Ecological informatics emerged as discipline in the early 2000s, taking into account the data-intensive nature of ecology, the precious information content of ecological data, the growing capacity of computational technology to leverage complex data, as well as the critical need for informing sustainable management of complex ecosystems. It comprehends novel concepts and techniques for image- and genome-based monitoring, data archiving, sharing and visualization, data analysis, modeling, and forecasting.
Recknagel 2003 focused the scope of ecological informatics on archival, retrieval, and visualization as well as analysis, synthesis, and forecasting of ecological data by novel computation techniques. He emphasized leveraging complex ecological data by bio-inspired computation. Jones, et al. 2006; Reichman, et al. 2011; and Michener and Jones 2012 suggested archiving, sharing and integration of ecological data as the key focus of ecological informatics. Recknagel 2006 and Recknagel 2008 included genome- and imaged-based monitoring in the scope of ecological informatics. Brewer, et al. 2012 demonstrated that ecological informatics is largely benefiting from the inclusion of paleo-ecology. In the early 21st century, acoustic and thermal imaging (e.g., Farina, et al. 2011; Matzner, et al. 2015) have been established as strong components of ecological informatics.
Brewer, S., Stephen T. Jackson, and John W. Williams. 2012. Paleoecoinformatics: Applying geohistorical data to ecological questions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 27.2: 104–112.
Extends the scope of ecological informatics by integrating information-rich paleo-ecological data.
Farina, A., Nadia Pieretti, and Luigi Piccioli. 2011. The soundscape methodology for long-term bird monitoring: A Mediterranean Europe case-study. Ecological Informatics 6.6 (November): 354–363.
Ecoacoustic techniques allow continent-wide long-term monitoring of birds.
Jones, M. B., Mark P. Schildhauer, O. J. Reichman, and Shawn Bowers. 2006. The new bioinformatics: Integrating ecological data from the gene to the biosphere. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 37:519–544.
Describes ecoinformatics as informatics frameworks for ecology, from subject-specific data warehouses to generic data collections that use detailed metadata descriptions and formal ontologies to catalogue and cross-reference information.
Matzner, S., Valerie I. Cullinan, and Corey A. Duberstein. 2015. Two-dimensional thermal video analysis of offshore bird and bat flight. Ecological Informatics 30:20–28.
Applies thermal imaging for determining flight behavior of birds and bats.
Michener, W. K., and M. Jones. 2012. Ecoinformatics: Supporting ecology as data-intensive science. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 27.2: 85–93.
States that integrative informatics platforms, adoption of standard informatics protocols, and good data stewardship, as well as sociocultural changes such as promoting informatics literacy, data sharing, and scientific transparency are central to understanding the nature and pace of ecological and environmental change.
Recknagel, F. 2003. Ecological informatics: Understanding ecology by biologically-inspired computation. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Ecological informatics focuses on archival, retrieval, and visualization as well as analysis, synthesis, and forecasting of ecological data by novel computation techniques.
Recknagel, F. 2006. Ecological informatics: Scope, techniques and applications. 2d rev. ed. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Ecological informatics is introduced by taking advantage of biologically inspired computation such as artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms for analysis, synthesis, and forecasting of complex ecological data.
Recknagel, F. 2008. Ecological informatics: Overview. In Encyclopedia of ecology. Vol. 2. Edited by S. E. Jorgensen and B. D. Faith, 1041–1058. Oxford: Elsevier.
Ecological informatics defined as a multidisciplinary framework that takes into account the data-intensive nature of ecology, the precious information content of ecological data, the growing capacity of computational technology to leverage complex data, as well as the critical need for informing sustainable management of complex ecosystems.
Reichman, O. J., Matthew B. Jones, and Mark P. Schildhauer. 2011. Challenges and opportunities of open data in ecology. Science 331:703–705.
Explains how data archiving must facilitate sharing of ecological data.
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- Accounting for Ecological Capital
- Allocation of Reproductive Resources in Plants
- Animals, Functional Morphology of
- Animals, Reproductive Allocation in
- Animals, Thermoregulation in
- Antarctic Environments and Ecology
- Applied Ecology
- Aquatic Conservation
- Aquatic Nutrient Cycling
- Archaea, Ecology of
- Assembly Models
- Bacterial Diversity in Freshwater
- Benthic Ecology
- Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
- Biodiversity Patterns in Agricultural Systms
- Biological Chaos and Complex Dynamics
- Biome, Alpine
- Biome, Boreal
- Biome, Desert
- Biome, Grassland
- Biome, Savanna
- Biome, Tundra
- Biomes, African
- Biomes, East Asian
- Biomes, Mountain
- Biomes, North American
- Biomes, South Asian
- Bryophyte Ecology
- Butterfly Ecology
- Carson, Rachel
- Chemical Ecology
- Classification Analysis
- Coastal Dune Habitats
- Communities and Ecosystems, Indirect Effects in
- Communities, Top-Down and Bottom-Up Regulation of
- Community Concept, The
- Community Ecology
- Community Genetics
- Community Phenology
- Competition and Coexistence in Animal Communities
- Competition in Plant Communities
- Complexity Theory
- Conservation Biology
- Conservation Genetics
- Coral Reefs
- Darwin, Charles
- De-Glaciation, Ecology of
- Disease Ecology
- Drought as a Disturbance in Forests
- Early Explorers, The
- Earth’s Climate, The
- Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics
- Ecological Dynamics in Fragmented Landscapes
- Ecological Informatics
- Ecological Relevance of Speciation
- Ecology, Microbial (Community)
- Ecology of Emerging Zoonotic Viruses
- Ecosystem Engineers
- Ecosystem Multifunctionality
- Ecosystem Services
- Ecosystem Services, Conservation of
- Elton, Charles
- Endophytes, Fungal
- Energy Flow
- Environments, Extreme
- Ethics, Ecological
- Facilitation and the Organization of Communities
- Fern and Lycophyte Ecology
- Fire Ecology
- Food Webs
- Foraging Behavior, Implications of
- Foraging, Optimal
- Forests, Temperate Coniferous
- Forests, Temperate Deciduous
- Freshwater Invertebrate Ecology
- Genetic Considerations in Plant Ecological Restoration
- Genomics, Ecological
- Geographic Range
- Gleason, Henry
- Greig-Smith, Peter
- Gymnosperm Ecology
- Habitat Selection
- Harper, John L.
- Heavy Metal Tolerance
- Himalaya, Ecology of the
- Host-Parasitoid Interactions
- Human Ecology
- Human Ecology of the Andes
- Hutchinson, G. Evelyn
- Indigenous Ecologies
- Insect Ecology, Terrestrial
- Introductory Sources
- Invasive Species
- Island Biogeography Theory
- Island Biology
- Kin Selection
- Landscape Dynamics
- Landscape Ecology
- Laws, Ecological
- Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis, The
- Leopold, Aldo
- Lichen Ecology
- Life History
- Literature, Ecology and
- MacArthur, Robert H.
- Mangrove Zone Ecology
- Marine Fisheries Management
- Mathematical Ecology
- Mating Systems
- Maximum Sustainable Yield
- Metabolic Scaling Theory
- Metacommunity Dynamics
- Metapopulations and Spatial Population Processes
- Microclimate Ecology
- Mutualisms and Symbioses
- Mycorrhizal Ecology
- Natural History Tradition, The
- Networks, Ecological
- Niche Versus Neutral Models of Community Organization
- Nutrient Foraging in Plants
- Odum, Eugene and Howard
- Old Fields
- Ordination Analysis
- Organic Agriculture, Ecology of
- Parental Care, Evolution of
- Patch Dynamics
- Phenotypic Selection
- Philosophy, Ecological
- Phylogenetics and Comparative Methods
- Physiological Ecology of Nutrient Acquisition in Animals
- Physiological Ecology of Photosynthesis
- Physiological Ecology of Water Balance in Terrestrial Anim...
- Plant Disease Epidemiology
- Plant Ecological Responses to Extreme Climatic Events
- Plant-Insect Interactions
- Polar Regions
- Pollination Ecology
- Population Dynamics, Density-Dependence and Single-Species
- Population Dynamics, Methods in
- Population Ecology, Animal
- Population Ecology, Plant
- Population Fluctuations and Cycles
- Population Genetics
- Population Viability Analysis
- Populations and Communities, Dynamics of Age- and Stage-St...
- Predation and Community Organization
- Predator-Prey Interactions
- Reductionism Versus Holism
- Religion and Ecology
- Remote Sensing
- Restoration Ecology
- Ricketts, Edward Flanders Robb
- Seed Ecology
- Serpentine Soils
- Shelford, Victor
- Simulation Modeling
- Soil Biogeochemistry
- Soil Ecology
- Spatial Pattern Analysis
- Spatial Patterns of Species Biodiversity in Terrestrial En...
- Species Extinctions
- Species Responses to Climate Change
- Species-Area Relationships
- Stability and Ecosystem Resilience, A Below-Ground Perspec...
- Stoichiometry, Ecological
- Stream Ecology
- Systems Ecology
- Tansley, Sir Arthur
- Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycle
- Terrestrial Resource Limitation
- Thermal Ecology of Animals
- Tragedy of the Commons
- Trophic Levels
- Vegetation Classification
- Vegetation Mapping
- Weed Ecology
- Whittaker, Robert H.
- Wildlife Ecology