Stability and Ecosystem Resilience, A Below-Ground Perspective
- LAST MODIFIED: 31 March 2016
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199830060-0140
- LAST MODIFIED: 31 March 2016
- DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199830060-0140
Renewed interest in soil stability in terms of resistance and resilience seems to have been sparked by two processes, the development of studies concerned with climatic or environmental change and the continuing exploration of the relationship between biological diversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF relationship). As changes in environment become more extreme, the stability of soil processes in general and crop productivity specifically is an increasingly practical issue. This is linked with the BEF relationship by models, and now experimental data, indicating that more diverse systems are more resistant and resilient to perturbation.
General Overview and Methodology
Resistance and resilience are ecological concepts of increasing policy relevance, generating questions such as “How can we increase the resilience of habitats and species to cope with climate change?” (Sutherland, et al. 2006, p. 622, question 60). Resistance is commonly defined as the ability of a system to withstand a disturbance, while definitions of resilience fall into two categories, engineering or ecological resilience. Engineering resilience is where the behavior of the system is treated like an engineering material that will show initial displacement and then recovery toward its pre-disturbance state or toward a new stable state. Resistance to disturbance and the speed of recovery (resilience) are the two components of ecosystem stability as described by Loreau, et al. 2002. This approach predominates in studies of soil biology and also in the study of soil physical parameters and soil quality, as seen in Seybold, et al. 1999. Ecological resilience considers how much disturbance is required to move the system from one stable state to another alternate stable state, using the “ball and cup” model shown in Gunderson, et al. 2002. In a soil-related example of ecological resilience, Gao, et al. 2011 notes a degradation threshold, or tipping point, for soil services at about 20 percent vegetation cover. As explained by Van Nes and Scheffer 2007, ecological and engineering resilience are linked by the theory of “critical slowing down.” This proposes that recovery rates from small disturbances (i.e., engineering resilience) get slower and slower as a system approaches the tipping point between one stable state and another (i.e., ecological resilience). This bibliography will use the engineering definition of resilience—the response and recovery of a population or function to a perturbation—and refer to stability as the combination of resistance and resilience, as reviewed by Griffiths and Philippot 2013 and Shade, et al. 2012. Measuring resistance and resilience in soil microbial communities is generally determined as a laboratory assay in which soil is perturbed experimentally and the changes in microbial populations or processes followed over time as suggested by Hodgson, et al. 2015. The experimental details vary from study to study and can be found in reviews by Griffiths and Philippot 2013 and Shade, et al. 2012, or in the studies cited in this bibliography.
Gao, Y., B. L. Zhong, H. Yue, B. Wu, and S. X. Cao. 2011. A degradation threshold for irreversible loss of soil productivity: A long-term case study in China. Journal of Applied Ecology 48:1145–1154.
Identified a threshold of 20 percent vegetation cover, below which there was irreversible loss of soil services.
Griffiths, B. S., and L. Philippot. 2013. Insights into the resistance and resilience of the soil microbial community. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 37:112–129.
Provides the first systematic review of soil biological resilience, specifically of soil processes.
Gunderson, L. H., C. S. Holling, L. Pritchard Jr., and G. D. Peterson. 2002. Resilience of large-scale resource systems. In Resilience and the Behavior of Large-Scale Systems. Edited by L. H. Gunderson, and L. Pritchard Jr., 3–20. The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) 60. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Explains and provides background on and examples of the ecological resilience concept.
Hodgson, D., J. L. McDonald, and D. J. Hosken. 2015. What do you mean, resilient? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 30.9: 503–506.
The authors argue that with increasing interest in stability and resilience, our understanding and measurement is hampered by the multiple processes contributing to stability and that a bivariate analysis will allow better comparison between systems.
Loreau, M., A. Downing, M. Emmerson, et al. 2002. A new look at the relationship between diversity and stability. In Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Edited by M. Loreau, S. Naeem, and P. Inchausti, 79–91. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
The book contains articles by the leading experts in biological diversity–ecosystem functioning research, and this specific chapter provides a theoretical background to biological diversity–ecosystem functioning relationships, concentrating on the effects of environmental disturbance and stress.
Seybold, C. A., J. E. Herrick, and J. J. Brejda. 1999. Soil resilience: A fundamental component of soil quality. Soil Science 164:224–234.
A seminal article that defines the engineering resilience concept.
Shade, A., H. Peter, S. D. Allison, et al. 2012. Fundamentals of microbial community resistance and resilience. Frontiers in Microbiology 3:417.
Provides an overview of the concepts of stability that are relevant for microbial communities.
Sutherland, W. J., S. Armstrong-brown, P. R. Armsworth, et al. 2006. The identification of 100 ecological questions of high policy relevance in the UK. Journal of Applied Ecology 43:617–627.
Identification of the most policy-relevant ecological questions, in a UK context.
Van Nes, E. H., and M. Scheffer. 2007. Slow recovery from perturbations as a generic indicator of a nearby catastrophic shift. American Naturalist 169:738–747.
Argues from a theoretical perspective that “engineering resilience” is a remarkably good indicator of “ecological resilience” and that “critical slowing down” may be of practical use as an early warning signal.
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- Accounting for Ecological Capital
- Allocation of Reproductive Resources in Plants
- Animals, Functional Morphology of
- Animals, Reproductive Allocation in
- Animals, Thermoregulation in
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- Applied Ecology
- Aquatic Conservation
- Aquatic Nutrient Cycling
- Archaea, Ecology of
- Assembly Models
- Bacterial Diversity in Freshwater
- Benthic Ecology
- Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
- Biodiversity Patterns in Agricultural Systms
- Biological Chaos and Complex Dynamics
- Biome, Alpine
- Biome, Boreal
- Biome, Desert
- Biome, Grassland
- Biome, Savanna
- Biome, Tundra
- Biomes, African
- Biomes, East Asian
- Biomes, Mountain
- Biomes, North American
- Biomes, South Asian
- Bryophyte Ecology
- Butterfly Ecology
- Carson, Rachel
- Chemical Ecology
- Classification Analysis
- Coastal Dune Habitats
- Communities and Ecosystems, Indirect Effects in
- Communities, Top-Down and Bottom-Up Regulation of
- Community Concept, The
- Community Ecology
- Community Genetics
- Community Phenology
- Competition and Coexistence in Animal Communities
- Competition in Plant Communities
- Complexity Theory
- Conservation Biology
- Conservation Genetics
- Coral Reefs
- Darwin, Charles
- De-Glaciation, Ecology of
- Disease Ecology
- Drought as a Disturbance in Forests
- Early Explorers, The
- Earth’s Climate, The
- Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics
- Ecological Dynamics in Fragmented Landscapes
- Ecological Informatics
- Ecological Relevance of Speciation
- Ecology, Microbial (Community)
- Ecosystem Engineers
- Ecosystem Multifunctionality
- Ecosystem Services
- Ecosystem Services, Conservation of
- Elton, Charles
- Endophytes, Fungal
- Energy Flow
- Environments, Extreme
- Ethics, Ecological
- Facilitation and the Organization of Communities
- Fern and Lycophyte Ecology
- Fire Ecology
- Food Webs
- Foraging Behavior, Implications of
- Foraging, Optimal
- Forests, Temperate Coniferous
- Forests, Temperate Deciduous
- Freshwater Invertebrate Ecology
- Genetic Considerations in Plant Ecological Restoration
- Genomics, Ecological
- Geographic Range
- Gleason, Henry
- Greig-Smith, Peter
- Gymnosperm Ecology
- Habitat Selection
- Harper, John L.
- Heavy Metal Tolerance
- Himalaya, Ecology of the
- Host-Parasitoid Interactions
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- Human Ecology of the Andes
- Hutchinson, G. Evelyn
- Insect Ecology, Terrestrial
- Introductory Sources
- Invasive Species
- Island Biogeography Theory
- Island Biology
- Kin Selection
- Landscape Dynamics
- Landscape Ecology
- Laws, Ecological
- Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis, The
- Leopold, Aldo
- Lichen Ecology
- Life History
- Literature, Ecology and
- MacArthur, Robert H.
- Mangrove Zone Ecology
- Marine Fisheries Management
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- Maximum Sustainable Yield
- Metabolic Scaling Theory
- Metacommunity Dynamics
- Metapopulations and Spatial Population Processes
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- Mutualisms and Symbioses
- Mycorrhizal Ecology
- Natural History Tradition, The
- Networks, Ecological
- Niche Versus Neutral Models of Community Organization
- Nutrient Foraging in Plants
- Odum, Eugene and Howard
- Old Fields
- Ordination Analysis
- Organic Agriculture, Ecology of
- Parental Care, Evolution of
- Patch Dynamics
- Phenotypic Selection
- Philosophy, Ecological
- Phylogenetics and Comparative Methods
- Physiological Ecology of Nutrient Acquisition in Animals
- Physiological Ecology of Photosynthesis
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- Plant Disease Epidemiology
- Plant Ecological Responses to Extreme Climatic Events
- Plant-Insect Interactions
- Polar Regions
- Pollination Ecology
- Population Dynamics, Density-Dependence and Single-Species
- Population Dynamics, Methods in
- Population Ecology, Animal
- Population Ecology, Plant
- Population Fluctuations and Cycles
- Population Genetics
- Population Viability Analysis
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- Predation and Community Organization
- Predator-Prey Interactions
- Reductionism Versus Holism
- Religion and Ecology
- Remote Sensing
- Restoration Ecology
- Ricketts, Edward Flanders Robb
- Seed Ecology
- Serpentine Soils
- Shelford, Victor
- Simulation Modeling
- Soil Biogeochemistry
- Soil Ecology
- Spatial Pattern Analysis
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- Species Extinctions
- Species Responses to Climate Change
- Species-Area Relationships
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- Stoichiometry, Ecological
- Stream Ecology
- Systems Ecology
- Tansley, Sir Arthur
- Terrestrial Resource Limitation
- Thermal Ecology of Animals
- Tragedy of the Commons
- Trophic Levels
- Vegetation Classification
- Vegetation Mapping
- Weed Ecology
- Whittaker, Robert H.
- Wildlife Ecology