Psychology Self-Efficacy
by
James E. Maddux, Jennifer T. Gosselin, Evan Kleiman
  • LAST REVIEWED: 29 September 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 31 August 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199828340-0088

Introduction

Self-efficacy theory was first described by Albert Bandura in 1977 in an article in the journal Psychological Review titled “Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change” (see General Overviews). Bandura defined self-efficacy beliefs (or expectancies) as the beliefs regarding one’s ability to perform the tasks that one views as necessary for attaining valued goals. He proposed that self-efficacy beliefs are among the most important determinants of human behavior and offered self-efficacy theory as a unifying theory for all types of behavior change, including the effects of psychological interventions and psychotherapy. He contrasted self-efficacy expectancies, concerning one’s abilities to perform behaviors, with outcome expectancies, which are concerned with the expected results of the behaviors that one performs. Bandura proposed that self-efficacy beliefs are the most important and powerful of the two in influencing people’s decisions to attempt or not attempt certain behaviors and to persist in the face of obstacles. Bandura proposed that self-efficacy beliefs developed from four main sources: (1) performance attainments and failures—what we try to do and how well we succeed or not; (2) vicarious performances—what we see other people do; (3) verbal persuasion—what people tell us about what we are able or not able to do; and (4) imaginal performances—what we imagine ourselves doing and how well or poorly we imagine ourselves doing it. Since the publication of the 1977 article, self-efficacy theory has guided thousands of studies in psychological and related fields such as social work, public health, education, medicine, nursing, communications, organizational behavior, and management. These studies have examined the role of self-efficacy beliefs in just about every imaginable behavior of interest or relevance to human beings. The list of topics selected for this article is not exhaustive. These topics were selected because they have been among the most frequent topics of research. In addition, the readings listed in this article were chosen because they are either reviews or summaries on the research on that topic or representative of the types of studies that address the topic. Finally, preference was given to more recent studies because they represent current knowledge and contain in their references sections citations of previous studies that need not be listed here.

General Overviews

This section provides articles, book chapters, and books that provide general overviews of self-efficacy theory and reviews of self-efficacy research. The reader who is unfamiliar with self-efficacy theory and research should begin with one or two of the journal articles or chapters before tackling one of the books.

Articles and Chapters

The chapters and journal articles listed below offer brief overviews of self-efficacy theory and research, including a critique of the theory (Kirsch 1985) and a review of research on self-efficacy and personality (Maddux and Volkman 2010). The list begins with Bandura’s original statement of the theory (Bandura 1977). The later articles Bandura 1982 and Bandura 1989 offer updates on research on self-efficacy and elaborations of some keys aspects of the theory. Maddux and Gosselin 2011 would be a good place to begin for the reader unfamiliar with self-efficacy theory and who desires an up-to-date review of self-efficacy research on a wide range of topics.

  • Bandura, A. 1977. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review 84:191–215.

    DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The article in which Bandura first describes self-efficacy theory in detail along with the results of some initial research supporting it.

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    • Bandura, A. 1982. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist 37:122–147.

      DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.37.2.122Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

      An update of the research findings on self-efficacy since Bandura 1977.

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      • Bandura, A. 1989. Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist 44:1175–1184.

        DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.44.9.1175Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        A broader theoretical paper on the role of self-efficacy in social cognitive theory.

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        • Kirsch, I. 1985. Response expectancy as a determinant of experience and behavior. American Psychologist 40:1189–1202.

          DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.40.11.1189Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A discussion of the role of response expectancies and outcome expectancies. Includes a critique of self-efficacy theory that argues (with evidence) that self-efficacy beliefs overlap considerably with outcome expectancies and intentions, especially in situations involving fear.

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          • Maddux, J. E., and J. T. Gosselin. 2011. Self-efficacy. In Handbook of self and identity. 2d ed. Edited by M. Leary and J. Tangney. New York: Guilford.

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            Concise summaries of self-efficacy theory and of self-efficacy research on a range of topics including measurement, developmental aspects, education, career choice, health-related behavior, and psychological adjustment.

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            • Maddux, J. E., and J. Volkman. 2010. Self-efficacy. In Handbook of personality and self-regulation. Edited by R. Hoyle, 315–331. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.

              DOI: 10.1002/9781444318111Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

              A summary of research on the relationships between a variety of personality traits and self-efficacy, including a discussion of issues regarding the concept of general self-efficacy as a personality trait.

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              Books

              The book listed below offer detailed reviews of self-efficacy research on a wide range of topics. Schwarzer 1992, Maddux 1995, and Bandura 1995 are edited volumes, which means the chapters were written by a variety of researchers who specialize in self-efficacy research on a particular topic. Bandura 1997 was written entirely by Bandura but includes discussions of not only his own research but also the work of hundreds of other researchers. The books by Pajares and Urdan 2006 on adolescence and by Feltz, et al. 2008 on sports are narrower in scope but more up-to-date than the other books on the list.

              • Bandura, A., ed. 1995. Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511527692Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                A collection of chapters that emphasize the interaction between self-efficacy beliefs and familial, social, and cultural factors, including adjustment to social and cultural change.

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                • Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

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                  A richly detailed review of research on the role of self-efficacy beliefs on just about every imaginable topic in psychology and related fields, including public health and medicine

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                  • Bertrando, R., M. Antonio, and J. Eisenberger. 2005. Self-efficacy: Raising the bar for all students. 4th ed. Larchmont, NY: Routledge.

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                    Now in its fourth edition, this book gives a comprehensive overview of how to utilize self-efficacy to increase a wide variety of targets in students.

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                    • Feltz, D. L., S. E. Short, and P. J. Sullivan. 2008. Self-efficacy in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

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                      Research and practical strategies for working with athletes, coaches, and teams to enhance individual and collective efficacy and individual and team performance.

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                      • Maddux, J. E., ed. 1995. Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research, and application. New York: Plenum.

                        DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6868-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                        The second book-length summary of self-efficacy research, the first being Schwarzer 1992. A collection of chapters by well-known experts covering a variety of topics including psychotherapy, depression, anxiety disorders, addictions, health behavior, education, and others. Includes a critique of self-efficacy theory by Irving Kirsch and a reply by Bandura.

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                        • Pajares, F., and T. Urdan, eds. 2006. Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Charlotte, NC: Information Age.

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                          Comprehensive reviews of theory and research on the role of self-efficacy beliefs in adolescent development, including chapters on health, education, and career choice.

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                          • Piper, W. 1930–1989. The little engine that could. New York: Philomel.

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                            An entertaining and instructive classic children’s book that illustrates the power of self-efficacy beliefs (“I think I can!”).

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                            • Schwarzer, R., ed. 1992. Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.

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                              The first book on self-efficacy, summarizing fifteen years of research on a range of topics including psychological problems and health behavior. Although the chapters are in English, the editor and several of the chapter authors are European and offer the reader a sampling of research not usually available in American publications.

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                              Reference Resource

                              The website Information on Self-Efficacy is the only online reference source devoted exclusively to self-efficacy theory and research. The tone is friendly and informal, but the content is scholarly.

                              Journals

                              There no journals devoted specifically to self-efficacy research. Studies testing predictions of self-efficacy theory or employing measures of self-efficacy have appeared in most of the major journals in all areas of psychology as well in psychiatry, medicine, nursing, public health, communications, social work, organizational behavior, and management. The following journals are among those that have most frequently published research on self-efficacy. The Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology should be of interest to clinical psychologists interested in novel theoretical ideas and social psychologists interested in novel and practical applications of social psychological theory. The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology should be of interest primarily to theorists and researchers in social psychology and personality psychology, although it may also be of interest to clinical and counseling psychologists because many of the articles deal with emotional and psychological adjustment in nonclinical populations. Health Psychology should be of interest to a wide range of health professionals interested in prevention, compliance, adjustment of injury and illness, and related issues. Cognitive Therapy and Research should be of interest to clinical researchers and clinical practitioners, especially practitioners with a cognitive or cognitive-behavioral orientation. The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology publishes articles that provide information that can be directly applied to clinical work, so it should be of interest to practitioners who value interventions that have been supported by scientific evidence. Behaviour Research and Therapy originally was almost exclusively behavioral but has become more cognitive-behavioral over time. It should be of interest to clinical researchers and clinical practitioners, especially those with behavioral and cognitive-behavioral orientations. Behavior Therapy also was at one time exclusively behavioral in orientation but has become more cognitive-behavioral over time. It is a very “applied” journal that should be of interest to researchers and practitioners.

                              Social Cognitive Theory

                              Self-efficacy theory is one aspect of a broader theory developed by Bandura and others usually known as social cognitive theory. The role of self-efficacy beliefs in human functioning can be best understood by having an understanding of social cognitive theory and the associations between self-efficacy beliefs and other social cognitive constructs. Bandura 2001 would be the best place to begin for the novice, followed by Maddux 1999, which discusses how self-efficacy is similar to and different from related concepts. Bandura 1986 is a master work and well worth the time and effort but may be slow-going for most nonspecialist readers.

                              • Bandura, A. 1986. Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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                                Comprehensive review of theory and research on Bandura’s version of social cognitive theory, the broader theoretical perspective in which self-efficacy theory is embedded.

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                                • Bandura, A. 2001. Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology 52:1–26.

                                  DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  A concise and updated discussion of social cognitive theory and supporting research, emphasizing personal agency and self-efficacy.

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                                  • Maddux, J. E. 1999. Expectancies and the social-cognitive perspective: Basic principles, processes, and variables. In How expectancies shape behavior. Edited by I. Kirsch, 17–40. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                    DOI: 10.1037/10332-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    A discussion of a variety of expectancy constructs found in various social cognitive theories and their relationships to each other.

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                                    Measuring Self-Efficacy

                                    As in any area of psychology, an understanding of self-efficacy depends on careful and consistent measurement so that findings in different studies can be compared. Over the years, a variety of strategies for measuring self-efficacy have been developed by researchers. Some have measured self-efficacy as a domain-specific construct, as recommended by Bandura. Others have chosen to measure it as a personality trait. The sections below deal with both of these approaches.

                                    Guidelines for Domain-Specific Measures

                                    Bandura defined self-efficacy as a belief or set of beliefs regarding one’s ability to perform relatively specific behaviors under relatively specific conditions and to meet changing conditions and demands. This definition has resulted over the years in measures of self-efficacy for hundreds of different behaviors, conditions, and domains as well as in a variety of strategies for measuring self-efficacy beliefs. Bandura 2006 offers highly detailed, step-by-step instructions for developing self-efficacy measures based on over thirty years of experience. Bandura 1997 does not contain specific instructions for developing measures but does provide descriptions of studies that have measured self-efficacy for practically every imaginable behavior and domain. The references that Bandura cites can then be consulted for the specific measures used.

                                    • Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

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                                      Contains information throughout on the measurement of self-efficacy for a wide range of behaviors, domains, and problems.

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                                      • Bandura, A. 2006. Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Edited by F. Pajares and T. Urdan, 307–337. Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

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                                        Provides clear instructions for developing measures of self-efficacy beliefs. Essential reading for anyone interested in understanding self-efficacy or conduction research on self-efficacy

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                                        Measures of General Self-Efficacy

                                        Although Bandura has always discouraged researchers from measuring self-efficacy as a generalized trait, several measures of “general self-efficacy” have been constructed and employed in a large number of studies. The most frequently used scales include the following (presented in order of publication in English). Sherer, et al. 1982 describes the development of the first general self-efficacy scale and has been used in hundreds of studies since the early 1980s. The Tipton and Worthington 1984 scale is similar in content but has not been used as frequently in research. The Schwarzer and Jerusalem scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem 1995) was actually developed in 1979, before the Sherer, et al. 1982 scale, but was not available in English until 1995. The Chen, et al. 2001 scale is the most recent attempt to refine the definition and measurement of general self-efficacy.

                                        • Chen, G., S. M. Gully, and D. Eden. 2001. Validation of a new general self-efficacy scale. Organizational Research Methods 4:62–83.

                                          DOI: 10.1177/109442810141004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          Developed by a team of industrial/organizational psychologists in an attempt to develop a general self-efficacy scale with better psychometric properties than the Sherer, et al. 1982 scale. Authors compared their new scale with the Sherer, et al. 1982 scale and concluded that the psychometric properties of their scale were indeed superior.

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                                          • Schwarzer, R., and M. Jerusalem. 1995. Generalized self-efficacy scale. In Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs. Edited by J. Weinman, S. Wright, and M. Johnston, 35–37. Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.

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                                            Developed in Germany by a team of health psychologists. Has been translated into a number of languages and subjected to considerable cross-cultural research—much more so than the other scales listed here. German version developed in 1979.

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                                            • Sherer, M., J. E. Maddux, B. Mercadante, S. Prentice-Dunn, B. Jacobs, and R. W. Rogers. 1982. The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports 51:633–671.

                                              DOI: 10.2466/pr0.1982.51.2.663Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              Developed by a team of social and clinical psychologists. Provides a brief measure of general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy, which can be administered together or separately.

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                                              • Tipton, R. M., and E. L. Worthington. 1984. The measurement of generalized self-efficacy: A study of construct validity. Journal of Personality Assessment 48:545–548.

                                                DOI: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4805_14Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                Similar in content to the Sherer, et al. 1982 scale but without a social self-efficacy measure. Also frequently employed in research.

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                                                Collective Efficacy

                                                While self-efficacy refers to the beliefs of individuals, collective effective refers to the beliefs of groups about what they are capable of accomplishing as a group. Collective efficacy refers to the beliefs shared by members of a group (such as a family, team, organization, business, school, community) to accomplish shared important goals by effectively identifying and using the various abilities of the various members. Zaccaro, et al. 1995 is a good place to begin for the novice reader. Bandura’s 1977 chapter from his own book is somewhat more difficult reading but covers a wider range of topics. Paskevich, et al. 1999 is concerned largely with measurement issues and is likely to be of interest only to the serious researcher.

                                                • Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

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                                                  The chapter devoted to collective efficacy offers a comprehensive discussion of the concept and a details discussion of research on a wide range of topics and a wide range of “groups.”

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                                                  • Paskevich, D. M., L. R. Brawley, K. D. Dorsch, and W. N. Windmeyer. 1999. Relationship between collective efficacy and team cohesion: Conceptual and measurement issues. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice 3:210–222.

                                                    DOI: 10.1037/1089-2699.3.3.210Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    Addresses some important but often neglected issues concerning various strategies for measuring collective efficacy.

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                                                    • Zaccaro, S., V. Blair, C. Peterson, and M. Zananis. 1995. Collective efficacy. In Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research and application. Edited by J. E. Maddux, 305–330. New York: Plenum.

                                                      DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6868-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      One of the first concise discussions of the concept of collective efficacy and research exploring its utility in organizations and athletic teams.

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                                                      Team Sports

                                                      Researchers in the psychology and sports quickly saw the application of the concept of collective efficacy to research on sports and athletic teams. Feltz, et al. 2008 is a representative sample of the kinds of studies that have applied self-efficacy theory to sport and athletic teams.

                                                      • Feltz, D. L., S. E. Short, and P. J. Sullivan. 2008. Self-efficacy in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

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                                                        Summarizes almost thirty years of research on the role of individual and collective efficacy on individual and team performance in sports and offers practical strategies for athletes, coaches, and teams for enhancing individual and collective efficacy and individual and team performance.

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                                                        Organizations and Work Teams

                                                        Researchers in industrial/organizational psychology, management, and related fields quickly saw the application of the concept of collective efficacy to research organizations and work teams. The works below are a representative sample of the kinds of studies that have applied self-efficacy theory to the world of work. Stajkovic, et al. 2009 is an up-to-date review of collective efficacy research, covering a wide range of groups and teams and provides an excellent overview of the topic. Prussia and Kinicki 1996, Little and Madigan 1997, and Marks 1999 describe specific studies dealing with a variety of issues concerned with the role that collective efficacy plays in the success of work teams and groups and offer good demonstrations of the research methods used in collective efficacy studies in industrial/organizational psychology. Glaser and Hecht 2013 finds that self-efficacy predicts work-related burnout.

                                                        • Glaser, W., and T. D. Hecht. 2013. Work-family conflicts, threat-appraisal, self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion. Journal of Managerial Psychology 28:164–182.

                                                          DOI: 10.1108/02683941311300685Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                          Self-efficacy is related to decreased levels of work-related burnout.

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                                                          • Little, B. L., and R. M. Madigan. 1997. The relationship between collective efficacy and performance in manufacturing work teams. Small Group Research 28:517–534.

                                                            DOI: 10.1177/1046496497284003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            Explores the role of collective efficacy in the performance of self-managed work teams in a manufacturing setting. Collective efficacy and performance behaviors were measured at four time periods for eight work teams. Results indicate that higher collective efficacy is related to higher levels of performance.

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                                                            • Marks, M. 1999. A test of the impact of collective efficacy in routine and novel performance environments. Human Performance 12:295–309.

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                                                              Found that collective efficacy boosted team performance on both familiar (routine) tasks and new, more challenging tasks.

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                                                              • Prussia, G. E., and A. J. Kinicki. 1996. A motivational investigation of group effectiveness using social cognitive theory. Journal of Applied Psychology 81:187–198.

                                                                DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.81.2.187Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                Found that feedback to a group on its performance feedback and observing others perform predicted group effectiveness because the enhanced collective efficacy.

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                                                                • Stajkovic, A. D., D. Lee, and A. J. Nyberg. 2009. Collective efficacy, group potency, and group performance: Meta-analyses of their relationships, and test of a mediation model. Journal of Applied Psychology 94:814–828.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1037/a0015659Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  Summary of ninety-six studies on the relationship between group potency (general collective efficacy) collective efficacy (for the task at hand) and group performance. Concluded that collective efficacy fully mediated the relationship between group potency and group performance.

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                                                                  Communities

                                                                  The studies listed below expand the notions of groups and collective efficacy from organized athletic and work teams to loosely organized groups of people who happen to live in the same community or neighborhood but are dealing with problems that affect them all. The three studies by Sampson, et al. 1997, Ohmer and Beck 2006, and Morenoff, et al. 2009 are concerned with the role that collective efficacy plays in the effective organization of members of poorer communities, including the prevention of crime and violence. Halbert, et al. 2014 examines collective efficacy as a predictor of healthy eating. This paper is of particular interest to people who are interested in encouraging healthy eating habits in areas where access to healthy food can be limited.

                                                                  • Halbert, C. H., S. Bellamy, V. Briggs, et al. 2014. Collective efficacy and obesity-related health behaviors in a community sample of African Americans. Journal of Community Health 39:124–131.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/s10900-013-9748-zSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Found that a greater sense of community collective efficacy and diet self-efficacy predicted better eating among individuals in an urban community.

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                                                                    • Morenoff, J. D., R. J. Sampson, and S. W. Raudenbush. 2009. Neighborhood inequality, collective efficacy, and the spatial dynamics of urban violence. Criminology 39.3: 517–558.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2001.tb00932.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Examines the role that economic inequality and collective efficacy play is the occurrence of violent crime in urban neighborhoods.

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                                                                      • Ohmer, M. L. 2010. How theory and research inform citizen participation in poor communities: The ecological perspective and theories on self- and collective efficacy and sense of community. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 20:1–19.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/10911350903126999Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        Discusses how both individual self-efficacy and collective efficacy affects the attempts of residents of disadvantaged communities to improve their communities. Also discusses practical implications for social workers in disadvantaged communities.

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                                                                        • Ohmer, M. L., and E. Beck. 2006. Citizen participation in neighborhood organizations in poor communities and its relationship to organizational and neighborhood collective efficacy. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 33:179–202.

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                                                                          Found that the more people participated in community organizations, the greater was the collective efficacy for those organizations, but that this did not result in greater collective efficacy for the neighborhood as a whole.

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                                                                          • Sampson, R. J., S. W. Raudenbush, and F. Earls. 1997. Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science 227:918–924.

                                                                            DOI: 10.1126/science.277.5328.918Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            Readable and accessible article for the general public on the role that a neighborhood’s collective efficacy plays in the occurrence of violent crime.

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                                                                            Health-Related Behavior

                                                                            Behaviors that influence health have been among the most frequent topics of self-efficacy research. Self-efficacy beliefs have also been incorporated into all of the major theories that attempt to explain why people behave in healthy ways and how to get them to change their behavior to improve their health. The articles and chapter below discuss the role of self-efficacy in a variety of models the theories that attempt to explain how and why people do or not abandon unhealthy behaviors and adopt healthy ones. Weinstein 1993 compares four models of health behavior that have been used frequently in research over the decades. Self-efficacy plays an important role in several of them. The Maddux, et al. 1995 chapter describes the role of self-efficacy in three different types of health behavior: protection (or prevention), promotion, and detection. Bandura 1997 discusses a wide range of health behaviors. Finally, Schwarzer 2008 discusses the role of self-efficacy in the newest comprehensive health behavior model, the health action process approach.

                                                                            • Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

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                                                                              Contains a comprehensive chapter on the role of self-efficacy beliefs in health-related behavior change.

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                                                                              • Maddux, J. E., L. Brawley, and A. Boykin. 1995. Self-efficacy and healthy decision-making: Protection, promotion, and detection. In Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research, and application. Edited by J. E. Maddux, 173–202. New York: Plenum.

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                                                                                Concise summary of almost a decade of research on self-efficacy and health behavior, distinguishing among behaviors intended to protect one from negative health outcomes, promote positive health outcomes, or detect unhealthy conditions.

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                                                                                • Schwarzer, R. 2008. Modeling health behavior change: How to predict and modify the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors. Applied Psychology: An International Review 57:1–29.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00325.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  An update of theory and research on the health action process approach that includes a discussion of the role played by self-efficacy beliefs.

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                                                                                  • Weinstein, N. D. 1993. Testing four competing theories of health-protective behavior. Health Psychology 12:324–333.

                                                                                    DOI: 10.1037/0278-6133.12.4.324Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                    Describes the similarities and differences among four major theories of health-behavior and behavior changes, including the role that self-efficacy beliefs play in the theories.

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                                                                                    Exercise

                                                                                    Research over the years has demonstrated that regular exercise promotes both enhanced physical and psychological health, but persuading people to begin regular exercise programs and to maintain them has proven difficult. The studies below are concerned with the role of self-efficacy beliefs in the initiation and maintenance of exercise regimens. DuCharme and Brawley 1995 is concerned with people who are attempting to begin an exercise program. DuCharme, et al. 1996 focuses on the role played by the support of other people in fitness club attendance. Yeung and Hemsley 1997 goes beyond specific self-efficacy beliefs and examines personality traits. Dawson and Brawley 2000 examines the role that people’s exercise goals have an exercise self-efficacy and behavior. Anderson, et al. 2006 is unique in that it involves an unusually large community sample (almost 1,000 people) and offers a good example of large-scale survey research on this topic. Slovinec d’Angelo, et al. 2014 finds that self-efficacy is an effective predictor of short-term adherence to exercise regimens, but is not a predictor of long-term adherence. Finally, Luszczynska, et al. 2011 adds planning (in addition to goal-setting) to the list of predictors of health behavior.

                                                                                    • Anderson, E. S., J. R. Wojcik, R. A. Winett, and D. M. Williams. 2006. Social-cognitive determinants of physical activity: The influence of social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulation among participants in a church-based health promotion study. Health Psychology 25:510–520.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1037/0278-6133.25.4.510Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      Sophisticated statistical analysis of survey results of almost 1,000 people to understand who engages in regular physical activity and why.

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                                                                                      • Dawson, K. A., and L. R. Brawley. 2000. Examining the relationship between exercise goals, self-efficacy, and overt behavior with beginning exercisers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 30:315–329.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2000.tb02318.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        People’s exercise goals—what they are trying to accomplish and why—are important determinants of exercise behavior. This study examines the relationship between exercise goals and exercise self-efficacy and their impact on exercise behavior.

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                                                                                        • DuCharme, K. A., and L. R. Brawley. 1995. Predicting the intentions and behavior of exercise initiates using two forms of self-efficacy. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 18:479–497.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1007/BF01904775Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          Examines the relationship between two types of self-efficacy beliefs and people’s intentions to exercise and their actual behavior.

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                                                                                          • DuCharme, K. A., W. N. Widmeyer, K. Dorsch, and S. Hoar. 1996. The relationship of social support and self-efficacy to exercise intentions and attendance at a private fitness club. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 18:27.

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                                                                                            The support of other people is important for almost any kind of difficult behavior change. This studies examines how social support and self-efficacy beliefs work together to influence exercise behavior at a fitness center.

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                                                                                            • Luszczynska, A., R. Schwarzer, S. Lippke, and M. Mazurkiewicz. 2011. Self-efficacy as a moderator of the planning-behaviour relationship in interventions designed to promote physical activity. Psychology & Health 26:151–166.

                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/08870446.2011.531571Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                              How well people plan their exercise activities can determine whether or not they actually exercise. This study examines the role that self-efficacy beliefs play in people’s exercise plans.

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                                                                                              • Slovinec d’Angelo, M. E., L. G. Pelletier, R. D. Reid, and V. Huta. 2014. The roles of self-efficacy and motivation in the prediction of short- and long-term adherence to exercise among patients with coronary heart disease. Health Psychology 33:1344–1353.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1037/hea0000094Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                Finds that self-efficacy is a good short-term predictor of adherence to exercise programs among individuals with coronary heart disease. Self-efficacy is not a good longer-term (i.e., twelve months) predictor of adherence.

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                                                                                                • Yeung, R. R., and D. R. Hemsley. 1997. Exercise behavior in an aerobics class: The impact of personality traits and efficacy cognitions. Personality and Individual Differences 23:425–431.

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                                                                                                  Examines the interaction between certain measure of personality and self-efficacy beliefs on exercise behaviors.

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                                                                                                  Pain Management

                                                                                                  Chronic pain takes both a physical and emotional toll on the sufferer. Dealing with chronic pain is becoming an increasingly frequent problem as people live longer lives and must deal with declining physical abilities, diseases such as arthritis, and injuries from falling as a result of declining strength and mobility. The studies below are a representative sample of research on the role of self-efficacy beliefs in coping with chronic pain. Turner, et al. 2005 deals with the types of chronic, nondebilitating pain that are increasingly common in our aging population. Because the population consists of members of a retirement community (that is, not a nursing home), it should be of interest to managers of retirement centers who are seeking ways to improve the quality of life of their residents. Costa, et al. 2011 also addresses the very common problems of chronic, nondebilitating lower back pain and considers the role that anxiety plays in pain management. Chipchase, et al. 2012 provides a review of the major findings in self-efficacy and pain management. Porter, et al. 2008 deals with pain resulting from a serious disease (lung cancer) and adds the important issue of the self-efficacy beliefs of the people who are taking care of people with chronic pain.

                                                                                                  • Chipchase, L., D. Sheffield, and P. Hill. 2012. The long-term effectiveness of pain management programs: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Pain Management 5:215–230.

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                                                                                                    Provides a review of the major findings on self-efficacy and pain management. Finds that interventions to increase self-efficacy in pain management patients are effective within six months, but this increase will tend to be evident after twelve months.

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                                                                                                    • Costa, L. C., C. G. Maher, J. H. McAuley, M. J. Hancock, and R. J. Smeets. 2011. Self-efficacy is more important than fear of movement in mediating the relationship between pain and disability in chronic low back pain. European Journal of Pain 15:213–219.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2010.06.014Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Finds that, over time, self-efficacy beliefs are more important than fear of movement in predicting adjustment of people with chronic low back pain.

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                                                                                                      • Porter, L. S., F. J. Keefe, J. Garst, C. M. McBride, and D. Baucom. 2008. Self-efficacy for managing pain, symptoms, and function in patients with lung cancer and their information caregivers: Associations with symptoms and distress. Pain 137:306–315.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2007.09.010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        Finds that self-efficacy beliefs for managing pain of both the patient and the informal caregiver (e.g., a family member) are predictors of overall functioning and adjustment of a chronic pain patient.

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                                                                                                        • Turner, J. A., M. Ersek, and C. Kemp. 2005. Self-efficacy for managing pain is associated with disability, depression, and pain coping among retirement community residents with chronic pain. Journal of Pain 6:471–479.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2005.02.011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          Finds that self-efficacy for managing pain is positively associated with use of pain management strategies and negatively associated with disability and depression.

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                                                                                                          Safe Sex Behavior

                                                                                                          Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major health problem worldwide. Some STDs, such as AIDS, can be fatal, but even those that are not fatal can be painful and even debilitating. Safer sex practices, such as the use of condoms, have proven to be important in the prevention of STDs. However, persuading people to engage in condom use and other safer sex practices is difficult. Enhancing people’s self-efficacy for engaging in safer sex has been the topic of considerable research over the years. The studies below are a representative sample of this research. Forsyth and Carey 1998 is an excellent review of the challenges faced in measuring self-efficacy for safe sex behavior and should be of great interest to researchers looking to improve their own work. Joppa, et al. 2014 explores the role of self-efficacy among sexually active adolescents. Its findings may be of particular use for individuals developing sexual education programs. Kaneko 2007 is important for its highlighting of the distinction between self-efficacy for knowing how to manage a condom and self-efficacy for knowing how to manage the person who should be wearing the condom. Lauby, et al. 2001 in contrast is concerned not with which behaviors can be predicted by self-efficacy beliefs but with which factors predict self-efficacy beliefs themselves. In addition, it focuses on a high-risk population that is rarely studied.

                                                                                                          • Forsyth, A. D., and M. P. Carey. 1998. Measuring self-efficacy in the context of HIV risk reduction: Research challenges and recommendations. Health Psychology 17:559–568.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1037/0278-6133.17.6.559Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            Addresses important issue regarding strategies for measuring self-efficacy for sex safe practices.

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                                                                                                            • Joppa, M. C., C. J. Rizzo, L. K. Brown, et al. 2014. Internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among adolescents in mental health treatment: Personal factors as mediators. Children and Youth Services Review 46:177–185.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.07.023Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              Discusses how HIV self-efficacy predicts safe sex behavior among sexually active adolescents.

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                                                                                                              • Kaneko, N. 2007. Association between condom use and perceived barriers to and self-efficacy of safe sex among young women in Japan. Nursing and Health Sciences 9:284–298.

                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2007.00338.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                Large survey that finds that self-efficacy for using condoms and self-efficacy for refusing sex if one’s partner refuses to use a condom are both important predictors of safe sex practices among this sample of young women.

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                                                                                                                • Lauby, J. L., S. Semaan, A. O’Connell, B. Person, and A. Vogel. 2001. Factors related to self-efficacy for use of condoms and birth control among women at risk for HIV infection. Women and Health 34:71–91.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1300/J013v34n03_05Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  Considerable research has shown that self-efficacy for condom use predicts actual condom use. This study examines predictors of self-efficacy for condom use among a group of financially disadvantaged women who were at risk for engaging in unprotected sex.

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                                                                                                                  Coping with Chronic Disease

                                                                                                                  Many major infectious diseases that killed people by the millions only a century ago have gradually been brought under control through preventive strategies such as vaccinations and improved sanitation and hygiene. As an indirect result, more and more people are dealing with nonfatal chronic diseases that require years of care and sometimes a lifetime of care. Self-efficacy beliefs have been shown to play an important role in people’s abilities to cope successfully with chronic and lifelong health problems. Lentz and Shortridge-Baggett 2002 summarizes the research on self-efficacy in dealing with several common chronic conditions and should be of interest to nurses and others who provide direct care of any kind to people with chronic illnesses or chronic limitations as the result of injury.

                                                                                                                  • Lentz, E. R., and L. M. Shortridge-Baggett, eds. 2002. Self-efficacy in nursing: Research and measurement perspectives. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

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                                                                                                                    Contains four chapters dealing with self-efficacy and the management of diabetes and one chapter each on weight loss among postmenopausal woman and quality of life among breast cancer patients.

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                                                                                                                    Nutrition

                                                                                                                    Very little research has been conducted on the role of self-efficacy beliefs in predicting and determining healthy food choices among people not intentionally seeking to lose weight. The studies below are a representative sample. Luszczynska, et al. 2007, Renner, et al. 2008, and Gutiérrez-Doña, et al. 2009 are all concerned with the role that planning plays in the relationship between self-efficacy and behavior. Prestwich, et al. 2014 provides meta-analytic support for factors that can affect self-efficacy while dieting.

                                                                                                                    • Gutiérrez-Doña, B., S. Lippke, B. Renner, S. Kwon, and R. Schwarzer. 2009. How self-efficacy and planning predict dietary behaviors in Costa Rican and South Korean women: A moderated mediation analysis. Applied Psychology: Health & Well-Being 1.1: 91–104.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1111/j.1758-0854.2008.01001.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      Found that high self-efficacy is essential for enabling people to translate intentions to change dietary behavior into plans for doing so and in translating plans in to actual behavior.

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                                                                                                                      • Luszczynska, A., M. Tryburcy, and R. Schwarzer. 2007. Improving fruit and vegetable consumption: A self-efficacy intervention compared to a combined self-efficacy and planning intervention. Health Education Research 22:630–638.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/her/cyl133Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Found that an intervention for enhancing self-efficacy was equally effective as an intervention for enhancing self-efficacy and planning in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption.

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                                                                                                                        • Prestwich, A., I. Kellar, R. Parker, et al. 2014. How can self-efficacy be increased? Meta-analysis of dietary interventions. Health Psychology Review 8:270–285.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/17437199.2013.813729Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Reviews the literature on self-efficacy and dieting and provides meta-analytic evidence for the factors that can increase self-efficacy among dieters, such as planning and providing performance-contingent rewards.

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                                                                                                                          • Renner, B., S. Kwon, B. H. Yang, K. C. Paik, S. H. Kim, S. Roh, J. Song, and R. Schwarzer. 2008. Social-cognitive predictors of dietary behaviors in South Korean men and women. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 15:4–13.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1007/BF03003068Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            Found that considering gender helps to understand predictors of dietary behavior. Self-efficacy was equally predictive of health dietary behavior for men and women, but planning was a predictor only for women.

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                                                                                                                            Smoking

                                                                                                                            Smoking—of cigarettes in particular—is one of the major contributors to disability and death in both developed and developing countries. Nicotine is a highly addictive substance and is extremely difficult to give up once one is addicted. Self-efficacy beliefs have been shown to be important predictors of attempts to quit smoking and maintaining abstinence over time. Self-efficacy beliefs have also been shown to be important in resisting the temptation to begin smoking in the first place. Bandura 1997 provides an informative overview of the role of self-efficacy all addictive behaviors. The Gwaltner, et al. 2009 article provides a review of research on the role of self-efficacy in smoking specifically. Hiemstra, et al. 2011 addresses the important issue of who begins smoking and why, focusing on adolescents.

                                                                                                                            • Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

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                                                                                                                              Includes chapter on self-efficacy belief and the development and treatment of addictive behaviors, including smoking.

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                                                                                                                              • Gwaltner, C. J., J. Metrik, C. W. Kahler, and S. Shiffman. 2009. Self-efficacy and smoking cessation: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 23:56–66.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1037/a0013529Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                Analysis and summary of the results of fifty-six studies that have examined the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and long-term abstinence from smoking. Found the relationship to significant but not robust and found that it depended on when the self-efficacy assessment occurred.

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                                                                                                                                • Hiemstra, M., R. Otten, R. N. H. de Leeuw, O. C. P. van Schayck, and R. C. M. E. Engels. 2011. The changing role of self-efficacy in adolescent smoking initiation: A 4-year longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescent Health 48.6: 597–603.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.09.011Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  Most studies of self-efficacy and smoking are concerned with smokers who are trying to quit. This study deals with the important issue of understanding how and why adolescents start smoking in the first place.

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                                                                                                                                  Education

                                                                                                                                  Almost immediately upon the publication of Bandura’s article in Psychological Review (Bandura 1977, cited under Articles and Chapters), theorists, researchers, and practitioners in the field of education saw the potential value of the self-efficacy construct for their field, especially in explaining and findings way to enhance the motivation of students and improve academic achievement. The publications below summarize the research on self-efficacy and education and academic achievement. Schunk 1991 is concerned with academic motivation, while Pajares 1996 deals with a wider range of educational issues. Zimmerman, et al. 1996 is concerned with the development of self-regulation skills among students and offers a wealth of practical information for students, teachers, and parents. Zimmerman and Schunk 2001 covers much of the same territory of Zimmerman, et al. 1996 but is aimed more at researchers and theorists than at students, teachers, and parents. Pajares and Schunk 2001 is concerned not just with the success of the individual students but with the success of the school as a system of interrelated components (students, teachers, administrators). Peguero and Shaffer 2015 focuses on how self-efficacy can augment risk factors for dropping out of school. This should be of interest to school officials who are trying to reduce dropout rates. Finally, Eisenberg, et al. 2005 is intended specifically for educators and provides both an accessible overview of self-efficacy theory and a wealth of practical strategies for teachers and students.

                                                                                                                                  • Eisenberg, J., M. Conti-D’Antonio, and R. Bertrando. 2005. Self-efficacy: Raising the bar for all students. 2d ed. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

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                                                                                                                                    An applied book for educators that uses self-efficacy theory as a conceptual foundation for designing strategies to raise the expectations and performance of teachers and students.

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                                                                                                                                    • Pajares, F. 1996. Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research 66:543–578.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.3102/00346543066004543Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      Summary of two decades or research on self-efficacy, motivation, and academic performance.

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                                                                                                                                      • Pajares, F., and D. H. Schunk. 2001. Self-beliefs and school success: Self-efficacy, self-concept, and school achievement. In Self-perception. Edited by R. Riding and S. Rayner, 239–266. Westport, CT: Ablex.

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                                                                                                                                        Summarizes research on the relationship between self-efficacy and self-concept and their impact on academic motivation and achievement.

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                                                                                                                                        • Peguero, A. A., and K. A. Shaffer. 2015. Academic self-efficacy, dropping out, and the significance of inequality. Sociological Spectrum 35:46–64.

                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/02732173.2014.978428Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                          Finds that greater self-efficacy can buffer against the risk of dropping out of school among ethnic minorities.

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                                                                                                                                          • Schunk, D. H. 1991. Self-efficacy and academic motivation. Educational Psychologist 26:207–231.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1207/s15326985ep2603&4_2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            Description of theory and research on the role of self-efficacy beliefs on the academic motivation of students.

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                                                                                                                                            • Zimmerman, B. J., S. Bonner, and R. Kovach. 1996. Developing self-regulated learners: Beyond achievement to self-efficacy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1037/10213-000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              An applied book for educators on how to enhance self-efficacy among students. Topics addressed include time-management, note-taking, study, and writing skills. The first author is one of the most important theorists and researchers on self-efficacy and education.

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                                                                                                                                              • Zimmerman, B. J., and D. H. Schunk, eds. 2001. Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives. 2d ed. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                                                A collection of scholarly chapters dealing with a variety of topics pertaining to the development of self-regulation skills among students, including self-efficacy beliefs.

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                                                                                                                                                Developmental Issues

                                                                                                                                                Theory and research on self-efficacy and human development are concerned with how self-efficacy beliefs develop and change over time and the impact of self-efficacy beliefs on adaptation and adjustment throughout life.

                                                                                                                                                Childhood

                                                                                                                                                As is true of all beliefs about ourselves and our world, beliefs regarding self-efficacy begin early in life—as soon as the young child is able to gain a rudimentary understanding of the impact of his or her behavior on the environment and other people. Developmental psychologists have conducted considerable research on how self-efficacy beliefs develop and how they influence the child’s and adolescent’s ability to adjust and adapt to his or her changing and challenging world. Bandura 1993 should be of interest primarily to researchers in child development and early childhood education. Bandura 1997 should be of interest to a wide range of readers and is essential reading for anyone who wants to understand the origins of self-efficacy beliefs. Bussey and Bandura 1999 is a broad conceptual analysis of how notions of gender develop, including (but not limited to) a discussion of self-efficacy beliefs. It should be of interest not only to psychologists but also to educators and students in gender studies and women’s studies programs. Jones and Prinz 2005 goes beyond the self-efficacy of the developing child to include the self-efficacy of parents and how it affects child adjustment; it should be of interest to educators (especially those who work with preadolescent students) and to practitioners of all kinds (psychologists, social workers, child guidance counselors) who work with children, parents, and families.

                                                                                                                                                • Bandura, A. 1993. Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist 28:117–148.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1207/s15326985ep2802_3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  Discusses with how self-efficacy beliefs develop in children and how such beliefs influence cognitive development and academic achievement.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

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                                                                                                                                                    Includes a chapter titled “The Developmental Analysis of Self-Efficacy” on the development of self-efficacy beliefs.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Bussey, K., and A. Bandura. 1999. Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychology Review 106:676–713.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.106.4.676Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      Explains the development of gender identity in children from a social cognitive perspective, including a discussion of gender-related self-efficacy beliefs.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Jones, T. L, and R. J. Prinz. 2005. Potential roles of parental self-efficacy in parent and child adjustment: A review. Clinical Psychology Review 25:341–363.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2004.12.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        Examines the potential roles of the self-efficacy of parents for parent skills in parent and child adjustment, including parental competence and psychological functioning, child behaviors, socio-emotional adjustment, school achievement, and maltreatment.

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                                                                                                                                                        Adolescence

                                                                                                                                                        Adolescence is a difficult and challenging time for almost everyone, but it is also a crucial period when people develop beliefs about themselves and their world that will last long into adulthood. The research described below is concerned with the development of self-efficacy beliefs that continues after childhood and how such beliefs influence the adolescent’s ability to navigate successfully through this difficult period of life. Pajares and Urdan 2006 is an edited text with chapters from a wide range of well-known theorists and researchers. It is most suitable for readers who already have a good understanding of the developmental aspects of self-efficacy beliefs. Most studies on the psychological adjustment of adolescence focus either on delinquency issues or psychological disorders. Vecchio, et al. 2007 is unusual in its focus not on predicting and preventing behavioral and emotional pathology but on predicting and enhancing life satisfaction. It should be of particular interest to those readers interested in the growing field of positive psychology. Vieno, et al. 2007 is concerned with a specific predictor of self-efficacy beliefs—perceived social support within a school community. It should be of particular interest to educators. Lee and Vondracek 2014 follows adolescents into adulthood to examine if adolescent self-efficacy predicted adult achievement.

                                                                                                                                                        • Lee, B., and F. W. Vondracek. 2014. Teenage goals and self-efficacy beliefs as precursors of adult career and family outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior 85:228–237.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.jvb.2014.06.003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Followed adolescents into adulthood and found that adolescents who had greater self-efficacy beliefs in career or family outcomes and weighted great importance in those areas had greater achievement in those areas as adults.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Pajares, F. and T. Urdan, eds. 2006. Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

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                                                                                                                                                            Comprehensive reviews of theory and research on the role of self-efficacy beliefs in adolescent development, including chapters on health, education, and career choice.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Vecchio, G. V., M. Gerbino, C. Pastorelli, G. Del Bove, and G. V. Caprara. 2007. Multi-faceted self-efficacy beliefs as predictors of life satisfaction in late adolescence. Personality and Individual Differences 43:1807–1818.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.05.018Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              Various self-efficacy beliefs (academic, social, self-regulatory), academic achievement, and peer preferences of 650 young adolescents in middle school were used to predict life satisfaction five years later. Social and academic self-efficacy believes were found to be important predictors.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Vieno, A., M. Santinello, M. Pastore, and D. D. Perkins. 2007. Social support, sense of community in school, and self-efficacy as resources during early adolescence: An integrative model. American Journal of Community Psychology 39:177–190.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1007/s10464-007-9095-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                Large-scale survey of Italian students finds that social support predicts adolescent adjustment partly through its impact on self-efficacy beliefs.

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                                                                                                                                                                Aging

                                                                                                                                                                The advances made in medicine over the past century or more have resulted in the continuing lengthening in the life span in people the world over. Because more people are living longer, more people are dealing with the inevitable health and psychological challenges that aging brings. The studies below are concerned with both the changes in self-efficacy beliefs that accompany aging and the impact on self-efficacy beliefs in dealing with the challenges of aging. Langer and Rodin 1976 is a classic study and should be read and understood by anyone interested in understanding the importance of “agency” beliefs among people with limited physical capacities and disabilities. Welch and West 1995 is a brief but thorough review of the role of self-efficacy in aging and should be of interest to anyone concerned with the physical and psychological well-being of older adults. McAvay, et al. 1996 is important because it takes a longitudinal approach—that is, it examines change over time, not simply a one-time “snapshot” of self-efficacy beliefs and what they predict. The relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and depression has been well established, but little has been written about how understanding self-efficacy beliefs can help prevent depression among older adults. Blazer 2002 fills this gap with an article that is brief, readable, and practical. French, et al. 2014 provides a review of factors that predict decreased self-efficacy in older adults. West, et al. 2008 is concerned with the changes in cognition and memory that accompany aging and describes an intervention designed to enhance memory among older adults. It should be of interest to any professional or nonprofessional caregiver who works with older adults, especially those with significant memory deficits. Relatedly, Zahodne, et al. 2014 explores self-efficacy as a predictor of cognitive performance in older adults.

                                                                                                                                                                • Blazer, D. G. 2002. Self-efficacy and depression in late life: A primary prevention proposal. Aging and Mental Health 6:315–324.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/1360786021000006938Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Rather than focusing on treatment, the author discusses the role of enhancing self-efficacy beliefs in preventing depression and enhancing positive mental health among older adults.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • French, D. P., E. K. Olander, A. Chisholm, and J. McSharry. 2014. Which behaviour change techniques are most effective at increasing older adults’ self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour? A systematic review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 48.2: 225–234.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/s12160-014-9593-zSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Provides an overview of the factors that predict self-efficacy in older adults. Factors such as setting goals and monitoring behavior were associated with lower self-efficacy.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Langer, E. J., and J. Rodin. 1976. The effects of choice and enhanced personal responsibility for the aged. A field experiment in an institutional setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34:191–198.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.34.2.191Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Classic study on the healthy effects of a strong sense of self-efficacy and personal control among the institutionalized aged.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • McAvay, G., T. E. Seeman, and J. Rodin. 1996. A longitudinal study of change in domain-specific self-efficacy among older adults. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences 51B: 243–253.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/geronb/51B.5.P243Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Shows how self-efficacy for specific domains in life can change over time over the later life span.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Welch, D. C., and R. L. West. 1995. Self-efficacy and mastery: Its application to issues of environmental control, cognition, and aging. Developmental Review 15:150–171.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1006/drev.1995.1007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Discusses the importance of self-efficacy, mastery, and control beliefs in successful aging.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • West, R. L., D. K. Bagwell, and A. Dark-Freudman. 2008. Self-efficacy and memory aging: The impact of a memory intervention based on self-efficacy. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition 15.3: 302–329.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/13825580701440510Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Demonstrates the effectiveness of an intervention for enhancing memory based on self-efficacy theory.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Zahodne, L. B., C. J. Nowinski, R. C. Gershon, and J. J. Manly. 2014. Which psychosocial factors best predict cognitive performance in older adults? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 20:487–495.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/S1355617714000186Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              Finds that self-efficacy is more closely tied to cognitive performance in older adults than other psychosocial variables.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Psychological Adjustment and Well-Being

                                                                                                                                                                              Bandura offered self-efficacy theory as a general theory of behavior change, but it has in particular inspired a large body of research on the development and treatment of psychological problems. The Maddux and Lewis 1995 chapter is a good source for undergraduate students, while Bandura 1997 might be more suitable for a graduate student or researcher.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Includes a general discussion of the self-efficacy and psychology adjustment.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Maddux, J. E., and J. Lewis. 1995. Self-efficacy and adjustment: Basic principles and issues. In Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research, and application. Edited by J. E. Maddux, 37–68. New York: Plenum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Basic and concise of the role of self-efficacy beliefs in psychological adjustment and psychological problems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Eating Disorders

                                                                                                                                                                                  Eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia are increasing in frequency in developed and developing countries and pose major threats to health. Pinto, et al. 2007 is concerned with the development of a measure of eating behavior self-efficacy and should be of great interest to researchers. Berman 2005 focuses on unhealthy eating among people without a diagnosable eating disorder and thus is important for understanding prevention of eating disorders. Bardone-Cone, et al. 2006 examines how self-efficacy interacts with perfectionism and people’s subjective perceptions about their weight in predicting unhealthy eating. Glasofer, et al. 2013 explores the role of self-efficacy in predicting bingeing behavior.

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bardone-Cone, A. M., L. Y. Abramson, K. D. Vohs, and T. E. Joiner Jr. 2006. Predicting bulimic symptoms: An interactive model of self-efficacy, perfectionism, and perceived weight status. Behaviour Research and Therapy 44:27–42.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.09.009Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    A study of over 400 women found that those who were highly perfectionistic, believed they were overweight, and had low self-efficacy for controlling their eating were most at risk for engaging in binge eating and potentially harmful purging behaviors following binges.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Berman, E. S. 2005. The relationship between eating self-efficacy and eating disorder symptoms in a non-clinical sample. Eating Behaviors 7:79–90.

                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2005.07.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      Most studies on self-efficacy and eating problems have been conducted with people who have been diagnosed with eating disorders. Findings of this study suggest that low self-efficacy beliefs for controlling eating also predict eating problems among people who are not seeking treatment for eating-related problems.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Glasofer, D. R., D. F. Haaga, L. Hannallah, et al. 2013. Self‐efficacy beliefs and eating behavior in adolescent girls at‐risk for excess weight gain and binge eating disorder. International Journal of Eating Disorders 46:663–668.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1002/eat.22160Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Finds that greater general and eating self-efficacy predict decreased bingeing behavior among adolescents.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Pinto, A. M., L. J. Heinberg, J. W. Coughlin, J. L. Fava, and A. S. Guarda. 2007. The eating disorder recovery self-efficacy questionnaire (EDRSQ): Change with treatment and prediction of outcome. Eating Behaviors 9:143–153.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2007.07.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          Examined the predictive validity of a self-report inventory that assesses confidence to eat without engaging in eating disordered behavior or experiencing undue emotional distress and confidence to maintain a realistic body image, using patients at an eating disorders clinic.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Depression

                                                                                                                                                                                          Depression is one of the most frequent mental health problems for which people seek treatment. Maddux and Meier 1995 offers a brief overview of the role of self-efficacy in depression. Bandura 1997 is a more lengthy discussion of the topic. Bandura, et al. 1999 focuses on how self-efficacy influences that development of depression in childhood. Continuing the development theme, Tonge, et al. 2005 is concerned with adolescents, while Wei, et al. 2005 focuses on college students. Maciejewski, et al. 2000 examines how negative life events influence self-efficacy beliefs and depression among adults. At the other end of the age spectrum, Blazer 2002 is concerned with self-efficacy and depression among older adults.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Includes chapter on self-efficacy and mood and mood disorders.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bandura, A., C. Pastorelli, C. Barbaranelli, and G. V. Caprara. 1999. Self-efficacy pathways to childhood depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76:258–269.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.76.2.258Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              Examines the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and the development of depression in children.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Blazer, D. G. 2002. Self-efficacy and depression in late life: A primary prevention proposal. Aging and Mental Health 6:315–324.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/1360786021000006938Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                Rather than focusing on treatment, the author discusses the role of enhancing self-efficacy beliefs in preventing depression and enhancing positive mental health among older adults.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Maciejewski, P. K., H. G. Prigerson, and C. M. Mazure. 2000. Self-efficacy as a mediator between stressful life events and depressive symptoms. British Journal of Psychiatry 176:373–378.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1192/bjp.176.4.373Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Found that for people with a history of depression, negative life events had a negative impact on self-efficacy but no effect on self-efficacy for those without prior depression. Also found that negative life events influence depression largely through their impact on self-efficacy beliefs.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Maddux, J. E., and L. J. Meier. 1995. Self-efficacy and depression. In Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research, and application. Edited by J. E. Maddux, 143–169. New York: Plenum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    General review of research on the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and depression.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Tonge, B., N. King, E. Klimkeit, G. Melvin, D. Heyn, and M. Gordon. 2005. The self-efficacy questionnaire for depression in adolescents (SEQ-DA). European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 14:357–363.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1007/s00787-005-0462-ySave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Describes the development of a scale for measuring adolescents’ self-efficacy for dealing with the symptoms of depression.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Wei, M., D. W. Russell, and R. A. Zakalik. 2005. Adult attachment, social self-efficacy, self-disclosure, loneliness, and subsequent depression for freshman college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology 52:602–614.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.52.4.602Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Found that social self-efficacy was one of several important predictors of future loneliness above and beyond measures of current loneliness.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Anxiety-Related Problems

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Anxiety is also one of the most common mental health problems for which people seek treatment. The articles and chapters below explore the role that self-efficacy plays in the development and treatment of anxiety disorders. Bandura 1997 is a broad and general overview. Williams 1995 and Williams, et al. 1997 focus somewhat more narrowly on phobic disorders. Brown, et al. 2014 focuses on treatment for anxiety. Benight, et al. 2000 moves beyond people with anxiety disorders and examines the reactions of “normal” people to natural disasters.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Includes chapter on the role of self-efficacy in anxiety and anxiety disorders.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Benight, C. C., E. Smith, J. Sanger, A. Smith, and D. Zeppelin. 2000. Coping self-efficacy as a mediator of distress following a natural disaster. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29:2443–2464.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb00120.xSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Explores the role of coping self-efficacy in the adjustment of victims of natural disasters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Brown, L. A., J. F. Wiley, K. Wolitzky‐Taylor, et al. 2014. Changes in self‐efficacy and outcome expectancy as predictors of anxiety outcomes from the CALM study. Depression and Anxiety 31:678–689.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1002/da.22256Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Finds that changes in self-efficacy precede changes in anxiety symptoms among individuals in treatment for anxiety.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Williams, S. L. 1995. Self-efficacy, anxiety, and phobic disorders. In Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research and application. Edited by J. E. Maddux, 69–107. New York: Plenum.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6868-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Describes research on the role of self-efficacy in the development and treatment of anxiety disorders, focusing primarily on phobic disorders.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Williams, S. L., P. J. Kinney, S. T. Harap, and M. Liebmann. 1997. Thoughts of agoraphobic people during scary tasks. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106:511–520.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.106.4.511Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Further exploration of the role of self-efficacy beliefs in anxiety disorders, focusing on agoraphobia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Substance Abuse

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The abuse of substances such as tobacco, alcohol, and a variety of legal and illegal drugs pose major risks to physical and mental health. Cigarette smoking is addressed in the health section but could as easily have been placed in this section since nicotine is an addictive substance. The references listed below deal with substance abuse issues beyond (but sometime including) tobacco. Bandura 1999 provides an excellent brief discussion of the role of self-efficacy in substance abuse. DiClemente, et al. 1995 offers more detail on theory and research. Ludwig and Pittman 1999 examines drug use in the context of several other common problems among adolescents. Caprara, et al. 1998 is also concerned with substance abuse in the context of other adolescent problems, focusing on the role of communication with families. Choi, et al. 2013 examines specific relationships of self-efficacy to avoid one substance in predicting increased use of another substance. Oei, et al. 1998 compares the self-efficacy beliefs of problem drinkers and nonproblem drinkers, shedding light on important difference between those two groups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bandura, A. 1999. A sociocognitive analysis of substance abuse: An agentic perspective. Psychological Science 10:214–217.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1111/1467-9280.00138Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Brief discussion of the role of beliefs about personal control in substance abuse.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Caprara, G. V., E. Scabini, C. Barbaranelli, C. Pastorelli, C. Regalia, and A. Bandura. 1998. Impact of adolescents’ perceived self-regulatory efficacy on familial communication and antisocial conduct. European Psychologist 3:125–132.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1027/1016-9040.3.2.125Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Found that a high sense of self-efficacy to resist negative peer influences was associated with open communication with parents and low engagement in delinquent behavior and substance abuse.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Choi, H. J., J. L. Krieger, and M. L. Hecht. 2013. Reconceptualizing efficacy in substance use prevention research: Refusal response efficacy and drug resistance self-efficacy in adolescent substance use. Health Communication 28:40–52.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/10410236.2012.720245Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Marijuana refusal and alcohol refusal self-efficacy were associated with decreased use of marijuana and alcohol use, respectively. However, marijuana self-efficacy was associated with increased use of alcohol.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • diClemente, C. C., S. K. Fairhurst, and N. A. Piotrowski. 1995. Self-efficacy and addictive behaviors. In Self-efficacy, adaption, and adjustment: Theory, research, and application. Edited by J. E. Maddux, 109–142. New York: Plenum.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6868-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Discusses the role of self-efficacy in the treatment of addictions focusing on nicotine and alcohol.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ludwig, K. B., and J. F. Pittman. 1999. Adolescent prosocial values and self-efficacy in relation to delinquency, risky sexual behavior, and drug use. Youth & Society 30:461–482.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1177/0044118X99030004004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Examines the role of self-efficacy in a related cluster of three adolescent problems that are typically examined separately in research.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Oei, T. P. S., S. Fergusson, and N. K. Lee. 1998. The differential role of alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy in problem and nonproblem drinkers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 59:704–711.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.15288/jsa.1998.59.704Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Compares the alcohol expectancies (a kind of outcome expectancy concerned with the effects of alcohol) and self-efficacy beliefs for refusing a drink when it is offered of problem and nonproblems drinkers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Suicide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Suicidal thoughts and behaviors are a problem of great clinical concern. There has only recently been a push to assess self-efficacy within the context of suicide. Czyz, et al. 2014 presents a measure of self-efficacy specific to resisting suicidal thoughts and behaviors and finds that it predicts less severe suicidal ideation and less severe suicide attempts. Gautam and Kumar 2014 finds that general self-efficacy is a suicide resilience factor, and Valois, et al. 2015 finds that emotion self-efficacy is a suicide resilience factor.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Czyz, E. K., A. B. Bohnert, C. A. King, A. M. Price, F. Kleinberg, and M. A. Ilgen. 2014. Self‐efficacy to avoid suicidal action: Factor structure and convergent validity among adults in substance use disorder treatment. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 44:698–709.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1111/sltb.12101Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Provides a measure of self-efficacy to avoid suicidal action. Also shows that lower self-efficacy was associated with individuals who had more severe suicidal ideation and more serious suicide attempts in the past.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Gautam, A., and U. Kumar. 2014. Perceived stress, self efficacy and reasons for living as predictors of suicidal ideation. Journal of Psychosocial Research 9.2: 359–367.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  General self-efficacy was associated with less severe suicidal ideation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Valois, R. F., K. J. Zullig, and A. A. Hunter. 2015. Association between adolescent suicide ideation, suicide attempts and emotional self-efficacy. Journal of Child and Family Studies 24:237–248.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/s10826-013-9829-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Found that greater emotional self-efficacy is associated with less severe suicidal ideation, decreased odds of making a suicide plan, and decreased odds of serious injury when making a suicide attempt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Career and Vocational Choice

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    One’s choice of career or vocation is among the most important and far-reaching of life decisions. Career choice researchers in counseling psychology and education have conducted numerous studies on the role that self-efficacy beliefs play in the decisions people make about vocations, jobs, and careers and about related educational choices. Most of this research has focused on adolescents and young adults. The novice reader should start with Betz and Hackett 2006. It is brief (seven pages) and written for the nonspecialist. Hackett and Betz 1995 is a brief and accessible review of the role of self-efficacy in career and vocational decisions. It should be read next. Lent 1987 offers a more comprehensive and detailed review of specific studies through the mid-1980s and will be of interest primarily to other researchers. Giles and Rea 1999 integrates self-efficacy theory with another related theory and should be of interest to researchers and others interested in broad theoretical issues. Byars and Hackett 1998 is important because it examines self-efficacy theory in the context of social cognitive theory and is concerned with a group facing considerable career-decision challenges—women of color. Finally, Donnay and Borgen 1999 is concerned not only with the relatively simple question of whether self-efficacy beliefs predict career decisions but also with the more complex question of the extent to which they predict career decisions over and above other important predictors.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Betz, N. E., and G. Hackett. 2006. Career self-efficacy: Back to the future. Journal of Career Assessment 14:3–11.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1177/1069072705281347Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Reviews almost three decades of research on career self-efficacy and makes recommendations for future research

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Byars, A. M., and G. Hackett. 1998. Application of social cognitive theory to the career development of women of color. Applied and Preventive Psychology 7:255–267.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/S0962-1849(98)80029-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Discuss the role of self-efficacy beliefs in the career decisions of minority women, including the differences between the career self-efficacy beliefs between minority women and other groups.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Donnay, D. A. C., and F. H. Borgen. 1999. The incremental validity of vocational self efficacy. An examination of interest, self-efficacy, and occupation. Journal of Counseling Psychology 46:432–447.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.46.4.432Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Founds that vocational self-efficacy and vocational interest are related but different concepts and that both contribute to the prediction of vocational decisions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Giles, M., and A. Rea. 1999. Career self-efficacy: An application of the theory of planned behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 72:393–399.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1348/096317999166743Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An update of research on self-efficacy and career choice that discusses self-efficacy beliefs in the context of the broader theory of planned behavior.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hackett, G., and N. Betz. 1995. Self-efficacy and career choice and development. In Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research, and application. Edited by J. E. Maddux, 249–280. New York: Plenum.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6868-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An update of the research on self-efficacy and career and vocational choice.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Lent, R. W. 1987. Career self-efficacy: Empirical status and future directions. Journal of Vocational Behavior 30:347–382.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1016/0001-8791(87)90010-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Early comprehensive review of the role of self-efficacy beliefs in people’s choices of career and vocational pursuits.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Job Performance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Stajkovic and Luthans 1998 is a highly technical article that may be difficult reading for those who have not taken a graduate course in statistics but that with some effort and patience will pay off. Experienced researchers will find it much easier going. Alessandri, et al. 2015 explores the role of how self-efficacy affects the relationship between job outlook and job performance. Stajkovic and Luthans 1998 and other subsequent researchers have clearly established that self-efficacy beliefs predict performance in the workplace. Judge, et al. 2007 takes the obvious but complex next step of trying to understand how self-efficacy beliefs interact with workers’ personality traits in predicting their performance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Alessandri, G., L. Borgogni, W. B. Schaufeli, G. V. Caprara, and C. Consiglio. 2015. From positive orientation to job performance: The role of work engagement and self-efficacy beliefs. Journal of Happiness Studies 16.3: 767–788.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Finds that individuals who have a more positive outlook on their jobs tend to also have higher self-efficacy about their jobs and in turn have better job performances.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Judge, T. A., C. L. Jackson, J. C. Shaw, B. A. Scott, and B. L. Rich. 2007. Self-efficacy and work-related performance: The integral role of individual differences. Journal of Applied Psychology 92:107–127.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.107Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Examines the impact of personality measures on the utility of self-efficacy measures in predicting performance on job-related tasks in the workplace.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Stajkovic, A. D., and F. Luthans. 1998. Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 124:240–261.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.124.2.240Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Comprehensive review of the role the self-efficacy beliefs play in work and job performance and achievement.

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