African Studies Islam in Africa
by
John H. Hanson
  • LAST REVIEWED: 10 May 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 October 2013
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846733-0007

Introduction

Islam in Africa has its roots in the origins of the faith, as Ethiopia was a refuge for Muslims who fled Arabia during the time of Islam’s prophet Muhammad (b. c. 570–d. 632 CE), and then Muslim Arab conquests in the decades after Muhammad’s death brought northern Africa into a Muslim imperial domain that came to encompass southwestern Asia and the Mediterranean world. Smaller states eventually succeeded the empire, and Islam gradually became the dominant faith of northern Africa within several centuries. In sub-Saharan Africa, connections with Muslim-dominated commercial spheres in the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean worlds brought economic and cultural exchanges, and Islam eventually became the dominant religion along the eastern Africa coast and one of several in the pluralist religious context of the bilad al-Sudan (“land of the blacks” in Arabic), the savanna lands below the Sahara from the Atlantic coast in western Africa to the Red Sea in northeast Africa. South of the Sahara, African Muslims forged ties with political elites and in some contexts rulers converted to Islam. Muslim scholarly networks fostered cultural and religious exchanges throughout Africa, and transformations in these networks in the 18th and 19th centuries encouraged the expansion of dynamic Sufi orders; leaders of some of these orders created political movements that challenged established elites. At the same time, growing European economic power influenced commerce, increasing transcontinental slave trading and expanding slavery on the continent, including in Muslim Africa. European imperialism culminated in colonial interventions, and Muslims engaged in diplomacy and armed resistance in response to this expansion. Some Muslims found ways to accommodate colonial administrations, for example by serving as Muslim judges in circumscribed courts, whereas many others focused on spiritual concerns and the expansion of Islam. The colonial era’s abolition of slavery brought some former slaves to the faith, often as disciples in expanding Sufi orders, but other Muslim groups also were active, such as Salafist movements in northern Africa. In the postcolonial era, African Muslim reformers continue to draw on local understandings and engage global Islamic discourses, now unhindered by colonial restrictions. Reformers focus attention on individual self-improvement through education and moral acts; Sufi orders remain important and adopt many of the educational practices and new media used by reformers. In building new nations, African Muslims participate in political processes by voting and organizing advocacy movements; only in selected contexts have radical Muslim groups turned to militancy.

General Overviews

Earlier European-language overviews of Muslim Africa stressed center-periphery relations in the expansion of Islam, distinguishing between northern and sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., Trimingham 1986), but recent works emphasize initiatives in all contexts and interactions in and across frontiers. Loimeier 2013 provides an overview in regional chapters, Robinson 2004 has several thematic chapters before moving to case studies, and Levtzion and Pouwels 2000 combines regional and thematic chapters by scholars in several disciplines. Ende and Steinbach 2010 offers an overview of the Muslim world with regional coverage of Africa in chapters on Egypt by Alexander Flores, the Maghreb (northern Africa west of Egypt) by Franz Kogelmann, sub-Saharan Africa by Hans Müller, postcolonial sub-Saharan Africa by Jamil Abun-Nasr and Roman Loimeier, and Libya and the Sudan by Hanspeter Mattes. Robinson 2012, the fifth volume in The New Cambridge History of Islam, provides an overview of the Muslim world during the last two hundred years with regional coverage of Egypt before and after 1919 by Kenneth Cuno and Joel Gordon, respectively; northern Africa, the Sudan, and Somalia before World War I by Knut Vikør; northern Africa after World War I by Kenneth Perkins; the Sudan after World War I by Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban and Richard Lobban Jr.; and Africa south of the Sahara before and after World War I by Roman Loimeier and John Hanson, respectively.

  • Ende, Werner, and Udo Steinbach, eds. Islam in the World Today: A Handbook of Politics, Religion, Culture, and Society. 5th ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010.

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    An English translation of the classic German work, Der Islam in der Gegenwart, now in its fifth edition, that offers comprehensive coverage of the history of the Muslim world with thematic and regional chapters, including several on northern, western, and eastern Africa.

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    • Levtzion, Nehemia, and Randall Pouwels, eds. The History of Islam in Africa. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2000.

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      An anthology with chapters by leading scholars who cover the history of Muslim Africa in both regional and chronological chapters followed by thematic essays on a broad range of topics. Hanretta 2005 (cited under Review Articles) provides an assessment.

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      • Loimeier, Roman. Muslim Societies in Africa: A Historical Anthropology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2013.

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        A comprehensive account of the history of Muslim Africa, organized regionally with detailed discussion of religious and social issues and a concluding chapter on European colonial rule and its aftermath.

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        • Robinson, David. Muslim Societies in African History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511811746Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

          A thematic treatment of Muslim Africa discussing both the Islamization of Africa and the Africanization of Islam, followed by case studies on Ethiopia, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal, the Sudan, and Uganda. Hanretta 2005 (cited under Review Articles) provides an assessment.

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          • Robinson, Francis, ed. The New Cambridge History of Islam. Vol. 5, The Islamic World in the Age of Western Dominance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

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            A completely revised edition of a classic work with a thematic overview of the era by Francis Robinson and several regional chapters on the 19th and 20th centuries.

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            • Trimingham, J. Spencer. The Influence of Islam upon Africa. London: Longman, 1986.

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              A summary of Trimingham’s previous books on the history of Islam in regional contexts written between 1949 and 1964 with an additional analysis of religious change and discussion of Muslim cultural zones, including a distinction between “Hamitic” and “Negro” regions that reflects the discredited racial thinking of the era. First edition published in 1968.

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              Conceptual Approaches

              The range of scholarly work on Muslim Africa in European languages means that specific disciplinary concerns define the conceptualization of research, but some influential works have shaped the field beyond their disciplines and helped to define approaches to Muslim Africa. Lewis 1980 presents a structural approach to Muslim institutions in sub-Saharan Africa that influenced an initial generation of European-language scholarship. Geertz 2004 advocates a cultural approach that encourages scholars to examine religious meanings in specific Muslim contexts. Sanneh 1994 contrasts cultural exchanges associated with Christian translations of the Bible into African languages with the constraining influence of Muslim reluctance to translate the Qurʾan. Asad 1993 argues for understanding religion as a discursive tradition producing historically contingent beliefs and practices, an approach influencing recent works on Muslim Africa. Brenner 2000 advocates examining religious expressions in pluralist African contexts on their own terms and without rigid categorizations between Islam, Christianity, and African indigenous religions.

              • Asad, Talal. Genealogies of Religion: Discipline and Reasons of Power in Christianity and Islam. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

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                An influential book arguing that the concept of religion is a construct emerging from post-Reformation Europe and approaching Christianity and Islam as religious discourses.

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                • Brenner, Louis. “Histories of Religions in Africa.” Journal of Religion in Africa 30 (2000): 143–167.

                  DOI: 10.1163/157006600X00627Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  An insightful article advocating the analysis of religion in Africa by examining religious expressions in specific contexts. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                  • Geertz, Clifford. Islam Observed: Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

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                    A work comparing Muslim cultures in Morocco and Indonesia, it approaches religion as a cultural system and analyzes enduring symbolic meanings in local contexts. First edition published in 1968.

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                    • Lewis, I. M. “Introduction.” In Islam in Tropical Africa. Rev. ed. Edited by I. M. Lewis, 1–98. Bloomington: International Africa Institute in association with Indiana University Press, 1980.

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                      An introduction to one of the first edited collections on Muslim communities in sub-Saharan Africa, it adopts a structuralist approach to the ways Islam has been incorporated into African organizations and social practices. First edition published in 1964.

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                      • Sanneh, Lamin. “Translatability in Islam and in Christianity in Africa: A Thematic Approach.” In Religion in Africa: Experience and Expression. Edited by Thomas D. Blakely, Walter E. A. van Beek, and Dennis L. Thomson, 22–45. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994.

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                        An argument about Christianity’s openness to cultural interpretation through translations of the Bible into African languages in contrast to the constraints on local interpretations fostered by Muslim reluctance to translate Islam’s sacred texts.

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                        Review Articles

                        Review articles provide assessments of the literature on topics engaging scholars of Muslim Africa. Spaulding and Kapteijns 1991 discusses the influence of Orientalism on the historical writing on the northern Sudan, and Burke and Prochaska 2007 analyzes the limits of Edward Said’s Orientalism and suggests a historicized approach to understanding colonial forms of knowledge of the Muslim world in Britain, France, and the United States. Klein 1990 discusses the debates about the impact of the transatlantic slave trade in one region of Muslim Africa. Hanretta 2005 assesses the state of the field in an analysis of two overview works. Otayek and Soares 2007 reviews recent works in diverse disciplines on Muslim politics in Africa.

                        • Burke, Edmund, III, and David Prochaska. “Rethinking the Historical Genealogy of Orientalism.” History and Anthropology 18 (2007): 135–151.

                          DOI: 10.1080/02757200701218262Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          An assessment of Edward Said’s Orientalism (1978) that acknowledges its paradigm-shifting significance but also assesses its limitations and advocates a historicized critique of Orientalism and a theorized approach to modernity. Available online by subscription.

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                          • Hanretta, Sean. “Muslim Histories, African Societies: The Venture of Islamic Studies in Africa.” Journal of African History 46 (2005): 479–491.

                            DOI: 10.1017/S0021853705000824Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                            Review of Levtzion and Pouwels 2000 and Robinson 2004 (cited under General Overviews), noting their contributions and limitations and advocating the integration of the history of Muslim Africa into the social, cultural, political, and intellectual history of Africa generally. Available online by subscription.

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                            • Klein, Martin. “The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on the Societies of the Western Sudan.” Social Science History 14 (1990): 231–253.

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                              Review of the historical literature on the impact of the transatlantic slave trade on the societies of Senegambia and the Western Sudan, including its influence on Muslim communities in the 17th through 19th centuries. Available online by subscription.

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                              • Otayek, René, and Benjamin Soares. “Introduction: Islam and Muslim Politics in Africa.” In Islam and Muslim Politics in Africa. Edited by Benjamin Soares and René Otayek, 1–24. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

                                DOI: 10.1057/9780230607101Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                Review of the literature on Muslim involvement in contemporary politics that argues against conventional divisions between “African Islam” and fundamentalism, Sufism and Islamism, and advocates a new approach, islam mondain or “Islam in the present world,” inspired by Foucault and focused on the politics of everyday life.

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                                • Spaulding, Jay, and Lidwien Kapteijns. “The Orientalist Paradigm in the Historiography of the Late Precolonial Sudan.” In Golden Ages, Dark Ages: Imagining the Past in Anthropology and History. Edited by Jay O’Brien and William Roseberry, 139–151. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

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                                  Review of the historical literature on the precolonial northern Sudan that argues for the pervasive influence of Orientalism, especially in the contrasts between Arabs and Africans.

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                                  Anthologies

                                  Edited anthologies point to emerging research issues that cross regions at the time of publication, such as Sufism in Cruise O’Brien and Coulon 1988 and slavery in Muslim Africa in Willis 1985. The diversity of historical expressions in Muslim Africa also encourages anthologies with regional foci. Western Africa’s precolonial Muslim networks and institutions are discussed in Willis 2012, its experiences with European colonialism are the topic of Robinson and Triaud 1997, and more contemporary developments for one nation are explored in Diouf and Leichtman 2009. Eastern Africa’s long experiences with Islam are discussed in Amoretti 2001, and its recent connections are the topic of Loimeier and Seesemann 2006. Edited volumes on the Middle East often include chapters relating to northern Africa and the Sudan.

                                  • Amoretti, Biancamaria Scarcia, ed. Islam in East Africa: New Sources: Archives, Manuscripts, and Written Historical Sources, Oral History, Archaeology; International Colloquium, Rome, 2–4 December 1999. Rome: Herder, 2001.

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                                    Essays discussing the range of perspectives gained from archaeological, textual, and oral data for the last twelve hundred years of cross-cultural exchanges in eastern Africa.

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                                    • Cruise O’Brien, Donal B., and Jean Coulon, eds. Charisma and Brotherhood in African Islam. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.

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                                      Essays pointing to Sufism’s influence in the eastern and western Africa during the past two hundred years.

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                                      • Diouf, Mamadou, and Mara Leichtman, eds. New Perspectives on Islam in Senegal: Conversion, Migration, Wealth, Power and Femininity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

                                        DOI: 10.1057/9780230618503Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        Essays from historians and anthropologists probing issues associated with Senegal’s Sufi heritage and other aspects of its engagement with Islam.

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                                        • Loimeier, Roman, and Rüdiger Seesemann, eds. The Global Worlds of the Swahili: Interfaces of Islam, Identity and Space in 19th and 20th-Century East Africa. Berlin: Berlin Münster Lit, 2006.

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                                          Essays examining the interconnectedness of the Swahili peoples along the coast, in eastern Africa, and abroad.

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                                          • Robinson, David, and Jean-Louis Triaud, eds. Le temps des marabouts: Itinéraires et stratégies islamiques en Afrique occidentale française, v. 1880–1960. Paris: Karthala, 1997.

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                                            Essays discussing Muslim activities and engagements during the era of European colonial rule in western Africa.

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                                            • Willis, John Ralph, ed. Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa. 2 vols. London: Cass, 1985.

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                                              Essays on the ideology and institutional arrangements of slavery in Muslim Africa, with Volume 1 entitled Islam and the Ideology of Enslavement, and Volume 2 entitled The Servile Estate.

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                                              • Willis, John Ralph, ed. Studies in West African Islamic History. 2 vols. The Evolution of Islamic Institutions. London: Routledge, 2012.

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                                                Essays discussing Muslim scholarly networks (in Vol. 1, The Cultivators of Islam) and institutional arrangements (in Vol. 2, The Evolution of Islamic Institutions) in western Africa during the centuries before European colonial rule. First edition published in 1979.

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                                                Bibliographies

                                                Schrijver 2006 provides a comprehensive listing of works in diverse disciplines concerning Muslim communities in sub-Saharan Africa, and Tayob 2010 provides a selected and annotated bibliography of works on history, religion, and culture in Muslim Africa. A listing of web-based resources is compiled in Islam in Africa: Selected Internet Resources.

                                                Reference Works

                                                The most comprehensive reference source for the Muslim world is The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Houtsma, et al. 1913–1936, the first edition, still is consulted, and the second and third editions are available online in the Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Oxford Islamic Studies Online includes summaries and annotated bibliographies on various topics.

                                                • Houtsma, M. T., T. W. Arnold, R. Basset, et al., eds. The Encyclopaedia of Islam: A Dictionary of the Geography, Ethnography and Biography of the Muhammadan Peoples. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1913–1936.

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                                                  The first edition of the most authoritative reference for the Muslim world.

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                                                  • Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Edited by John L. Esposito. New York: Oxford University Press.

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                                                    An online resource with introductory essays and bibliographies on major topics and themes, and a regional division that allows for browsing under “Africa,” “North Africa,” “Africa Other than North Africa,” and “Egypt/Levant/Arabia/Middle East.”

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                                                    • The Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2007–.

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                                                      This online reference resource includes entries from The Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition, edited by P. Bearman, T. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, and W. P. Heinrichs (Leiden, The Netherlands: 1955–2005); third edition, edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, and Everett Rowson (Leiden, The Netherlands: 2007–).

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                                                      Journals

                                                      Articles on Muslim Africa appear in journals in specific disciplines as well as in Islam et sociétés au sud du Sahara, Islamic Africa, and Sudanic Africa, which are devoted exclusively to work on Muslim Africa, and in Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Journal for Islamic Studies, Journal of Religion in Africa, and Die Welt des Islams, which regularly include articles on Muslim Africa.

                                                      Primary Sources

                                                      Sources for Muslim Africa include works in Arabic and several African languages held in archives, libraries, and private collections in Africa and elsewhere. The most authoritative general guide to Arabic sources for Muslim Africa is Hunwick and O’Fahey 1994–2003, a multivolume work projected to be six volumes and available in four volumes as of 2013. Pouwels 2002 provides a comprehensive guide for Arabic, Swahili, and other language materials for coastal eastern Africa before 1900. Guides to the contents of important collections include Allen 1970, Baschieri 2005, Ghali and Mahibou 1985, and the West African Arabic Manuscript Project. Norris 1982 includes English translations of selected Arabic texts in a broader discussion that identifies Arabic sources available to study the Berber peoples of the Sahara.

                                                      • Allen, John W. T. The Swahili and Arabic Manuscripts and Tapes in the Library of the University College Dar-es-Salaam: A Catalogue. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1970.

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                                                        Listing of an important collection of Swahili and Arabic materials for eastern African history held at the University of Dar-es-Salaam.

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                                                        • Baschieri, Angelica. “The Swahili Manuscripts Project at SOAS, 2000–2004.” African Research and Documentation 99 (2005): 37–43.

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                                                          Description of the largest collection of Swahili manuscripts in Britain, the catalog of which is available online.

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                                                          • Ghali, Noureddine, and Sidi Mohamed Mahibou, eds. Inventaire de la Bibliothèque ʿumarienne de Ségou, conservée à la Bibliothèque nationale, Paris. Paris: Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1985.

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                                                            Guide to the Arabic materials seized by French colonial armies during the conquest of Segu, the capital of the Muslim state established by al-hajj ʿUmar ibn Saʿid (or Umar Tal) and his followers in the 19th century, and catalogued online under “Manuscrits arabes: Manuscrits d’Afrique subsaharienne.” Note that Arabic manuscripts from Timbuktu and other sub-Saharan African regions are held at the Bibliothèque Nationale and catalogued at this site.

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                                                            • Hunwick, John, and R. S. O’Fahey, eds. Arabic Literature of Africa. 4 vols. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1994–2003.

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                                                              Projected to be six volumes, this reference documents the Arabic writings of African Muslims, organized by subregion and providing biographical notes of authors when available. There are currently four volumes: Volume 1, Writings of Eastern Sudanic Africa (compiled by R. S. O’Fahey); Volume 2, Writings of Central Sudanic Africa (compiled by John Hunwick); Volume 3, Writings of the Muslim Peoples of Northeastern Africa (compiled by R. S. O’Fahey); and Volume 4, Writings of Western Sudanic Africa (compiled by John Hunwick).

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                                                              • Norris, H. T. The Berbers in Arabic Literature. London: Longman, 1982.

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                                                                English translations of and extensive commentaries on Arabic references to the history of Berber communities in northern Africa and the Sahara, with comprehensive bibliography.

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                                                                • Pouwels, Randall L. “Bibliography of Primary Sources of the Pre-Nineteenth Century East African Coast.” History in Africa 29 (2002): 393–411.

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                                                                  Description of primary and secondary sources in diverse languages and concerning a wide range of topics in eastern African coastal history. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                  • West African Arabic Manuscript Project.

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                                                                    An online, bilingual (Arabic and English), searchable database for the Arabic manuscripts in eight collections, including the Arabic materials at Boutilimit, Mauritania, the Institut Mauritanien de Recherche Scientifique, Northwestern University, and the Centre Ahmad Baba in Timbuktu, Mali; its genesis is in the pioneering efforts by Charles Stewart with the Boutilimit materials.

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                                                                    Early Muslim Empires and Commercial Spheres

                                                                    Arab military campaigns brought Islam to northern Africa and integrated the region into an imperial Muslim domain based in Damascus and then Baghdad; eventually northern Africa was ruled by a succession of regional polities before Ottoman imperial control was established over most of northern Africa in the 16th century. Petry and Daly 2008 surveys the history of Egypt in two volumes, divided at the rise of Ottoman rule. Abun-Nasr 1987 narrates the history of the Muslim era in the Maghreb (northern Africa west of Egypt), and Ibn Khaldun 1958, a translation of the work by a prominent Muslim scholar who lived between 1332 and 1406 CE, integrates the history of northern Africa into his conception of universal history. The initial Muslim imperial domain forged commercial and cultural connections that endured long after its decline, integrating western and eastern Africa, with their own complex regional economies, into wider Mediterranean and Indian Ocean spheres. Austen 2010 surveys the trans-Saharan connections within the Mediterranean sphere, and Lovejoy 2005 discusses regional economic exchanges in western African Muslim spheres. Sheriff 2010 and Gilbert 2002 survey the connections between eastern Africa and the Indian Ocean sphere before and after 1750 CE, respectively. See also the separate Oxford Bibliographies article on North Africa from 600 to 1800.

                                                                    • Abun-Nasr, Jamil. A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. 3d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

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                                                                      Survey of the history of the Maghrib (the regions west of Egypt), especially respected for its treatment of the centuries before European colonial rule.

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                                                                      • Austen, Ralph. Trans-Saharan Africa in World History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

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                                                                        Analysis of the Saharan region and its links to Mediterranean coastal lands and sahelian and savannan lands in Africa from the 8th to the 20th century.

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                                                                        • Gilbert, Erik. “Coastal East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean: Long-Distance Trade, Empire, Migration, and Regional Unity, 1750–1970.” History Teacher 36 (2002): 7–34.

                                                                          DOI: 10.2307/1512492Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                          Overview of the dynamics of trade and social change along the eastern African coast for the era after the period discussed in Sheriff 2010. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                          • Ibn Khaldun. The Muqaddimah. 3 vols. Translated by Franz Rosenthal. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1958.

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                                                                            An English translation of a prominent northern African Muslim scholar’s “introduction” to his longer the 14th-century historical work, emphasizing cycles of reform and empire building in northern Africa.

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                                                                            • Lovejoy, Paul. Ecology and Ethnography of Muslim Trade in West Africa. Trenton, NJ: Africa World, 2005.

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                                                                              Anthology of previously published essays by Lovejoy on the commerce in salt, kola nuts, and slaves that western Africa Muslims traded regionally from the 15th to the 19th century. Also see Lovejoy 2000 (cited under Transformations in the 18th and 19th Centuries).

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                                                                              • Petry, Carl, and M. W. Daly, eds. The Cambridge History of Egypt. 2 vols. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                Essays discussing political eras and broader developments in Egyptian history from the early Muslim conquests to the present, with Volume 1 covering the Islamic era up to Ottoman rule in 1517 CE and Volume 2 covering the era from 1517 to 1990 CE.

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                                                                                • Sheriff, Abdul. Dhow Cultures of the Indian Ocean: Cosmopolitanism, Commerce and Islam. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                  Analysis of the commercial and cosmopolitan relationships between littoral societies around the Indian Ocean up to the Portuguese arrival in the 16th century, emphasizing the role of the coastal Swahili peoples of eastern Africa as active participants.

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                                                                                  Conversions to Islam

                                                                                  The Arab conquests brought Islam to northern Africa as the religion of Muslim elites ruling Christian, Jewish, and other religious communities. Brett 2006 discusses the confluence of historical factors in northern Africa that led to gradual but widespread conversions to Islam during the first half-century of Muslim rule, Bulliet 1979 provides a quantitative approach on the rates of conversion, and Morony 1990 offers a critique of Bulliet’s argument. Trade and cultural exchanges in Muslim commercial spheres in the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean worlds influenced the introduction and adoption of Islam in the Sahara and southward. Cohen 1971 stresses the links between Islam and commercial organization, whereas Levtzion 1986 argues that rural contexts differed from urban, commercial contexts. Fisher 1994 argues for an unfolding historical process of conversion to Islam in sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast to general analyses, Horton 2001 examines archaeological evidence and written texts to reconstruct the processes of conversion to Islam in the coastal eastern African town of Shanga. See also Recent Patterns in Conversions to Islam.

                                                                                  • Brett, Michael. The Islamization of Egypt and North Africa. Jerusalem: The Nehemia Levtzion Center for Islamic Studies, 2006.

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                                                                                    Discussion of diverse and changing factors influencing conversions to Islam in Egypt and northern Africa during the first half-millennium of Muslim rule in the region.

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                                                                                    • Bulliet, Richard. Conversion to Islam in the Medieval Period: An Essay in Quantitative History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979.

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                                                                                      Influential analysis of demographic data in interpreting religious change, including the expansion of Islam in Egypt (see Morony 1990).

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                                                                                      • Cohen, Abner. “Cultural Strategies in the Organization of Trading Diasporas.” In The Development of Indigenous Trade and Markets in West Africa. Edited by Claude Meillassoux, 266–281. London: Oxford University Press, 1971.

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                                                                                        Instrumentalist approach to conversion in a larger argument about Islam’s role in offering an organizational and cultural “blueprint” for the emergence of African trading diasporas.

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                                                                                        • Fisher, Humphrey. “Many Deep Baptisms: Reflections on Religious, Chiefly Muslim, Conversion in Black Africa.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 57 (1994): 68–81.

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                                                                                          Discussion of various conceptualizations of conversion that advocates an approach stressing an unfolding historical process of “many deep baptisms” and the role of Islamic reformism in encouraging the articulation of new understandings of Muslim commitment in sub-Saharan Africa over the centuries. Also see Fisher 1973 (cited under Recent Patterns in Conversions to Islam). Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                          • Horton, Mark. “The Islamic Conversion of the Swahili Coast, 750–1500: Some Archaeological and Historical Evidence.” In Islam in East Africa: New Sources: Archives, Manuscripts, and Written Historical Sources, Oral History, Archaeology; International Colloquium, Rome, 2–4 December 1999. Edited by Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti, 449–469. Rome: Herder, 2001.

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                                                                                            Discussion of the complex cultural exchanges associated with the conversion of Islam of Africans of the Swahili coastal town of Shanga on the northern Kenyan coast over the centuries and in complex relations with Muslim visitors.

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                                                                                            • Levtzion, Nehemia. “Merchants v. Scholars and Clerics.” Asian and African Studies 20 (1986): 27–44.

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                                                                                              Discussion of the multiple roles African Muslims assumed in Muslim cultural exchanges in sub-Saharan Africa, emphasizing the role of Muslim merchants in urban centers during the initial expansion of Islam and the subsequent role of Muslim clerics in rural areas where they were not always engaged in trade but had schools supported by the farming of their students and slaves. Republished in Rural and Urban Islam in West Africa (edited by Nehemia Levtzion and Humphrey Fisher, 21–37 [Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1987]).

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                                                                                              • Morony, Michael. “The Age of Conversions: A Reassessment.” In Conversion and Continuity: Indigenous Christian Communities in Islamic Lands, Eighth to Eighteenth Centuries. Edited by Michael Gervers and Ramzi Jibran Bikhazi, 135–150. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1990.

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                                                                                                Critical assessment of Bulliet’s demographic analysis of conversion in Egypt and elsewhere in the Muslim world.

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                                                                                                Slavery and Race

                                                                                                The Mediterranean and Indian Ocean commercial spheres involved Africans in regional and transcontinental slave trading and slavery, and these processes intertwined slavery and race into the history of Muslim Africa and its relations with other Muslim regions. Hunwick and Powell 2002 surveys the processes and institutional arrangements of trans-Saharan slave trading and slavery in the Mediterranean Muslim world, and Walz and Cuno 2010 and Toledano 2011 discuss the experiences of African slaves in the 19th century. The West African Muslim scholar, Ahmad Baba (b. 1556–d. 1627 CE), comments on slavery and race in Muslim Africa in his treatises, translated as Baba 2000. Lewis 1992 discusses slavery and race in the Muslim world generally, and Hall analyzes the linkage between slavery and racial thinking in the Sahara and savanna lands of western Africa. On the general question of race and its representations, Fluehr-Lobban and Rhodes 2004 includes essays analyzing the topic over the long history of the Nile Valley. See also Transformations in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Muslim Commerce and Production, European Colonial Rule: Racial Thinking, and the separate Oxford Bibliographies article on Indian Ocean and Middle Eastern Slave Trades.

                                                                                                • Baba, Ahmad. Mirʿāj al-Suʿūd: Ahmad Bābā’s Replies on Slavery. Edited and translated by John Hunwick and Fatima Harrak. Rabat, Morocco: Institute des Études Africaines, Université Mohammed V-Souissi, 2000.

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                                                                                                  Written after residing several years in northern Africa, these treatises by the Timbuktu Muslim scholar Ahmad Baba argue that West African Muslims could not be enslaved by other Muslims.

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                                                                                                  • Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, and Kharyssa Rhodes, eds. Race and Identity in the Nile Valley: Ancient and Modern Perspectives. Trenton, NJ: Red Sea, 2004.

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                                                                                                    Essays focused on the issues of constructions of race and identity in the Middle and Lower Nile Valley from the era of Ancient Egypt to the present, focusing on the ancient period and recent eras in which slave trading and Ottoman and European colonialism shaped racial thinking.

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                                                                                                    • Hall, Bruce. A History of Race in Muslim West Africa, 1600–1960. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511976766Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Discussion of the rise of racial thinking in western Africa, shaped by the trans-Saharan trade and the rise of slave societies in the bend of the Niger River between Timbuktu and Gao.

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                                                                                                      • Hunwick, John, and Eve Troutt Powell, eds. The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of Islam. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 2002.

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                                                                                                        Essays discussing the Islamic texts on slave trading, different forms of servitude, perceptions of slavery, and abolition.

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                                                                                                        • Lewis, Bernard. Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195053265.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          A pioneering examination of the intersection of slavery and racial prejudice in the Muslim world, with only passing discussion of Muslim Africa.

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                                                                                                          • Toledano, Ehud, ed. African Communities in Asia and the Mediterranean: Identities between Integration and Conflict. Trenton, NJ: Africa World, 2011.

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                                                                                                            Essays concerning slavery and its historical legacies that include discussions of the struggles of African peoples and their efforts to contest prejudice and construct identities in new contexts.

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                                                                                                            • Walz, Terence, and Kenneth Cuno, eds. Race and Slavery in the Middle East: Histories of Trans-Saharan Africans in Nineteenth-Century Egypt, Sudan, and the Ottoman Mediterranean. Cairo, Egypt, and New York: American University in Cairo Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                              Essays discussing slavery and race in the 19th century with chapters on the lives of the African women and men in Egypt, Sudan, and the Ottoman Mediterranean.

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                                                                                                              Early Muslim Scholarly Networks

                                                                                                              African Muslim scholars organized themselves into diverse networks based on shared interests in scholarship, education, and law. Muslim scholars sometimes congregated in urban centers, and others made visits to these towns for periods of study. Saad 1983 analyzes Timbuktu as a regional scholarly center, and Pouwels 1987 discusses Islamic scholarly networks in the Swahili towns of the eastern African coast. African Muslim scholars also operated in rural areas. McHugh 1994 analyzes the activities of Muslim mystics in the Middle Nile Valley, and Wilks 2005 discusses the pedagogical activities of Muslim scholars in western Africa. Sufism emerged as a major interest for Muslim scholars. McGregor 2004 and Cornell 1998 discuss the role of Sufi orders in Egypt and Morocco, respectively. Reese 2004 includes essays on Muslim networks in various regions and in different eras. See also the anthologies Amoretti 2001 and Willis 2012 (cited under Anthologies).

                                                                                                              • Cornell, Vincent. Realm of the Saint: Power and Authority in Moroccan Sufism. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                A comprehensive analysis of the role of saints in Moroccan Sufi orders during the 15th and 16th centuries, with discussion of the concepts of walaya (divine presence) and wilaya (worldly authority).

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                                                                                                                • McGregor, Richard. Sanctity and Mysticism in Medieval Egypt: The Wafāʾ Sufi Order and the Legacy of Ibn ʿArabī. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                  A study of an influential Sufi order propagated in Egypt by Muhammad Wafaʾ and his family, whose writings drew on the Muslim scholar Ibn ʿArabi and others to develop distinctive ideas about sainthood.

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                                                                                                                  • McHugh, Neil. Holymen of the Blue Nile: The Making of an Arab Islamic Community in the Nilotic Sudan, 1500–1850. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                    Analysis of the role of Muslim mystical scholars (or faqihs in Sudanese colloquial Arabic) as Islamic affiliation and the Arabic language gained social stature in the Middle Nile Valley during an era of increasing commercial connections with the Mediterranean world.

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                                                                                                                    • Pouwels, Randall. Horn and Crescent: Cultural Change and Traditional Islam on the East African Coast, 800–1900. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511523885Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      Discussion of the role of eastern African Muslim scholars and their interactions with others in the Indian Ocean world over the period of Islam’s introduction and elaboration along the coastal Swahili societies of eastern Africa.

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                                                                                                                      • Reese, Scott, ed. The Transmission of Learning in Islamic Africa. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2004.

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                                                                                                                        Essays by respected scholars on Muslim networks in diverse Muslim African regions between the 15th and 20th centuries.

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                                                                                                                        • Saad, Elias N. Social History of Timbuktu: The Role of Muslim Scholars and Notables, 1400–1900. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

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                                                                                                                          Analysis of the educational, religious, and political activities of western African Muslim scholars in a major commercial town and scholarly center on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert.

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                                                                                                                          • Wilks, Ivor. “The Transmission of Islamic Learning in the Western Sudan.” In Literacy in Traditional Societies. Edited by Jack Goody, 162–197. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                            Pioneering analysis of the educational activities of the Dyula Muslim scholarly diaspora that grew from an initial base in the Mali Empire to become widely dispersed in western Africa. First edition published in 1968.

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                                                                                                                            Muslims, Kings, and Courts

                                                                                                                            African rulers drew upon the services of Muslims throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Commerce brought the first Muslim contacts with African courts, but after local conversions to Islam, African Muslims often served kings as scribes, councilors, and teachers; conversions in royal families also produced Muslim rulers in some contexts. The earliest known writings in western Africa were inscriptions in political capitals, such those analyzed in Farias 2003. Other African Muslims wrote dynastic histories, such as the West African ʿAbd al-Rahman ibn ʿAbd Allah al-Saʿid (b. 1596–d. c. 1655), whose Arabic text, the Taʾrikh al-Sudan, is translated into French in al-Saʿid 1900. In some cases, African kings sought the advice of Muslim scholars from outside their communities, such as the 16th-century correspondence discussed in Hunwick 1985. Insoll 2003, drawing on archaeological as well as textual sources, surveys the history of Muslims at courts in sub-Saharan Africa, and Horton 1996 provides a study of archaeological and textual evidence associated with the local embrace of Islam in one Swahili city-state over several centuries. Levtzion 1968 draws on Arabic texts to understand relations between African Muslims and political elites in several savanna states in western Africa, and Spaulding 1985 consults Arabic texts, including land documents, in an insightful analysis of socioeconomic transformation as African Muslims gained greater influence at courts in the Middle Nile Valley. See also the separate Oxford Bibliographies articles on Northeastern African States, c. 1000 BCE–1800 CE, Sudan and South Sudan, and Swahili City States of the East African Coast.

                                                                                                                            • al-Saʿid, ʿAbd al-Rahman ibn ʿAbd Allah. Tarikh es-Soudan par Abderrahman ben Abdallah ben ‘Imran ben ‘Amir Es-Sa’di. Edited and translated by Octave Houdas, with the collaboration of Edmond Benoist. Paris: Leroux, 1900.

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                                                                                                                              A French translation of the Arabic text by al-Saʿdi (b. 1596–d. c. 1655 CE) recounting the rise of the Songhay Empire, its fall with the 1591 Moroccan invasion, and the aftermath to 1655. An English translation of this work is al-Saʿid, Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire: Al-Saʿdī’s Ta’rīkh al-Sūdān down to 1613, and Other Contemporary Documents, edited and translated by John Hunwick (Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2003). Text available online.

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                                                                                                                              • Farias, P. F. de Moraes, ed. Arabic Medieval Inscriptions from the Republic of Mali: Epigraphy, Chronicles and Songhay-Tuareg History. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                An analysis of a corpus of Arabic inscriptions on tombstones in northern Mali, the earliest datable writing in western Africa, reinterpreting information in local Arabic chronicles regarding interactions between African Muslims and political elites.

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                                                                                                                                • Horton, Mark, Helen W. Brown, and Nina Mudida. Shanga: The Archaeology of a Muslim Trading Community on the Coast of East Africa. London: British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                  A comprehensive study of early history of Muslim cultural exchanges and the adoption and elaboration of Islam by Swahili residents of Shanga, a city-state north of Lamu on the coast of today’s Kenya, based on analysis of several layers of archaeological data and textual evidence.

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                                                                                                                                  • Hunwick, John, ed. and trans. Sharīʿa in Songhay: The Replies of al-Maghīlī to the Questions of Askia al-Hājj Muhammad. London and New York: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                    An English translation of an important Arabic text revealing exchanges between Muslim scholars and political elites in West Africa, with Hunwick’s introductory overview of the Songhay Empire and analysis of the evidence available to study its past.

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                                                                                                                                    • Insoll, Timothy. The Archaeology of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                      A survey of the archaeological data associated with sub-Saharan Africa that highlights the earliest cultural exchanges between Muslims and political elites and their transformations over the archaeological record.

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                                                                                                                                      • Levtzion, Nehemia. Muslims and Chiefs in West Africa: A Study of Islam in the Middle Volta Basin in the Pre-Colonial Period. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968.

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                                                                                                                                        A discussion of the interactions between West African Muslim merchants who settled in the Middle Volta Basin and became influential counselors for political elites in the region.

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                                                                                                                                        • Spaulding, Jay. The Heroic Age in Sinnar. East Lansing: Michigan State University African Studies Center, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                          An analysis of an important Middle Nile Valley state and commercial empire, arguing for the expansion of mercantile capitalism as the driving force of change in the region and emphasizing the role of Muslim judges in introducing and enforcing the new commercial values.

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                                                                                                                                          Transformations in the 18th and 19th Centuries

                                                                                                                                          The 18th and 19th centuries witnessed the revitalization of Muslim scholarly networks, especially Sufi orders; the expansion of commerce, including transcontinental slave trading; and transformations in slavery. In some contexts, Sufi orders were involved in commercial expansion, and elsewhere regional powers such as Egypt and Oman extended their hegemony. Revitalized Sufi orders also created political movements challenging established regimes in western Africa and the Middle Nile Valley. European imperialism expanded in the 19th century, culminating in the imposition of European colonial rule over much of Africa, including Muslim African regions where various forms of diplomacy and then military resistance shaped initial encounters. Martin 1976 provides an overview of the Sufi orders, and Lovejoy 2000 surveys the economic changes. Klein 1990 (cited under Review Articles) and Levtzion 1987 provide background for the Muslim political movements in western Africa. Hill 1959 and Nicholls 1971 discuss the history of Egyptian and Omani expansion in Africa, respectively. See also Loimeier 2013 and relevant regional chapters in Levtzion and Pouwels 2000 and Robinson 2012 (all three cited under General Overviews) for these transformations.

                                                                                                                                          • Hill, Richard. Egypt in the Sudan, 1820–1881. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959.

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                                                                                                                                            A comprehensive discussion of Egypt’s colonization of the Upper Nile Valley during the 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                            • Levtzion, Nehemia. “The Eighteenth Century Background to the Islamic Revolutions in West Africa.” In Eighteenth-Century Renewal and Reform in Islam. Edited by Nehemia Levtzion and John O. Voll, 21–38. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                              A discussion of the various transformations of the 18th century that encouraged Sufi orders to expand activities outside scholarly enclaves as well as the impact of transatlantic slave trade on Muslim West Africa.

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                                                                                                                                              • Lovejoy, Paul. Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa. 2d ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                A comprehensive survey of slavery and its transformations in Africa during the era of expanded transcontinental slave trading from the 16th to the 19th century that compares the forms of slavery in Muslim and non-Muslim contexts. First edition published in 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                • Martin, Bradford. Muslim Brotherhoods in Nineteenth-Century Africa. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                  A pioneering overview of 19th-century Sufi orders focusing on leadership, organization, and the role some Sufi orders took in resistance to European colonial intrusions.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Nicholls, Christine Stephanie. The Swahili Coast: Politics, Diplomacy and Trade on the East African Littoral, 1798–1856. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1971.

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                                                                                                                                                    A historical account of the establishment of Omani rule on the eastern African coast, the expansion of commerce, and growing international involvement in the region.

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                                                                                                                                                    Muslim Scholarly Networks

                                                                                                                                                    Revitalized Sufi orders appeared throughout the Muslim world beginning in the 18th century, encouraging new Muslim devotional practices, greater emphasis on the social welfare of disciples, and organizational reforms. Martin 1976 (cited under Transformations in the 18th and 19th Centuries) surveys several African Muslim Sufi leaders and their orders. In western Africa, Stewart and Stewart 1973 discusses the revitalization of the Qadiriyya in the southern Sahara under Sidiyya al-Kabir (b. 1775–d. 1868 CE), and Babou 2007 focuses on another branch of the Qadiriyya that emerged under Amadu Bamba (b. 1853–d. 1927 CE) during rising French imperialism and then colonial rule in Senegal. In northern Africa, O’Fahey 1990 discusses Ahmad ibn Idris (b. 1760–d. 1837 CE), an influential Sufi reformer, and Vikør 1995 studies one of Ibn Idris’s students, Muhammad ibn ʿAli al-Sanusi (b. 1787–d. 1859 CE), whose Sufi order was influential in Libya and the Sahara. In eastern Africa, Samatar 1992 focuses on Uways Muhammad (b. 1847–d. 1909 CE), a Somali Sufi leader whose influence extended southward along the eastern African coast, and Bang 2003 studies the ʿAlawiyya order of the Ibn Sumayt family, which had its origins in Yemen and became influential in eastern Africa.

                                                                                                                                                    • Babou, Cheikh. Fighting the Greater Jihad: Amadu Bamba and the Founding of the Muridiyya of Senegal, 1853–1913. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                      A study of Amadu Bamba (b. 1853–d. 1927 CE), founder of the Muridiyya, a branch of the Qadiriyya order, during an era of French colonial expansion and the profound disruption of the social order of Wolof states, where the Muridiyya established a stronghold.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Bang, Anne. Sufis and Scholars of the Sea: Family Networks in East Africa, 1860–1925. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                        A discussion of the history of the ʿAlawiyya Sufi order, initially based in the south Yemeni region of the Hadramawt before extending its influence to coastal eastern Africa during the eras of Omani hegemony and European colonialism.

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                                                                                                                                                        • O’Fahey, R. S. Enigmatic Saint: Ahmad Ibn Idris and the Idrisi Tradition. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                          A study of the Sufi tradition initiated by Ahmad ibn Idris (b. 1760–d. 1837), a Moroccan scholar based in Mecca whose legal teachings and approach to Sufism inspired several orders in northern and eastern Africa during the 19th century, including that of Muhammad al-Sanusi (Vikør 1995).

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                                                                                                                                                          • Samatar, Said. “Sheikh Uways Muhammad of Baraawe, 1847–1909: Mystic and Reformer in East Africa.” In In the Shadow of Conquest: Islam in Colonial Northeast Africa. Edited by Said Samatar, 48–74. Trenton, NJ: Red Sea, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                            A discussion of Uways Muhammad (b. 1847–d. 1909), an influential Somali Sufi leader whose branch of the Qadiriyya order was influential in southern Somali regions and throughout the coastal region of eastern Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Stewart, Charles, and Elizabeth Kirk Stewart. Islam and Social Order in Mauritania: A Case Study from the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon, 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                              A study of Sidiyya al-Kabir (1775–1868), a southern Saharan Muslim scholar and disciple of the Qadiriyya Sufi order propagated by the Kunta family, who founded his own branch of the Qadiriyya in southern Mauritania and extended its influence across the Sahara and into the western African savanna.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Vikør, Knut. Sufi and Scholar on the Desert Edge: Muhammad b. ʿAli al-Sanūsī and His Brotherhood. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                An analysis of the teaching and organizing of Muhammad ibn ʿAli al-Sanusi (b. 1787–d. 1859), an Algerian who encountered the ideas of Ahmad ibn Idris when studying in Fez, Morocco and traveled widely before settling in Cyrenaica, Libya, where he based his Sufi order, the Sanusiyya.

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                                                                                                                                                                Muslim Commerce and Production

                                                                                                                                                                The expanding pace of global exchanges in the 18th and 19th centuries influenced Muslim Africa (Lovejoy 2000, cited under Transformations in the 18th and 19th Centuries). Slave trading increased in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Indian Ocean worlds, involving African Muslims as both merchants and slaves. Barry 1998 and Sheriff 1987 discuss the expansion of the transoceanic commerce in Senegambia and Zanzibar, respectively. Lydon 2009 and Walz 1978 discuss the expansion of trans-Saharan commerce along western and eastern routes, respectively. Transformations in slavery in Muslim Africa are discussed in Cooper 1977, Glassman 1995, and El Hamel 2013. See also Slavery and Race.

                                                                                                                                                                • Barry, Boubacar. Senegambia and the Atlantic Slave Trade. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Analysis of the impact of the transatlantic slave trade in Senegambia that argues that Muslim reformers came to power in some regions in part as a reaction to the slave raiding and trading of Muslims into transcontinental networks.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Cooper, Frederick. Plantation Slavery on the East Coast of Africa. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                    Comprehensive study of the diverse forms slavery took on Zanzibar and the Kenyan coast during the 19th century as plantation slavery was introduced and combined with previous forms of servitude.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Glassman, Jonathon. Feasts and Riot: Revelry, Rebellion, and Popular Consciousness on the Swahili Coast, 1856–1888. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Analysis of the transformations of the Omani era along a section of the eastern African coast that reveals the complex relations and understandings of Swahili leaders, immigrant merchants, commoners, and slaves as they negotiated and contested meanings as the social order gradually gave way to German colonial rule along this section of the eastern African coast.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • El Hamel, Chouki. Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                        A study of enslaved sub-Saharan Africans in Morocco from the 16th century to the beginning of the 20th century that focuses on those in military service who became a political force in the 18th century and on the Gnawa, whose musical and cultural practices came to express black Moroccan identity.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Lydon, Ghislaine. On Trans-Saharan Trails: Islamic Law, Trade Networks, and Cross-Cultural Exchange in Nineteenth-Century Western Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511575457Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Analysis of the Wad Nun commercial network operating between southern Morocco and western Africa that stresses the importance of literacy and Muslim law in facilitating the expansion of commerce in the 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Sheriff, Abdul. Slaves, Spices and Ivory in Zanzibar: Integration of an East African Commercial Empire into the World Economy, 1770–1873. London: James Currey, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                                                            A study of the expansion of commerce in ivory, slaves, and cloves that fed the wealth of the Omani state based in Zanzibar and that attracted European imperial interests and the eventual subordination of the coastal region to European powers in the late 19th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Walz, Terence. Trade between Egypt and Bilād as-Sūdān, 1700–1820. Cairo, Egypt: Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                                                              A study of the expansion of commerce between Egypt and the savanna lands of Africa in the 18th and early 19th centuries, noting the role of sub-Saharan African traders in Cairo.

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                                                                                                                                                                              Southern Africa

                                                                                                                                                                              European commercial expansion into the Indian Ocean world led to Dutch settlement at Cape Town in 1652, which grew into a European colony importing slaves from Africa and Asia. Some of these slaves were Muslims, and others adopted the faith over time. Davids 1981 and Jeppie 1996 discuss the political and religious activities of South African Muslims in 19th-century Cape Town politics. Vahed 2001 discusses the later arrival of South Asian Muslims in the British colony of Natal.

                                                                                                                                                                              • Davids, Achmat. “Politics and the Muslims of Cape Town: A Historical Survey.” In Studies in the History of Cape Town. Vol. 4. Edited by Christopher Saunders, Howard Phillips, and Elizabeth van Heyningen, 174–220. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                An overview of the political engagement of Cape Town Muslims from a member of a prominent Cape Town Muslim family whose activities shaped those politics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Jeppie, Shamil. “Leadership and Loyalties: The Imams of Nineteenth Century Colonial Cape Town.” Journal of Religion in Africa 26 (1996): 139–162.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1163/157006696X00046Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  A discussion of the 19th-century Muslim community of Cape Town that focuses on the religious leadership provided by the imams of the central mosque. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Vahed, Goolam. “Mosques, Mawlanas and Muharram: Indian Islam in Colonial Natal, 1860–1910.” Journal of Religion in Africa 31 (2001): 305–335.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1163/157006601X00194Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    An overview of the South Asian Muslim community in Natal that discusses the various groups arriving during the 19th century, their economic activities as merchants and indentured laborers, Muslim practices, and involvement in politics. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Muslim Political Movements

                                                                                                                                                                                    Muslim movements transformed the political landscape of western Africa and the Middle Nile Valley during the 18th and 19th centuries. In western Africa, the Muslim movements challenged established regimes beginning in the late 17th century: Barry 1998 (cited under Transformations in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Muslim Commerce and Production) and Klein 1990 (cited under Review Articles) link their rise with the insecurity associated with the expansion of the transatlantic slave trade. By the 19th century, African Muslim scholars throughout the savanna led movements to overturn several polities. Last 1977 draws on Arabic texts produced by Muslim leaders to write the history of the Sokoto Caliphate, the imperial state created in the early 19th century by the political movement led by ʿUthman ibn Fudi (Usman dan Fodio) (b. 1754–d. 1817 CE) and his family. Bâ and Daget 1984 discusses the Muslim state created by Ahmad ibn Muhammad Lobbo (b. c. 1776–d. 1845 CE) in the Middle Niger Delta. Robinson 1985 analyzes the history of the mid-19th-century Muslim conquest of the western bilad al-Sudan (contemporary eastern Senegal and Mali) by al-hajj ʿUmar ibn Saʿid (or Umar Tal) (b. c. 1797–d. 1864 CE) of the Middle Senegal Valley. Hanson 1996 discusses the aftermath of Umar Tal’s invasion in one conquered territory and the lasting appeal of Muslim migration from the Senegal Valley to the Umarian conquered territories in an era of increasing French imperialism. European expansion led to military engagements with numerous Muslim leaders: Person 1968 discusses the military confrontations between French imperialism and Samori Turé (b. c. 1830–d. 1900 CE), and Clancy-Smith 1994 analyzes the complex interactions, including military confrontation, between French colonial officials and the leaders of Sufi orders in northern Africa. In the Middle Nile Valley, Muhammad Ahmad (b. 1844–d. 1885 CE) claimed the Muslim eschatological role of the Mahdi and led a political movement against Egyptian hegemony, and his “Mahdist” state then confronted imperialist Anglo-Egyptian forces in the late 19th century. Voll 1979 discusses the life of Muhammad Ahmad and Holt 1970 surveys the history of the Mahdist state.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bâ, Amadou-Hampâté, and Jacques Daget. L’Émpire peul du Macina. Vol. 1, 1818–1853. Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire: Éditions de l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      A discussion of the Muslim movement led by Amadu Lobbo and the state established in the Middle Niger Delta region. First published in 1962.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clancy-Smith, Julia. Rebel and Saint: Muslim Notables, Populist Protest, Colonial Encounters (Algeria and Tunisia, 1800–1904). Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        An examination of the varied response of several Sufi orders in Algeria and Tunisia to the advance of European colonial rule in northern Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hanson, John. Migration, Jihad and Muslim Authority in West Africa: The Futanke Colonies in Karta. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          An analysis of the continued appeals to hijra or religiously motivated emigration from the Senegal River Valley to the territories conquered in Umar Tal’s Muslim wars and their complex interaction with expanding French imperialism and local understandings of Muslim obligation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Holt, P. M. The Mahdist State in the Sudan, 1881–1898. 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            The first and still-considered standard English-language introduction to the emergence of the state founded by Muhammad Ahmad, based on research with Arabic sources produced by the Mahdist elite. First edition published in 1958.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Last, Murray. The Sokoto Caliphate. London: Longman, 1977.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              A pioneering study of the state formed by the political movement led by Usman dan Fodio in today’s northern Nigeria, based on Arabic and Hausa documents produced by the new elite.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Person, Yves. Samori: Une révolution dyula. Dakar, Senegal: Institut fondamental d’Afrique noire, 1968.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                A study of the state formed by Samori Turé, initially based in today’s Guinea and southern Mali but expanding eastward and adding a more fervent Islamic dimension to movement during the late 19th century as French imperial assertions led to extended military campaigns.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Robinson, David. The Holy War of Umar Tal: The Western Sudan in the Mid-Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  A comprehensive work on the Muslim movement led by Umar Tal, whose wars brought much of the Western Sudan under control of his Futanke followers (former residents of Futa Toro and Jallon) and pitted his movement against the recently established Muslim elite in Masina.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Voll, John. “The Sudanese Mahdī: Frontier Fundamentalist.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 10 (1979): 145–166.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/S0020743800034747Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    A study of Muhammad Ahmad, his religious ideas about Mahdism, and his revolt against in Egyptian rule in the late-19th-century Middle Nile Valley. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Women

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Women were influential in Muslim Africa, but the evidence to reconstruct their activities frequently does not appear in the historical record. The proliferation of writing by African Muslims during the 19th century, as well as the ability to tap oral memories, created opportunities for scholars to analyze the activities of women. Mack and Boyd 2000 discusses Nana Asmaʾu (b. 1763–d. 1864 CE), the daughter of ʿUthman ibn Fudi (Usman dan Fodio), and her role in the consolidation of the Sokoto Caliphate. Tucker 1985 provides an analysis of the role of women in 19th-century Egypt, and Ahmed 1992 analyzes discourses regarding the veiling of Egyptian women beginning in the late 19th century. Kapteijns 1995 evaluates the impact of global economic changes on women’s roles in production. Lydon 2009 (cited under Transformations in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Muslim Commerce and Production) integrates the analysis of African Muslim women into her study of 19th-century economic and cultural history.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      An influential study arguing that Islam’s egalitarian impulses were submerged by patriarchal forces that came to define gender relations in early Muslim Arabia and concluding with a discussion of discourses beginning in the late 19th century about veiling women in Egypt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kapteijns, Lidwien. “Gender Relations and the Transformation of the Northern Somali Pastoral Tradition.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 28 (1995): 241–259.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.2307/221614Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Analysis of transformations and changing gender relations in the northern Somali pastoral tradition during its integration into global commercial exchanges beginning in the 18th century and then expanding under early British colonial rule. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mack, Beverly, and Jean Boyd. One Woman’s Jihad: Nana Asmaʾu, Scholar and Scribe. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Analysis of the writings of Nana Asmaʾu, daughter of Usman dan Fodio, leader of the Muslim movement in Sokoto; includes English translations of several of Nana Asmaʾu’s works in Arabic and Hausa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Tucker, Judith. Women in Nineteenth-Century Egypt. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511583506Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Study of women in 19th-century Egypt using court records and other materials to detail the lives of peasants in rural areas, workers and traders in Cairo, and slaves in both contexts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            European Colonial Rule

                                                                                                                                                                                                            European colonial rule introduced changes in numerous domains in Muslim Africa. In northern and southern Africa, this colonial expansion and consolidation began early in the 19th century, whereas in tropical regions European expansion and colonial administration began only in the late 19th century and, in the cases of Mauritania, Niger, and Somalia, as late as the 1920s. Stewart 1990 surveys colonial policies and the responses of Africans throughout the continent, and Triaud 1992 discusses French colonialism in Muslim Africa. Also see Loimeier 2013 and relevant regional chapters in Levtzion and Pouwels 2000 and Robinson 2012 (all three cited under General Overviews).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Stewart, Charles. “Islam.” In The Colonial Moment in Africa: Essays on the Movement of Minds and Materials, 1900–1940. Edited by Andrew D. Roberts, 191–222. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511562747.006Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                              An overview history of Muslim Africa under various European colonial regimes and Muslim developments, such as the expansion of Sufi orders and increased conversions to Islam, in an essay that originally appeared in The Cambridge History of Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Triaud, Jean-Louis. “L’Islam sous le régime colonial.” In L’Afrique occidentale au temps des Français (colonisateur et colonisés, c.1860–1960). Edited by Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, 141–155. Paris: Découverte, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                An overview of French colonial rule in western Africa that develops themes relevant to the French experience; also see Triaud’s chapter in The History of Islam in Africa and the essays in the anthology Le temps des marabouts (Robinson and Triaud 1997, cited under Anthologies).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Administrations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                European colonial administrations sought to rule with the least expense and often drew on local elites who accommodated themselves to positions of authority in the new political regime. Muslim responses varied from continued militant resistance through withdrawal into spiritual affairs to active engagement with European colonial officials. In the Sudan, the joint British and Egyptian administration created new arrangements in various domains, as noted in Daly 1986 and Daly 1991, and Ibrahim 2004 discusses how Sayyid ʿAbd ar-Rahman, the son of Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi, managed these changes and thrived in the colonial order. Last 1997 notes how the British established an official policy of “indirect rule” in northern Nigeria that maintained most of the surviving elite from the last days of the Sokoto Caliphate; Umar 2006 discusses how that accommodation received criticism from African Muslim intellectuals. In French colonial territories, Robinson 2000 analyzes the paths to accommodation in a region where Sufi leaders in Mauritania and Senegal established working relations with the French administration; and Seesemann and Soares 2009 notes that many African Muslims maintained political and cultural distance from the French administration.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Daly, M. W. Empire on the Nile: The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1893–1934. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  History of the colonial administration of the Sudan, with discussions of colonial policies, courts, and other topics relating to the administration of the Muslim communities of the region.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Daly, M. W. Imperial Sudan: The Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, 1934–1956. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The history of the colonial state, together with Daly 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ibrahim, Hassan Ahmed. Sayyid ʿAbd al-Rahmān al-Mahdī: A Study of Neo-Mahdīsm in the Sudan, 1899–1956. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A discussion of the life and political activities of Sayyid ʿAbd ar-Rahman, the son of the Mahdi and an intermediary during the Anglo-Egyptian administration of the Sudan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Last, Murray. “The Colonial Caliphate.” In Le temps des marabouts: Itinéraires et stratégies islamiques en Afrique occidentale française, v. 1880–1960. Edited by David Robinson and Jean-Louis Triaud, 67–84. Paris: Karthala, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An overview of the history of regions of the former Sokoto Empire during British rule that notes both changes and also significant continuities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Robinson, David. Paths of Accommodation: Muslim Societies and French Colonial Authorities in Senegal and Mauritania, 1880–1920. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A comprehensive work on the evolving relations between French colonial administrators and the Muslim leaders of several prominent Sufi orders who found diverse ways to accommodate colonial rule in Senegal and Mauritania.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Seesemann, Rüdiger, and Benjamin Soares. “‘Being as Good Muslims as Frenchmen’: On Islam and Colonial Modernity in West Africa.” Journal of Religion in Africa 39 (2009): 91–120.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1163/157006609X409067Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A study noting that accommodation does not capture the diverse ways Muslims coped with the changed conditions of French colonial rule in western Africa. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Umar, Muhammad Sani. Islam and Colonialism: Intellectual Responses of Muslims of Northern Nigeria to British Colonial Rule. Boston: Brill, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Analysis of diverse writings in various languages (Arabic, Hausa, and English) by Muslims in northern Nigeria that reveals various perspectives on the question of Muslim accommodation of British colonial rule.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Courts

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Colonial rule brought changes to the operation of existing Muslim courts and also introduced new legal proceedings over the affairs of Muslims. Roberts 2005 discusses the experiences of African Muslims in the tribunals established by the French at the outset of colonial rule in one region of western Africa. Christelow 1985 documents the experiences of Muslim courts in Algeria. Schacht 1957 describes legal practices in late colonial northern Nigeria. Muslim judges in colonial Zanzibar are discussed in Stockreiter 2010 and Bang 2003 (cited under Transformations in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Muslim Scholarly Networks); for colonial Muslim courts in neighboring Pemba, see McMahon 2013 (cited under European Colonial Rule: Economic Change). See also Postcolonial Nation-States: Postcolonial Muslim Courts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Economic Change

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              European colonial rule disrupted patterns of production and trade in Muslim Africa. The abolition of slavery was perhaps the most profound economic transformation. For eastern Africa, Cooper 1980 and McMahon 2013 discuss the transformations associated with ending plantation slavery, Fair 2001 investigates the changes in urban Zanzibar, and Nimtz 1980 (cited under Recent Muslim Scholarly Networks: Sufism) discusses the participation of former slaves in Sufi orders along the mainland coast. For western Africa, Lovejoy and Hogendorn 1993 and Klein 1998 analyze colonial policies and the ambiguous era of emancipation in British and French colonial territories, respectively, and Hanretta 2009 examines the agency of former slaves in the history of a dissident Muslim movement in French West Africa. Launay and Soares 1999 argues that economic and social change in French West Africa created an Islamic sphere in which Muslims were able to construct new Muslim identities and adopt practices that diverged from past understandings of Islam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Cooper, Frederick. From Slaves to Squatters: Plantation Labor and Agriculture in Zanzibar and Coastal Kenya, 1890–1925. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Analyzes the end of slavery, especially the collapse of plantation slavery in Zanzibar and coastal regions of Kenya, following the establishment of British colonial rule.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fair, Laura. Pastimes and Politics: Culture, Community, and Identity in Post-Abolition Urban Zanzibar, 1890–1945. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Analysis of emancipation in colonial Zanzibar through the lens of popular culture, such as clothing in which former slaves adopted new styles of dress that were later emulated by elite Muslim women.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hanretta, Sean. Islam and Social Change in French West Africa: History of an Emancipatory Community. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511576157Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Study of a Tijaniyya Sufi order that attracted disciples from the ranks of former slaves and artisan groups, challenged the colonial order, and shifted its base from the French Soudan to Côte d’Ivoire after its founder, Yaʿqub (Yacouba) Sylla, was exiled by French officials.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Klein, Martin. Slavery and Colonial Rule in French West Africa. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 1998.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511584138Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Analysis of French policies and the course of abolition in three French West African territories with significant Muslim populations, Senegal, French Soudan, and Guinea, revealing a range of experiences from slave exoduses to gradual transformations in social relations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Launay, Robert, and Benjamin Soares. “The Formation of an ‘Islamic Sphere’ in French Colonial West Africa.” Economy and Society 28 (1999): 497–519.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/03085149900000015Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An essay arguing that French colonial rule altered centuries of understandings and especially social hierarchies and created new social spaces where Africans of diverse backgrounds and positions negotiated new understandings and statuses as Muslims. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lovejoy, Paul, and Jan Hogendorn. Slow Death for Slavery: The Course of Abolition in Northern Nigeria, 1897–1936. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511563065Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Detailed study of the ways British colonial policies and local political elites allowed for multiple forms of servitude to persist during an era of official abolition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • McMahon, Elizabeth. Slavery and Emancipation in Islamic East Africa: From Honor to Respectability. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139198837Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Study of abolition on Pemba, Zanzibar’s neighboring island, that argues that former slaves used emancipation to transform meanings of the Swahili word heshima from honor to respectability as a means to enhance social status in Muslim and colonial courts as well as in daily life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Racial Thinking

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            European powers held racial ideas about Africans, and their understandings of African Muslims reflected the prejudiced thinking of the time. Harrison 1988 discusses the emergence of the French concept islam noir (“black Islam”) as it influenced French colonial policies. Hall 2011 examines the existence of racial thinking in western Africa, linked initially with the trans-Saharan slave trade and the history of slavery in the region, and analyzes local transformations under French colonialism. Glassman 2011 situates the British racial thinking of colonial Zanzibar into a context in which local racial thinking among Arabs and Africans influenced policies and interactions in the colonial era. See also Slavery and Race.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Glassman, Jonathon. War of Words, War of Stones: Racial Thought and Violence in Colonial Zanzibar. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Analysis of the development and mobilization of ethnic and racial solidarities by Arabs, Swahilis, and mainland Africans on Zanzibar during the colonial era that situates British racial thinking as merely one strand in a wider discourse on the island.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hall, Bruce. A History of Race in Muslim West Africa, 1600–1960. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511976766Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Discussion of the rise of racial thinking in western Africa, shaped by the trans-Saharan trade and the rise of extensive slave holdings in the bend of the Niger River near Timbuktu and Gao, and its transformation during the era of French colonialism, which introduced French racial thinking.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Harrison, Christopher. France and Islam in West Africa, 1860–1960. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511523854Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Study of the relations between French officials and ethnographers and the Muslim regions of western Africa that situates the French notion of islam noir into the evolving understandings and policies of French colonial rule.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Postcolonial Nation-States

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The end of European colonial rule ushered in an era of African nation-states launching new initiatives but also confronting the legacies of colonialism and the challenges of the Cold War and its aftermath. Entry into the public life of postcolonial nations, however, soon was influenced by economic crises and state dysfunction. In this postcolonial context, African Muslims participated in the political process and debated the enactment of new laws. They also engaged in public disputes among themselves, with some Muslim reformers challenging the authority of Sufi orders and advocating a new focus on individual self-improvement through education in Arabic and moral development. Cooper 2002 provides historical background on this era, Bayart 2005 suggests a conceptual approach to understanding identity and its fluctuations, and Eickelman and Piscatori 2004 suggests a framework for studying contemporary Muslim political engagements. Quinn and Quinn 2003 discusses the contemporary era as it influenced African Muslims in several nation-states, and Larkin and Meyer 2006 analyzes the parallels as well as the contrasts between contemporary Muslim and Christian movements, using examples from western Africa. See also Recent Muslim Scholarly Networks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bayart, Jean-François. The Illusion of Cultural Identity. Translated by Steven Rendall, Janet Roitman, Cynthia Schoch, and Jonathan Derrick. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An exploration of the cultural aspects of political action and economic development by one of France’s leading scholars of Africa, who analyzes the cultural politics of constructed “imaginaires.”

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Cooper, Frederick. Africa since 1940: The Past of the Present. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A historical survey of the processes of decolonization and independence that illuminates the political, economic, and social continuities and changes of the era.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Eickelman, Dale F., and James Piscatori. Muslim Politics. 2nd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A survey of Muslim involvement in the political process globally, with extensive references to Muslim Africa and a framework for analyzing the interface between religion and politics of contemporary Islamic thought and practice. First edition published in 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Larkin, Brian, and Birgit Meyer. “Pentecostalism, Islam & Culture: New Religious Movements in West Africa.” In Themes in West Africa’s History. Edited by Emmanuel Akyeampong, 286–312. Oxford: James Currey, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An essay on the rise of new forms of religiosity in Islam and Christianity in West Africa that argues for numerous parallels, with specific reference to expressions in Ghana and Nigeria but with wider relevance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Quinn, Charlotte, and Frederick Quinn. Pride, Faith, and Fear: Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1093/0195063864.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A survey of contemporary Muslim societies in sub-Saharan Africa with case studies of Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, and the Sudan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Muslim Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            African Muslims engaged in various forms of politics from the mid-20th century. Tayob 1998 discusses the Muslim Youth Movement and its efforts at ending apartheid in South Africa. Badran 2011 and Jeppie, et al. 2010 analyze the political activity of African Muslims as postcolonial states considered laws regarding sexuality and the family. Villalón 1995 investigates the political participation of Sufi disciples in Senegal, and Shahin 1998 discusses the emergence of Islamic movements who are working within various northern African states to advocate for moralism in social development. Toth 2013 assesses the life and ideas of the Egyptian Muslim Sayyid Qutb (b. 1906–d. 1966 CE), a member of the Society of Muslim Brothers whose writings have come to influence militant Muslim movements globally. Salaam and de Waal 2004 provides background on the growth of the rising tide of militant Muslim political movements in the Horn of Africa. See also Otayek and Soares 2007 (cited under Review Articles), Eickelman and Piscatori 2004 (cited under Postcolonial Nation-States), and Recent Muslim Scholarly Networks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Badran, Margot. “Introduction: Gender and Islam in Africa—Rights, Sexuality and Law.” In Gender and Islam in Africa: Rights, Sexuality and Law. Edited by Margot Badran, 1–16. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Introductory essay that surveys a range of issues related to the politics of gender in Muslim Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Jeppie, Shamil, Ebrahim Moosa, and Richard Roberts. “Introduction: Muslim Family Law in Sub-Saharan Africa.” In Muslim Family Law in Sub-Saharan Africa: Colonial Legacies and Post-Colonial Challenges. Edited by Shamil Jeppie, Ebrahim Moosa, and Richard Roberts, 13–60. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2010.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.5117/9789089641724Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Introductory essay that surveys the transformations of Muslim family law in sub-Saharan Africa as European colonial rule and postcolonial states placed limits on customs and Muslim practices toward marriage in African Muslim communities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Salaam, A. H. Abdel, and Alex de Waal. “On the Failure and Persistence of Jihad.” In Islamism and Its Enemies in the Horn of Africa. Edited by Alex de Waal, 21–70. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A survey of the history and current activities of militant Muslim movements in the Horn of Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Shahin, Emad Eldin. Political Ascent: Contemporary Islamic Movements in North Africa. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An argument that Islamic movements in Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco, which have worked within the political system, formed since the 1960s in response to the perceived marginalization of Islam and advocated Muslim beliefs into plans for nonviolent social and political change.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Tayob, Abdulkader. Islamic Resurgence in South Africa: The Muslim Youth Movement. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A study of the emergence and development of the Muslim Youth Movement and its role in the effort to end the system of apartheid in South Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Toth, James. Sayyid Qutb: The Life and Legacy of a Radical Islamic Intellectual. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199790883.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A study of the life of the Egyptian Muslim intellectual Sayyid Qutb (b. 1906–d. 1966 CE), with an extensive discussion of the main themes in his prodigious body of writings. See also Mitchell 1993 (cited under Recent Muslim Scholarly Networks: Salafism).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Villalón, Leonardo. Islamic Society and State Power in Senegal: Disciples and Citizens in Fatick. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511598647Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An analysis of the interaction among Sufi orders, the state bureaucracy, and citizens in the Senegalese town of Fatick that reveals that Sufi disciples hold their own political views and are not necessarily controlled by Sufi leaders.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Postcolonial Muslim Courts

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Muslim courts function in the aftermath of the European colonial era’s introduction of new courts and strict confinement of Muslim courts to limited legal domains. Christelow 2002 and Fluehr-Lobban 1987 discuss the colonial and postcolonial changes in northern Nigeria and the Sudan, respectively, and Kendhammer 2013 analyzes the politics of the recent establishment of Muslim criminal courts in northern Nigeria. Hirsch 1998 analyzes the use of Muslim courts in coastal Kenya by Swahili women. An-Naʿim 2006 discusses the difficulties African states face in dealing with the complex legal legacies of the colonial era and argues for the role of African Muslims in the process. See also European Colonial Rule: Courts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Recent Patterns in Conversions to Islam

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Conversions to Islam expanded greatly in Africa during the European colonial era and after, as did conversion to Christianity. In an influential article discussing conversions to both Islam and Christianity, Horton 1971 proposes an “intellectualist” approach stressing continuities in the process of conversion. Fisher 1973 responds to Horton by arguing that conversion to Islam was a long historical process of acculturation and reformism. Peel 2000 advocates analysis of conversion narratives and their emphases on rupture, illustrating his approach to conversion in a comprehensive study of religious change in southwestern Nigeria. Ahmed 2008 and Becker 2008 investigate conversions to Islam in eastern Africa, Faulkner 2006 analyzes the diverse religious expressions in a community recently converted to Islam, and Peterson 2011 discusses conversion to Islam among former slaves who returned to their region of origin in western Africa and gradually started to assert their identities as Muslims.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ahmed, Abdallah Chanfi. Les conversions à l’Islam fondamentaliste en Afrique au sud du Sahara: Le cas de la Tanzanie et du Kenya. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A study framing the activities of Muslim reformers as conversion and illustrating the methods, including preaching, singing, and daily social interactions, adopted by a younger generation of Muslims to compete with Pentecostal Christian proselytizers and bring converts to Islam.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Becker, Felicitas. Becoming Muslim in Mainland Tanzania, 1890–2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.5871/bacad/9780197264270.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A study of the intellectual and social dimensions of conversion to Islam in southeast Tanzania that explores its initial adoption in rural communities and transformation since 1890, including the emergence of local reformers challenging established practices.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Faulkner, Mark R. J. Overtly Muslim, Covertly Boni: Competing Calls of Religious Allegiance on the Kenyan Coast. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                An ethnography of religious practices in diverse contexts, such as households, mosques, and the bush, to reveal the complexity of religious expressions and meanings in one community that holds Muslim and indigenous African religious values.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fisher, Humphrey. “Conversion Reconsidered: Some Historical Aspects of Religious Conversion in Black Africa.” Africa 43 (1973): 27–40.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/1158544Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An article responding to Horton 1971 and arguing for the long history of conversion to Islam in Africa in which Fisher argues that periods of reformism led to changes in worldviews over time. Fisher responds to critics and elaborates on the argument in “The Juggernaut’s Apologia: Conversion to Islam in Black Africa,” Africa 55 (1985): 153–173. See also Fisher 1994, cited under Early Muslim Empires and Commercial Spheres: Conversions to Islam. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Horton, Robin. “African Conversion.” Africa 41 (1971): 85–108.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/1159421Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An influential article that stresses the reconfiguration of indigenous religious ideas within Christianity and Islam as the expansion of scale of the colonial era brought Africans together in new social contexts. Horton responds to critics and elaborates on the argument in “On the Rationality of Conversion,” Africa 45 (1975): 219–235, 373–399. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Peel, J. D. Y. Religious Encounter and the Making of the Yoruba. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An analysis of narration and cultural negotiation in the conversion to Christianity in 19th-century southwestern Nigeria, emphasizing the ways converts made the faith understandable and including a discussion of Yoruba Muslim interactions with missionaries and Yoruba Christians.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Peterson, Brian. Islamization from Below: The Making of Muslim Communities in Rural French Sudan, 1880–1960. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A study of the ways former slaves, who returned to their homes after French emancipation, practiced Islam as learned in bondage and gradually asserted this religion in their new homes despite the opposition of those maintaining indigenous beliefs and practices.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Recent Muslim Scholarly Networks

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Muslim Africa always has been connected to the larger Muslim world, but the changes of the 20th and 21st centuries altered these patterns as European colonial empires rose and fell and thereafter Muslims renewed contacts in the postcolonial era of new nation-states. Voll 1994 surveys the changes in Muslim scholarly networks globally. Hunwick 1997 situates the recent proliferation of Muslim contacts between sub-Saharan Africa and the larger Muslim world in a historical context. In this era, Sufi orders expanded during colonial rule but recently have been challenged by a new wave of Muslim reformist movements, even though previous generations of Sufi leaders and their successors understood their religious efforts as reform. Loimeier 2003 locates the new wave of reformism into a historical context through the analysis of several African Muslim reformers. See also Sufism, Reformism, and Salafism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hunwick, John. “Sub-Saharan Africa and the Wider World of Islam: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.” In African Islam and Islam in Africa: Encounters between Sufis and Islamists. Edited by David Westerlund and Eva Evers Rosander, 28–54. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Discusses connection between Muslim Africa and the wider Muslim world in the postcolonial era and situates the increased participation in global reformist trends in a historical context.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Loimeier, Roman. “Patterns and Peculiarities of Islamic Reform in Africa.” Journal of Religion in Africa 33 (2003): 237–262.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1163/157006603322663497Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An essay arguing for the long history of reformism in Muslim Africa and the peculiarities of recent expressions through a review of the lives of three 20th-century Muslim African reformers whose views reflect local circumstances as well as global Islamic themes. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Voll, John. Islam: Continuity and Change in the Modern World. 2d ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An overview of changes in Muslim reformism that begins with the 18th-century background and moves to discuss various states in the Muslim world from Africa to southeast Asia. First edition published in 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sufism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sufi orders responded to the altered social and economic contexts of the colonial era with successful efforts to expand their membership. Brenner 1984 reveals the spiritual journey of Cerno Bokar Salif Tal (b. 1875–d. 1939 CE), a descendant of al-hajj ʿUmar ibn Saʿid (or Umar Tal), who engaged the spiritual needs of those whom Umar Tal’s followers had conquered in the 19th century. Soares 2005 discusses the “spiritual economy” associated with two competing branches of the Tijaniyya. Seesemann 2011 analyzes another branch of the Tijaniyya that expanded throughout western Africa. Cruise O’Brien 1971 discusses the Muridiyya order of Senegal (also see Babou 2007, cited under Transformations in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Muslim Scholarly Networks, for its 19th-century founding; Villalón 1995, cited under Postcolonial Nation-States: Muslim Politics, for an analysis of Muridiyya disciples in contemporary political processes; and Buggenhagen 2012, cited under Women and Gender, for analysis of gender in global Muridiyya networks). Gilsenan 1973 examines one of several Sufi orders in contemporary Egypt. Sufism in eastern Africa is discussed in Nimtz 1980, which examines the way Sufism offered former slaves an opportunity to participate in Sufi religious activities in Bagamoyo, and Reese 2008, which focuses on the activities of Sufi leaders as popular intellectuals and reformers in southern Somalia. See also Cornell 1998, McGregor 2004, and Reese 2004 (all cited under Early Muslim Scholarly Networks); Transformations in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Muslim Scholarly Networks; Robinson 2000 (cited under European Colonial Rule: Administrations); and Hanretta 2009 (cited under European Colonial Rule: Economic Change).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brenner, Louis. West African Sufi: The Religious Heritage and Spiritual Search of Cerno Bokar Saalif Taal. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A comprehensive study of the life and teachings of Bokar Salif Tal, a grand nephew of Umar Tal, the 19th-century Muslim reformer, which offers insight into Bokar Tal’s pedagogical methods and contextualizes his decision to break from the Umarian branch of the Tijaniyya to join the Hamalliyya late in his life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Cruise O’Brien, Donal B. The Mourides of Senegal: The Political and Economic Organization of an Islamic Brotherhood. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Influential pioneering English-language study of the Muridiyya, a branch of the Qadiriyya founded by Amadu Bamba, that emphasizes its social, economic, and political activities in Senegal.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gilsenan, Michael. Saint and Sufi in Modern Egypt: An Essay in the Sociology of Religion. London and Oxford: Clarendon, 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A study of the Hamidiyya Shadhiliya, a Sufi order based in Egypt, that offers an influential sociological analysis of contemporary Sufism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Nimtz, August. Islam and Politics in East Africa: The Sufi Order in Tanzania. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A study of Sufi orders in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, that stresses the ways former slaves and others joined these movements as a means of social advancement and transformed religious practices on the eastern African coast.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Reese, Scott. Renewers of the Age: Holy Men and Social Discourse in Colonial Benaadir. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004167292.i-247Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A study emphasizing the local intellectual traditions of Sufi leaders and reformers and the ways they disseminated these ideas in the urban areas of southern Somalia during the colonial era.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Seesemann, Rüdiger. The Divine Flood: Ibrahim Niasse and the Roots of a Twentieth-Century Sufi Revival. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A study of a branch of the Tijaniyya order, known as the “Community of the Divine Flood,” that was established in 1929 in Senegal by Ibrahim Niasse (b. 1900–d. 1975 CE) and grew into movement with followers throughout western Africa and demonstrated the continued dynamism of Sufism in the late colonial and postcolonial eras.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Soares, Benjamin. Islam and the Prayer Economy: History and Authority in a Malian Town. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748622856.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A study of two rival branches of the Tijaniyya Sufi order based in Nioro-du-Sahel, Mali, that analyzes the “prayer economy” associated with these orders and the wider changes in the practice of Islam in western Mali during the 20th century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Reformism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Reform is a major theme in the history of Muslim Africa, as it is globally, and recent expressions build on past eras in Muslim Africa as well as respond to contemporary currents in the Muslim world generally. Loimeier 2003, Voll 1994, and Hunwick 1997 (all cited under Recent Muslim Scholarly Networks), locate contemporary reformist efforts and international contacts in a historical context. Northern Nigeria emerged in the 1970s as a major arena of reformism: Kane 2003 discusses a prominent reformist movement that challenged the Sufi orders in northern Nigeria, and Loimeier 1997 discusses the ways these Sufi orders responded to the challenge. Masquelier 2009 adds a gender analysis to an understanding of reformism in an ethnographic study of Muslim reformism in neighboring Niger. Weiss 2008 evaluates the rise of Muslim reformism in Ghana, a context that previously had stressed accommodation, and Kobo 2012 reveals in a study of reformism in Burkina Faso and Ghana how it emerged first in local debates during the colonial era and subsequently is transformed through global contacts. Kresse 2007 situates the writings of a contemporary Muslim reformer in Mombasa into local debates that illuminates the Muslim intellectual processes of self-reflection. South Asian reformers have emerged as an inspiration for reformism, as Hanson 2010 discusses for the Ahmadiyya Muslim community in Ghana and, as Janson 2005 reveals, for the Tablighi movement in the Gambia. See also Cantone 2012 (cited under Art and Architecture); Montana 2003 (cited under Healing and Possession); Hirschkind 2006 and Schulz 2012 (cited under New Media); Salafism; and Education and Muslim Schools.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hanson, John. “Modernity, Religion and Development in Ghana: The Example of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.” Ghana Studies 12–13 (2010): 55–75.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An overview of the Ahmadiyya Muslim community in Ghana, its educational and medical activities, and a consideration of Ghanaian Ahmadiyya views of modernity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Janson, Marloes. “Roaming About for God’s Sake: The Upsurge of the Tablīgh Jamāʿat in The Gambia.” Journal of Religion in Africa 35 (2005): 450–481.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1163/157006605774832199Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A discussion of the proselytism of the Tablighi community in the Gambia, a regional center for Tablighi activism in West Africa. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kane, Ousmane. Muslim Modernity in Postcolonial Nigeria: A Study of the Society for the Removal of Innovation and Reinstatement of Tradition. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An analysis of the northern Nigerian reformist movement the Society for the Removal of Innovation and Reinstatement of Tradition, popularly known as “Izala,” as an “alternative modernity” that does not follow the normative modernity of western Europe put stresses values within Islam.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kobo, Ousman Murzik. Unveiling Modernity in Twentieth-Century West African Islamic Reforms. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2012.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1163/9789004233133Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A study that situates reformism’s emergence in Burkina Faso and Ghana in local debates about Muslim practice in the late colonial era and traces its development as a focus on the practices of the Prophet Muhammad in exchanges between Muslim scholars and Western-educated Muslims.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kresse, Kai. Philosophising in Mombasa: Knowledge, Islam and Intellectual Practice on the Swahili Coast. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press for the International African Institute, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An analysis of intellectual practices in contemporary Mombasa, Kenya, through a focus on the cultural production of individuals, including a Muslim reformer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Loimeier, Roman. Islamic Reform and Political Change in Northern Nigeria. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A study of the confrontations between Sufi orders and the Reformist Society for the Removal of Innovation and the Reinstatement of Tradition in the 1970s and 1980s that situates religious conflict into the context of Nigerian politics.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Masquelier, Adeline. Women and Islamic Revival in a West African Town. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A study of the conflict between Sufism and reformism in Dogondoutchi, Niger, that led women to engage in the debates about prayer, dress, wedding customs, and other aspects of Islam in everyday life.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Weiss, Holger. Between Accommodation and Revivalism: Muslims, the State, and Society in Ghana from the Precolonial Era. Helsinki, Finland: Finnish Oriental Society, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A study of the political strategies of Muslim leaders that situates the rise of reformism in Ghana into a historical context in which Muslim accommodation long had been the practice; English-language readers will benefit from the use of German-language materials and Weiss’s synthesis of German scholarship on Islam in the region.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Salafism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Some Muslim reformers recently have turned with new vigor to the example of al-salaf al-salih (“the pious ancestors” in Arabic, referring to the initial generations of Muslims during and after Muhammad’s era) as the best expressions of Islam, often in direct contrast with Sufism and as a way to address perceived lapses in Muslim communities. Salafism, as this reformist expression is known, has its origins centuries ago, and different formulations exist. In Muslim Africa, the Egyptian Muslim scholar Muhammad ʿAbduh (b. 1849–d. 1905 CE), was a Sufi disciple early in his life but became an influential advocate for Salafism; Sedgwick 2010 offers an overview of Muhammad ʿAbduh’s life, writings, and politics. Hassan al-Banna (b. 1906–d. 1949 CE), an Egyptian influenced by Muhammad ʿAbduh’s Salafism, formed the Society of Muslim Brothers in Egypt, and Mitchell 1993 provides a history of its formation and early years. Merad 1999 discusses the criticism of Sufi orders by early-twentieth-century Salafist Muslim reformers in Algeria, and Rougier 2008 discusses more recent Salafist reformers in Muslim Africa and elsewhere. Østebø 2012 locates recent expansion of Salafism in southern Ethiopia into a long history of reformism in that region. See also Shahin 1998 and Toth 2013 (cited under Postcolonial Nation-States: Muslim Politics), and Wood 2008 (cited under Relations between Muslims and Christians).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Merad, Ali. Le réformisme musulman en Algérie de 1925 à 1940: Essai d’histoire religieuse et sociale. Algiers, Algeria: Éditions el Hikma, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A discussion of new currents in Muslim reformism in colonial Algeria, with analysis of the social dynamics leading to the decline of Sufi orders and Muslim reformist efforts to organize under the constraints of French colonialism. First edition published in 1967.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mitchell, Richard. The Society of the Muslim Brothers. London: Oxford University Press, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A comprehensive study on the formation of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt, discussing their ideology and role in politics, both under the monarchy and during Nasser’s republic. First edition published in 1969.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Østebø, Terje. Localising Salafism: Religious Change among Oromo Muslims in Bale, Ethiopia. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A study of Muslim reformism in one locality in southern Ethiopia that situates current reformist expressions into a long history of reformism in the region.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Rougier, Bernard, ed. Qu’est-ce que le salafisme? Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An edited volume with essays adopting diverse disciplinary perspectives on contemporary Muslim leaders and movements in northern Africa as well as other regions of the Muslim world.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sedgwick, Mark. Muhammad ʿAbduh. Oxford: Oneworld, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An overview of the life and political engagements of Muhammad ʿAbduh (b. 1849–d. 1905 CE) that offers a useful synthesis of the vast literature on this important Muslim reformer.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Education and Muslim Schools

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      European colonialism and postcolonial transitions have influenced Muslim schools as new pedagogies shape the curriculum. Eickelman 1985, Reichmuth 1998, and Ware 2009 discuss precolonial educational practices and their transformations over time in Morocco, southern Nigeria, and Senegal, respectively. Brenner 2001, Loimeier 2009, and Starrett 1998 analyze the adoption of new pedagogies and their implications in Mali, Zanzibar, and Egypt, respectively. The influence of modern mass education on Muslim movements is discussed by Eickelman 1992 for northern Africa and the Arab world and by Umar 2001 for northern Nigeria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Brenner, Louis. Controlling Knowledge: Religion, Power and Schooling in a West African Muslim Society. London: Hurst, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A comprehensive analysis of Muslim Arabic-language schools in Mali, formerly the French Soudan, during the 20th century that analyzes power relations between the state and modernized schools that produced new understandings and expressions of Islam.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Eickelman, Dale F. Knowledge and Power in Morocco: The Education of a Twentieth-Century Notable. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An ethnography of a Muslim seminary in Marrakesh that illustrates the processes of Islamic education and their transformations from the precolonial era through colonialism and after.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Eickelman, Dale F. “Mass Higher Education and the Religious Imagination in Contemporary Arab Societies.” American Ethnologist 19 (1992): 643–655.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1525/ae.1992.19.4.02a00010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An influential article on the ways the “objectification” of Islam in modern schools influences the emergence of Islamic political movements in northern Africa and the Middle East. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Loimeier, Roman. Between Social Skills and Marketable Skills: The Politics of Muslim Education in 20th Century Zanzibar. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004175426.i-1929Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A comprehensive study of the development of Muslim schools organized by Sufi orders and reformist movements in Zanzibar that reveals cooperation and competition between Muslim scholars and the state over the course of colonial rule, the 1964 revolution, and its aftermath.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Reichmuth, Stefan. Islamische Bildung und soziale Integration in Ilorin (Nigeria) seit ca. 1800. Münster, Germany: Lit. Verlag, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A comprehensive historical study of Islamic education in Ilorin, the major Muslim scholarly center in southern Nigeria, over two hundred years of expansion and transformation; Reichmuth’s conclusions are conveyed in numerous English-language articles and essays, too.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Starrett, Gregory. Putting Islam to Work: Education, Politics and Religious Transformation in Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520209268.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An examination of mass education in contemporary Egypt that stresses the ways Western-style pedagogies have undermined existing Muslim authority and encouraged new forms of Muslim expression as religious education is used for economic, political, and social projects in Egypt.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Umar, Muhammad Sani. “Education and Islamic Trends in Northern Nigeria: 1970s–1990s.” Africa Today 48 (2001): 126–150.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2979/AFT.2001.48.2.126Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A discussion of the ways the expansion of Nigeria’s educational system has influenced Muslim movements. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ware, Rudolph. “The Longue Durée of Qur’ānic Schooling, Society and State in Senegambia.” In New Perspectives on Islam in Senegal: Conversion, Migration, Wealth, Power, and Femininity. Edited by Mamadou Diouf and Mara Leichtman, 21–50. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1057/9780230618503Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A study that situates contemporary Qurʾanic schools in Senegal into a historical context of continuity and change in Islamic education during the past five hundred years.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      New Media

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      New media have transformed the ways Muslims communicate and understand Islam. Meyer and Moors 2006 provides an introduction to the conceptual issues emerging in the literature and the edited volume includes numerous ethnographic chapters regarding Muslim Africa. Hirschkind 2006, Larkin 2008, and Schulz 2012 analyze the social and religious transformations associated with the incorporation of new media into the daily practices of Muslims in Egypt, Nigeria, and Mali, respectively.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hirschkind, Charles. The Ethical Soundscape: Cassette Sermons and Islamic Counterpublics. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A study of the use of cassette sermons by individual Muslims in Cairo as a means of ethical self-improvement and the resulting formation of an “Islamic counterpublic,” a new realm for public discussion and debate about religious and political matters.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Larkin, Brian. Signal and Noise: Media, Infrastructure, and Urban Culture in Nigeria. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An analysis of the new media introduced in the 20th century in Kano, Nigeria, that reveals social transformations as urban African Muslims encountered radio and cinema in diverse forms.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Meyer, Birget, and Annalies Moors, eds. Religion, Media, and the Public Sphere. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An edited volume with a valuable introduction by Meyer and Moors and several chapters on new media usage in all regions of Muslim Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Schulz, Dorothea. Muslims and New Media in West Africa: Pathways to God. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An analysis of the influence of new media on Muslim ideas and practices in Mali that stresses the ways that new media fosters engagement with the public sphere and more active participation by Malian Muslim women than in the past.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Women and Gender

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              European-language studies have brought African Muslim women more fully into the analytical frame of the transformations of the 20th and early 21st centuries, as revealed in the works cited in other thematic categories (e.g., Badran 2011, cited under Postcolonial Nation-States: Muslim Politics; Boddy 1989 and Lewis, et. al. 1991, cited under Healing and Possession; Cantone 2012, cited under Art and Architecture; Fair 2001, Hanretta 2009, and McMahon 2013, cited under European Colonial Rule: Economic Change; Hirsch 1998, cited under Postcolonial Nation-States: Postcolonial Muslim Courts; Masquelier 2009, cited under Recent Muslim Scholarly Networks: Reformism; Schulz 2012, cited under New Media; and others). Pioneering studies of African Muslim helped pave the way for this integration. Scholars working on women in predominately Muslim societies were in the forefront, such as Smith 1981 and the contributors in Coles and Mack 1991, working on Hausa women, and Strobel 1979, studying Swahili women. Mahmood 2005 challenges some of the assumptions of Western feminist analyses of gender, and Kapteijns 1999 and Sadiqi 2003 reveal the importance of considering narration and language in analyses of gender. Buggenhagen 2012 analyzes gender and the construction of meaning in a Senegalese Muslim community in global migration networks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Buggenhagen, Beth. Muslim Families in Global Senegal: Money Takes Care of Shame. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                An analysis of the role of Senegalese women in the Muridiyya order that stresses the ways women construct meanings through exchanges of cloth, videos of life-cycle rituals, and religious offerings in Senegal as well as in Muridiyya immigrant communities in New York City.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Coles, Catherine, and Beverly Mack, eds. Hausa Women in the Twentieth Century. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An edited volume with essays adopting diverse disciplinary perspectives that refutes the view that Hausa women were trapped in a patriarchal Muslim social order and provides insights into their roles in diverse domains.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kapteijns, Lidwien. Women’s Voices in a Man’s World: Women and Tradition in Northern Somali Orature, c. 1899–1980. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A study of Somali oral texts that reveals gender relations in colonial and early postcolonial eras in a critical textual analysis of love songs and other genres of women’s oral expression.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mahmood, Saba. Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A study of a grassroots women’s piety movement in the mosques of Cairo that examines Egyptian Muslim women’s practices in ways that challenge scholars to reflect on the relations between body and politics as well as entrenched assumptions about agency and authority in feminist theory.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sadiqi, Fatima. Women, Gender, and Language in Morocco. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An examination of the complex relations among language, gender, and religion in the multilingual context of contemporary Morocco with an argument about the role of language in the daily performance of gender.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Smith, Mary. Baba of Karo: A Woman of the Muslim Hausa. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A translation of an autobiography of Baba, a daughter of a Hausa farmer and Qurʾanic school teacher, whose story, narrated over several weeks to Mary Smith, provides an assessment of the changes of the colonial era in northern Nigeria. First published in 1945.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Strobel, Margaret. Muslim Women in Mombasa, 1890–1975. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1979.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A pioneering study of Muslim women in Mombasa, Kenya, that draws on court cases, folklore, and oral testimonies to argue for the development of a female subculture in the face of societal restrictions on women’s access to authority.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Healing and Possession

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Muslim healing practices long have been an important aspect of the cultural exchanges associated with Islam’s expansion in Africa. Abdalla 1997 surveys the range of Muslim practices in northern Nigeria since the early 1800s. Psychological healing through possession is a topic of debate for both African Muslims and scholars studying the practices: Montana 2003 discusses a Muslim critique of possession practices in Tunisia, whereas Boddy 1989, Lambek 1993, and Masquelier 2001 locate possession centrally in their analyses of African Muslim communities and not merely as a peripheral practice. O’Brien 1999 discusses the assertion of Muslim identity in making the Muslim pilgrimage by Muslim Bori spiritualists in northern Nigeria. Lewis, et al. 1991 offers several cases to illustrate the widespread distribution of these practices.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Abdalla, Ismail. Islam, Medicine and Practitioners in Northern Nigeria. Queenston, ON: Edwin Mellen, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A study of the use of various forms of medical practice within the Muslim tradition in the Muslim regions of northern Nigeria from the time of the Sokoto Caliphate to the present. See also Hassan 1992 in Art and Architecture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Boddy, Janice. Wombs and Alien Spirits: Women, Men, and the Zār Cult in Northern Sudan. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Analysis of the zar cult in a Muslim village in northern Sudan that reveals the metaphorical ways women with marital or fertility problems express consciousness of their situation through possession by spirits who comment on Islamic values and Western economic domination.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lambek, Michael. Knowledge and Practice in Mayotte: Local Discourses of Islam, Sorcery and Spirit Possession. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An ethnographic study that situates spirit possession into the context of diverse religious practices on Mayotte in the Comoros Islands off the eastern African coast.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lewis, I. M., Ahmed Al-Safi, and Sayyid H. A. Hurreiz, eds. Women’s Medicine: The Zār-Bori Cult in Africa and Beyond. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An edited volume that discusses several spirit possession cults in Muslim Africa and beyond.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Masquelier, Adeline. Prayer Has Spoiled Everything: Possession, Power, and Identity in an Islamic Town of Niger. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An examination of the relation between bori, a possession practice among Hausa speakers, and local understanding of Islam, in which both competition and absorption of Islamic elements and symbols are evident.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Montana, Ismael Musa. “Ahmad ibn al-Qadi al-Timbuktawi on the Bori Ceremonies of Tunis.” In Slavery on the Frontiers of Islam. Edited by Paul E. Lovejoy, 173–198. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A discussion of a Muslim critique of bori spirit possession ceremonies in Tunisia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • O’Brien, Susan, “Pilgrimage, Power, and Identity: The Role of the Hajj in the Lives of Nigerian Hausa Bori Adepts.” Africa Today 46 (1999): 11–42.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A study of the importance of the Muslim pilgrimage to the Holy Lands for bori adepts in northern Nigeria and their positive reception by Muslims in Arabia. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Art and Architecture

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The arts and architecture are domains in which African Muslims have drawn on their diverse cultural heritages to produce a broad range of expressions. Behrens-Abouseif 1989 surveys the glories of architecture in Cairo, Prussin 1968 discusses the tradition of adobe mosque building in western Africa, and Chittick 1974 reveals past architectural achievements at Kilwa on the eastern African coast. Cantone 2012 focuses the influence of reformism and gender on mosque building in contemporary Senegal. Bravmann 1984 surveys the range of material artistic expressions in Muslim Africa, and Bravmann 1980 and Hassan 1992 analyze, respectively, masks and other objects associated with healing.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. Islamic Architecture in Cairo: An Introduction. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A survey of the architectural history of Cairo that provides background on urban growth before a discussion of the styles associated with historical eras during the first 1,200 years of Muslim rule.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bravmann, Réne A. Islam and Tribal Art in West Africa. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An analysis of masks and masquerades in a cultural zone in east central Côte d’Ivore and west central Ghana that probes the ways African Muslims draw inspiration from local religious expressions and challenges Western notions of prohibitions on representational imagery in Muslim contexts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bravmann, René A. African Islam. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1984.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                An exhibition catalogue that reveals the fluid interactions between African cultural traditions and African Muslim artistic expressions in writing tablets, amulets, ceremonial objects, and masks.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Cantone, Cleo. Making and Remaking Mosques in Senegal. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2012.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1163/9789004217508Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A study of mosque building that includes analysis of the ways Senegalese women in a reformist Muslim movement have influenced internal and external aspects of mosques as they attend ritual prayers and study sessions at the mosque.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Chittick, H. Neville. Kilwa: An Islamic Trading Center on the East African Coast. Nairobi, Kenya: British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1974.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A comprehensive archaeological study of Kilwa, the wealthiest of the eastern African coastal city-states of its era, that reveals what remains of the impressive architecture at its zenith.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hassan, Salah M. Art and Islamic Literacy among the Hausa of Northern Nigeria. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A study of the objects associated with Islamic healing traditions among the Hausa peoples of northern Nigeria.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Prussin, Labelle. “The Architecture of Islam in West Africa.” African Arts 1 (1968): 32–35, 70–74.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An article discussing the origins of the distinctive mud-brick style of mosque that has come to define the traditional design in western Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Relations between Muslims and Christians

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        With the recent expansion of both new converts to Islam and Christianity, African Muslims engage Christians in lively interaction. Cooper 2006 and Sharkey 2008 discuss Christian missionary efforts in the Muslim majority contexts of Niger and Egypt, respectively. Wood 2008 provides an analysis and translation of an influential Muslim scholarly response to Christianity’s polemics against Islam. Soares 2006 discusses a much broader array of exchanges between African Muslims and Christians in essays that bring the interactions up to the present.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Cooper, Barbara. Evangelical Christians in the Muslim Sahel. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An analysis of the evangelical Sudan Interior Mission in a predominantly Muslim region of Niger focusing on public preaching, medical outreach, and changing Christian views of Muslims.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sharkey, Heather J. American Evangelicals in Egypt: Missionary Encounters in an Age of Empire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A study of US Presbyterian missionaries in 19th- and 20th-century Egypt, missionary encounters with Muslims, and proselytism of Egyptian Coptic Christians.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Soares, Benjamin, ed. Muslim-Christian Encounters in Africa. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An anthology of chapters that explore the changing ways African Muslims and Christians encountered one another, engaged across religious frontiers, and sometimes clashed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wood, Simon A., trans. Christian Criticisms, Islamic Proofs: Rashīd Ridāʾs Modernist Defense of Islam. Oxford: Oneworld, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Along with Wood’s commentary, a collection of English translations of essays in response to Christian polemics against Islam by Rashid Ridaʾ (b. 1865–d. 1935 CE), an influential reformist Muslim scholar who moved to Egypt to collaborate with Muhammad ʿAbduh (b. 1849–d. 1905 CE). See also Sedgwick 2010 (cited under Recent Muslim Scholarly Networks: Salafism).

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