articulation of an innovative technique emerging from the history of science with the teaching of general psychology.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • American Psychological Association. 2005–2011. The teaching of psychology in autobiography: Perspectives from exemplary psychology teachers. 4 vols. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      These volumes are truly unique in the field of Biography and Autobiography in focusing on practitioners who work at one of the levels at which psychology is disseminated. The work gives a rare glimpse into a level of psychology practice hardly touched in the classic autobiographies and biographies in the field. Available online in e-book format.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr. 1991. Harry Kirke Wolfe: Pioneer in psychology. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This biography is both a wonderful example of the best work in biography by historians of psychology and also examines in detail the role of teaching in the development of the laboratory tradition in psychology. Wolfe’s story gives good insight into how the infrastructure of psychology education evolved.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • History of Psychology Teaching Resources.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Contains a wealth of resources for teaching the history of psychology, including sample course plans as well as bibliographies and suggestions for course activities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Puente, Antonio E., Janet R. Matthews, and Charles L. Brewer. 1992 Teaching psychology in America: A history. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1037/10120-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            One of several commemorative volumes issued by the APA at its 100th anniversary, this one brings together many historians who bring their skills to bear on many facets of teaching psychology, including curricula, teaching conferences, internships, textbooks, and the role of women in teaching, from 1900 to 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ranney, Michael Edward. 2008. Studies in historical replication in psychology VII: The relative utility of “ancestor analysis” from scientific and educational vantages. Science and Education 17:547–558.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1007/s11191-007-9111-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Among many innovative techniques for teaching the history of psychology, one of the most recent and exciting is the replication of the scientific discovery process, a technique pioneered by Ryan Tweney. Ranney discusses the technique’s pedagogical value and its relation to the integration of the teaching of history with the teaching of psychology as a whole.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Seashore, Carl E. 1910. General report on the teaching of the elementary course in psychology: Recommendations. Psychological Monographs 12.5: 80–91.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1037/h0093202Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Seashore was a primary discipline builder in America, and this brief report from the 1909 APA meeting summarizing the work of the Committee of the American Psychological Association on the Teaching of Psychology, which he chaired, is a starting point for any modern history of psychology teaching in America. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • White, Lawrence T. 2008. Professor Tawney’s chronoscope: Psychology and psychologists at Beloit College. Beloit, WI: Beloit College Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This work will reward those who peruse it with a complete miniature history of the field that shows clearly how all aspects of psychology—from its experimental practice to its social activism—articulate within a teaching setting.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Future Directions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The works included here, of course, are offered not as specific predictions but rather as indications of places in the history of psychology beyond those already mentioned, such as culture and gender, which presently promise future growth and development. Future trends point forward, backward, outward, and inward. Recent advances at the intersection of anthropology, archaeology, ethology, cognitive science, and evolutionary psychology have pushed back the boundary of what counts as ancient history: the articles Wynn and Coolidge 2004 and Uomini 2009 are offered as pointers to new territory for historical development. In the other direction, toward the future, psychology has never lacked for prophets or futurists, either Cassandras or confident optimists. Morawski 2001 describes an underlying stream of utopianism in psychology, and Valsiner 2003 is included as a portent of the continuing development of this stream of psychological optimism. The wall between the history of psychology and everyday life has gradually been cracking, and some real breaches are opening up in it—Nicholson 2007 is a great example of one of these. Finally, Burman 2012 suggests a fourth frontier for history—the interior of the mind.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan. 2012. History from within? Contextualizing the new neurohistory and seeking its methods. History of Psychology 15.1: 84–99.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1037/a0023500Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Taking its cue from philosophers who have wondered what it is like to experience events as if inside others’ minds, neurohistory suggests that psychology can lead us to know what the past was interiorly like, cognitively and, perhaps especially, emotionally. Burman traces the development of this idea and offers critiques and cautions. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Morawski, Jill. 2001. Assessing psychology’s moral heritage through our neglected utopias. In Evolving perspectives on the history of psychology. Edited by Wade Pickren and Donald Dewsbury, 499–525. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Originally published in 1982 in American Psychologist, 37:1082–1095. Morawski and many others (for instance, the author of Sarason 1981, cited under Critical Voices) have sensed that psychology can move beyond the status quo and participate in the development of a better world. The volume in which her 1982 article is reprinted here is another trove of classic modern papers in the history of psychology.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nicholson, Ian. 2007. Baring the soul: Paul Bindrim, Abraham Maslow, and “nude psychotherapy.” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 43.4: 337–359.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1002/jhbs.20272Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The 1960s and 1970s of the 20th century are full of vast stretches of unexplored historical territory, as is the area of the intersection of psychology and popular culture. This article points the way for future journeys into the recent past. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Uomini, Natalie T. 2009. The prehistory of handedness: Archaeological data and comparative ethology. Journal of Human Evolution 57.4: 411–419.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2009.02.012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Uomini blends archaeology, cognitive science, primatology, and evolutionary theory in a discussion which extends handedness—a primary characteristic of neural organization—much farther back in history than any current history of psychology conceives. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Valsiner, Jaan. 12 December 2003. Missions in history and history through a mission: Inventing better worlds for humankind. Leiden, The Netherlands: First Annual Casimir Lecture, Studies in the History of Education, Leiden Univ.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Valsiner, a prolific scholar of developmental psychology and an expert in Vygotsky, offers a caveat to those who see psychology as having a utopian mission. Though his view is mordant when he observes that what we give we can also take away, he, too, suggests that psychology is necessarily focused on the future (unpublished MS, available via jvalsiner@clarku.edu).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wynn, Thomas, and Frederic L. Coolidge. 2004. The expert Neandertal mind. Journal of Human Evolution 46:467–487.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.01.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Wynn and Coolidge suggest that human precursors were perhaps not as distant as the boundaries of our current histories suppose, at least in terms of the activities and relationships mediated by their brains. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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