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Jewish Studies The Holocaust in Germany
by
Wolf Gruner

Introduction

The Holocaust is one of the most researched events in modern history, but it is nevertheless still one of the most disputed. This article covers the origins and the development of anti-Jewish persecution in the Third Reich by exploring books about the early efforts to isolate and marginalize German Jewry during the 1930s, changes in persecution strategy after the notorious pogrom of 1938 known as Kristallnacht (“Crystal Night”), as well as the decision about forced relocation and mass murder during the Second World War. First, after the war, most works aimed at judgment, and later at documentation; only since the 1990s have analyses prevailed. While historians, mostly survivors, started 1945 with a more European perspective of the Holocaust, during the next decades more and more isolated national narratives evolved in Germany (where it was a subfield of Third Reich studies), in Israel, or in Anglo-Saxon countries. Only after 1989 did an international historiographical approach emerge from a new global network of scholars. This bibliographical article concentrates on Germany and Austria, though many of the books also contain a European dimension. The studies annotated here either influenced the historical debate, raised new questions, started new research agendas, or covered a subject in hitherto not reached depth. Beginning in the 1990s a lot of advanced research was undertaken in Germany itself, so that many more German books are part of the article than one would suspect would be the case. If they are translated into English, both versions are mentioned, since the original German was often studied by English-speaking specialist years before a translation followed. Some works are also taken from Hebrew and French.

General Historical Overviews

Up to now, dozens of works have been published that cover the Holocaust in Germany in a general way. It had started already during the war with books such as Hitler’s Ten-Year War on the Jews (Institute of Jewish Affairs 1943), and it reached a first climax in the 1960s with Hilberg’s classic work The Destruction of the European Jews (Hilberg 2003). Hilberg 1992 shifted the focus from the analysis of institutions to the actors, a view that was adopted by newer accounts, as in the two volumes by Saul Friedländer (Friedländer 1996, Friedländer 2007). While Longerich 2010 focuses on the development of Nazi politics, Zimmermann 2008 illuminates the life of German Jews under persecution. Bloxham 2009 offers a grounded view of the Holocaust as one of several genocides in the 20th century, which believers in the uniqueness of the former contested.

  • Bloxham, Donald. The Final Solution: A Genocide. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

    DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199550333.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    The British historian places the Holocaust in a European context of mass violence. His synthesis, based on an intimate knowledge of the Holocaust and the Armenian genocide, explores the violent ethnopolitics around World War I, analyzes the German and European dimensions of the Holocaust, compares the motives of the perpetrators of mass murder, and concludes by investigating the scholarly explanations of the Holocaust.

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  • Friedländer, Saul. Nazi Germany and the Jews. Vol. I, The Years of Persecution, 1933–1939. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.

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    The prominent scholar provides a seminal work, in which he focuses on the Jewish experience, by providing individual stories from diaries, yet loses neither the oversight of the historical process nor the decision-making process. His first volume describes in full detail the persecution in Germany and Austria between 1933 and 1939, and explains it with a “redemptive anti-Semitism” of the perpetrators.

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  • Friedländer, Saul. Nazi Germany and the Jews. Vol. 2, The Years of Extermination: 1939–1945. New York: HarperCollins, 2007.

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    In his second volume, Friedländer extends his focus beyond the German borders, focusing on occupied Poland and the Soviet Union. He uses the same technique of introducing Jewish voices from diaries and testimonies, while also paying close attention to the historical and decision-making processes.

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  • Hilberg, Raul. Perpetrators, Victims, Bystanders: the Jewish Catastrophe, 1933–1945. New York: Aaron Asher, 1992.

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    This study of the US historian shifts the perspective from the administrative system to the actors on all sides. Hilberg explores motives of perpetrators as well as resisters, Jewish representatives, and ordinary Jews. In contrast to his standard work (Hilberg 2003), he also includes examples of Jewish resistance.

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  • Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003.

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    This book by the survivor and renown US historian Hilberg is a standard reference on the topic. Originally published in 1961, it deals in a sophisticated manner with the decision-making process and many then unresearched facets of the Holocaust: its personnel, its bureaucracy, and its financial aspects. The study uses the Nuremberg trial materials, newspapers, and testimonies, and it covers Germany, Austria, and the rest of Europe.

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  • Institute of Jewish Affairs, ed. Hitler’s Ten-Year War on the Jews. New York: Institute of Jewish Affairs of the American Jewish Congress, 1943.

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    Various authors provide the chapters for this first account, which investigates the extermination of the Jews and mentions already a number of over 5 million lost Jews. Based on law gazettes, newspapers, reports of Jewish institutions, reports of diplomatic personnel, underground press, and materials of exile governments, the study describes in detail the persecution in Germany as well as in the annexed and occupied countries.

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  • Longerich, Peter. Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. New York: Oxford University Press 2010.

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    In his study, the German historian complements his analysis of the central anti-Jewish policy with a large number of local examples of violent actions and official measures. He discusses the existing arguments about how anti-Jewish policy developed and how the decision-making process fit into the practices of extinction. Originally published as Politik der Vernichtung: Eine Gesamtdarstellung der nationalsozialistischen Judenverfolgung in 1998.

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  • Zimmermann, Mosche. Deutsche gegen Deutsche : Das Schicksal der Juden 1938–1945. Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, 2008.

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    The Israeli historian offers a synthesis on the persecution from a perspective of the German Jewish experience. He focuses on the less well-researched period of 1938–1945, which often is overshadowed by the events in occupied Poland and Soviet Union. Based on the state of research, testimonies, and diaries, Zimmermann introduces the reader to many aspects of German Jewish life and thought under Nazi persecution.

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Handbooks

A number of handbooks published in the early 2010s offer chapter-long essays written by a cohort of international specialists based on the latest state of research covering the history of the Holocaust in a comprehensive historiographical manner. While Hayes and Roth 2010 uses an interesting and fresh thematic approach, Friedman 2010 offers a more traditional view on the most important topics of the Holcoaust.

  • Friedman, Jonathan, ed. The Routledge History of the Holocaust. London: Routledge 2010.

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    The more conventional approach of this handbook brings together a great amount of important summaries of the latest research on a variety of subjects, some naturally more informative than others, covering Germany as well as occupied Europe, and the years leading up to the Third Reich as well as the aftermath of the Holocaust.

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  • Hayes, Peter, and John Roth, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

    DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199211869.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This handbook, edited by two renowned US academics, offers an unusual approach. The often stellar contributions of an international list of top scholars discuss themes and important keywords rather than the usual subjects. Hence, colonialism and fascism are topics, as are killers and women, ghettos and camps, diaries and survivor accounts, and restitution and denial.

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Textbooks

A myriad of textbooks for student use exists for the history of the Holocaust. However, just a few provide a valuable introduction to the field that won’t be outdated very soon by new research. Niewyk 1992 offers some classical texts of Holocaust historiography, while Berenbaum and Peck 1998 provides an overview by collecting contributions of specialists from different fields. By contrast, Engel 2000 delivers a brief sophisticated and highly recommended introduction to the main aspects and discussions regarding the Holocaust and its historiography.

  • Berenbaum, Michael, and Abraham J. Peck, eds. The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.

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    The voluminous book contains chapters on most of the important aspects of the Holocaust, such as pre-Holocaust history, camps, Nazi administration, the debate about perpetrators, and Jewish experiences and reactions (as well as those of other victim groups). The chapters briefly introduced by the editors consist of articles written by historians, but also by academics from other disciplines. It covers Germany and Eastern Europe, as well as Western Europe and even countries such as Turkey. Published in conjunction with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

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  • Engel, David. The Holocaust: The Third Reich and the Jews. Harlow, UK, and New York: Longman, 2000.

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    Engel provides a great yet demanding introduction for students. The brief and concise account discusses the main facts regarding the Nazi persecution and extermination, including responses of the Jews as well as a sophisticated debate about historical interpretations and methodological approaches. The volume contains excerpts of some important documents.

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  • Niewyk, Donald L. The Holocaust: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1992.

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    This reader offers chapters by prominent historians on their core subjects, such as Yehuda Bauer on resistance and Ian Kershaw on the Germans and the genocide, mostly drawn from their respective books. It also introduces contradictory interpretations of the events, as in the case Gerald Fleming and Hans Mommsen, with their opposite understanding of the role of Hitler, or Christopher Browning and Daniel Goldhagen, with their differing explanations of why Germans participated in persecution and killing.

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Anthologies

The following important anthologies present prominent stages of research, whether providing a collection of published research or opening new perspectives. Some of them are the result of international conferences, as is the case with Paucker 1986, Bankier 1999, Feldman and Seibel 2005, and the Lessons and Legacies Book Series. Büttner 2003, on the other hand, brings together research results from the beginning of the 1990s through the early 2000s. Cesarani 2004 collects reprints of crucial articles from the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s. Gruner and Osterloh 2015 contains invited contributions of specialists that allow for a comparison of anti-Jewish policies in the annexed territories.

  • Bankier, David, ed. Probing the Depths of German Anti-Semitism: German Society and the Persecution of the Jews, 1933–1941. New York: Berghahn, 1999.

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    Based on the contributions to an international conference in 1997 in Jerusalem, this collection discusses the responses and the involvement of different strands of German society regarding anti-Jewish policies, for the first time beyond the usual focus on the Nazi Party.

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  • Büttner, Ursula, ed. Die Deutschen und die Judenverfolgung im Dritten Reich. Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch, 2003.

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    An edition of articles by German historians, many from a then younger generation, which discussed for a first time a broader participation of Germans and civil institutions in the organization and radicalization of anti-Jewish policies in Germany after 1933. Originally published in 1992.

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  • Cesarani, David, ed. The Holocaust: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies. 6 Vols. London: Routledge, 2004.

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    These volumes, edited by a well-known British historian, reprint important handpicked articles from various academic journals and anthologies from the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s, the years that marked a watershed in Holocaust research. The collection brings together a fine collection of the most interesting works by prominent international scholars of different generations.

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  • Feldman, Gerald D., and Wolfgang Seibel, eds. Networks of Nazi Persecution: Bureaucracy, Business, and the Organization of the Holocaust. New York: Berghahn, 2005.

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    Based on the contribution to an interdisciplinary conference in 2000 in Konstanz, this volume, edited by a US historian and a German sociologist, offers recent research on a variety of perpetrator institutions and agencies, mainly from Germany, with some comparisons to France and the Netherlands.

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  • Gruner, Wolf, and Jörg Osterloh, eds. The Greater German Reich and the Jews: Nazi Persecution Policies in the Annexed Territories 1935–1945. New York: Berghahn, 2015.

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    The contributions to this volume are written by specialists dealing with anti-Jewish policies in the annexed territories, from Austria and Memel to Luxemburg. Since all the authors discuss the same set of questions, the book allows one to draw comparisons between the different territories, challenges the idea of a uniform Berlin-centered policy, and shifts the attention to regional initiatives. Originally published in German in 2010.

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  • Lessons and Legacies Book Series. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1991–.

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    Since the first “Lessons and Legacies” conference organized by the Holocaust Educational Foundation in 1989, various scholars, among them Peter Hayes, Sara Horowitz, and Ronald Smelser, have collected and edited important contributions of the participants of the biannual conferences, which are now the most prominent international academic event for Holocaust studies. Topics cover history and memory, sources, and debates, as well as the development of Holocaust studies and teaching.

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    • Paucker, Arnold, ed. Die Juden im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland 1933–1943. Tübingen, Germany: J.C.B. Mohr Paul Siebeck, 1986.

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      Papers from a conference in Berlin, 28–31 October 1985. The volume offers still important articles by many prominent, often Jewish, historians of this time, whether in German or English, on the life of the German Jews under the Nazi regime, ranging from such diverse topics as education and spiritual resistance to the history of the Warburg Bank.

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    Journals

    The Holocaust is discussed in a variety of academic journals and yearbooks, mostly those covering modern European history. While Yad Vashem Studies, Theresienstädter Studien und Dokumente, and Dapim are entirely dedicated to this very subject, and several others do so to a great extent, such as Holocaust and Genocide Studies, a few with different topics also provide important contributions frequently, including the Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, and Beiträge zur Geschichte des Nationalsozialismus.

    Historical Sources

    Historical documents on the persecution in Nazi Germany, whether administrative sources, newspapers clippings, printed laws, or private testimonies, have always been published, actually starting right after 1933 Yet most collections have provided only brief excerpts or random selections. Documents stem from state, regional, or local archives and libraries, or from archives of private organizations. Since the 1980s the publication of such sources has proceeded in a more systematic and academic fashion, whether as facsimiles, as in various multivolume series, or as partly transcribed documents with a historical introduction. More recently published collections of documents offer fully transcribed and commented upon sources, while some provide complete series of digitized images accessible on the internet, as in the online collections annotated here.

    Contemporary Document Collections

    Already during the time of the persecution, several collections provided evidence of the terror against the Jews, such as Das Schwarzbuch 1983, originally published in Paris 1934 and using, at that time, publicly accessible documents such as newspaper reports and laws.

    • Das Schwarzbuch: Tatsachen und Dokumente; Die Lage der Juden in Deutschland. Edited by Comité des Délégations Juives. Frankfurt: Ullstein, 1983.

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      Probably the earliest collection of documents about anti-Jewish policy, providing the reader with facsimiles of laws and excerpts of press clippings about the exclusion of Jews from jobs, businesses, education, and art; about anti-Jewish propaganda, and about violence and murder. Originally published in 1934.

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    Early Document Collections

    The oldest collection, that of the Wiener Library, was founded in 1933 and is now accessible online as Testaments to the Holocaust. This archive combines testimonies with Nazi materials. The postwar collections of documents provides the reader with a mixture of discovered administrative documents, whether from trials or archives, as well as photographs and posters. Instead of documenting the results of the persecution, these collections offer insights in the decision-making process at the national level (Hilberg 1971), into the situation and reaction of the victims (Dawidowicz 1976 and Arad, et al. 1981), or into local developments (Eschwege 1981 and Pätzold 1983).

    • Arad, Ytzhak, Israel Gutman, and Avraham Margaliot, eds. Documents on the Holocaust: Selected Sources on the Destruction of the Jews in Germany and Austria, Poland, and the Soviet Union. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1981.

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      This comprehensive edition (now in its 6th edition), edited by three prominent Israeli scholars, includes many documents of Jews and Jewish organization and is still valid today. The first 160 pages are dedicated to the persecution of the German Jews.

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    • Dawidowicz, Lucy S., ed. A Holocaust Reader. New York: Behrman House, 1976.

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      After providing the reader with translations of the most notorious German anti-Jewish laws up until 1938, Dawidowicz offers important documents on the occupation of Poland and the killing in the Soviet Union. More importantly, she focuses on Jewish voices, as memoranda of German organizations or welfare reports from a Ghetto, as well as excerpts from diaries or testimonies.

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    • Eschwege, Helmut, ed. Kennzeichen J. Bilder, Dokumente, Berichte zur Geschichte der Verbrechen des Hitlerfaschismus an den deutschen Juden 1933–1945. Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, 1981.

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      This widely used collection of documents, photographs, and posters from East Germany offers the reader many facsimiles. It includes documents from local East German archives and covers also the annexed and occupied territories plus the extermination.

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    • Hilberg, Raul. Documents of Destruction: Germany and Jewry, 1933–1945. Chicago: Quadrangle, 1971.

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      Compiles documents on Germany and the annexed and occupied territories, mainly drawn from the evidence collected for the Nuremberg trials, but also reports on Jewish labor camps, testimonies of survivors, and documents fromthe Eichmann trial. The collection covers a lot of topics, including rare ones such as financial aspects of the persecution, robbery, and looting.

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    • Pätzold, Kurt, ed. Verfolgung, Vertreibung, Vernichtung: Dokumente des faschistischen Antisemitismus 1933–1942. Leipzig: Reclam, 1983.

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      Comprehensive document collection by an East German historian, which often shortened sources cover a wide range of Nazi institutions, including many documents from local archives. Also deals with the annexed and occupied territories.

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    • Testaments to the Holocaust. Wiener Library, London.

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      Recently the holdings of the Wiener Library, an institution founded by Alfred Wiener as a Jewish information office in Amsterdam and seated since 1939 in London, have been made accessible online. The archive offers more than 1200 eyewitness accounts plus rare photographs and Nazi propaganda materials, mostly from the period of 1933–1940.

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      Document Series

      During the 1980s, several big projects for the documentation of the Holocaust were undertaken, mostly providing facsimiles, whether organized by topics, such as Mendelsohn and Detwiler 1982, or by archives, such as Friedlander and Milton 1989–1995. Recent projects such as the multivolume German edition Die Verfolgung und Ermordung der europäischen Juden (Aly, et al. 2008–) or the US Holocaust Museum’s Jewish Responses to Persecution (Matthäus and Roseman 2010–2013) provide edited and commented-upon documents based on state-of-the-art research with a scholarly apparatus.

      • Aly, Götz, Wolf Gruner, Susanne Heim, et al., eds. Die Verfolgung und Ermordung der europäischen Juden durch das nationalsozialistische Deutschland 1933–1945. Munich: Oldenbourg, 2008–.

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        The first three books of this sixteen-volume collection of documents in German on the Holocaust in Europe cover Germany 1933–1941, each offering more than 300 documents on over 800 pages, from ministerial protocols and municipal regulations to private letters and diary entrees. Footnotes provide historical context and biographies for almost all of the mentioned people, from Nazi ministers to local individuals. An English translation is planned.

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      • Friedlander, Henry, and Sybil Milton, eds. Archives of the Holocaust: An International Collection of Selected Documents. 26 vols. New York: Garland, 1989–1995.

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        This collection provides facsimiles of documents from archives in the United States, Canada, Germany, Austria, and Israel. While the collection concentrates on the Jewish victims, it includes material on so-called gypsies and handicapped people, as well as on perpetrators. While the volumes are organized by archive, they cover persecution, emigration, mass murder, international responses, and rescue and relief efforts.

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      • Matthäus, Jürgen, and Mark Roseman, eds. Jewish Responses to Persecution. Documenting Life and Destruction: Holocaust Sources in Context. Lanham, MD: AltaMira, 2010–.

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        The three published volumes present a new academic approach; instead of focusing on the perpetrators, it presents Jews as actors and counts opposition and self-assertion as resistance behavior. The first volume deals with Germany and the second with Germany and the annexed and occupied countries, covering the time span of 1933–1940. Volume 3 focuses 1941–1942. All documents are introduced and commented on.

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      • Mendelsohn, John, and Donald S. Detwiler, eds. The Holocaust: Selected Documents in Eighteen Volumes. New York and London: Garland, 1982.

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        The series comprises volumes on anti-Jewish policies in Nazi Germany, the November 1938 pogrom, propaganda and Aryanization, emigration, deportation, medical experiments on Jewish inmates of concentration camps, the mass murder, and relief and rescue efforts. The facsimiles of the documents, some in English translation, mostly stem from the Nuremberg trials, while some are from American diplomatic records.

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      Recent Source-Specific Collections

      New document collections start to focus on specific and hitherto less accessible source material, such as Kulka and Jäckel 2010, which provides internal regional and local administrative reports, or Roller 1996, which contains excerpts of national and local radio broadcasts from Nazi Germany.

      • Kulka, Otto Dov, and Eberhard Jäckel, eds. The Jews in the Secret Nazi Reports on Popular Opinion in Germany, 1933–1945. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010.

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        This collection contains 752 translated excerpts from Gestapo, SD, and state administrations reports, an updated introduction to the German version, and a glossary, timeline, bibliography, and indexes. Attached is a CD, which offers more than 3,700 excerpts in German, which can be searched in English or German by date, place, and topics. Originally published in German in 2004.

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      • Roller, Walter, ed. Judenverfolgung und jüdisches Leben unter den Bedingungen der Nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft. Vol. 1, Tondokumente und Rundfunksendungen 1930–1946. Potsdam: Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, 1996.

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        The editor provides a very interesting edition of excerpts of often unpublished transcripts from audio recordings and radio broadcasts. The selection draws from anti-Jewish speeches of national and regional Nazi leaders.

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      Local and Regional Document Collections

      Often forgotten is the fact that, starting in the 1960s, some historical activists in Germany published comprehensive editions of regional or local documents on the persecution of the Jews, including Sauer 1966 on the region Baden-Württemberg, Fliedner 1971 on Mannheim, and Unger and Lang 1989 on Leipzig. These editions often combine documents from local state administrations, such as municipalities or the Gestapo, with material from Jewish communities.

      • Fliedner, Hans-Joachim. Die Judenverfolgung in Mannheim 1933–1945. 2 Vols. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1971.

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        This early collection of documents was edited by the city archive of Mannheim, a town in southwestern Germany. The selected excerpts stem from documents of regional and local administrations, newspapers and private letters, writings from Jewish institutions, and even postwar testimonies. The selection covers all aspects of the persecution of the Jews until their deportation to France in 1940.

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      • Sauer, Paul, ed. Dokumente über die Verfolgung der jüdischen Bürger in Baden-Württemberg durch das nationalsozialistische Regime 1933–1943. 2 vols. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1966.

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        The two volumes, edited by an archivist, are one of the earliest, but still one of the best, source collections on the Nazi persecution of the Jews in one German region. It provides the reader not only with a huge amount of especially regional and local administrative documents, but also with sources from foreign archives and Jewish newspapers

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      • Unger, Manfred, and Hubert Lang, eds. Juden in Leipzig: Eine Dokumentation zur Ausstellung anlässlich des 50. Jahrestages der Faschistischen Pogromnacht im Ausstellungszentrum der Karl-Marx-Universität Leipzig, Kroch-Hochhaus, Goethestr. 2. Vom 5. Nov. bis 17. Dez. 1988. Leipzig: Rat des Bezirkes Leipzig, Abt. Kultur, 1989.

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        The volume, published in East Germany as an exhibition catalogue, offers many facsimiles of a great variety of hitherto unseen documents and photographs about the life and the expulsion of the Jews in Leipzig (Saxonia), at that time home for many Jews. Most of the book focuses on the Third Reich and the persecution of the Jews.

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      Related Document Collections

      A variety of source editions on the Third Reich offer important information about the Holocaust, such as the immediate postwar publications on the Nuremberg trials (International Military Tribunal 1947), reprints of the reports on the Nazi state collected by the Social Democrats in exile (Behnken 1980), editions of sources from certain Nazi institutions (Institut für Zeitgeschichte 1983), the more recently published Hitler government files (Repgen, et al. 1983–2012), and local and regional accounts on resistance, including early document collections Neugebauer 1975 and Broszat, et al. 1977.

      • Behnken, Klaus, ed. Sopade: Deutschland-Berichte der Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands 1934–1940. 7 Vols. Reprint. Salzhausen, Germany: Nettelbeck, 1980.

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        The monthly reports of the Social Democrats in exile, first printed in Prague and later in Paris, frequently discuss in extra chapters the anti-Jewish policy in German and Austria in extensive detail, based on reports of eyewitnesses from different regions in Germany and Austria.

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      • Broszat, Martin, et al. eds. Bayern in der NS-Zeit. Vol 1, Soziale Lage und politisches Verhalten der Bevölkerung im Spiegel vertraulicher Berichte. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1977.

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        This volume offers a chapter about the persecution of the Jews and the reactions of the rest of the population in Bavaria. The sixty pages of documents consist mainly of excerpts taken from monthly and weekly reports of regional state administrations, such as the Regierungspräsidenten, regional and local police, and gestapo forces, as well as different party branches.

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      • Institut für Zeitgeschichte, ed. Akten der Parteikanzlei der NSDAP. Microfiche. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1983.

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        This microfiche edition is a reconstruction of the lost archive of the Parteikanzlei, the office of the Nazi Party’s deputy, by using copies of letters and protocols from correspondents in other ministries and institutions. It contains many documents regarding the anti-Jewish policy, since the Parteikanzlei received all drafts of laws and was also involved in other ways in the discussion about anti-Jewish policies.

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      • International Military Tribunal. Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal: Nuremberg, 14 November 1945–1 October 1946. 42 vols. Nuremberg, Germany: International Military Tribunal, 1947.

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        Out of the 42 volumes with the proceedings of the Nuremberg trials, 20 volumes contain German documents. Although this is a tiny part of the actual amount of the documents collected as evidence by the prosecutors in this trial on war crimes or crimes against humanity, many of the published documents refer to the anti-Jewish policies, the ideas of the Nazi party, or the killing of Jews.

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      • Neugebauer, Wolfgang, ed. Widerstand und Verfolgung in Wien 1934–1945. 3 Vols. Vienna: Österreichischer Bundesverlag für Unterricht, Wissenschaft und Kunst, 1975.

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        This series published by the Dokumentationsarchiv des Östereichischen Widerstandes focuses on resistance and persecution in Vienna. While the first two books deal with the political opposition, the third volume offers almost three hundred pages of documents, often excerpts, from the Vienna Gestapo, the Nazi Party, and the local Jewish community on the persecution of the Jews and other minorities, as well as on their opposition.

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      • Repgen, Konrad, Hans Booms, Friedrich Hartmannsgruber, Hans Günter Hockerts, and Hartmut Weber, eds. Akten der Reichskanzlei, Regierung Hitler 1933–1938. 5 vols. Boppard am Rhein: Boldt, and Munich: Oldenbourg Verlag, 1983–2012.

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        The files of the Reich chancellery on the Hitler government contain the minutes of government meetings and other important documents that illuminate the goals, discussions, and decisions of Hitler and his ministers. Among many other political topics, drafts of anti-Jewish laws are discussed as well as anti-Jewish measures.

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      Private Letters

      While letters often do not reveal much about the persecution, since the authors feared Nazi censorship, they may substitute to a certain extent for a missing diary by giving insights about the sorrows and hopes of the writers, as well as about their occupations and their relationships to friends and family. The two editions cited here are very different: Kolmar 2004 presents the letters of an artist, who has a very different view and way to cope with her experiences than the Mühlheim family, whose letters are collected in Hiob and Koller 1993.

      • Hiob, Hanne, and Gerd Koller, eds. “Wir verreisen . . .”: In die Vernichtung; Briefe 1937–1944. Hamburg: Konkret Literatur Verlag, 1993.

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        The letters from relatives of Hedwig Mühlheim in Upper Silesia and Berlin, whom she protected by her status as a Jew living in a so-called mixed marriage, are introduced and commented on by the historians Kurt Pätzold and Erika Schwarz. In their letters the authors talk about the increasing restrictions, the individual experiences of humiliations, and their hopes.

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      • Kolmar, Gertrud. My Gaze Turned Inward: Letters 1934–1943. Edited by Johanna Zeitler. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2004.

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        The impressive letters of the Berlin-born poet Gertrud Kolmar (b. 1894–d. 1943) to her sister describe local restrictions, forced labor, and the marking with the yellow star, yet not in a drastic way. However, between the lines the experienced reader feels the horror even more, the struggle of how she tries to make sense of things and adapt herself to the ever-worsening situation until her deportation in 1943 to Auschwitz, where she died. Originally published in German in 1970.

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      Diaries

      During the first decades after the war, publishers and editors tended to print only excerpts from diaries, but newer editions are much more complete. This allows the reader to understand that beyond the important political facts and the historical events, there was a daily life for victims as well as for perpetrators, and that they had to make choices.

      Victims

      Most published diaries are excerpts from the actual manuscript. However, these texts reveal a lot about the life, the mind, the hopes, the despair, and the responses of the persecuted Jews from middle-class backgrounds. While the diary entries in Klepper 1956 are often brief and Klepper talks a lot about his religious views, Klemperer 1998 is very detailed and highlights Klemperer’s personal changes, from a self-centered person to a critical observer. Tausk 1975 and Cohn 2006, meanwhile, provide reports from the very start, detailing the authors’ experiences of an increasing daily discrimination.

      • Cohn, Willy. Kein Recht, nirgends: Tagebuch vom Untergang des Breslauer Judentums 1933–1941. 2 vols. Edited by Norbert Conrads. Cologne: Böhlau, 2006.

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        Willy Cohn (1888–1941), a German-Jewish medieval historian who never got a university position after his PhD, taught at a local high school. In his impressive dairy, he painstakingly describes the changes for the Jews living in Breslau and a variety of smaller Silesian communities after the Nazis took power, his unsuccessful efforts to emigrate to Palestine, and the impact of the segregation until his deportation.

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      • Klepper, Jochen. Unter dem Schatten deiner Flügel: Aus den Tagebüchern der Jahre 1932–1942. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, 1956.

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        In his diary, Jochen Klepper (b. 1903–d. 1942), who was married to a Jewish woman with two daughters in Berlin, describes first his national success as a Christian writer. But soon the Nazi policies against the Jews affected his family and his professional efforts. The mounting pressure and the threat of deportation led him to commit suicide together with his Jewish wife and daughter.

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      • Klemperer, Victor. I Will Bear Witness. New York: Random House, 1998.

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        The voluminous diary of this professor of Roman languages (1881–1960) is well-known, but it is not representative for the life of Jews after 1933 as often wrongly assumed. Klemperer describes his experience as a Jew in a so-called mixed marriage, which was a privileged status. Only after 1938he experienced personally more closely the segregation in Jews houses and forced labor in Dresden. Originally published in German in 1995.

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      • Tausk, Walter. Breslauer Tagebuch 1933–1940. Edited by Richard Kincel. Berlin: Rütten & Loening, 1975.

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        The diary of Walter Tausk (1890–1941) was first published in East Germany. Tausk, who came from a Jewish Polish family, was a Buddhist. While he earned his living traveling as a salesman, he perceived himself as an artist and inventor. The diary documents his unsuccessful efforts under the increasing persecution of the Nazis in Breslau until 1940, a year before his deportation, when Tausk stopped writing.

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      Perpetrators

      Not many diaries survived that offer insights into the minds of perpetrators. The most famous one is that of the Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, who wrote an extensive and detailed political form of diary. While most entries are definitely drafted by Goebbels to be published later, the diary discloses a lot of insights about Goebbels’ opinion on the Jews, his changing role in the Nazi power constellation, and his conversations with Hitler (see Goebbels 1983, Goebbels 1987, and Goebbels 1998–2004).

      • Goebbels, Joseph. The Goebbels Diaries, 1939–1941. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1983.

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        The compilation offers a variety of entries from Goebbels diaries for the English reader. The excerpts of the entries cover the important years from the beginning of the war until the start of the mass extermination in the occupied Soviet Union and the deportation of the German Jews.

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      • Goebbels, Joseph. Die Tagebücher des Joseph Goebbels: Sämtliche Fragmente. Part I, Aufzeichnungen 1924–1941, vols.1–4. Edited by Elke Fröhlich. Munich: K. G. Saur, 1987.

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        This is the first comprehensive but still incomplete publication of Goebbels’ diary, containing all at that time available fragments.

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      • Goebbels, Joseph. Die Tagebücher von Joseph Goebbels. Part 1, Aufzeichnungen 1923–1941. 9 vols. Edited by Elke Fröhlich. Munich: K. G. Saur, 1998–2004.

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        New series, and a now almost complete edition of the Goebbels’ diary, including previously unknown parts of the diary that were captured by the Soviet Union and are now accessible in Russian archives.

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      Testimonies and Memoirs

      Testimonies of survivors exist in different forms, whether as brief early written statements, more detailed later memoirs, as early postwar audio recordings or films taped during the last two decades. Tens of thousands of written testimonies are located at archives as the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, the Leo Baeck Institute in New York, or the Wiener Library in London. Many individual testimonies have been published since the end of the war, both by big presses and small private ones. The entries here refer to Richarz 1991, a collection of written testimonies; collections now accessible online as the Voices of the Holocaust project (the so-called Boder collection, with early postwar audio recordings); or the USC Shoah Foundation Visual History Archive, with video testimonies from the 1990s and 2000s.

      • Richarz, Monika, ed. Jewish Life in Germany: Memoirs from Three Centuries. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

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        The third chapter of this edition contains excerpts of autobiographical testimonies of German Jews, which mostly are preserved today at the Leo Baeck Institute in New York. The vivid accounts describe all facets of Jewish life under Nazi persecution as well as Jewish reactions, including insights into the work of Jewish institutions by former employees. Originally published in three volumes in German in 1982.

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      • USC Shoah Foundation Visual History Archive.

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        The fully digitized archive houses 52,000 Jewish survivor video testimonies, of which 7,200 were conducted with survivors born in Germany and Austria, mostly during the 1990s. The content of every testimony is fully indexed and searchable online. Around 1,200 videos are watchable online, while access to the remaining testimonies is available at USC in Los Angeles and around forty sites around the world.

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        • Voices of the Holocaust.

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          Immediately after the war ended, Dr. David Boder, a psychologist from Chicago, started to visit refugee camps in France, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany, and to preserve the stories of survivors with a wire recorder. Around one hundred of these interviews, some of them with German and Austrian Jews, are now available as audio files online. The website provides both transcripts in their original language and an English translation.

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          Online Collections of Newspapers, Journals, and Law Gazettes

          Since the 1990s, more and more important sources have been digitized and are now accessible online. The most important collections are those of Nazi Germany’s law gazette, Reichsgesetzblatt 1933–1945, and the German-Jewish Newspapers collection from Compact Memory.

          • German-Jewish Newspapers. Compact Memory.

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            The German project digitized dozens of German-Jewish newspapers and journals from Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia, which are accessible online. Some start as early as the 19th century, most end with their closure by the Nazis in 1938, such as the prominent newspapers Jüdische Rundschau and CV-Zeitung, which are important sources of the public Jewish perspective during Nazi times. The search function is not well developed yet.

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            • Reichsgesetzblatt 1933–1945. ALEX Historische Rechts- und Gesetzestexte Online.

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              The German Law Gazette, containing all important anti-Jewish laws and many decrees, is accessible as facsimile online, though not searchable—interestingly enough, provided by the National Library of Austria.

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              Memorial Books

              The memorial books offer information about the Jews who perished in the Holocaust. Beside the national project to collect information on all Jews who had lived in the territories of the former German Reich and perished, (Gedenkbuch 2006), the increasing interest in Holocaust studies in the 1980s and 1990s also inspired local projects, mostly as a result of initiatives by archivists, as in Cologne (Rogmann, et al. 1995) and Hamburg (Sielemann and Flamme 1995), or on transports to specific destinations, such as Terezin (Kárný and Institut Terezínské Iniciativy 2000 and Institut Theresienstädter Initiative and Dokumentationsarchiv des Österreichischen Widerstandes 2005) or Lodz (Loose 2009). Local memorial books present not only data for the perished victims, but in some cases provide a reconstruction of the anti-Jewish policy in the respective town. Freie Universität Berlin 1995, meanwhile, is a book compiled by a Berlin university.

              • Freie Universität Berlin, Zentralinstitut für sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung (ed.). Gedenkbuch Berlins der jüdischen Opfer des Nationalsozialismus: “Ihre Namen mögen nie vergessen werden!” Introductory remarks by Ulrich Roloff-Momin and Jerzy Kanal. Berlin: Edition Hentrich, 1995.

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                This multiyear project of one of Berlin’s universities collects the names of around 50,000 Jewish Berliners, based on deportation lists, files of the finance administration, and other sources, which are listed with their last address and the place where they perished.

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              • Gedenkbuch Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter der nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft in Deutschland 1933–1945. Edited by Bundesarchiv, Koblenz, 2006.

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                Collection of names of Jewish victims who lived in the German Reich, including those parts that since 1945 are under Polish sovereignty. The project offers dates of birth and death, and places where they lived and perished. After a first incomplete attempt in the 1980s, the German unification provided the chance to include sources in former East Germany for this national memorial project, which is now in an updated version accessable online.

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                • Institut Theresienstädter Initiative and Dokumentationsarchiv des Österreichischen Widerstandes, eds. Theresienstädter Gedenkbuch: Österreichische Jüdinnen und Juden in Theresienstadt 1942–1945. Prague: Institut Theresienstädter Initiative, 2005.

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                  This book provides data about the over 15,000 Austrian Jews deported to Terezin, mostly elderly, starting in June 1942.

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                • Kárný, Miroslav, and Institut Terezínské Iniciativy, eds. Theresienstädter Gedenkbuch: Die Opfer der Judentransporte aus Deutschland nach Theresienstadt 1942–1945. Prague: Academia, 2000.

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                  After an introduction by the well-known Czech historian Miroslav Kárný, this book provides data about the German Jews who were deported to Terezin, but it does not offer place of birth and last residency. Over 42,000 German Jews were transported to Terezin, starting in 1942; 20,000 died there, and almost 16,000 were later deported from Terezin to the East. According to the Gedenkbuch, around 5,200 survived.

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                • Loose, Ingo. Berliner Juden im Getto Litzmannstadt 1941–1944: Ein Gedenkbuch. Berlin: Stiftung Topographie des Terrors, 2009.

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                  The eighty pages of introduction on the persecution of the Jews in Berlin, the ghetto Litzmannstadt (by Julian Baranowski), and the life of Berlin Jews in Litzmannstadt plus statistics of the transports (by Adam Sitarik) are followed by selected biographies of transportees. The list of 4,200 victims contains names, former Berlin addresses, and dates and locations of death. The book also offers unpublished photographs of ghetto life.

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                • Rogmann, Gabriele, and Horst Matzerath, and NS-Dokumentationszentrum, Historisches Archiv der Stadt Köln, eds. Die Jüdischen Opfer des Nationalsozialismus aus Köln: Gedenkbuch. Köln, Germany: Böhlau, 1995.

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                  The book, edited by the municipal archive, provides data for the Jews from Cologne who died during the Third Reich, but also offers a historical reconstruction of the local anti-Jewish policy by Horst Matzerath, a specialist on the history of Cologne.

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                • Sielemann, Jürgen, and Paul Flamme, eds. Hamburger jüdische Opfer des Nationalsozialismus: Gedenkbuch. Hamburg: Staatsarchiv Hamburg, 1995.

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                  The then archivist from the Hamburg State Archive provides account data (birth and deportation date, location of death) for more than 8.800 Jews who lived in Hamburg and were murdered during the Third Reich.

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                Anti-Jewish Persecution until 1938

                A large number of books have been written on the Nazi state and its policies against the Jews since the Second World War ended. While earlier works focused on the state and the Nazi party, more recent studies have investigated individual perpetrator agencies, local administrations, and private organizations. Especially since about 1990, with the opening of new archives and the emergence of a new international generation of historians, research has diversified a lot and opened up new fields, such as racial policies, the involvement of municipalities, and Aryanization.

                The Nazi State

                Many books have been published on the so-called Hitler state, yet only a few really go beyond a mere description of the political developments. Some published during the Second World, however, such as Fraenkel 2010 and Neumann 2009, do exactly this by analyzing state structures, legislation, and political practice. While Broszat 1981 provides a sincere examination of the establishment of the administrative structure of the Nazi dictatorship, the recent three volumes by Richard Evans (Evans 2004, Evans 2005, Evans 2009) are a virtuoso synthesis of the state of research on the Third Reich.

                • Broszat, Martin. The Hitler State: The Foundation and Development of the Internal Structure of the Third Reich. London: Longman 1981.

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                  The study of the German historian Broszat is still a standard for the establishment of the Nazi dictatorship and its political and administrative changes after 1933. It provides a “functionalist” interpretation by emphasizing the polycratic nature of the Third Reich institutions and the conflicts between them as the reason for the radicalization against the Jews. Originally published in German in 1969.

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                • Evans, Richard J. The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin, 2004.

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                  Currently the best synthesis of a political and social history of the Nazi state, which the prominent British historian Evans grounded on great knowledge and understanding of the available recent research in all its facets. He discusses the devastating effects of the First World War for Germany, the Weimar democracy, its crisis, and the rise of Nazism, ending with the establishment of the dictatorship.

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                • Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in Power, 1933–1939. New York: Penguin, 2005.

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                  The second installment of Evans’s history of the Third Reich discusses the terror against political enemies and competitors, the establishment of a police state, the ideological mobilization and indoctrination of the German people, the exclusion of the racial Other, and the segregation of the Jews, as well as economic, social, and labor issues, ending with the creation of Greater Germany.

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                • Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich at War. New York: Penguin, 2009.

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                  This last volume of Evans’s history analyzes the progress of the war, its tight relationship to the emergence of radical racial visions and finally genocide. Anti-Jewish policies and the extermination process are described in great detail, as is the situation in Germany towards the end of the war. The study is based on a vast amount of secondary literature and primary sources, such as diaries and Nazi reports.

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                • Fraenkel, Ernst. The Dual State: A Contribution to the Theory of Dictatorship. Translated from the German by E. A. Shils, in collaboration with Edith Lowenstein and Klaus Knorr. Lawbook Exchange ed. Clark, NJ: Lawbook Exchange, 2010.

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                  The German-Jewish lawyer, who wrote the manuscript in Nazi Germany, analyzes the Nazi state based on his personal experiences as a practicing lawyer until 1938. Fraenkel established the thesis of a dual state that acts according to the law, but also increasingly reinterprets laws on an ad hoc basis, enacts new norms, and rules by violence. Originally published in 1941 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

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                • Neumann, Franz. Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism, 1933–1944. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2009.

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                  After describing the collapse of the Weimar Republic, the study analyzes Nazi Germany as a totalitarian state, and Hitler as a charismatic leader based on racist and anti-Semitic views of the people. Neumann describes the new organization of state and society, the economy under totalitarian control, and the political structure of the Nazi state during the war. Originally published in 1942 and 1944.

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                Persecution Policies

                While earlier studies often focused on anti-Jewish laws and propaganda, research since the 1990s has achieved a great deal of diversification. Historians started to explore various aspects of the persecution, such as racial policies, violence, local dynamics, exclusion from welfare and education, and Aryanization. In particular, research on a variety of institutions, from the Gestapo to municipalities, changed our picture tremendously about which agencies really executed authority over the development and implementation of anti-Jewish policies.

                Violent Attacks

                Instead of understanding anti-Jewish violence simply as the most important outcome of anti-Semitic ideology, more recent works tend to analyze violence more in depth in its contexts and functions, as an important element to build a so-called people’s community (Wildt 2007) or as an instrument of Nazi Party politics (Nolzen 2003).

                • Nolzen, Armin. “The Nazi Party and its Violence against the Jews, 1933–1938/39: Violence as a Historiographical Concept.” Yad Vashem Studies 31 (2003): 245–285.

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                  The author establishes the importance of violence against Jews in Nazi Germany and its instrumentalized use by the NSDAP and its formations.

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                • Wildt, Michael. Volksgemeinschaft als Selbstermächtigung: Gewalt gegen Juden in der deutschen Provinz 1919 bis 1939. Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, 2007.

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                  The study describes violence as a twofold process: the exclusion of Jews by force and integration of non-Jewish Germans via their participation in the execution of violence into the so-called Folkish community.

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                Local versus Central Policies

                Already in the 1970s, studies such as Schleunes 1970 and Pätzold 1975 on the earlier years of Nazi persecution emphasized the importance of local initiatives for the radicalization of the discrimination against the Jews. Although dozens of local studies confirmed these findings, only in the 1990s this was taken into account and developed into a thesis of a mutual dynamic between national and local, especially driven by municipal anti-Jewish policies and the coordinating role of the German Council of Municipalities (Gruner 1999, Gruner 2000)

                • Gruner, Wolf. “The German Council of Municipalities and the Coordination of Anti-Jewish Local Policies in the Nazi State.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 13.2 (1999): 171–199.

                  DOI: 10.1093/hgs/13.2.171Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  This article investigates the role of municipalities in the formulation of anti-Jewish measures and the coordination by the German Council of Municipalities, founded in 1933. Examining topics such as access to public markets and expropriation of Jewish property, the author demonstrates the radical role of many cities that went beyond national legislation, as well as the important function of the Council in sanctioning these acts.

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                • Gruner, Wolf. “Die NS-Judenverfolgung und die Kommunen: Zur wechselseitigen Dynamisierung von zentraler und lokaler Politik 1933–1941.” Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 48.1 (2000): 75–126.

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                  This often cited article by a German historian revives the discussion about the initiative role of local governments in radicalizing anti-Jewish persecution. It examines the leeway that city governments, and even their departments, had in domestic policies, and suggests a mutual dynamic between municipal radicalism and national legislation regarding the political, social, and economic exclusion of the Jews.

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                • Pätzold, Kurt. Faschismus, Rassenwahn, Judenverfolgung: Eine Studie zur politischen Strategie und Taktik des faschistischen Imperialismus 1933–1935. Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, 1975.

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                  This study by an East German historian was based on a wealth of new material. It provides the reader with a thorough analysis of central policies up to the Nuremberg Laws, while including local developments of importance.

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                • Schleunes, Karl. The Twisted Road to Auschwitz: Nazi Policy towards German Jews, 1933–39. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970.

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                  This book, with its often cited title, offers a study of the years before the war, combining for the first time the investigation of central and local policies, and demonstrating the inconsistency of both and the sometimes initiative role of the latter.

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                Exclusionary Legislation

                Many anti-Jewish laws and decrees were either hidden among thousands of laws in the German Law Gazette or, after 1939, only appeared in the censored only Jewish newspaper, while still others have gone unpublished, such as ministerial, security service, or municipal decrees. Several attempts have been made to provide scholars with summaries of the most important legal measures, however. This started in 1952 with a small collection by the survivor and lawyer Bruno Blau (see Blau 1965). Then came the most popular edition, Walk 1981, which experienced several editions, although for specialists this collection suffers from a rather random approach. In the 1990s, such local studies as a chronology on Berlin (Gruner 2014) and more thematic analyses (Essner 2002, Dean 2010) were published.

                • Blau, Bruno. Das Ausnahmerecht für die Juden in Deutschland 1933–1945. 3d printing. Düsseldorf: Verlag Allgemeine Wochenzeitung der Juden in Deutschland, 1965.

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                  Provides an early selection of important anti-Jewish laws and decrees, most as brief descriptions, though some are published with their full text.

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                • Dean, Martin. Robbing the Jews: The Confiscation of Jewish Property in the Holocaust, 1933–1945. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

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                  This book provides a detailed overview on the subject and deals with the legislation and measures regarding different aspects of expropriation and forced property transfer in Germany, but also with tsimilar policies in the annexed and occupied territories.

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                • Essner, Cornelia. Die “Nürnberger Gesetze” oder die Verwaltung des Rassenwahns 1933–1945. Paderborn, Germany: Schöningh, 2002.

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                  The book examines the context, origin, and development of the so-called Nuremberg Laws, plus the series of thirteen anti-Jewish decrees based on the “Reichsbürgergesetz.”

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                • Gruner, Wolf. The Persecution of the Jews in Berlin 1933–1945: A Chronology of Measures by Authorities in the German Capital. Translation (updated) of the second substantially extended and revised edition. Berlin: Stiftung Topographie des Terrors, 2014.

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                  After an extensive introduction, the book provides brief descriptions of hundreds of anti-Jewish measures taken by the Berlin city government with its sources, as well as the main national laws and decrees. Original published in German in 1996, with an extended second edition in 2009.

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                • Walk, Josef, ed. Das Sonderrecht für die Juden im NS-Staat: Eine Sammlung der gesetzlichen Maßnahmen - Inhalt und Bedeutung. Heidelberg, Karlsruhe: Müller, 1981.

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                  Briefly annotates 2000 laws, decrees, and circulars, whether of state and party formations or national, regional, and local institutions, organized by date, however, not by origin.

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                Exclusion from Public Education and Welfare

                The following titles demonstrate in detail the twisted paths of exclusion, using two important fields as examples: education (Walk 1975) and welfare (Gruner 2002). The authors prove that national laws and local initiatives radicalized equally the discrimination against Jewish students and the Jewish poor, but they also show also how Jewish communities and organizations responded.

                • Gruner, Wolf. Öffentliche Wohlfahrt und Judenverfolgung: Wechselwirkungen lokaler und zentraler Politik im NS-Staat (1933–1942). Munich: Oldenbourg, 2002.

                  DOI: 10.1524/9783486594829Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  The important role of local agencies is here exemplified by the public welfare system and its exclusion of the needy Jews in Germany and Austria. The study also emphasizes the coordinating and radicalizing role of the German Council of Municipalities, as well as the responses of Jewish communities and their activities to compensate via additional welfare for the Jewish needy.

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                • Walk, Joseph. Hinnuko Sel Ha-yeled Ha-yehudi Beg-germaniyah Han-nasit. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1975.

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                  A comprehensive study on education, starting with the effects of the law for the restoration of the civil service in April 1933 and other legislation that excluded Jewish teachers and students from German public schools, until the responses of Jewish communities, including the Reichsvertretung, and their efforts to establish a separate private Jewish school system. Published in German in 1991.

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                Racial Policy

                Since the 1990s, racial policy has been examined from different angles regarding its impact on anti-Jewish policies, such as the rational population and economy planning by a scientific elite (Aly and Heim 2002), the juridical practice enforcing the Nuremberg Laws (Przyrembel 2003), the establishment of a linguistic segregation (Pegelow 2011), or the establishment of racist academic research on Jews (Rupnow 2011).

                • Aly, Götz, and Susanne Heim. Architects of Annihilation: Auschwitz and the Logic of Destruction. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.

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                  In this study, which provoked controversy after its publication, the German authors focus on the hitherto neglected influence of a young academic elite on urban and economic planning, which, starting in Vienna and ending in the ghettos of Poland, used rational arguments against the Jewish population and thus radicalized the racial course more than ideological top-down decisions. Originally published in German in 1991.

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                • Pegelow, Thomas. The Language of Nazi Genocide: Linguistic Violence and the Struggle of Germans of Jewish Ancestry. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

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                  The study investigates the construction of racial difference by the Nazis via language and texts as well as the responses to and contestation of linguistic violence and racial difference.

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                • Przyrembel, Alexandra. “Rassenschande”: Reinheitsmythos und Vernichtungslegitimation im Nationalsozialismus. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2003.

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                  The German historian Przyrembel explores the prohibition of relationships and marriages between Jews and non-Jews, and the concept of “race defilement.” She investigates its introduction as a punishable crime with the Nuremberg Laws, the practice of denunciation, the trials and differing punishments, as well as language, behavior of the perpetrators, and profile and responses of persons accused of the “crime.”

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                • Rupnow, Dirk. Judenforschung im Dritten Reich: Wissenschaft zwischen Politik, Propaganda und Ideologie. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlag, 2011.

                  DOI: 10.5771/9783845229799Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  Rupnow investigates the establishment of a new interdisciplinary academic field of research on the Jews during the Third Reich, based on racist and anti-Jewish grounds. The study highlights the paradox that the systematic research, while driven to provide historic and scientific foundations for the difference of the Jews, at the same time helped to preserve knowledge of Jewish culture and traditions.

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                Perpetrator Agencies

                For a long time, studies focused on the Nazi Party and its sub-organizations as the only responsible driving forces behind discrimination toward the German Jews. Since the early 1990s, however, this situation has changed dramatically, and a broad range of institutions are now perceived as having been part of the perpetrator network, including agencies such as the Gestapo and the Security Service of the SS, and most recently various ministries and even local administrations.

                Government and Ministries

                Up until recently, there were not so many studies on ministries and their share in the formulation of anti-Jewish policies, except for works on the German Foreign Office. The latter described how the Foreign Office quickly transformed itself into a promoter of Nazi Jewish policy, and how it was later deeply involved in the Final Solution (Elissar 1969, Browning 1978). Nowadays, almost every ministry is under scrutiny, and the role of each in drafting anti-Jewish policies have been disclosed. The Reich Transport Ministry, for example, is examined in Gottwaldt and Schulle 2007). After a more apologetic book on the Reich Finance Ministry by Mehl 1990, the involvement of the finance administration and its personnel in anti-Jewish policies in Germany and Europe has been clearly exposed in Friedenberger, et al. 2002; Aly 2007; and Kuller 2013.

                • Aly, Götz. Hitler’s Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War, and the Nazi Welfare State. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007.

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                  One of the innovative elements of this widely and critically disputed study is the establishment of the Reich Finance Ministry and its head, Schwerin von Krosigk, as the leading authority for the expropriation of Jews in Greater Germany and the occupied countries, which, according to the author, cemented collaboration of the people and financed the war. Originally published in German in 2005.

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                • Browning, Christopher R. The Final Solution and the German Foreign Office: A Study of Referat D III of Abteilung Deutschland, 1940–43. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1978.

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                  The prominent US historian offers a critical study of the involvement of the Foreign Office in anti-Jewish policy and the implementation of the Final Solution in Europe. The study provides a biographical overview of the main actors in the Foreign Office and then analyzes in depth their cooperation and competition with the Reich Security main office regarding anti-Jewish policies, deportations, and the mass killings.

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                • Elissar, Eliahu Ben. La Diplomatie du IIIe Reich et les Juifs 1933–1939. Paris: Julliard 1969.

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                  This is an early account of German foreign policy regarding the Jews, based on documents of the Foreign Office archive and the German Federal Archive. The book covers diplomatic discussions about the Boycott in 1933, the status of the Jews in Upper Silesia and the Bernheim petition, the Olympic Games, the Nuremberg Laws, the pogrom of November 1938, and the emigration of the Jews.

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                • Friedenberger, Martin, Klaus-Dieter Gössel, and Eberhard Schönknecht, eds. Die Reichsfinanzverwaltung im Nationalsozialismus: Darstellung und Dokumente. Bremen, Germany: Edition Temmen, 2002.

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                  After a careful first-time survey of the involvement of the Reich finance and tax administration in the persecution and expropriation of the Jews, this overview present some hitherto unpublished key documents, especially showing the central orders and the interpretation by regional tax departments.

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                • Gottwaldt, Alfred, and Diana Schulle. “Juden ist die Benutzung von Speisewagen untersagt”: Die antijüdische Politik des Reichsverkehrsministeriums zwischen 1933 und 1945; Forschungsgutachten. Teetz, Germany: Hentrich & Hentrich, 2007.

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                  This book describes how the Reich Transport Ministry first dismissed Jewish colleagues and supported the boycott of Jewish businesses, and later cancelled driver’s licenses of Jews and prohibited their travel in sleeping cars. Responsible for the Reichsbahn and Reichsautobahn corporations, the ministry employed thousands of Jewish forced laborers during the war. It also provided the transport for the deportation of German and Austrian Jews.

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                • Kuller, Christiane. Bürokratie und Verbrechen: Antisemitische Finanzpolitik und Vewaltungspraxis im nationalsoyialistischen Deutschland. Munich: Oldenbourg Verlag, 2013.

                  DOI: 10.1524/9783486735925Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  Based on a close study of the hitherto unexplored archival materials of the Reich Finance Ministry, Kuller examines in detail anti-Jewish tax measures and the state-organized plunder of Jewish emigrants after 1933, the role of German finance institutions in the “Aryanization” process, and the later expropriation of the Jewish population in Greater Germany.

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                • Mehl, Stefan. Das Reichsfinanzministerium und die Verfolgung der deutschen Juden 1933–1945. Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Zentralinstitut für Sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung, 1990.

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                  While this study on the Reich Finance Ministry was one of the first, it didn’t take into account all files of the ministry, nor did it look at other sources and archives. The author missed to discuss critically the often apologetic postwar reports of the ministry officials.

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                The Nazi Party

                Although the share of the Nazi Party in the development of anti-Jewish measures is an uncontested fact and is dealt with in almost every book on the Holocaust, only one good historical account on the party exists (Pätzold and Weissbecker 2009, first published 1981), and no serious recent analysis is available about the actual involvement in and authority of its top institutions over the drafting and executing of anti-Jewish policies.

                • Pätzold, Kurt, and Manfred Weissbecker. Geschichte der NSDAP 1920–1945. Köln, Germany: PapyRossa, 2009.

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                  This book, authored by two East German historians in 1981, is still the only solid history of the Nazi Party, yet it dedicates only a few pages to the persecution and extermination of the Jews. Originally published in 1981.

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                SS and SD (Security Service of the SS)

                The study of an Austrian historian, Safrian 2009, was the first to investigate the SD (Sicherheitsdienst, “Security Service”) personnel and its influence in the development of anti-Jewish politics, first in Austria and later in Germany and other countries, followed by Wildt 1995 and Lozowick 2000. Schulte 2001 examines the Wirtschaftsverwaltungshauptamt, and Heinemann 2004 investigates the overlooked Rasse- und Siedlungshauptamt, both main SS (Schutzstaffel, “Protection Echelon”) offices. Wildt 2009 deliveres the most advanced approach to the biographical and institutional research of the SS and its leading personnel.

                • Heinemann, Isabel. “Rasse, Siedlung, deutsches Blut”: Das Rasse- und Siedlungshauptamt der SS und die rassenpolitische Neuordnung Europas. Göttingen, Germany: Wallstein Verlag, 2004.

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                  The German historian analyzes in her voluminous study the establishment of the Race and Settlement Main Office of the SS and its involvement in the reorganization of the “racial order” in Europe. In particular, she looks at the office’s role in anti-Jewish politics in Germany and in the radicalization of racist occupation policies, and later she examines the connections between Germanization and the extermination of Jews.

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                • Lozowick, Yaacov. Hitler’s Bureaucrats: The Nazi Security Police and the Banality of Evil. London and New York: Continuum, 2000.

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                  This study by an Israeli historian is based on trial materials and the then newly discovered materials form the Moscow Special Archive. It focuses on various groups of SD men in Berlin, the Netherlands, and France, and on the Reich Main Security Office. The study explores the formation of the SD policies and the activities around the Final Solution, using case studies on Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Hungary.

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                • Safrian, Hans. Eichmann’s Men. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

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                  The first important attempt to look into the evolving network of perpetrators around Adolf Eichmann, which started in Vienna and Prague and later branched out to occupied Europe, as well as Croatia and Greece. This group appeared instrumental in developing policies against the Jewish population, first in Austria with the so-called Vienna model, and later in various countries with their deportation for extermination. Originally published in German in 1993.

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                • Schulte, Jan Erik. Zwangsarbeit und Vernichtung: Das Wirtschaftsimperium der SS. Oswald Pohl und das SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt 1933–1945. Paderborn, Germany: Ferdinand Schömingh Verlag, 2001.

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                  The German historian studies one of the most important SS offices and describes its structure, personnel, and activities. This office was responsible for the establishment of the concentration camp system, first in Germany and later in Europe, and it orchestrated the exploitation of millions of camp inmates, among them many Jews, plus special deployments of Jewish forced laborers in other SS camps in the occupied East.

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                • Wildt, Michael. An Uncompromising Generation : The Nazi Leadership of the Reich Security Main Office. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009.

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                  This important study combines a thorough collective biographical investigation with an analysis of the creation of the main perpetrator agency, the Reich Main Security Office, in September 1939, and the involvement of its staff in drafting and executing the Final Solution. Originally published in German in 2002.

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                • Wildt, Michael, ed. Die Judenpolitik des SD 1935–1938: Eine Dokumentation. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1995.

                  DOI: 10.1524/9783486703054Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  This study focuses on the early phase of the development of anti-Jewish strategies by the leading personnel of the security service of the SS in Berlin. An elaborate introduction is followed by an edition of key documents unearthed in the so-called Sonderarchiv, the long inaccessible special archive of captured documents in the Soviet Union.

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                Gestapo

                For a long time, historians did not question the traditional image of the Gestapo and its almighty power. Recently, however, this notion was undermined by studies that have carefully analyzed personnel and activities. The special role of the Gestapo in anti-Jewish policies was restricted after 1937 to the enforcement of laws and measures, such as the deportations, as well as the arrest of individuals, while the SD was handling the strategic planning. Gellately 1990 describes how the Gestapo depended on the denunciations of the German population, while Paul and Mallmann 1995 and Paul and Mallmann 2000 focus on Gestapo activities and their cooperation with other institutions, first up until the war in Greater Germany, and secondly in the occupied territories.

                • Gellately, Robert. The Gestapo and German Society: Enforcing Racial Policy, 1933–1945. Oxford: Clarendon, 1990.

                  DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198228691.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  Gellately establishes that the Gestapo in fact depended on denunciations by institutions and individuals to enforce racial policy. The book is based on one of the few surviving regional holdings in Germany, the Gestapo files in Würzburg, and analyzes the enforcement of anti-Jewish policies as well as the measures to discriminate against foreign forced laborers.

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                • Paul, Gerhard, and Klaus-Michael Mallmann, eds. Die Gestapo: Mythos und Realität. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1995.

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                  This volume, edited by two German historians, combines contributions of younger German scholars and regional experts as well as some international scholars to tackle the “myth and reality” of the Gestapo. Often using a regional lens, the personnel, the administrative structure, and the participation in deportation and extermination are analyzed based on the latest research, mostly for German territories and cities.

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                • Paul, Gerhard, and Klaus-Michael Mallmann, eds. Die Gestapo im Zweiten Weltkrieg: “Heimatfront” und besetztes Europa. Darmstadt: Primus, 2000.

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                  The editors offer contributions that focus on the period of the Second World War in occupied Europe. The contributors examine the cooperation of the Gestapo with other institutions; provide regional analysis on Gestapo participation in the persecution of Jews, forced laborers, and members of the resistance; and look at the Gestapo’s role in the occupational regime and the extermination of the Jews.

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                Regional and Local Institutions

                The investigation of regional and local branches of state administrations has proven to be highly important, since newer studies have questioned the simplistic top-down understanding of the Nazi state. The research reveals not only the importance of local agencies for the execution of central measures, but also that leeway for local interpretation existed and led to very different approaches and even radicalization beyond national legislation, as shown by the study of regional courts (Noam and Kropat 1975); finance departments, here exemplified by the studies on Hesse (Meinl and Zwilling 2004) and Berlin (Friedenberger 2008); the Gestapo (Berschel 2001); and city governments (Fleiter 2006).

                • Berschel, Holger. Bürokratie und Terror: Das Judenreferat der Gestapo Düsseldorf 1935–1945. Essen, Germany: Klartext, 2001.

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                  This is one of the best regional studies on the Gestapo’s involvement in the execution of anti-Jewish policies. The author analyzes the security police of Düsseldorf by examining development, tasks, and activities, as well as the biographies of its staff. Based on a huge amount of archival and trial material, the author studies the enforcement of anti-Jewish laws and local measures.

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                • Fleiter, Rüdiger. Stadtverwaltung im Dritten Reich: Verfolgungspolitik auf kommunaler Ebene am Beispiel Hannovers. Hanover, Germany: Verlag Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 2006.

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                  This detailed study, based on a dissertation, investigates the Nazification of the Hanover municipality, the execution of racial policies, and especially the involvement of the city government and its administration in the persecution of the Jews. Fleiter confirms in great detail recent findings of the active and often initiative role of city governments in persecuting, segregating, and pauperizing Jewish inhabitants.

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                • Friedenberger, Martin. Fiskalische Ausplünderung: Die Berliner Steuer- und Finanzverwaltung und die jüdische Bevölkerung 1933–1945. Berlin: Metropol Verlag, 2008.

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                  This detailed study, done as a historical dissertation by Friedenberger, a German tax expert and civil servant, exploits a wealth of uncovered documents, many of them difficult to access in still operating institutions. The author explores the exploitation of the Jewish emigrants via the “Reich flee tax” in Berlin as well as the utilization of their belongings by the Berlin finance and tax administration.

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                • Meinl, Susanne, and Jutta Zwilling, eds. Legalisierter Raub: Die Ausplünderung der Juden im Nationalsozialismus durch die Reichsfinanzverwaltung in Hessen. Frankfurt: Campus, 2004.

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                  The authors offer a painstakingly detailed picture of the finance and tax administration in Hesse and its involvement in the “legalized robbery” of Jewish property. They describe the structure and the personnel of the administration, the execution of the anti-Jewish laws, and the process of the reconstitution of stolen property.

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                • Noam, Ernst, and Wolf-Arno Kropat. Juden vor Gericht 1933–1945: Dokumente aus hessischen Justizakten. Wiesbaden, Germany: Kommission für d. Geschichte der Juden in Hessen, 1975.

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                  This is a collection of excerpts of court documents, in their majority judgments, from the German state Hesse, which demonstrate the participation of lawyers and judges in the persecution of the Jews after 1933. The documents cover a wide range of opposition to Nazi laws. Jews were punished for breaking the Nuremberg Laws or the restrictions regarding foreign currency or forced names.

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                Semi-Public Institutions and Corporations

                The involvement of institutions, such as the Reichsbahn and the Reichsautobahn, or at the local level, municipal water works or gas plants, in the persecution of the Jews has been neglected so far, with the noble exception of Gottwaldt 2011.

                • Gottwaldt, Alfred. Die Reichsbahn und die Juden 1933–1939: Antisemitismus bei der Eisenbahn in der Vorkriegszeit. Wiesbaden, Germany: Marix, 2011.

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                  In this study of the Berlin railroad, the historian Gottwaldt, who established himself recently as the specialist on the deportation of the Jews from the Third Reich, covers the anti-Jewish policies of the Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft, the German railroad corporation and the German Ministry of Transport, and its authority, from the dismissal of personnel to the involvement in the first deportations of Jews to concentration camps in November 1938.

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                Private Organizations and Corporations

                Because scholars have mainly focused on the Nazi Party or the Nazi state, the role of private institutions in the implementation and development of anti-Jewish policies stayed unrecognized for a long time. As for the German society as a whole, the personnel in churches and businesses acted in manifold ways, from radical expulsion of Jews to help or even resistance.

                Churches

                Churches and the behavior of the clergy during the Third Reich were always the center of attention for scholars, whether by studying theologians (Ericksen 1985, Heschel 2010) or pro-Nazi Christian movements (Bergen 1996). Recent studies have focused on whether the church in practice facilitated racial policy (Gailus 2008), and they have revealed more complex results, contradicting to a certain extent simplistic assumptions regarding the churches, such as whether they were nests of resistance or Nazi followers (Phayer 2000).

                • Bergen, Doris L. Twisted Cross: The German Christian Movement in the Third Reich. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

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                  Comprehensive account based on new research about the part played by Protestants who leaned toward National Socialism. The book contains chapters on anti-Jewish ideas of the German Christians, as well as on the expulsion of non-Aryans from the church.

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                • Ericksen, Robert P. Theologians under Hitler: Gerhard Kittel, Paul Althaus, and Emanuel Hirsch. New Haven, CT: Yale University press 1985.

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                  The author investigates the biographies of three influential theologians who supported Hitler and the Nazi state. The book provides some insights into why universities and churches did not confront them.

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                • Gailus, Manfred, ed. Kirchliche Amtshilfe: Die Kirche und die Judenverfolgung im “Dritten Reich.” Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008.

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                  The volume contains several contribution on how the churches, especially regional Protestant churches in Berlin, Mecklenburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, and Thuringia, facilitated Nazi racial policy by disclosing personal data from their records, first for the confirmation of an “Aryan” heritage of civil servants and other people, and later for the identification of Jews, for their persecution and deportation.

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                • Heschel, Susannah. The Aryan Jesus: Christian Theologians and the Bible in Nazi Germany. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.

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                  This book by an American historian is an important contribution to the study of Christianity in Nazi Germany. Based on thorough archival work, the study concentrates on the history of the Institute for the Study and Eradication of Jewish Influence on German Religious Life, and how the institute’s theologians used anti-Judaic theology to support Nazi anti-Semitic ideology.

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                • Phayer, Michael. The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930–1965. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000.

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                  This study marked an important departure from previous studies, which were based on religious writings, newspapers, and administrative Nazi documents. Phayer also examined materials from the church archives and private papers to study the church, its hierarchy, and clergy. He explores how some ordinary German Catholics faced the Nazi state.

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                Businesses

                Research on the participation of big companies increased suddenly as an outcome of the international discussion about Holocaust compensation in the 1990s. Research revealed that, contrary to former beliefs, private businesses did not withstand the Nazi persecution of the Jews. Books on insurance companies (Feldman 2001), banks (Ziegler 2006), and industries (Hayes 2007) demonstrate their clear and often active involvement, from the early expulsion of Jewish managers and employees to the later exploitation of Jewish forced laborers.

                • Feldman, Gerald D. Allianz and the German Insurance Business, 1933–1945. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511511844Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  The study by the prominent late US economic historian explores the “Nazification” of this big German insurance enterprise, and discusses the activities of managers such as Kurt Schmitt, who served as the head of the Ministry for Economy in 1933–1934. The book offers insight into the discussions about payment for Jews after Kristallnacht, as well as the expansion into the annexed and occupied countries.

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                • Hayes, Peter. From Cooperation to Complicity: Degussa in the Third Reich. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

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                  The US author investigates the extraordinary role of Degussa, a relatively small firm, during the Holocaust. The company melted silver and gold, which Nazi Germany forced the Jews to sell after Kristallnacht, and which was later taken from the murdered Jews. It delivered the poison gas “Zyklon B” to Auschwitz and employed forced laborers and concentration camp inmates. Degussa also profited from acquisitions made through so-called Aryanizations.

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                • Ziegler, Dieter, ed. Die Dresdner Bank und die deutschen Juden. Munich: Oldenbourg, 2006.

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                  As Part 2 of a monumental four-volume study on the role of one of Germany’s biggest banks, this book shows its share in the anti-Jewish persecution and the room for maneuver of its leading personnel. The bank dismissed Jewish employees, later reduced company pensions for former Jewish employees, and gained profits and business contacts from financing “Aryanization,” expanding, and “Aryanizing” itself.

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                Aryanization

                The “Aryanization” of Jewish property, which means the forced sale or expropriation, especially of shops and businesses, was first researched in the 1960s as a nationwide process in Nazi Germany, which climaxed in 1938. The early studies established general trends, focusing on the central government orchestrating the process of the Aryanization of small and larger businesses (Genschel 1966). Newer studies pointed out that Aryanization started long before 1938, when Jews were prohibited from running businesses, as a so-called silent process (Barkai 1989). Recent studies widened the focus beyond shops and businesses (Duizend-Jensen 2004) or explored new subjects, such as the role of municipalities in the Aryanization of real estate owned by Jews or the Aryanization of foundations and associations (Wojak and Hayes 2000).

                • Barkai, Avraham. From Boycott to Annihilation: The Economic Struggle of the German Jews, 1933–1943. Translated by W. Templer. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1989.

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                  Barkai, an Israeli historian who had already published a study on the Nazi economy system, develops here a broader approach, which includes Jewish individual and institutional reactions to the exclusion of Jews from the German economy. He points out that the “subtle Aryanization” was pretty successful, but he still views 1938 as the “fateful year.” Originally published in German in 1987.

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                • Duizend-Jensen, Shoshana. Jüdische Gemeinden, Vereine, Stiftungen und Fonds. “Arisierung” und Restitution. Vienna and Munich: Oldenbourg Verlag, 2004.

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                  As one of the studies evolving from the Austrian Historical Commission, this volume analyzes in detail the property of the Jewish communities, foundations, and organizations in Vienna and beyond, and their Aryanization and expropriation after 1938.

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                • Genschel, Helmut. Die Verdrängung der Juden aus der Wirtschaft im Dritten Reich. Göttingen, Germany: Musterschmidt, 1966.

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                  Genschel’s important study set the tone on this subject for a long time. It concentrates on the national level and how the Nazi government orchestrated the process of taking over Jewish businesses. While acknowledging that there was a subtle Aryanization going on since 1933, the research emphasizes the national anti-Jewish measures in the business sector, culminating in the decrees for registration of Jewish property and its later forced Aryanization in 1938.

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                • Wojak, Irmtrud, and Peter Hayes, eds. “Arisierung”: Volksgemeinschaft, Raub und Gedächtnis. Frankfurt: Campus, 2000.

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                  The volume, with chapters written by German and American historians, looks into the strategies of “Aryan” buyers and Jewish sellers, the “Aryanization” of the business elites, and the attacks of city government on real estate owned by Jews, as well as similar processes in the annexed and occupied East.

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                Local

                Since the 1990s, a series of case studies on the attacks on Jewish businesses and their Aryanization has appeared, revealing local radicalism as well as differences, including suggesting the more radical nature of the exclusion of Jews in smaller towns (Händler-Lachmann and Werther 1992, Bruns-Wüstefeld 1997) than in big cities (Bajohr 2002). However, new studies, such as Kreutzmueller 2012 on Berlin, question this idea.

                • Bajohr, Frank. “Aryanisation” in Hamburg: The Economic Exclusion of Jews and the Confiscation of their Property in Nazi Germany. New York: Berghahn, 2002.

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                  This often-cited study on one of the biggest German cities set standards at its time for the research of local anti-Jewish persecution in the economic field by studying a variety of different sources and analyzing multiple agencies involved in the local process. Originally published in German in 1997.

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                • Bruns-Wüstefeld, Alex. Lohnende Geschäfte: Die “Entjudung” der Wirtschaft am Beispiel Göttingens. Edited by Geschichtswerkstatt Göttingen. Hanover: Fackelträger, 1997.

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                  This voluminous study offers a long introduction into anti-Jewish policies followed by almost two hundred pages of studies on individual stores and businesses of the middle-size German town Goettingen.

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                • Händler-Lachmann, Barbara, and Thomas Werther. Vergessene Geschäfte - Verlorene Geschichte: Jüdisches Wirtschaftsleben in Marburg und seine Vernichtung im Nationalsozialismus. Marburg, Germany: Hitzeroth, 1992.

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                  One of the first detailed local studies, here of a middle-size town, offers first an overview on the local exclusion of businesses owned by Jews, and then presents dozens of small studies on individual shops.

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                • Kreutzmueller, Christoph. Ausverkauf: Die Vernichtung der jüdischen Gewerbetätigkeit in Berlin 1930–1945. Berlin: Metropol Verlag, 2012.

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                  The most advanced local study yet, based on quantitative and qualitative research on thousands of Berlin’s Jewish businesses, their Aryanization and liquidation, and the attempts of the Jewish business owners to resist.

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                Biographies

                While the exploration of the biographies of Hitler and Goebbels always bore a fascination for writers, not many serious academic studies on other perpetrators have been undertaken. Only after the debate on the motives of the perpetrators during the 1990s did scholars start to dedicate more work and skills to investigate not only the leading Nazi entourage, such as Himmler and Goebbels, but also the ministers of his government, such as Frick and Schacht, and even other important figures such as Eichmann. With a growing international interest in the impact of the persecution of the Jews and their responses, more studies on prominent and less prominent victims also emerged.

                Perpetrators

                For decades, scholars focused exclusively on Hitler (Jäckel 1981, Kershaw 1999, Kershaw 2000), Göring (Overy 2012), and Goebbels (Longerich 2010), but a wave of academic research beginning in the 1990s has tried to illuminate the life of other prominent perpetrators of the Third Reich, such as Wilhelm Frick (Neliba 1992) and Alfred Rosenberg (Piper 2005), as well as some overlooked figures, including so-called conservatives like Hjalmar Schacht (Fischer 1995). Special attention named leading SS figures such as Himmler (Breitman 1991, Witte, et al. 1999, Longerich 2011) and Heydrich (Gerwarth 2011) as the architects of the Final Solution. In particular, studies on the lower ranks among the SS (Cesarani 2004, as well as on the ministers, reveal how widespread anti-Jewish initiatives and responsibilities were.

                • Breitman, Richard. The Architect of Genocide: Himmler and the Final Solution. New York: Knopf, 1991.

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                  Breitman, a prominent US historian, investigates the role of Himmler, the head of the SS, builder of the security police, and later Reich Minister of the Interior, in drafting and implementing the program of the extermination of the European Jewry. He describes in detail the developments and the involved perpetrators, and its various stages, including relocation plans, ideas of gassing, and its extension from the occupied Soviet Union to Europe.

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                • Cesarani, David. Becoming Eichmann: Rethinking the Life, Crimes, and Trial of a “Desk Murderer.” Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 2004.

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                  The British historian provides us with the first serious biography of Adolf Eichmann, who organized first the emigration of Austrian Jews as the acting manager of the “Central Office for Jewish Emigration,” and later, in the IVB4 branch of the Reich Main Security Office, orchestrated the deportations from Europe. First published in 2002 as Eichmann: His Life and Crimes.

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                • Fischer, Albert. Hjalmar Schacht und Deutschlands “Judenfrage”: Der “Wirtschaftsdiktator” und die Vertreibung der Juden aus der deutschen Wirtschaft. Cologne: Böhlau, 1995.

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                  Many studies have portrayed the Reich Minister of Economics as one of the conservative government members, who were reluctant to endorse the course of anti-Jewish policy. This study reveals Schacht’s anti-Semitic beliefs as well as his active share in formulating anti-Jewish policies.

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                • Gerwarth, Robert. Hitler’s Hangman: the Life of Heydrich. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011.

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                  Based on a good knowledge of historiography and many archival sources, this is the first serious biography on Reinhard Heydrich, the head of the security police and SD, orchestrator of the Final Solution, and deputy of the Reichprotector of Bohemia and Moravia. The book focuses on his prominent role in formulating policies against Jews until the famous assassination attempt of Czech resisters ended his reign of oppression.

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                • Jäckel, Eberhard. Hitler’s World View: A Blueprint for Power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

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                  This influential book promotes the so-called intentionalist interpretation of the Holocaust, meaning that Hitler from the very start and long before 1933 planned to eliminate the Jews. The author cites various early statements of Hitler to underline his claim. First published in German in 1969, and translated to English in 1972.

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                • Kershaw, Ian. Hitler, 1889–1936: Hubris. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999.

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                  The British historian delivers a voluminous study, placing Hitler in his historical context, yet Kershaw can’t avoid the crucial problem of all his biographers: the absence of private documents. Hence, he offers a sophisticated social history of the Third Reich centered on the person Hitler, rather than insights into his private life before and after he came to power.

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                • Kershaw, Ian. Hitler, 1936–45: Nemesis. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000.

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                  The second equally voluminous installment of Kershaw’s biography covers the phase of the radicalization and expansion of the regime, as well as its downfall. One important subject of the account is anti-Jewish policies, especially the decision-making process for the extermination of the Jews during the war. Kershaw grounds his biography in the most recent secondary literature available, but also in documents and diaries.

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                • Longerich, Peter. Joseph Goebbels: Biographie. Munich: Siedler, 2010.

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                  Longerich provides the most comprehensive biography yet, destroying many myths about Goebbels and his alleged power by demonstrating that he was often not included in the decision-making process regarding the Jews. The fact that the head of the Ministry of Propaganda left a detailed diary is both an advantage and disadvantage, for while delivering private details, it too often dictates the narrative.

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                • Longerich, Peter. Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Translated by Jeremy Noakes and Lesley Sharpe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

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                  In this insightful and voluminous biography of Himmler, Longerich elaborates on his hitherto underestimated role in Third Reich politics, and focuses on his known influence in racial politics and the decision-making process regarding the extermination of the Jews. Originally published in German in 2008.

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                • Neliba, Günther. Wilhelm Frick: Der Legalist des Unrechtsstaates; Eine politische Biographie. Paderborn, Germany: Schöningh, 1992.

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                  The often overlooked or underestimated Reich Minister of the Interior was not only one of the driving motors of anti-Jewish policies, but also the head of one of the main perpetrator institutions, as this biographical study for the first time establishes.

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                • Overy, Richard James. Goering. London: I. B. Tauris, 2012.

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                  This biography by a British specialist in war and politics was published in the 1980s, thus focusing on Goering’s economic and military role and his problems rather than on his involvement in anti-Jewish policy. The latter is briefly mentioned and restricted to his role in the Aryanization of Jewish businesses and property. Originally published in 1984.

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                • Piper, Ernst. Alfred Rosenberg: Hitlers Chefideologe. München, Germany: Blessing, 2005.

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                  The German editor and historian delivered the first serious biography of an often overlooked prominent Third Reich figure. Rosenberg was not only one of Hitler’s chief ideologues, but also an early editor of the leading Nazi newspaper, and after 1933 the leader of the Foreign Office of the Nazi Party, and later Reich minister of the occupied Soviet territories, as this voluminous book shows in great detail.

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                • Witte, Peter, Michael Wildt, Martina Voigt, et al., eds. Der Dienstkalender Heinrich Himmlers 1941/42. Hamburg: Christians, 1999.

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                  A group of young, and now prominent, scholars—among them Michael Wildt, Dieter Pohl, and Christian Gerlach—edited Himmler’s formerly unpublished appointment book, which covers the two crucial years during which the decision-making process about the extermination of the Jews occurred. Most entries are commented on and provide context and additional information about the partners and topics of discussion.

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                Victims

                It took historians a long time to provide accounts of the life of Jewish victims of the Holocaust. While biographies on the most prominent Jews, such as Rabbi Leo Baeck, surfaced early (Friedlander 1968, Heuberger and Backhaus 2001), more recently authors have dedicated studies to the lives of other prominent Jews, such as Julius Bab (Rogge-Gau 1999) and Oscar Wassermann (Barkai 2005). Biographies of less well-known German Jews are still scarce, but see Aly 2007, a biography of Marion Samuel.

                • Aly, Götz. Into the Tunnel: The Brief Life of Marion Samuel, 1931–1943. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007.

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                  The Berlin publicist Aly investigated the biography of the Jewish teenager Marion Samuel, who perished in Auschwitz. After receiving a prize named after her, he managed to recover the short story of her life and of her family, although in the beginning there had been almost no traces left. Originally published in German in 2004.

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                • Barkai, Avraham. Oscar Wassermann und die Deutsche Bank: Bankier in schwieriger Zeit. Munich: Beck 2005.

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                  Barkai, a prominent Israeli Historian, explores the biography of Wassermann (b. 1869–d. 1934), the leading manager of the Deutsche Bank from 1923 to 1933. He describes Wassermann, who was forced out of his office during the first months of the Third Reich, as a well-educated, philanthropic, upper-class German Jew who supported Jewish education and settlement efforts in Palestine.

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                • Friedlander, Albert H. Leo Baeck: Teacher of Theresienstadt. New York: Holt: Rinehart, and Winston, 1968.

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                  Rabbi Friedlander addresses the life of the leader of German Jewry and prominent rabbi Leo Baeck (b. 1873–d. 1959). Being an editor of Baeck’s writings, he dedicates a lot of space to the religious and philosophical discussions of Leo Baeck, who beginning in 1933 was the head of the umbrella organization of the German Jews, the Reichsvertretung, and after 1938 was the head of the Reichsvereinigung. Baeck survived his deportation as a prominent Jew in Terezin.

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                • Heuberger, Georg, and Fritz Backhaus, eds. Leo Baeck, 1873–1956: Aus dem Stamme von Rabbinern. Frankfurt: Jüdischer Verlag im Suhrkamp Verlag, 2001.

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                  The editors published this volume to accompany an exposition in Frankfurt’s Jewish Museum. German, Israeli, and US historians provide extensive details about Baeck’s life, especially before 1933, but also during the Third Reich and post-1945, all based on newer research. The volume concludes with discussions of his thoughts and brief memories of people who knew Leo Baeck in different stages of his life.

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                • Rogge-Gau, Sylvia. Die doppelte Wurzel des Daseins: Julius Bab und der Jüdische Kulturbund Berlin. Berlin: Metropol, 1999.

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                  Rogge-Gau interweaves the biography of the German-Jewish writer and critic Bab with the history of the Jüdische Kulturbund (Jewish cultural federation). Until his emigration in 1939, Bab was prominent in the formation of the latter, which was founded in 1933 in response to the expulsion of many Jewish artists from German cultural institutions to establish a separate cultural life for Jews and provide employment for Jewish artists.

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                Daily Life under Persecution

                With a few exceptions of local case studies, which mostly describe the course of persecution, the impact on the life of the persecuted Jews had been barely analyzed for a long time. Only since the end of the 1980s have we obtained a fuller picture of the social, cultural, and political changes involved, and their impact on individual and family lives, by incorporating testimonies of survivors and documents of Jewish organizations, which enriched general (Benz 1988, Nicosia and Scrase 2010) and local studies (Ascher 2007, Meyer, et al. 2009). Kaplan 1998 focused on Jewish women in Nazi Germany, Angress 1988 described the life of teenagers, and Heberer 2011 provided insights into the life of children.

                • Angress, Werner T. Between Fear and Hope : Jewish Youth in the Third Reich. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

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                  This historical account is influenced by the personal experience of the author, a US historian originally from Berlin, where he was active in the Jewish youth movement. The book covers school education and the Jewish efforts to prepare the youth for emigration in so-called retraining camps. Angress escaped from Nazi Germany in 1938.Originally published in German in 1985.

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                • Ascher, Abraham. A Community under Siege: The Jews of Breslau under Nazism. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007.

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                  On Breslau, one of the largest German cities and, with 23,000 Jews, one of the country’s biggest Jewish communities, our knowledge had been scarce. Ascher, who was born in Breslau, emigrated in 1939 and is today an emeritus for modern Russian history in the US, provides us with the first scholarly account of the persecuted Breslau Jews, based on interviews he conducted, written testimonies, archival material and newspapers.

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                • Benz, Wolfgang, ed. Die Juden in Deutschland 1933–1945: Leben unter nationalsozialistischer Herrschaft. Munich: C. H. Beck, 1988.

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                  Benz, the former head of the Center for Research on Anti-Semitism in Berlin, edited this important volume, which contains contributions by several specialists. It is the first German book to concentrate on the impact of anti-Jewish policies on the Jewish population. It provides extended chapters on culture, housing, segregation, and Jewish organizations, all based on German central and local documents as well as Jewish testimonies.

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                • Heberer, Patricia. Children during the Holocaust. Lanham, MD: AltaMira, 2011.

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                  The book, which provides insights into the lives of Jewish children under Nazi persecution, focuses first on Nazi Germany, later on emigration, ghettos, war, and mass murder. Heberer, who also discusses other victims, including mentally handicapped and Roma children, as well as nonvictims, publishes excerpts from diaries and written and oral memoirs as well as poetry, drawings, and photographs.

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                • Kaplan, Marion. Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

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                  This book by a US historian is widely popular today. Based mainly on a close reading of testimonies of Jewish female survivors archived at the Leo Baeck Institute in New York, the author provides a very different perspective on Nazi persecution of the Jews by focusing on women and analyzing their experiences under oppression and their responses.

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                • Meyer, Beate, Hermann Simon, and Chana Schütz, eds. Jews in Nazi Berlin: From Kristallnacht to Liberation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

                  DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226521596.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  This volume, which was originally published in German to accompany an exhibition in 2000, offers case studies on the so-called June action (i.e., arrests of Jews in Berlin in June 1938); the Aryanization of a cigarette company; the marking, forced labor, deportations of the Berlin Jews; and on hiding and survival.

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                • Nicosia, Francis, and David Scrase, eds. Jewish Life in Nazi Germany: Dilemmas and Responses. New York: Berghahn, 2010.

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                  Specialists from the United States, Australia, and Germany (Barkai, Kaplan, Kwiet, et al.) elaborate on a variety of subjects, from individual Jewish experiences to reactions of organizations, from self-help in the business sector to Zionist activities. Some of the authors had worked on their topics for years, while some offer recent research results. The book also provides a dozen documents, including well-known anti-Jewish laws and some responses of Jewish organizations.

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                Jewish Responses

                While Jewish organizations recently came more into the focus of research, along with their reactions to Nazi policies, individual responses are under-researched. Until their dissolution by the Nazis, mainly in 1938, Jewish organizations with different political orientations, from Zionists to assimilationists, tried to protect and defend the Jewish population.

                Jewish Organizations

                After a first book on a veteran association (Dunker 1977), almost all Jewish organizations found their historians starting in the 1990s. Now we have studies on Zionist (Nicosia 2008) as well as assimilationist (Barkai 2002, Hambrock 2003) organizations, and on the Reichsvertretung (Kulka 1997), established in 1933 as an umbrella for Jewish organizations and communities.Research has also be done on the Jüdische Kulturbund, founded as an answer to the exclusion of Jewish artists (see the more journalistic account of Geisel and Broder 1992). Until their abolishment in 1938, Jewish organizations tried to respond to the increasing persecution and defend the Jewish population, as early accounts (Adler-Rudel 1974) as well as more recent case studies reveal.

                • Adler-Rudel, Shalom. Jüdische Selbsthilfe unter dem Naziregime 1933–1939: Im Spiegel der Berichte der Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr, 1974.

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                  Having been himself one of the historical actors, the author describes (based on the annual reports) the increasing activities of the Reichsvertretung to secure for the German Jews education and vocational training, employment, and financial aid for businesses, as well as welfare for the needy.

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                • Barkai, Avraham. “Wehr dich!”: Der Centralverein deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens (C.V.) 1893–1938. Munich: Ch. Beck, 2002.

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                  First comprehensive account on the Central-Verein, which transformed from a defense association to the assimilationist body with a broad membership. The book includes discussions about the place and identity of German Jews in German society. Barkai was able to use Russian archive that held materials of this organization to demonstrate the activities against anti-Semitic attacks from its foundation until its destruction by the Nazis in 1938.

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                • Dunker, Ulrich. Der Reichsbund jüdischer Frontsoldaten 1919–1938: Geschichte eines jüdischen Abwehrvereins. Düsseldorf, Germany: Droste, 1977.

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                  Comprehensive study on the origins, developments, and changes of the veteran association, which was founded for German-Jewish soldiers after the First World War. With 35,000 members, it was later the second-largest Jewish organization in Weimar Germany. After 1933 the association responded to the increasing exclusion of Jewish soldiers from the German army, until it was dissolved in 1938.

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                • Geisel, Eike, and Henryk M. Broder. Premiere und Pogrom: Der Jüdische Kulturbund 1933–1941; Texte und Bilder. Berlin: Siedler, 1992.

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                  For long the only account existing on the Jewish Kulturbund, the organization founded after the exclusion of Jewish artists and Jewish visitors from German cultural life. It organized concerts, theater performances, and talks, and employed hundreds of Jewish artists all over Germany. The book is more an essay than a thorough study.

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                • Hambrock, Matthias. Die Etablierung der Außenseiter: Der Verband nationaldeutscher Juden 1921–1935. Cologne: Böhlau-Verlag, 2003.

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                  The book is a comprehensive study of the Association of National-German Jews (Verband nationaldeutscher Juden), which was a marginal Jewish nationalist organization known for provocative positions in public debates, such as verbal attacks on eastern European Jews or the 1933 electoral support for the German National People’s Party, the Nazi Party’s coalition partner. One quarter of the book deals with the time after 1933.

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                • Kulka, Otto Dov, ed. Deutsches Judentum unter dem Nationalsozialismus. Vol. 1, Dokumente zur Geschichte der Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden 1933–1939. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 1997.

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                  Examines over one hundred documents focusing on the establishment and development of a Jewish umbrella organization, the Reichsvertretung. Contains protocols of meetings, letters of representatives, business reports, guidelines for Jewish education, and even protest letters against the persecution. The selection ends in 1938–1939 with documents that illuminate the thesis of an autonomous foundation of a more centralized Jewish institution, the later Reichsvereinigung.

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                • Nicosia, Francis R. Zionism and Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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                  This book studies the Zionist movement in Germany and its relationship to the Folkish Nationalism of the Nazis. Since Zionism promoted mass emigration, the Nazis supported this movement, which allowed the Zionists to grow after 1933 and play an increasing role in Jewish politics, with the Ha’avara Transfer Agreement, retraining and education programs, and later the organization of illegal immigration into Palestine.

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                Emigration

                Early accounts such as Rosenstock 1956 focused on the demographic aspects of the Jewish emigration, while biographical studies dominated in the 1980s (e.g., Hepp 1985, Röder and Strauss 1980–1983, Strauss 1978–1986). The first wave of emigrants after the early terror went mostly to European countries and Palestine. Later anti-Jewish policies led people to immigrate to the United States, Australia, South Africa, and Latin America, as can be learned from overviews such as Heimat und Exil 2006 and Dwork and van Pelt 2009. After the November 1938 pogrom (Kristallnacht), the highest annual number of refugees developed, but most countries had by now closed their doors to impoverished Jews, so their last resort in 1939 turned out to be Shanghai and Bolivia (Spitzer 1998).

                • Dwork, Debórah, and Robert Jan van Pelt. Flight from the Reich: Refugee Jews, 1933–1946. New York: W. W. Norton, 2009.

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                  This is a recent overview on emigration from the German Reich. The study is based on testimonies, documents, secondary literature, and some interviews conducted by the authors. It focuses on 1933, 1938, 1942, and 1946 as the important years, explores support as well as problems for emigration and flight, often using individual stories, and covers mainly Europe, Palestine, and Shanghai.

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                • Heimat und Exil: Emigration der deutschen Juden nach 1933. Ausstellung des Jüdischen Museum Berlin und des Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Frankfurt: Jüdischer Verlag im Suhrkamp-Verlag, 2006.

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                  Although a catalogue of an exhibition, the book contains serious contributions from specialists on a variety of countries where Jews immigrated to, ranging from historical overviews to biographical accounts, plus a number of very interesting photographs and facsimiles of documents.

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                • Hepp, Michael, ed. Die Ausbürgerung deutscher Staatsangehöriger 1933–45 nach den im Reichsanzeiger veröffentlichten Listen/Expatriation Lists as Published in the “Reichsanzeiger”1933–45. 3 vols. Munich: Saur, 1985.

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                  The book provides a list with the names of emigrants, not just Jews, from whom Nazi Germany had taken away their citizenship, as for example Louis Feuchtwanger and Albert Einstein. The expatriation was followed by the expropriation of their property.

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                • Röder, Werner, and Herbert A. Strauss. Biographisches Handbuch der deutschsprachigen Emigration nach 1933. 3 Vols. Munich: Saur, 1980–1983.

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                  The alphabetically organized handbook offers biographical entries on German-speaking emigrants. Part 1 contains entries on emigrants from politics, business, and public life; Part two (in two volumes) lists those from the arts, sciences, and literature.

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                • Rosenstock, Werner. “Exodus 1933–1939. A Survey of Jewish Emigration from Germany.” Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 1 (1956): 373–390.

                  DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/1.1.373Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  The article in the first edition of the Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook is an early demographic account that provides estimated numbers of German-Jewish emigrants.

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                • Spitzer, Leo. Hotel Bolivia: The Culture of Memory in a Refuge from Nazism. New York: Hill and Wang, 1998.

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                  In this very fine case study, the author combines the story of his Vienna family and its flight from Austria with a sophisticated historical account of Jewish emigration from Germany and Austria to one of the very few remaining refuges in 1939, which most accounts overlook: Bolivia.

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                • Strauss, Herbert Arthur, ed. Jewish Immigrants of the Nazi period in the USA. 6 vols. New York: K.G. Saur, 1978–1986.

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                  Several volumes on Jewish emigration from Germany 1933–1942, including archival material, Jewish periodicals, and so on.

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                Suicide

                Suicide as an individual reaction of Jews to persecution existed as a mass phenomenon in Nazi Germany. Especially after violent attacks such as the November 1938 pogrom (Kristallnacht), or when facing deportations, countless Jews decided to take their own lives. Kwiet 1984 discusses whether this was an individual act of courage and even resistance, while others, such as Hartig 2007, perceive this as a solution born of despair that ultimately played into what the Nazis wanted. For a general account on suicide in Nazi Germany, including the Jews, see Goeschel 2009.

                • Goeschel, Christian. Suicide in Nazi Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

                  DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199532568.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  This book systematically explores the phenomenon of suicide during the Third Reich. After touching first upon the prehistory of the Weimar Republic, for comparative reasons, the author dedicates three chapters to investigate suicide in Nazi Germany, using official statistics as well as private suicide notes or diaries. One of these chapters analyzes the special situation among the Jews and uses previously unexplored sources.

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                • Hartig, Christine. “‘Conversations about Taking Our Own Lives —Oh, a Poor Expression for a Forced Deed in Hopeless Circumstances!’: Suicide among German Jews 1933–1943.” Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 52 (2007): 247–265.

                  DOI: 10.3167/lbyb.2007.5213Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  The author discusses the thoughts and conversations among Jews regarding suicide as one reaction to the increasing persecution and its traumatic impact on the German-Jewish population. The article, which emphasizes the suicide of so many Jews out of despair instead out of nonconformity, is based on sources such as diaries, letters, and testimonies.

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                • Kwiet, Konrad. “The Ultimate Refuge: Suicide in the Jewish Community under the Nazis.” Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 29 (1984): 135–167.

                  DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/29.1.135Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  This article discusses suicide as a courageous individual act under persecution. Despite problems of documentation, Kwiet analyzes the rising numbers of suicides among Jews following violent attacks, such as after the annexation of Austria and the November 1938 pogrom, and especially as a reaction to local deportations in 1941 and 1942, which amounted to an estimated number between 5,000 and 10,000.

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                Public Opinion and Response

                Up until now, one of the most disputed questions has involved the non-Jewish Germans what they knew about the persecution and how they reacted to the implementation of anti-Jewish measures. While Peukert 1987 tackles the general issue of individual opposition toward the Third Reich, Kershaw 1983, Kulka and Rodrigue 1984, Bankier 1992, Bukey 2000, and Gellately 2001 all address these questions more specifically. Mostly, these authors base their observations on Nazi administrative reports, and some add testimonies. They come to different conclusions, however, about the involvement or indifference of the German population. By contrast, Fritzsche 2008 used predominantly diaries and testimonies in examining this problem.

                • Bankier, David. The Germans and the Final Solution: Public Opinion under Nazism. Oxford and New York: B. Blackwell, 1992.

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                  The Israeli historian explores the range and limits of press and propaganda to shape public opinion. Bankier critically assesses the public responses to anti-Jewish polices, such as the Nuremberg Laws and the November 1938 pogrom, as well as the developing mass extermination. The study is based on a great amount of administrative reports plus reports from the exile Social Democrats (Sopade), testimonies, and diaries.

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                • Bukey, Evan Burr. Hitler’s Austria: Popular Sentiment in the Nazi Era 1938–1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

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                  Bukey bases his account mainly on the official reports of the SD and state agencies. In general, he talks about a fragmented society, which overall supported the Nazi state until the very end. The chapter on the Jews is mostly grounded on secondary literature, and thus concludes with the unsurprising result that anti-Semitism was widespread in Germany and functioned as an integrating factor.

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                • Fritzsche, Peter. Life and Death in the Third Reich. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 2008.

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                  While there was broad support by Germans even toward the end of the war, the book, which is largely based on a thorough examination of many diaries, shows how individuals first struggled with becoming Nazis and later with what they knew of the Holocaust. Although many obtained knowledge of mass shootings and deportations, most lacked details about Auschwitz and the orchestrated campaign of genocide.

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                • Gellately, Robert. Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

                  DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205609.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  The book discusses the popular support for National Socialist policies. It not only analyzes the knowledge and support regarding anti-Jewish measures, but also investigates the responses regarding social outsiders and foreign forced laborers as well as concentration camps. It draws from newspaper reports, gestapo files, and testimonies.

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                • Kershaw, Ian. Popular Opinion and Political Dissent in the Third Reich, Bavaria 1933–1945. Oxford: Clarendon, 1983.

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                  The British historian analyzes the reactions of the German population, using Bavaria as a case study. He investigates different socioeconomic groups, such as working-class people and churches, and concludes that there was a remarkably disunited population and noticeable discontent with the National Socialist policies. Regarding anti-Jewish policies, he notes a lack of interest and almost nonexistent protest among the Germans.

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                • Kulka, Otto Dov, and Aron Rodrigue. “The German Population and the Jews in the Third Reich: Recent Publication and Trends in Research on German Society and the ‘Jewish Question.’” Yad Vashem Studies 16 (1984): 421–435.

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                  This article provides an overview of the state of research, including German, Hebrew, and English publications, on the opinions of the German population, and it summarizes the research looking into the main reactions toward the anti-Jewish policies of the Third Reich. The second part of the article is dedicated to an evaluation of Kershaw 1983, a book on popular opinion in Bavaria, and critically discusses the concept of “indifference.”

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                • Peukert, Detlev J. Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition, and Racism in Everyday Life. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987.

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                  One of the most important books about different forms of opposition and resistance in everyday life in Nazi Germany. Peukert, a German social historian, does not concentrate much, however, on the responses to the persecution of the Jews. Originally published in German in 1982.

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                Annexation of Austria

                Except for the monumental study Rosenkranz 1978, Austrian research focused for a long time on Nazi politics in general, if at all, and much less on anti-Jewish policies introduced after the annexation in March 1938. This only changed in the 1990s, first by individual authors(see Gruner 2000), and later through numerous volumes originating from the big project of the Austrian Historical Commission established by the Austrian government (For an overview of the results, see Jabloner, et al. 2003). Individual studies, such as Witek and Safrian 1988, concentrated on anti-Semitism and robbery, while Moser 1999 focused on the impact of the persecution on the demographics of the Jewish population.

                • Gruner, Wolf. Zwangsarbeit und Verfolgung: Österreichische Juden im NS-Staat 1938–1945. Innsbruck: Studienverlag, 2000.

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                  While concentrating on the investigation of forced labor, this book is a comprehensive account of the persecution of the Austrian Jews, exploiting a variety of sources, such as German and Austrian administrative documents as well as Jewish community documents, testimonies, and interviews conducted by the author with survivors.

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                • Jabloner, Clemens, et al. Schlussbericht der Historikerkommission der Republik Österreich: Vermögensentzug während der NS-Zeit sowie Rückstellungen und Entschädigungen seit 1945 in Österreich. Munich: Oldenbourg, 2003.

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                  Final report about the results of the various projects initiated by the Austrian Historical Commission regarding expropriation during the Third Reich and restitution after 1945.

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                • Moser, Jonny. Demographie der jüdischen Bevölkerung Österreichs 1938–1945. Vienna: Dokumentationsarchiv des Österreichischen Widerstandes, 1999.

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                  The booklet, authored by a renowned Austrian researcher, offers an analysis of the demographic changes of the Jewish population in Austria after the annexation by Nazi Germany in March 1938. Of more than 200,000 Jews, including 24,000 so-called Jews by race, more than 130,000 emigrated under the persecution, while during the war almost 50,000 were deported and murdered, and only a few thousand survived.

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                • Rosenkranz, Herbert. Verfolgung und Selbstbehauptung: Die Juden in Österreich 1938 bis 1945. Vienna and Munich: Herold, 1978.

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                  This monumental study ismainly based on the exploration of the vast documentation of the Jewish community archive of Vienna. While providing a huge amount of data from primary sources, this early study lacks a thorough analysis.

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                • Witek, Hans, and Hans Safrian, eds. Und keiner war dabei: Dokumente des alltäglichen Antisemitismus in Wien 1938. Vienna: Picus, 1988.

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                  The editors offer a compilation of hitherto unpublished documents, ranging from testimonies and letters to administrative reports, for the first two years of Nazi rule in Austria. Their selection demonstrates the anti-Semitic behavior and often initiative role of many Austrians. Violence and humiliation are portrayed, and the robbery of both businesses and belongings is documented.

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                Annexation of the Sudeten Territory

                The Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia was annexed by Nazi Germany after the Munich Agreement in October 1938. While many of the 25,000 Jews fled immediately, the remaining 2,500 were persecuted under Reich laws, as Osterloh 2006 shows in great detail.

                • Osterloh, Jörg. Nationalsozialistische Judenverfolgung im Reichsgau Sudetenland 1938–1945. Munich: Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2006.

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                  First solid and detailed study about the persecution in this region. The book based on a dissertation provides a painstaking examination of the terror after the annexation. The most important contribution, though, is the detailed analysis of the expropriation of Jewish property and the policy against the remaining Jews.

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                Pogrom 1938

                The notorious pogrom of 9–10 November 1938, known as Kristallnacht, was launched by Hitler and Goebbels to force German Jews to exit the country, after other options such as the forced deportation of the Polish Jews had failed. Sturmabteilung (SA), Hitler youth, and civilians murdered more than one hundred Jews, destroyed and plundered countless shops, burned more than a thousand synagogues and many Jewish community buildings, and intruded into countless private homes. Police and Gestapo arrested 30,000 men during the week after the pogroms, hundreds of whom died in the concentration camps. Starting in the late 1980s, the pogrom has been more and more recognized by scholars as the turning point in anti-Jewish policies.

                Deportation of Polish Jews

                In October 1938 the Nazi government expelled around 17,000 Jews of Polish origin from Germany. They were brought by train and bus to the Polish border, where they often had to live in improvised camps in a no-man’s-land for months, since Poland refused to take these former citizens back. This event has been for a long time overlooked, with a few exceptions (Milton 1984), as an important lead-up to the violent assault on German and Austrian Jews, and only recently was it investigated more thoroughly (Tomaszewski 2002).

                • Milton, Sybil. “The Expulsion of the Polish Jews.” A Documentation, Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 29 (1984): 169–199.

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                  This seems to be the first article on this subject. A short introduction is followed by a series of commented-on primary sources, including SS documents, private letters, and memoranda of relief organizations reports of US diplomats in Germany and Poland describing the deportation of Jews from Germany and the desperate situation after the victims arrived at the Polish border.

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                • Tomaszewski, Jerzy. Auftakt zur Vernichtung: Die Vertreibung polnischer Juden aus Deutschland im Jahre 1938. Osnabrück, Germany: Fibre, 2002.

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                  This book by a Polish historian is the first complete study on the planning and execution of the deportation of Jews of Polish origin living in Nazi German, including its repercussions in Poland and Germany.

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                Analysis of the Pogrom

                First, local case studies on this violent event surfaced during the 1980s in Germany. The 50th anniversary of Kristallnacht in 1988 produced more elaborated nationwide accounts, such as the edited volume Pehle 1991. Since the late 1990s, more thorough analyses have been published, such as the well-documented Kropat 1997 or the more recent study Steinweis 2009, which included hitherto unused trial material. Gilbert 2006 provides a description mainly based on testimonies.

                • Gilbert, Martin. Kristallnacht: Prelude to Destruction. New York: HarperCollins, 2006.

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                  This more popular historical account employs a perspective of the Jewish victims and is mainly based on use of often-published testimonies and many different contemporary newspapers.

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                • Kropat, Wolf-Arno. “Reichskristallnacht”: Der Judenpogrom vom 7–10. November 1938 – Urheber, Täter, Hintergründe. Wiesbaden: Kommission für die Geschichte der Juden in Hessen, 1997.

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                  This is still one of the best studies on the pogrom, and it also provides some of the most important documents in transcription. Kropat used postwar trial material extensively as a very illuminating source, and he introduced many unknown local examples, especially from Hesse. In his book he identifies the Gauleiter of Hesse as the instigator of the early local riots before the nationwide pogrom.

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                • Pehle, Walter H., ed. November 1938: From ‘Reichskristallnacht’ to Genocide. Translated by W. Templer. New York: Berg, 1991.

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                  This volume compiled works by a group of prominent international historians who provided a series of articles with new research results on various aspects of the history leading up to the pogrom, the actual events, and the aftermath of the pogrom and the Holocaust in general. Originally published in German in 1988.

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                • Steinweis, Alan E. Kristallnacht 1938. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009.

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                  This study is the most updated summary of the events, and it is very readable. Based on his own research, the American historian Steinweis uses available documentation, trial documents, and survivor testimonies to paint a complex picture of the pogroms, their prehistory and aftermath, especially regarding the early postwar punishments of some of the perpetrators.

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                Documentation of the Pogrom

                The early source edition of the East German historians, Pätzold and Runge 1988, contains the most important documents on the origin and development of November pogrom, while adding many local sources. Barkow, et al. 2008 provides the reader with a big collection of reports, written mostly by the victims very close to the violent events, and covering not only Berlin but many other areas in Germany.

                • Barkow, Ben, Raphael Gross, and Michael Lenarz, eds. Novemberpogrom 1938 : Die Augenzeugenberichte der Wiener Library, London. Frankfurt: Jüdischer Verlag im Suhrkamp Verlag, 2008.

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                  The editors provide, for the first time, a comprehensive account exclusively by eyewitness reports, which were written shortly after the pogrom and send to the Jewish Central Information Office in Amsterdam, and later to the Wiener Library in London. The testimonies describe the pogrom of 1938 in detail, by regions and cities, including Austria, as well as conditions in the concentrations camps and relief efforts.

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                • Pätzold, Kurt, and Irene Runge. Pogromnacht 1938. Berlin: Dietz, 1988.

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                  The volume offers a comprehensive account of the November 1938 pogrom. An extensive introduction is followed by eighty documents in German, many of them from local archives published for the first time.

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                Segregation Policies after 1938

                After the pogrom, the Nazi government introduced a set of new radical measures for the remaining German Jews, which included the prohibition for Jews to run businesses, the exclusion from welfare, the establishment of a forced labor program, and the creation of a segregated community. After a few local studies, including one on Vienna, the research on these issues developed during the 1990s, some with a local perspective, and some using an intraregional view.

                Ghettoization

                A few studies focus on the segregation policies in the local housing sector. Exenberger, et al. 1996 discusses the early expulsion of Jewish tenants from Vienna’s municipal-owned apartment buildings. Later, based on a national law enacted in April 1939, cities such as Vienna (Botz 1975), Berlin (Willems 2002) and Hanover (Buchholz 1987) forced Jewish tenants out of apartment buildings owned by non-Jewish Germans and crammed them into “Jewish” apartment buildings, usually with several families in one apartment. This process was driven locally, and its timing depended on the interests and radicalism of the involved local parties, as the municipality, the responsible city department, and the local Nazi Party branch.

                • Botz, Gerhard. Wohnungspolitik und Judendeportation in Wien 1938 bis 1945: Zur Funktion des Antisemitismus als Ersatz nationalsozialistischer Sozialpolitik. Vienna and Salzburg, Geyer, 1975.

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                  Using the subject of the relocation of Viennese Jews, Botz, a known Austrian historian, develops the thesis that the Nazis used this anti-Semitic measure to remove tenants first from their flats, and later from Vienna to the East to provide the non-Jewish population with the now emptied rental apartments as a compensation for the lack of Nazi social policies and affordable housing.

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                • Buchholz, Marlies. Die hannoverschen Judenhäuser: Zur Situation der Juden in der Zeit der Ghettoisierung und Verfolgung 1941 bis 1945. Hildesheim: A. Lax, 1987.

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                  One of the early studies focusing on the segregation policies in the local housing sector in Germany, using the example of Hanover in Lower Saxonia. Despite the existence of the 1939 law and in contrast to Vienna, the eviction and concentration of Jewish tenants started in Hanover only in 1941 orchestrated by the Nazi party Gauleiter.

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                • Exenberger, Herbert, Johann Koss, and Brigitte Ungar-Klein. Kündigungsgrund Nichtarier: Die Vertreibung jüdischer Mieter aus den Wiener Gemeindebauten in den Jahren 1938–1939. Vienna: Picus, 1996.

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                  This very important study describes the important role of the Vienna municipality in the segregation of the Viennese Jews by expelling Jewish tenants from city-owned apartment buildings and concentrating them in camp-like housing before any central orders were issued. The book also offers a list of the expellees, with biographical data.

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                • Willems, Susanne. “Der entsiedelte Jude”: Albert Speers Wohnungsmarktpolitik für den Berliner Hauptstadtbau. Berlin: Edition Hentrich, 2002.

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                  The study investigates the forced relocation of Jewish tenants within the Berlin housing market, the driving role of Albert Speer as the head of the remodeling program for the capital, and the changing involvement of the municipality, as well as the connection to the mass deportation program in 1941–1943.

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                Forced Labor

                German labor offices organized various compulsory labor programs for Jews, Jews in mixed marriages, and so-called half-Jews between 1938 and 1945, as Gruner 1997 demonstrates. Over eighty thousand men and women from the Greater German Reich were recruited to construct dams, roads, and stadiums; to clean streets and parks; and to work on garbage dumps and in private industries. For the exploitation in industrial factories in Berlin, see the testimony published in Sachse 1996. Jewish labor was also used in the SS concentration camps system (Allen 2002).

                • Allen, Michael Thad. The Business of Genocide: The SS, Slave Labor, and the Concentration Camps. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

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                  The comprehensive study about the activities of the SS to exploit forced labor in their own businesses and the concentration camp system, includes analysis of their management plans and their failures. The book covers the early attempts inside Germany, the efforts to establish camp production with Jews in occupied Poland, and the subterranean constructions sites inside Germany with hundreds of thousands of camp inmates at the end of the war.

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                • Gruner, Wolf. Der Geschlossene Arbeitseinsatz deutscher Juden: Zur Zwangsarbeit als Element der Verfolgung 1938 bis 1943. Berlin: Metropol Verlag, 1997.

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                  Gruner provides a detailed study of the compulsory labor program organized by German labor offices. Over fifty thousand German Jews toiled for up to four years for private companies and public builders under discriminatory conditions. The book introduces the concept of the “forced community” to replace previous concepts that only dealt with parts of the highly complex and diverse anti-Jewish policy.

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                • Gruner, Wolf. Jewish Forced Labor under the Nazis: Economic Needs and Racial Aims 1938–1944. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511616242Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  This study compares the forced labor programs involving German, Austrian, Czech, and Polish Jews after 1938, as well as tje German Jewish “Mischlinge” after 1943, organized by civil authorities independently from the SS camps systems. It discusses the hitherto underestimated importance of Jewish labor for the German war effort, which, despite the ongoing extermination, saved countless lives.

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                • Sachse, Carola, ed. Als Zwangsarbeiterin 1941 in Berlin: Die Aufzeichnungen der Volkswirtin Elisabeth Freund. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1996.

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                  Carola Sache, a German historian, edited the impressive testimonythat Elisabeth Freund wrote in the fall of 1941, immediately after having left Nazi Germany. The testimony mainly deals with her personal experiences in performing forced labor in various private companies in Berlin under the responsibility of the German labor office, as well as with the Jewish community.

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                The Forced Community: The Reichsvereinigung

                The Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (Reich Association of German Jews) was established after the pogrom of November 1938. All Jews were obliged to be a member of this organization, which had to organize separately welfare, education, and emigration for German Jews. There is a vital discussion among researchers about whether its establishment happened voluntarily as a quasi-autonomous act (Hildesheimer 1994), was forced by the Nazi authorities (Gruner 1999), or something in between (Meyer 2013) The background for this controversy is the question of whether Jewish representatives had any leeway under Nazi control, which is discussed in depth for Vienna in Rabinovici 2011.

                • Gruner, Wolf. “Poverty and Persecution: The Reichsvereinigung, the Jewish Population, and the Anti-Jewish Policy in the Nazi-State, 1939–1945.” Yad Vashem Studies 27 (1999): 23–60.

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                  The articles states that the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland was founded under the order and control of the Gestapo in late 1938. However, and despite common assumptions, Jewish representatives, whether of the Reichsvereinigung or local Jewish communities, did resist by manipulating Nazi institutions.

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                • Hildesheimer, Esriel. Die Jüdische Selbstverwaltung unter dem NS-Regime: Der Existenzkampf der Reichsvertretung und Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr, 1994.

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                  The book describes the activities of the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland based on the (at that time recently) opened holdings in former East German state archives. The main thesis is that the Reichsvereinigung was actually established by its predecessor the Reichsvertretung autonomously, with no interference by Nazi authorities.

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                • Meyer, Beate. A Fatal Balancing Act: The Dilemma of the Reich Association of Jews in Germany, 1939–1945. New York: Berghahn, 2013.

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                  The study describes the many duties of the Reichsvereinigung and its regional branches. One self-proclaimed aim of the study is to explore the room for maneuvering of the Jewish representatives. Originally published in German in 2011.

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                • Rabinovici, Doron. Eichmann’s Jews: The Jewish Administration of Holocaust Vienna, 1938–1945. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2011.

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                  The study, which unfortunately was not really updated for its English translation a decade later, is based on the extensive archival holdings of the Jewish community in Vienna, as well as on interviews conducted by the author. Rabinovici analyzes the room for maneuvering of the Jewish representatives, which were under the direct control of Eichmann after the annexation of Austria. Originally published in German in 2000.

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                Relocation and Extermination Policies during the War

                After 1938, the Nazi leadership used first deportations against foreign Jews, and later relocation or resettlement of German and Austrian Jews as strategies to remove them from Nazi Germany. There are only a few books available about this important subject, which seems to be one important step towards mass extermination. For the decision-making process on the mass extermination of the Jews, several interpretations exist.

                Resettlement Plans

                Plans for the relocation of all Jews from Greater Germany, whether to occupied Poland or the island of Madagascar, are perceived by most historians as important steps toward systematic murder. Aly 1999 discusses the connection between racist population policies in occupied Poland and the relocation and later murder of the Jews, while Brechtken 1997 investigates the plans to resettle all Jews to the island of Madagascar off the east coast of Africa.

                • Aly, Götz. “Final Solution”: Nazi Population Policy and the Murder of the European Jew. New York: Arnold, 1999.

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                  The author claims that the will of the Nazi leadership to bring hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans back into German territory did fuel the plans to make room by relocating Jewish and non-Jewish Poles, especially in western Poland, to the rest of the occupied country. Originally published in German in 1995.

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                • Brechtken, Magnus. “Madagaskar für die Juden”: Antisemitische Idee und politische Praxis 1885–1945. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1997.

                  DOI: 10.1524/9783486594416Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  Focuses on the notorious project to settle all Jews on the island of Madagascar. Brechtken explores the discussions of international organizations of anti-Semites and the first relocation plans in prewar Poland. Then he analyzes the German discussion and the simultaneous planning by the Reich Security Main Office and the German Foreign Office in 1940 to relocate all German Jews, and the conditions for its failure.

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                Deportations

                After the publication of Adler 1974, a voluminous and decisive study, decades of mostly local research efforts followed. Only recently new studies on the deportations—whether regarding certain destinations, as in Scheffler and Schulle 2003 and Moser 2012, or more general overviews, such as Kundrus and Meyer 2004 and Gottwaldt and Schulle 2005—advanced our knowledge regarding the decision-making process, organization, and impact of the mass deportation of Jews from Greater Germany.

                • Adler, Hans Günter. Der verwaltete Mensch: Studien zur Deportation der Juden aus Deutschland. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr, 1974.

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                  This is the first extensive study on the planning and execution of the deportations of the Jews from Germany. Adler takes regional differences into consideration, making this underestimated and neglected book even more valuable.

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                • Gottwaldt, Alfred, and Diana Schulle. Die “Judendeportationen”aus dem Deutschen Reich 1941–1945: Eine kommentierte Chronologie. Wiesbaden: Marix, 2005.

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                  This study provides, in chronological order, data for all transports from Germany, whether to the so-called East or to Terezin. It discusses source problems, conflicting numbers of deportees, and transport destinations, as well as technical details about the trains that were used.

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                • Kundrus, Birthe, and Beate Meyer, eds. Die Deportation der Juden aus Deutschland: Pläne, Praxis, Reaktionen 1938–1945. Beiträge zur Geschichte des Nationalsozialismus 20. Göttingen, Germany: Wallstein, 2004.

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                  The book provides a collection of articles based on recent research. It starts with a review of the decision-making process in the light of new documents, which places the decision about the deportation of German Jews in 1939 rather than in 1941. Other articles focus on the responses of Jews and Jewish representatives, as well as on the reactions of the non-Jewish German population.

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                • Moser, Jonny. Nisko: Die ersten Judendeportationen. Vienna: Edition Steinbauer, 2012.

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                  This posthumously published study by the Nestor of Austrian Holocaust research explores the first attempt by the SD under Eichmann to organize a mass deportation from Greater Germany. Only two month after the invasion of Poland, they deported several thousand Jews from Vienna, Moravska Ostrava, Brno, Prague, and Katowice to Nisko in occupied Poland, until the transports were stopped by Himmler.

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                • Scheffler, Wolfgang, and Diana Schulle, eds. Buch der Erinnerung: Die ins Baltikum deportierten deutschen, österreichischen und tschechoslowakischen Juden. Vol. 1. Munich: Saur, 2003.

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                  This is a collection of articles authored by local specialists, who cover transports from several German cities to Riga. They discuss numbers of victims and organizational details of the individual deportations.

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                Debate: The Decision about the Extermination

                Since no documents have been found containing a written order from Hitler for the extermination of the Jews, there is much historical debate about the origin and the timing of the decision: Was Hitler harboring these intentions for decades, or did the decision result from a certain situation developing during the war? Longerich 2001 emphasizes a detailed and direct involvement of Hitler in anti-Jewish matters. While Burrin 1994 sees a decision about the final solution in early fall 1941, Gerlach 1998 makes the point that Hitler decided upon the fate of the Jews only after the US entrance in the war in December 1941. Friedlander 1995 establishes the murderous connection between the euthanasia murder program and the Holocaust.

                Debate: Participation of Ordinary Germans

                An often-cited debate involved the motives of so-called ordinary Germans to participate in mass crimes against the Jews. For a long time this debate was set just between the poles of ideology and group dynamic, known as the Goldhagen-Browning debate (see Goldhagen 1996 and Browning 1992), but a third point is made in Kühne 2010 about “male community” as an important factor. The latter is countered by a recent exploration of female perpetrators and killers (Lower 2013)

                • Browning, Christopher R. Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.

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                  Browning locates the reasons for the participation of ordinary German policemen within the context of war, and sees group dynamics in extraordinary situations as the main factor for their low hesitation to commit murder.

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                • Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York: Knopf, 1996.

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                  Goldhagen explains the participation of “ordinary” Germans in the mass killings with the existence of an eliminationist anti-Semitism among Germans. His argument of reeducation after 1945 does not convincingly explain the supposed sudden disappearance of anti-Semitism in postwar Germany. He is selective in his evidence, as most of the documents stem from a time very late in the mass killing process.

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                • Kühne, Thomas. Belonging and Genocide: Hitler’s Community 1918–1945. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press 2010.

                  DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300121865.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  The study elaborates for the first time on male bonding and racial community as important integrative factors to understand the participation of Germans in the mass killing.

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                • Lower, Wendy. Hitler’s Furies: German Women in the Nazi Killing Fields. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013.

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                  This book adds a new dimension to the perpetrator discussion. While until now women had only be in focus as camp guards or SS wives, the US historian presents the case of tens of thousands of young women who, as secretaries, nurses, or even employers, ended up in the occupied East as colonizers and even ruthless killers of Jews and their children.

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                The Wannsee Conference

                The meeting of high-ranking Nazi officials at Wannsee Lake in Berlin in January 1942 was misinterpreted for a long time as having been the place where the decision was made to exterminate the Jews. While the participants discussed the logistics of a Europe-wide deportation and extermination program, and for the most part SS plans to include German Jews in mixed marriages and Jewish “Mischlinge” into the former, as is well documented in Pätzold and Schwarz 1992, the decision about systematic murder of the European Jews had already been made. By contrast, Roseman 2002 underlines the importance of the meeting for the transition to murder on a European scale.

                • Pätzold, Kurt, and Erika Schwarz. Tagesordnung, Judenmord: Die Wannseekonferenz am 20. Januar 1942: Eine Dokumentation zur Organisation der “Endlösung. Berlin: Metropol, 1992.

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                  The book provides the first systematic analysis of the meeting of deputy top officials at Wannsee Lake in Berlin. The book contains an annex with the most relevant German documents, including the surviving fragment of the protocol produced by Adolf Eichmann after the meeting.

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                • Roseman, Mark. The Wannsee Conference and the Final Solution: A Reconsideration. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2002.

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                  Against the current opinion that the meeting in January 1942 dealt with the logistics of a former decision, not with the actual decision, the author emphasizes that this is not entirely true, as the protocol of the conference, included in the book, reveals a deeper goal: to prepare for a comprehensive final solution, the transition from a murderous deportation program to a program of murder for Europe.

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                Public Knowledge about the Holocaust in Germany

                After the war, many non-Jewish Germans defended themselves with the claim of not having known anything about the extermination of the Jews, which was accepted for a long time as a matter of fact. By contrast, recent research has revealed how early the German society received information about the mass killings of Jews, and about its systematic nature. While Longerich 2006 draws more on public knowledge, and Herf 2006 on Nazi propaganda, Dörner 2007 provides better insights into the specific information individuals had.

                • Dörner, Bernward. Die Deutschen und der Holocaust: Was niemand wissen wollte, aber jeder wissen konnte. Berlin: Propyläen Verlag, 2007.

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                  This study is based on a variety of different sources, using letters, diaries, gestapo interrogations, and trial material. While his claim that everyone in Germany knew about the mass atrocities seems exaggerated, this extremely detailed study does offer surprising evidence for widespread knowledge, such as a conversation about the systematic killings of Jews in a random bakery in 1942.

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                • Herf, Jeffrey. The Jewish Enemy: Nazi Propaganda during World War II and the Holocaust. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2006.

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                  Herf explores how the Nazi propaganda openly transmitted the extermination of the Jews as a war goal. Hitler, Goebbels, and others constructed the Jews as Germany’s war enemy, and promoted their vision widely and by all available means. Exclusively investigating the war propaganda campaign, Herf concludes with the thesis that this was in essence an anti-Semitic war.

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                • Longerich, Peter. “Davon haben wir nichts gewußt”: Die Deutschen und die Judenverfolgung 1933–1945. Munich: Siedler, 2006.

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                  The study is based on an analysis of internal administrative reports, national and regional newspapers, and propaganda directives. The author explores propaganda campaigns and the reaction of the population. The last hundred pages are dedicated to knowledge about the holocaust, which Longerich describes as an open secret, because Nazi propaganda responded to rumors about mass murder by emphasizing enemy atrocities.

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                “Mischehen” and “Mischlinge”

                Jews in mixed marriages (Mischehen), along with the descendants of these relationships, suffered a different fate during the Third Reich than the majority of the Jewish population. However, many Jews in mixed marriages experienced parts of the exclusion, while still being protected by their spouses, even from deportation, until the beginning of 1945 (for Austria, see Bukey 2011). The Nazi policy against the “Mischlinge” (half-breeds, or offspring of mixed marriages) started relatively late, in 1938-1939, but later included housing segregation and forced labor. While Noakes 1989 focuses on the development of Nazi policies against the Mischlinge, Meyer 1999 includes the impact of the measures on the victims.

                • Bukey, Evan Burr. Jews and Intermarriage in Nazi Austria. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

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                  Bukey focuses on administrative proof and appeals, and on the divorce process of Austrian Jews in mixed marriages. He also discusses their persecution, as well as that of “Mischlinge” in Austria.

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                • Meyer, Beate. “Jüdische Mischlinge”: Rassenpolitik und Verfolgungserfahrung 1933–1945. Hamburg: Dölling und Galitz, 1999.

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                  The Hamburg historian delivered the first comprehensive study on the Nazi persecution of the Jewish “Mischlinge,” which describes the historical developments as well as the impact on the victims, based on the use of survivor accounts.

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                • Noakes, Jeremy. “The Development of Nazi Policy towards the German-Jewish ‘Mischlinge,’ 1933–1945.” Leo Baeck Insitiute Yearbook 34 (1989): 291–354.

                  DOI: 10.1093/leobaeck/34.1.291Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  This extensive article provided the first concise and informative account on the administrative and legal discrimination against Jewish “Mischlinge” (half-breeds) based on archival research.

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                Opposition, Resistance, and Rescue

                While older studies focused mostly on military or Communist resistance against Hitler, newer research has discovered individual opposition and rescue efforts among non-Jewish Germans. Similarly, a trend toward more research on the opposition of Jewish individuals has been emerging, complementing earlier works on armed resistance.

                Jews

                Research on Jewish resistance during the Holocaust has focused on the occupied East and on armed groups. When historians have dealt with Germany proper, they have mainly discussed organized group efforts. Only a very few historians have called for research into the individual opposition of German Jews, as Kwiet and Eschwege 1986. While Roseman 2001 investigates the hiding of one Jewish woman supported by a socialist resistance group, Cox 2009 again focuses on German Jewish resistance groups. By contrast, Gruner 2011 explores a variety of individual resistance acts, from defiance to public protest.

                • Cox, John M. Circles of Resistance: Jewish, Leftist, and Youth Dissidence in Nazi Germany. New York: Peter Lang, 2009.

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                  The book covers organized forms of Jewish resistance in Germany, especially underground groups such as the leftist Jewish resistance group of Herbert Baum in Berlin.

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                • Gruner, Wolf. “‘The Germans Should Expel the Foreigner Hitler’: Open Protest and Other Forms of Jewish Defiance in Nazi Germany.” Yad Vashem Studies 39.2 (2011): 13–53.

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                  Based on hitherto unused local sources, the author provides surprising evidence on how Jews, individually or as an organization, defied Nazi measures, be it national laws or local restrictions. Astonishingly, individual Jews even protested against the oppression in public, and some did this even during the war.

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                • Kwiet, Konrad, and Helmut Eschwege. Selbstbehauptung und Widerstand: Deutsche Juden im Kampf um Existenz und Menschenwürde, 1933–1945. 2d ed. Hamburg: Christians, 1986.

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                  First, and until now the most comprehensive, depiction of Jewish resistance in Germany, including a chapter dedicated to individual acts of defiance.

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                • Roseman, Mark. A Past in Hiding: Memory and Survival in Nazi Germany. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2001.

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                  The British historian tells the story of Marianne Strauss, a Jewish woman from Essen, who survived the Holocaust, although her family was deported, supported by the socialist underground group, the “Bund.” The study, which includes her time as a displaced person after the war, is based on extensive interviews with the survivor, along with many letters, a diary, and archival documents.

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                Non-Jews

                Most general books on non-Jewish resistance toward the anti-Jewish policies deal with rescue, though often neglecting Germany. However, while some earlier studies about Germany investigated rescue institutions in churches, newer studies focus more on individual helpers (Kosmala and Schoppmann 2002, Spicer 2004). Gailus 2010 explores the single life of a courageous female Protestant theologian.

                • Gailus, Manfred. Mir aber zerriss es das Herz: Der stille Widerstand der Elisabeth Schmitz. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2010.

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                  Gailus, a specialist on the Protestant milieu, recuperates the life of a Protestant dissident who was forgotten after the war. The female theologian and high school teacher authored one of the most important individual memoranda about the Nazi persecution of the Jews, with which she hoped to mobilize the church against the Nazi persecution—to no avail.

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                • Kosmala, Beate, and Claudia Schoppmann, eds. Überleben im Untergrund: Hilfe für Juden in Deutschland 1941–1945. Berlin: Metropol, 2002.

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                  The last of a five- volume series titled Solidarität und Hilfe, this work presents some results of a five-year project on the rescue of German Jews from 1933 to 1945 at the Center for Research of Antisemitism at the Technical University Berlin. The contributions analyze the social composition of the non-Jewish rescuers, conditions for help, existing networks and groups, local perspectives, and possible negative consequences for helpers.

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                • Spicer, Kevin P. Resisting the Third Reich: The Catholic Clergy in Hitler’s Berlin. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2004.

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                  Based on a variety of sources, including interviews, contemporary newspapers, and material of local archives, Spicer, an American specialist on the Catholic Church in the Third Reich, explores the attitudes of the Catholic clergy in Berlin. He dedicates one chapter to the ambivalent stand of the clergy toward the discrimination against the Jews, which didn’t support secular Jews, and one to the priest Bernhard Lichtenburg, who was arrested for praying for Jews.

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                Rosenstrasse Debate

                In February 1943, when most of the remaining Berlin Jews during the so-called factory raid were deported, the Gestapo brought two thousand of the arrested, mostly males and all living in mixed marriages or being “Mischlinge,” to a building on Rosenstrasse. The separate internment in this Jewish community building and the sudden release of the men is discussed in Stoltzfus 1996 as a success of the week-long protest of the mostly female “Aryan” relatives in front of the building, while Schröder 1997 offers a more nuanced view. In 2002 a public and academic debate evolved, first in Germany and later also abroad, after Gruner published an article that challenged the assumption that the men were even destined to be deported, and thus also questioned the actual success of the protest and its promoted form and size. Gruner 2005 discusses the former assumptions and provides detailed evidence for the author’s thesis.

                • Gruner, Wolf. Widerstand in der Rosenstraße: Die Fabrik-Aktion und die Verfolgung der “Mischehen”1943. Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 2005.

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                  The study explores the history and memory of the so-called factory raid and the internment of the Jews in mixed marriages, based on new documents, interviews, and testimonies. The author provides evidence that the Gestapo did not aim to deport the inmates of the Rosenstrasse, but rather interned them to select replacements for the employees of the Jewish institutions in Berlin slated for deportation.

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                • Schröder, Nina. Hitlers unbeugsame Gegnerinnen: Der Frauenaufstand in der Rosenstraße. Munich: Wilhelm Heyne, 1997.

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                  After an introduction, this book on the “women’s uprising” provides the reader with six long interviews that the author conducted with four female and two male survivors. From these testimonies, the author draws some balanced conclusions about the debated issue of the successful attempt to free the inmates of the Rosenstrasse.

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                • Stoltzfus, Nathan. Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germany. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1996.

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                  The author draws his thesis of a successful protest in February 1943 in Berlin from several interviews he conducted at the end of the 1980s. Describing in detail the events from the perspective of the survivors, he suggests that the actions of the “Aryan” women freed their Jewish husbands, who were bound for the deportation to Auschwitz, from the SS.

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                Foreign Responses

                Immediately after the war the debate started: What did the allies know, why didn’t the allies interfere, why didn’t they accept more refugees, why didn’t they stop the killing, and why didn’t they bomb Auschwitz? Some answers to these pressing questions are provided for the American side, which is better researched than, for example, the British, in Breitman and Kraut 1987 and Lipstadt 1986.

                • Breitman, Richard, and Alan M. Kraut. American Refugee Policy and European Jewry, 1933–1945. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

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                  This is a detailed exploration of US government actions concerning the refugee crisis of the European Jews and the unfolding Holocaust. The authors describe in detail the internal discussions in the US government under Roosevelt, as well as their international negotiations and the hesitations in US foreign policy.

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                • Lipstadt, Deborah E. Beyond Belief: The American Press and the Coming of the Holocaust, 1933–1945. New York: Free Press, 1986.

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                  Using a variety of national, regional, and local newspapers from the United States, and to a lesser extent from Great Britain, the author provides compelling evidence for her claim regarding how much Americans could have learned from these publications covering the early terror as well as the mass murder later. However, a deep skepticism of unverified reports as well as plain disbelief prevented action.

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                The Aftermath

                Studies on the aftermath of the Holocaust are mostly recent and focus on the immediate postwar life of the surviving Jews in Germany and their interactions with their surroundings, the reconstitution of property, the compensation for property and health losses as well as forced labor, the attempts to punish perpetrators, the development of a memory of the Holocaust, and the long-term effects of the traumatic events on the survivors and their families.

                Liberation and Postwar Life

                While some studies, which are not mentioned here, investigated the establishment of individual displaced persons (DP) camps, Königseder and Wetzel 2001 explores Jewish life in and the history of DP camps in general. Mankowitz 2002 does this from a survivor perspective, while Grossmann 2007 delivers a complex picture of the immediate postwar life of the surviving Jews and their interactions with their surroundings. Meanwhile, Brenner 1999 focuses on the reconstruction of Jewish life and institutions in Germany by survivors, and Geller 2005 explores the relationships that Jewish organization developed with German political institutions.

                • Brenner, Michael. After the Holocaust: Rebuilding Jewish Lives in Postwar Germany. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.

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                  The book is the first comprehensive account on Jews who emerged from concentration camps or exile and rebuilt Jewish life and community in Germany. The study is based on survivor testimonies, the Yiddish and German press, and archival material. Besides the analysis of liberation, reconstruction, and Jewish life before and after 1950, the book provides interviews conducted by the author with fifteen representative survivors.

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                • Geller, Jay Howard. Jews in Post-Holocaust Germany, 1945–1953. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

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                  Partly based on his dissertation on Jewish organizations and their relation to German political institutions, the author analyzes the reestablishment of Jewish communities in postwar Germany, and the German political and legal reactions toward their problems and their demands for representation. While most chapters focus on West Germany, a minor part of the book is dedicated to the Soviet Occupation Zone and the German Democratic Republic.

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                • Grossmann, Atina. Jews, Germans, and Allies : Close Encounters in Occupied Germany. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.

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                  The US historian uses her grandfather’s story as the starting point to investigate the entangled lives of surviving Jews, Germans, and occupying allies, focusing on Berlin and the US zone. She concentrates on the immediate postwar years, especially the life, education, work, and families of survivors in the DP camps, as well as relief operations and the attitude of the occupying US forces.

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                • Königseder, Angelika, and Juliane Wetzel. Waiting for Hope: Jewish Displaced Persons in Post–World War II Germany. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2001.

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                  More than a hundred thousand Jewish survivors of the Holocaust had to live for years in Allied displaced person (DP) camps before they could leave Germany. This study illuminates the social and cultural history of these camps and the development of Jewish life in and near the camps with theater groups, hospitals, and schools.

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                • Mankowitz, Zeev W. Life between Memory and Hope: The Survivors of the Holocaust in Occupied Germany. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511497100Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  The study approaches the subject from the perspective of the survivors by using many publications and accounts in Yiddish. The analysis addresses the problems they faced with their German surroundings and the US Army while building a temporary life of a community. Beside the considerable Zionist influence, the work of the Central Committee of the Liberated Jews in Bavaria is described in detail.

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                Punishment and Restitution

                While some major trials against Nazi perpetrators received contemporary international publicity, it was not until the 2000s that serious studies about them were published. An international debate on restitution during the 1990s brought back subjects such as compensation for forced labor and lost property.

                Trials against Perpetrators

                The history of the trials and their impact on collective memory is still not well analyzed yet, as demonstrated in Bankier and Michman 2010. Most researchers have focused on the major trials, such as those in Nuremberg (see Marrus 1997). The postwar trials of perpetrators of smaller crimes, such as those committed during the November 1938 pogrom, whether organized in former Socialist countries or in Germany, have not yet received enough attention. For the better known trials, however substantial new historical analysis has emerged since 2000, including Priemel and Stiller 2012 and Priemel and Stiller 2013 on the Nuremberg Military Tribunals, Pendas 2006 and Wittmann 2005 on the Auschwitz trial in Frankfurt; and Lipstadt 2011 on the Eichmann trial in Jerusalem.

                • Bankier, David and Dan Michman, ed. Holocaust and Justice: Representation and Historiography of the Holocaust in Post-War Trials. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem Publications, 2010.

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                  The book, edited by the former and the current director of the International Institute for Holocaust Research at Yad Vashem, the late David Bankier and Dan Michman, offers contributions of international scholars on the limited representation of the Holocaust in the postwar trials and the impact of these trials on collective memory.

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                • Lipstadt, Deborah E. The Eichmann Trial. New York: Nextbook/Schocken, 2011.

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                  The US historian analyzes the trial, its origins, its protagonists (Adolf Eichmann, the notorious manager of the deportation of the European Jewry, and the survivors who gave their testimony), the proceedings, and the aftermath, including the media impact. Placing the trial in its historical context, demonstrating its role for the Israeli society, and finally replacing Hannah Arendt’s fifty-year-old report are noticeable accomplishments.

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                • Marrus, Michael Robert. The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, 1945–46: A Documentary History. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997.

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                  Brief historical account of the main war crimes trial containing a range of documents, from reports of the prosecutors to statements of the defendants.

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                • Pendas, Devin O. The Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial, 1963–1965: Genocide, History and the Limits of Law. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

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                  This book is based on Pendas’ dissertation on the trial against former Auschwitz guards and privileged prisoners. Pendas uses archival material and newspaper reports as his dominant source base. In general, he is at unease with the use of German criminal law to punish crimes on the scale of those at Auschwitz.

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                • Priemel, Kim C., and Alexa Stiller, ed. Reassessing the Nuremberg Military Tribunals: Transitional Justice, Trial Narratives, and Historiography. New York: Berghahn, 2012.

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                  Up until now, the International Military Tribunal of 1945–1946 often overshadowed the twelve US military tribunals at Nuremberg between 1946 and 1949. Experts from Europe and North America analyze some of the latter and discuss the legacy of these trials. The volume points to their still overlooked impact on early, yet often lasting, historiographical interpretations of the Third Reich.

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                • Priemel, Kim C., and Alexa Stiller, eds. NMT: Die Nürnberger Militärtribunale zwischen Geschichte, Gerechtigkeit und Rechtsschöpfung. Hamburg: HIS, 2013.

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                  This volume goes beyond the previous volume (Priemel and Stiller 2012), as its contributions offer analysis of more trials and investigate in detail the historical context, the contemporary reception in Germany and among Jewish survivors, and some juridical discussions emerging from the series of trials against German killing squads, professionals, businesses, and ministries.

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                • Wittmann, Rebecca. Beyond Justice: the Auschwitz Trial. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005.

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                  This study, which is based on the historian’s dissertation, focuses on the first widely publicized Holocaust trial in Germany, the so-called Frankfurt Auschwitz trial (1963–1965), which put the mass crime back on the map for Germans and opened up a discussion about perpetrators. Among a wide variety of documents, Wittmann was able to access the hitherto unreleased audiotape recordings of the trial for her study.

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                Restitution of Property and Compensation for Forced Labor

                During the 1990s an international debate on the reconstitution of stolen Jewish property and compensation for forced labor emerged, which was fueled by several collective lawsuits in US courts after politics had neglected these issues for a long time, as Ferencz 2002, Bazyler 2003, and Marrus 2009 demonstrate. As a result, research picked up on the procedures after the war. While there are books available on the general subject, some local and regional studies on Aryanization during the Third Reich (e.g., Rummel and Rath 2001) include intensive study of the postwar developments, as is true for Dean, et al. 2007 from a European perspective.

                • Bazyler, Michael J. Holocaust Justice: the Battle for Restitution in America’s Courts. New York: New York University Press, 2003.

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                  The author provides a thorough investigation of the long international discussion and the legal battles of the 1990s and early 2000s in the quest for compensation for forced labor, savings accounts, looted art, and insurance claims of Holocaust survivors against the German government and private companies, including the Swiss banks, in US courts, using a unique US legal tradition.

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                • Dean, Martin, et al. Robbery and Restitution: The Conflict over Jewish Property in Europe. New York: Berghahn, 2007.

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                  The articles by younger specialists from various countries investigate the history of plunder and robbery and the battle for restitution of stolen and expropriated property after the war in Germany and a variety of other Europeans countries.

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                • Ferencz, Benjamin. Less than Slaves: Jewish Forced Labor and the Quest for Compensation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002.

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                  As a result of an international debate in the 1990s, Jewish forced laborers started to receive compensation. More than a decade earlier, Benjamin Ferencz impressively describes the odyssey of survivors, mainly from concentration camps, after the war, and the embarrassing behavior of German industries and courts in the 1960s and 1970s. Originally published in 1979.

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                • Marrus, Michael Robert. Some Measure of Justice: The Holocaust Era Restitution Campaign of the 1990s. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009.

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                  The author examines in depth the establishment, proceedings, and outcomes of various court cases of the 1990s against Swiss banks, German businesses, and insurance companies that all profited from the persecution of the Jews and other victims of the Nazi regime.

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                • Rummel, Walter, and Jochen Rath, eds. “Dem Reich verfallen”—“den Berechtigten zurückzuerstatten”: Enteignung und Rückerstattung jüdischen Vermögens im Gebiet des heutigen Rheinland-Pfalz 1938–1953. Koblenz: Landesarchivverwaltung Rheinland-Pfalz, 2001.

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                  This is a detailed study by two archivists about the state-driven robbery of Jewish property in one German region and its incomplete reconstitution after the war.

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                Memory and Trauma

                Books on these two subjects reveal different meanings for the survivors (Langer 1991) and the people in postwar German societies. While the traumatic legacy of the Holocaust had long-lasting effects on the memory of the victims, memory of and trauma from Nazi crimes had been exploited in different ways by both postwar German societies (Herf 1997). The crimes and attitudes of the Nazis still post deep ethical questions (Roth 2005).

                • Herf, Jeffrey. Divided Memory: The Nazi Past in the Two Germanys. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.

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                  The US historian analyzes the legacy of the Nazi regime, especially the connections of past beliefs and current political interests in postwar Germany. While both East and West Germany recalled the crimes, they did it differently and for different reasons. The author underlines the impact of the Cold War on the public memory of anti-Jewish persecution and the Holocaust in a divided Germany.

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                • Langer, Lawrence L. Holocaust Testimonies. The Ruins of Memory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991.

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                  Langer relies in his study on a wide range of survivor interviews kept at the Fortunoff Video Archive at Yale University. He discusses different layers of memory revealed in these oral testimonies, as well as problems of the survivors with their audiences and the complexities of their experiences and the testimonies.

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                • Roth, John K. Ethics during and after the Holocaust: In the Shadow of Birkenau. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

                  DOI: 10.1057/9780230513105Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  The renowned US scholar raises and discusses deep and disturbing philosophical questions about morality, values, and human behavior during darkest times, about the ethics of the Nazis as well as the ethics of the historian interpreting the past, about religion, memory, and history, and about racism and repeated genocide.

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                Historiography

                The historiography of the Holocaust already emerged during World War II (Cesarani and Sundquist 2012), driven first by survivors (Jokusch 2012) and developed overall as a national endeavor separated by different approaches and languages (Gutman and Greif 1988, Stone 2010). Often it was studied as an academic subfield, as in Kershaw 2000, which focuses on the Third Reich. Today, holocaust historiography is an international field, differentiated by many subjects and influenced by many disciplines, as shown by Bankier and Michman 2008.

                • Bankier, David, and Dan Michman, eds. Holocaust Historiography in Context: Emergence, Challenges, Polemics and Achievements. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2008.

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                  Renowned international scholars explore Holocaust historiography as a wide and international academic field, its early emergence during World War II, important schools of thought, the creation of various important research institutions, as well as the problems, challenges, conditions, and contexts for its development in Europe, North America, and Israel.

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                • Cesarani, David, and Eric J. Sundquist, eds. After the Holocaust : Challenging the Myth of Silence. London and New York: Routledge, 2012.

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                  This book puts in jeopardy the idea that after the war there was no public or academic discussion about the Holocaust. The various authors challenge this myth by investigating testimonies and theater from the displaced person (DP) camps in Germany, early institutions to commemorate the events, theological and philosophical discussions, early Hollywood films, and scholarly writing in Yiddish and Hebrew.

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                • Gutman, Israel, and Gideon Greif, eds. The Historiography of the Holocaust Period : Proceedings of the Fifth Yad Vashem International Historical Conference, Jerusalem, March 1983. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1988.

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                  The book offers overviews on the historiography of the Holocaust by Yehuda Bauer and other Israeli historians, plus a few international scholars, such as Hans Mommsen and Randolph Braham. The topics range from German or Soviet historiography to the rescue in western European countries, the Holocaust in the Baltic States or Slovakia and Romania, and the discussion of the role of the Jewish councils and resistance.

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                • Jokusch, Laura. Collect and Record! Jewish Holocaust Documentation in Early Postwar Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

                  DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199764556.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  This excellent volume focuses on the early efforts of Jews in France and Poland, starting in 1943–1944, and soon after the war in other European countries, to collect documentation on the extermination of the European Jews. It thus analyzes the beginnings of later important research entities in various countries, from the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw to the Yad Vashem Memorial in Israel.

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                • Kershaw, Ian. The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation. 4th ed. New York: Bloomsbury, 2000.

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                  Kershaw provides an overview of the progress of Third Reich historiography. This is of partial importance, since the book covers the important 1980s debate between the so-called intentionalist and functionalist understandings of the radicalization of anti-Jewish persecution. Originally published in 1985, with several subsequent editions.

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                • Stone, Dan. Histories of the Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

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                  Stone assesses the literature, identifying major themes and shortcomings of the myriad of approaches. The book underlines the fact that the history of the Holocaust consists of many histories, and that a complex understanding therefore seems necessary.

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                • Stone, Dan, ed. The Historiography of the Holocaust. Houndmills, UK, and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

                  DOI: 10.1057/9780230524507Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  The author provides a collection of essays on the history of the Holocaust and its debates. A new generation of experts from Europe, Israel, and the United States offers insights into various fields of Holocaust research, including evolving subjects such as perpetrators, postwar memory, and representations.

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                LAST MODIFIED: 07/30/2014

                DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199840731-0091

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