African Studies Angola
by
W. Martin James
  • LAST REVIEWED: 25 May 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 July 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846733-0016

Introduction

Angola is a land of contrast. It has abundant natural resources such as petroleum, diamonds, phosphate, timber, and fish. It also has numerous rivers for hydroelectric energy and fertile farmland. The people are resilient and keen to improve their socioeconomic status. Although, Angola has suffered through five hundred years of Portuguese colonialism and war, peace has reigned since 2002—, yet problems remain. The farmland is rife with landmines, many former combatants remain unemployed, and displaced Angolans still reside in neighboring nations or have been removed from their tribal home areas. Health problems are on the rise, with polio, malaria, and HIV/AIDS spreading. Democracy has yet to fully take root in Angola as the Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA) continues to dominate the political system. Angola could have a bright future, but first the nation must exorcise the ghosts of the past. On a more positive note, Angola’s artistic culture is reviving through poetry, novels, and theater. More and more Angolan writers, artists, and filmmakers are beginning to explore the rich variety of their nation’s long, varied history and the personalities who shaped it.

Bibliographies, General Works, and Dictionaries

Several definitive works are available on Angola. See James 2011 for a more recent and Martin 1980 for a more dated source. The CIA World Factbook provides strictly data with little interpretation or analysis. Chabal 2007, Hart and Lewis 1995, Maier 2007, and Weigert 2011 provide a broad overview of Angola, while Wheeler and Opello 2010 focuses on Portugal’s role in Angola.

  • Central Intelligence Agency. Angola. In The World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency.

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    The CIA presents a very factual examination of the people, government, economy, geography, communication, and transnational issues facing Angola.

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    • Chabal, Patrick, ed. Angola: The Weight of History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

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      Chabal offers a political and economic analysis of post-conflict Angola showing how the past may affect the future prospects of the nation. It is hoped that the nascent democracy, combined with the wise use of oil revenues, can provide for social stability.

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      • Hart, Keith, and Joanna Lewis, eds. Why Angola Matters. Based on a Report of a Conference Held at Pembroke College, Cambridge, on 21–22 March 1994. Cambridge, UK: African Studies Center, 1995.

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        Here we have a collection of presentations from a conference held in Cambridge focusing upon Angola’s history, colonial struggle, civil war, political parties, individuals, and the economy.

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        • James, W. Martin. Historical Dictionary of Angola. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2011.

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          James offers a useful reference work on Angola covering early history to postwar reconstruction. The book includes maps, bibliography, chronology, acronyms, and more than six hundred entries.

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          • Maier, Karl. Angola: Promises and Lies. London: Serif, 2007.

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            Maier presents an excellent account of the civil war, which was rooted in ethnicity, ideology, and Cold War tensions. The author ably guides us through the various leaders, factions, and nations that contributed to the long conflict.

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            • Martin, Phyllis. Historical Dictionary of Angola. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1980.

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              This is an earlier edition from the Historical Dictionary series with more of an emphasis on early Angolan history and colonialism.

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              • Weigert, Stephen. Angola: A Modern Military History, 1961–2002. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

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                This book presents the first complete military analysis of Angola’s modern history, the colonial war, the civil war, and the postwar era. In addition, the author, a US State Department official, examines the União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) insurgency.

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                • Wheeler, Douglas L., and Walter C. Opello Jr. Historical Dictionary of Portugal. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2010.

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                  Wheeler’s dictionary has many entries on Angola and Portugal’s role there.

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                  Journals

                  A number of academic journals and publications deal with the political, military, economic, and cultural environment of Africa and Angola. The publications included here occasionally carry articles on some aspect of Angola. Africa Confidential is a subscription newsletter with in-depth analysis of events in Angola. Based in London, the publication produces powerful investigations of the political, economic, cultural, and military situations in Angola. The government of Angola has many ministerial and embassy websites, such as Ministério da Assistência e Reinserção Social. Kwacha Angola was the official publication of União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA), which was released sporadically during the civil war. Southern Africa was a monthly magazine which was printed in New York with descriptive articles about the liberation struggle in Angola, particularly from the Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA) perspective. UNITA Angola is the official website of the political party, while AllAfrica is a web-based source for all information regarding Angola. The Angola Monitor has covered the political, military, and economic situation in Angola for more than twenty years. Maka Angola is the anti-corruption site of Rafael Marques de Morais, a well-known journalist and critic of the MPLA regime.

                  Primary Sources

                  The first recorded Portuguese explorer, Diogo Cão, landed in present-day Angola in 1483. Early Portuguese activity involved exploration (Douville 1832, cited under Letters and Narrative Accounts; Cavazzi de Monetcúccolo 1965, cited under Collections), conquest (Cadornega 1972, cited under Collections), and evangelization (Livingstone 1857, cited under Letters and Narrative Accounts; Brasio 1952–1988, cited under Collections). Later, others began to compile the history of Angola and surrounding areas, as described in Ravenstein 2010 (cited under Letters and Narrative Accounts) and Silva Corrêa 1937 (cited under Collections).

                  Collections

                  An extensive array of published documents by Portuguese traders, officials, missionaries, and settlers exists for Angola dating from the 16th century. Among the earliest and most comprehensive are Brasio 1952–1988, Cadornega 1972, Cavazzi de Monetcúccolo 1965, and Silva Corrêa 1937.

                  • Brasio, António, ed. Monumenta Missionaria Africana: Africa Ocidental. 15 vols. Lisbon, Portugal: Agência Geral do Ultramar, 1952–1988.

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                    Brasio presents an invaluable collection of missionary documents and accounts from Angola dating from the 15th to the 17th century.

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                    • Cadornega, António de Oliveira de. História Geral das Guerras Angolanas, 1680. 3 vols. Edited by José Matias Delgado and Manuela Alves da Cunha. Lisbon, Portugal: Agência Geral do Ultramar, 1972.

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                      The book includes important 17th-century sources. Originally published in 1940–1942.

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                      • Cavazzi de Monetcúccolo, João António. Descrição Histórica dos Três Reinos do Congo, Matamba, e Angola. 2 vols. Translated from the Italian and edited by Graziano de Leguzzano. Lisbon, Portugal: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, 1965.

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                        Cavazzi’s work includes vital 17th-century sources.

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                        • Silva Corrêa, Elias Alexandre da. História de Angola. 2 vols. Lisbon, Portugal: Editorial Atica, 1937.

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                          Silva Corrêa’s work includes the important 18th-century document, “Catálogo dos Governadors do Reino de Angola.”

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                          Letters and Narrative Accounts

                          Individual 19th-century traveler accounts include Douville 1832, Livingstone 1857, and Ravenstein 2010.

                          • Douville, Jean Baptiste. Voyage au Congo et dans l’intérieur de l’Afrique Équinoxiale. 2 vols. Paris: Chez J. Renouard, 1832.

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                            This book is allegedly a firsthand account of the author’s travels through Angola in 1828–1830, Douville probably did not personally undertake all the travels recorded here, but he was able to cull a great deal of contemporary data from Portuguese and African merchants who traveled through the interior.

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                            • Livingstone, David. Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa. London: John Murray, 1857.

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                              This book contains a personal account of the famous missionary and explorer as he ventures from Cape Town to Luanda and then surveys the Zambezi River. It is available online from Project Gutenberg.

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                              • Ravenstein, E. G., ed. The Strange Adventures of Andrew Battell of Leigh, in Angola and the Adjoining Regions. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2010.

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                                Andrew Battell of Leigh was an English sailor captured by the Portuguese and taken to Angola, where he lived for eighteen years from the late 16th to the early 17th centuries, including two years with the Imbangala people. The book was originally issued in 1901 (London: Hakluyt Society).

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                                History

                                Angola’s history can be divided into five periods: from earliest times to the coming of the Portuguese and the subsequent development of southern Atlantic trade from the 16th to 19th centuries; the colonial period during the early 20th century; the struggle for independence from 1961 to 1975; the civil war from 1975 to 2002; and the subsequent post-conflict era.

                                Early

                                While most of the earliest documentary sources for Angola were written by Portuguese officials, traders, settlers, or missionaries (see Primary Sources) and recounted history from a Portuguese perspective, historians have now collected extensive oral, linguistic, and archaeological data to reconstruct early Angolan history from an African perspective. Birmingham and Martin 1983 surveys Angolan history from earliest times to the 19th century, while Vansina 2004 provides a detailed reconstruction of very early Angolan history preceding the coming of the Portuguese and the development of Atlantic trade. Miller 1976 and Birmingham 1966 reconstruct Mbundu history for the 16th–17th centuries, while Thornton 1983 and Hilton 1985 offer contrasting views of the rise and fall of the Kingdom of the Kongo in the 16th 19th centuries, and Clarence-Smith 1979 explores southern Angolan history in the 19th century. Miller 1988 provides a massively detailed study of slavery and the slave trade in the 18th and 19th centuries. See also the separate Oxford Bibliographies in African Studies article “Kongo and the Coastal States of West Central Africa” by Jelmer Vos.

                                • Birmingham, David. Trade and Conflict in Angola: The Mbundu and Their Neighbours under the Influence of the Portuguese, 1483–1790. Oxford: Clarendon, 1966.

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                                  Birmingham traces the history of the Mbundu during the period of early Atlantic trade. See also Miller 1976.

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                                  • Birmingham, David, and Phyllis Martin, eds. History of Central Africa. 2 vols. London: Longman, 1983.

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                                    This book presents a wide-ranging authoritative synthesis of early Central African history. For Angola specifically, see articles by Birmingham and Miller in Volume 1 and Clarence-Smith in Volume 2.

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                                    • Clarence-Smith, W. G. Slaves, Peasants, and Capitalists in Southern Angola, 1840–1926. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

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                                      Here we have a rare study of 19th-century southern Angola from a Marxist perspective, an approach vastly different from the established historiography of African colonialism.

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                                      • Hilton, Ann. The Kingdom of the Kongo. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

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                                        This book contains an extensively researched study of institutional and religious changes in the development of the Kingdom of the Kongo in Angola and the adjacent Congo from the late 15th to the 17th centuries. See also Thornton 1983.

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                                        • Miller, Joseph Calder. Kings and Kinsmen: Early Mbundu States in Angola. Oxford: Clarendon, 1976.

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                                          An excellent study of the political development of the Mbundu people in precolonial Angola. Allegiance was limited initially to the extended family but this evolved into the establishment of a monarchy to unite the Mbundu. See also Birmingham 1966.

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                                          • Miller, Joseph Calder. Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade, 1730–1830. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.

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                                            The author presents a grim tale of the Atlantic slave trade, including the experiences of the slaves themselves in the 18th and early 19th centuries.

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                                            • Thornton, John K. The Kingdom of the Kongo: Civil War and Transition, 1641–1718. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983.

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                                              Thornton tracks the decline of the Kingdom of the Kongo in the later 17th century. See also Hilton 1985.

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                                              • Vansina, Jan. How Societies Are Born: Governance in West Central Africa before 1600. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2004.

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                                                Based on extensive use of archaeological, linguistic, oral, and documentary sources, Vansina analyzes how African societies developed from hunting-and-gathering societies c. 400 BCE to more structured larger-scale communities in the 16th century.

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                                                Colonial

                                                The first Portuguese explorer landed in what would become modern Angola in 1483. The colonialists lived near the coastline, though occasional forays were launched into the interior in search of fabulous mythical wealth or to pacify warring peoples (Birmingham 2006). Eventually the Portuguese employed coastal inhabitants to raid for slaves from the interior. Davidson 1961, Fish and Fish 2002, and Heywood 2000 discuss this process. Later, União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) would recall these slave raids as a propaganda tool during the civil war. Estimates vary, but it is believed that some three to four million slaves were exported from Angola, as noted in Bender 2004. Henderson 1979 writes that the settlers plundered resources, doing little to improve the socioeconomic conditions of the Angolans, although missionaries did what they could to alleviate the plight of the native inhabitants (Robbins 2011). Portugal annexed Angola as a province in 1951, but it was too little, too late. The Angolan national revolution would begin within a decade, leaving Portuguese settlers with little choice but to fight or abandon Angola (Bender and Yoder 1974). See also the separate Oxford Bibliographies article on “Portuguese Colonial Rule” by Norrie MacQueen.

                                                • Bender, Gerald J. Angola under the Portuguese: The Myth and the Reality. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2004.

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                                                  Written by one of the leading scholars on Angola, the book provides a thorough review of the Portuguese conquest and colonial exploitation of Angola. Originally written in 1978.

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                                                  • Bender, Gerald J., and P. Stanley Yoder. “Whites in Angola on the Eve of Independence: The Politics of Numbers.” Africa Today 21.4 (Fall 1974): 23–37.

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                                                    Here the authors evaluate the situation of white Portuguese settlers in Angola in 1974–1975 as they attempt to confront the onset of independence by adjusting to the new political reality, fleeing, or attempting a unilateral declaration of independence (UDI).

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                                                    • Birmingham, David. Empire in Africa: Angola and Its Neighbors. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2006.

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                                                      The author provides a generalized discussion of Portugal’s domination of Angola, the resulting war for independence, and the slide into civil war funded by the Cold War powers.

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                                                      • Davidson, Basil. The African Slave Trade: Precolonial History, 1450–1850. Boston: Little Brown, 1961.

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                                                        Davidson provides a well-documented work that details the African slave trade with descriptions by historians, explorers, and slave traders. The book includes many historical documents.

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                                                        • Fish, Bruce, and Becky Durost Fish. Angola: 1880 to the Present: Slavery, Exploitation, and Revolt. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2002.

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                                                          A general history of Angola from colonialism through the civil war that includes detailed descriptions of Angola’s people and culture.

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                                                          • Henderson, Lawrence W. Angola: Five Centuries of Conflict. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1979.

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                                                            Written by a Protestant missionary, the book details the growth of Christianity throughout Angola, as well as providing a comprehensive historical overview of the colonial era to independence.

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                                                            • Heywood, Linda. Contested Power in Angola: 1840s to the Present. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2000.

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                                                              This work is a detailed account of the Ovimbundu people in south-central Angola from the colonial era to independence, highlighting the formation of UNITA in 1966.

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                                                              • Robbins, Sarah. Nellie Arnott’s Writings on Angola, 1905–1913: Missionary Narratives Linking Africa and America. Anderson, SC: Parlor Press, 2011.

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                                                                Nellie Arnott served as a teacher for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions in Portuguese West Africa, where she worked primarily with the Ovimbundu people in south-central Angola. Arnott’s experiences proved to be a classic example of the women’s missionary movement in the early 1900s.

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                                                                Struggle for Independence

                                                                The struggle for independence from Portuguese rule began in February and March 1961 when the Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA) and the Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola (FNLA; or the National Front for the Liberation of Angola) attacked Portuguese colonialists and installations (Teixeira 1965). Davidson traversed the rain forests with the MPLA fighters (Davidson 1972). The war was one in which the rebels were not strong enough to defeat the Portuguese, but the Portuguese were unable to defeat the rebels (Adelman 1975). In addition, the rebel groups spent as much time fighting each another as they did the Portuguese, as noted in Marcum 1969. The United States attempted unsuccessfully to induce Portugal to leave Africa, as described in Samuels 1979. The war grew increasingly unpopular in Portugal, which was also fighting in Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau, leading to the overthrow of the Salazar regime (Spínola 1974). The new socialist government in Portugal promised freedom to the colonies in 1975, but freedom would prove to be chaotic, as Kapuscinski 1988 notes. The Soviet Union saw the coming civil war as evidence of the machinations of the United States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (Evsjukov 1974), while the United States saw the MPLA as a communist puppet.

                                                                • Adelman, Kenneth. “Report from Angola.” Foreign Affairs 53.3 (April 1975): 558–574.

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                                                                  The article chronicles the rise and fall of Portuguese colonialism in Angola.

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                                                                  • Davidson, Basil. In the Eye of the Storm: Angola’s People. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1972.

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                                                                    Davidson shares a detailed account of Portuguese colonialism and the popular struggle against it. Davidson, a British journalist, traveled extensively through the areas liberated by the guerrillas.

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                                                                    • Evsjukov, Pavel. Password “Anguimo.” Moscow: Novosti, 1974.

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                                                                      The author, a Soviet journalist, offers the Soviet Union’s account of the MPLA’s struggle against Portuguese colonialism and imperialism by the United States, NATO, and South Africa.

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                                                                      • Kapuscinski, Ryszard. Another Day of Life: A Haunting Eyewitness Account of Civil War in Angola. New York: Penguin, 1988.

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                                                                        Kapuscinski provides a vivid description of events in Angola’s capital, Luanda, as Portugal abandoned its former colony to chaos, anarchy, and civil war in 1975.

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                                                                        • Marcum, John. The Angolan Revolution: The Anatomy of an Explosion. Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1969.

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                                                                          In the best study of the Angolan struggle against the colonial power of Portugal, Marcum describes in detail the origin of the three major liberation movements.

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                                                                          • Samuels, Michael A., and Stephen M. Haykin. “The Anderson Plan: An American Attempt to Seduce Portugal Out of Africa.” Orbis 23 (Fall 1979): 649–669.

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                                                                            During the presidency of John F. Kennedy, the United States attempted to induce Portugal to abandon its African colonies, but the Cold War necessity of maintaining NATO unity precluded the United States from pursuing the plan.

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                                                                            • Spínola, António de. Portugal e o Futuro. Lisbon, Portugal: Arcádia, 1974.

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                                                                              A former Portuguese general who served in the colonies explains why Portugal could not win the colonial wars and should grant independence to Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, and São Tomé e Príncipe.

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                                                                              • Teixeira, Bernardo. The Fabric of Terror: Three Days in Angola. New York: Devin-Adair, 1965.

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                                                                                Teixeira presents a Portuguese account of the Angolan uprising by the FNLA in northern Angola in 1961.

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                                                                                Angolan Civil War

                                                                                Following independence, the Angolan civil war lasted from 1975 to 2002, making it one of Africa’s longest conflicts. The genesis of the conflict dated from 1961, when colonial policy ran headlong into liberation ideology and action (Messiant 2006). In 1975, the Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA) declared itself the sovereign ruler of Angola, with the Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola (FNLA) and União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) becoming bandits or rebels (James 2011). Very quickly, a civil war made a remote African nation a Cold War battlefield for the superpowers and their allies (Spikes 1993). The MPLA, supported by Cuba, the Soviet Union, and the Warsaw Pact nations, battled UNITA and, to a lesser extent, the FNLA, which was backed by South Africa, China, and the United States (Marcum 1978). Some in the American government disapproved of US conduct in Angola (Davis 1978). Finally, the battle of Cuito Cuanavale allowed all sides to claim victory, and Cuba, South Africa, and the Soviet Union exited the conflict (Campbell 1990). The war continued to rage between the MPLA and UNITA through several cease-fires and two peace agreements, as documented in Tvedten 1989. James 1994 looks at the attempt at national reconciliation in 1992 as a result of international apathy and UN incompetence. In 1994 the MPLA government was able to employ mercenaries to slowly turn the tide of the war. (see Van Heerden and Hudson 2012).

                                                                                • Campbell, Horace. The Siege of Cuito Cuanavale. Uppsala, Sweden: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1990.

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                                                                                  The battle of Cuito Cuanavale was important because it allowed all the outside powers to claim victory, setting the stage for the withdrawal of Cuba, South Africa, and the Soviet Union. There was no peace between the MPLA and UNITA, but it did set the stage for the 1991 Bicesse peace accord.

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                                                                                  • Davis, Nathaniel. “The Angola Decision of 1975: A Personal Memoir.” Foreign Affairs 57.1 (Fall 1978): 109–125.

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                                                                                    Davis, a US Department of State employee, outlines American covert operations in Angola and his disagreement with the then secretary of state Henry Kissinger over tactics employed. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

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                                                                                    • James, W. Martin. “‘Peace on the Cheap’: A Critical Analysis of the Angolan Electoral Process.” Small Wars and Insurgencies 5.3 (Winter 1994): 318–377.

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                                                                                      James offers an analysis of the 1992 Angolan national elections with a critical evaluation of the role of the United Nations and the Angolan government’s lack of transparency in conducting the elections.

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                                                                                      • James, W. Martin. A Political History of the Civil War in Angola, 1974–1990. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2011.

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                                                                                        A study of the Angolan civil war from 1974 to 1990 which focuses on the political and military aspects of the conflict. Much of the book focuses on the UNITA insurgency.

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                                                                                        • Marcum, John. The Angolan Revolution. Vol. 2, Exile Politics and Guerrilla Warfare, 1962–1976. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1978.

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                                                                                          This second volume continues to detail Angola’s fight for independence. It focuses on Angola’s struggles against Portugal, and the deterioration of relations between the three major liberation movements.

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                                                                                          • Messiant, Christine. 1961: L’Angola Colonial, Histoire et Société: Les Prémisses du Mouvement Nationaliste. Basel, Switzerland: P. Schlettwein, 2006.

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                                                                                            An intriguing look at Angola in 1961; a view of a colonial society and the emerging liberation movements placed within historical context.

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                                                                                            • Spikes, Daniel. Angola and the Politics of Intervention. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1993.

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                                                                                              The author considers the Angolan civil war and the involvement of international actors in analyzing a regional conflict that took on the ramifications of a global Cold War battleground.

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                                                                                              • Tvedten, Inge. The War in Angola: Internal Conditions for Peace and Recovery. Uppsala, Sweden: Scandinavian Institute for African Studies Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                Tvedten provides an introductory look at Angola that primarily emphasizes the effects of the civil war on the political and economic structures of public society.

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                                                                                                • van Heerden, Roelf, and Andrew Hudson. Four Ball, One Tracer: Commanding Executive Outcomes in Angola and Sierra Leone. London: Helion, 2012.

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                                                                                                  Van Heerden, a commander for Executive Outcomes in Angola and Sierra Leone, details his battlefield experiences in Angola.

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                                                                                                  Post-Conflict Angola

                                                                                                  More and more of its friends abandoned União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA), and the tide of war began to turn against the rebels. The government possessed the oil revenues with which to purchase modern weaponry, while UNITA controlled the diamond revenues. With the implementation of the Kimberley Process, it became more and more difficult to market illegal diamonds on the world market, as shown in Mendes and Landers 2003. Finally, the government took the unusual step of removing the rural population to the provincial capitals, limiting the remaining inhabitants to be either UNITA soldiers or sympathizers. In February 2002, Jonas Savimbi, the UNITA leader, was killed when government forces surrounded his position. (Human Rights Watch 2005). The civil war ended with the death of Savimbi, but problems lingered (Malaquias 2007). The country was littered with as many as two million landmines, hindering the resumption of agricultural production. More than 450,000 refugees began to return from neighboring nations to an uncertain future. Some 85,000 former UNITA combatants had to be reintegrated into civil society and provided with homes, jobs, and a sense of security, as discussed in Matz 2008. Flooded with civilians, provincial capitals began to experience the collapse of their economic infrastructure as schools, factories, agriculture, and the health system disintegrated (Foley 2007). Campos 2008 notes that although the nation possesses the financial means from oil and diamond revenues to reverse the situation, the political will, so far, has been lacking. Delegations from the United States and Great Britain have visited and reported their findings regarding future assistance to the war-ravaged nation (All-Party Parliamentary Group for Angola 2003, Council on Foreign Relations 2007). Angola’s new constitution, enacted in 2010, limits the president to two five-year terms. Conceivably, President José Eduardo dos Santos could remain in power until 2022. (see Marques de Morais 2012).

                                                                                                  • All-Party Parliamentary Group for Angola. Impressions and Recommendations on a Visit to Angola, 3–10 May 2003. London: Royal Institute for International Affairs, 2003.

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                                                                                                    This is a report by a group of British parliamentarians on the political, social, and economic climate they discovered in postwar Angola.

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                                                                                                    • Campos, Indira. Angola’s Elections: A Democratic Oil Giant? Africa Programme Paper 09/01. London: Chatham House, 2008.

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                                                                                                      Campos investigates the 2008 parliamentarian elections in Angola and their effect on the future prospects for democracy in Angola.

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                                                                                                      • Council on Foreign Relations. Toward an Angola Strategy: Prioritizing US–Angola Relations. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2007.

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                                                                                                        This independent commission report provides an account of a conference held by the Council on Foreign Relations to analyze and critique past and future trends in US–Angola relations.

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                                                                                                        • Foley, Conor. Land Rights in Angola: Poverty and Plenty. London: Humanitarian Policy Group, 2007.

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                                                                                                          Foley, an independent consultant, examines the difficulties Angolan refugees experience in trying to repossess property that may have a new owner or face bureaucratic indifference or hostility.

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                                                                                                          • Human Rights Watch. Angola: Between War and Peace in Cabinda. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2005.

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                                                                                                            The enclave of Cabinda, a source of oil for Angola, seeks independence and has fought a low-level insurgency against an Angolan government determined to crush any resistance.

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                                                                                                            • Malaquias, Assis. Rebels and Robbers: Violence in Post-Colonial Angola. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordic Africa Institute, 2007.

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                                                                                                              Malaquias explores how four decades of political conflict have developed into structural violence that permeates Angolan society despite the end of the civil war.

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                                                                                                              • Marques de Morais, Rafael. “Understanding President dos Santos Rule and the Gaming of His Succession.” Maka Angola (31 January 2012): 3–11.

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                                                                                                                Marques de Morais outlines how the governing MPLA has structured the constitution to perpetuate its hold on political power.

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                                                                                                                • Matz, Peter. Lost in Transformation: Two Years in Angola. Norderstedt, Germany: Books on Demand, 2008.

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                                                                                                                  From 2005 to 2007, Matz experienced the euphoria of peace after a long civil war and also witnessed the beginnings of a massive physical and spiritual reconstruction which allowed Angola to finally free itself from four decades of conflict.

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                                                                                                                  • Mendes, Pedro Rosa, and Clifford E. Landers. Bay of Tigers: An African Odyssey. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 2003.

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                                                                                                                    Mendes, a Portuguese journalist, travels throughout post-civil war Angola discovering the horrors found in a nation attempting to recover from forty years of conflict.

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                                                                                                                    Internal and International Actors

                                                                                                                    The Angolan civil war morphed from an internal conflict to one with international ramifications. The Soviet Union initially provided $200 million in military equipment while Cuba poured in 12,000 combat troops to assist the Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA) in securing victory in 1975. South Africa, fearing communist regimes in Mozambique and Angola, helped UNITA fight the MPLA. The United States, while supporting UNITA, attempted to use its influence to negotiate a peaceful resolution to the conflict. The battle of Cuito Cuanavale allowed the Soviet Union, Cuba, and South Africa to depart gracefully from a conflict with which they had grown weary. The United States would abandon UNITA in May 1993.

                                                                                                                    Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA)

                                                                                                                    The First Congress of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola after independence attempted to introduce “socialism” into the African nation; see Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola 1979. Most of the pieces written about the MPLA were very supportive of the party and its leadership (de Pinto and Barnett 1973, Brittain 1998, Novicki 1986). MPLA propaganda constituted a mixture of truths, half-truths, and fabrications (Government of Angola 1982). Pawson 2014 describes the little known massacre of MPLA’s Nito Alves and his supporters by the government. Dolan 2013 outlines how Isabel dos Santos became Africa’s youngest and first female billionaire.

                                                                                                                    • Brittain, Victoria. Death of Dignity: Angola’s Civil War. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                      Brittain presents a broad overview of the Angolan civil war focusing primarily upon MPLA perspectives and policies.

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                                                                                                                      • de Pinto, Rui, and Don Barnett. The Making of a Middle Cadre: The Story of Rui de Pinto. Richmond, Canada: LSM, 1973.

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                                                                                                                        De Pinto writes for the Liberation Support Movement (LSM), a group of journalists based in Canada who traveled with, and wrote exclusively about, the MPLA during the war against Portugal and the struggles with other liberation movements. The LSM and its authors wrote at least a dozen works about the MPLA and the war against the Portuguese.

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                                                                                                                        • Dolan, Kerry A. “Daddy’s Girl: How an African ‘Princess’ Banked $3 Billion in a Country Living on $2 a Day.” Forbes (2 September 2013): 37–39.

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                                                                                                                          Dolan details how the daughter of Angolan President Eduardo dos Santos, Isabel, became Africa’s first and youngest female billionaire.

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                                                                                                                          • Government of Angola. White Paper on Acts of Aggression by the Racist South African Regime against the People’s Republic of Angola, 1975–1982. Luanda, Angola: Ministry of External Relations, 1982.

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                                                                                                                            A lengthy, detailed account of South Africa’s continued military violations of Angola’s sovereignty.

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                                                                                                                            • Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola. 1st Congress. London: Mozambique, Angola and Guinea Information Center, 1979.

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                                                                                                                              This report documents the first MPLA congress held in Luanda in 1979 under the banner of the “Year of the Founding of the Party and of Production of Socialism.”

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                                                                                                                              • Novicki, Margaret A. “José Eduardo dos Santos: President, the People’s Republic of Angola.” Africa Report 31.1 (January–February 1986): 4–14.

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                                                                                                                                Novicki offers a glowing account of the presidency of Angola’s long-serving leader, José Eduardo dos Santos.

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                                                                                                                                • Pawson, Lara. In the Name of the People: Angola’s Forgotten Massacre. London: I.B. Tauris, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                  Pawson details the little-known-or-researched 27 May 1977 massacre of MPLA militants by the government of Angola with assistance from Cuban forces.

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                                                                                                                                  União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA)

                                                                                                                                  The propaganda of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) (see União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola 1973 and União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola 1990) was self-serving, although Fred Bridgland (Bridgland 1987) sees Jonas Savimbi as a “key.” William Minter (Minter 1988) views him as a puppet of South Africa. South Africa proved to be a valuable ally for UNITA, as described in Steenkamp 1983. The death of UNITA leader Savimbi in 2002 opened up new possibilities for Angola, as explored in Robson 2002.

                                                                                                                                  • Bridgland, Fred. Jonas Savimbi: A Key to Africa. New York: Paragon House, 1987.

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                                                                                                                                    Bridgland views UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi as a gallant freedom fighter for Western democracy against communist oppression in Angola. The book serves as a thorough biography of Savimbi to 1986.

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                                                                                                                                    • Minter, William. Operation Timber: Pages from the Savimbi Dossier. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                      Minter argues that UNITA in Angola and RENAMO (Resistência Nacional Moçambicana, or the Mozambique National Resistance) in Mozambique were nothing more than creations of South Africa to sow internal dissension and regional conflict to protect the apartheid state of South Africa.

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                                                                                                                                      • Robson, Paul. “Briefing: Angola after Savimbi.” Review of African Political Economy 29.91 (March 2002): 130–132.

                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/03056240208704592Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                        An analytical interpretation of how Angolan society and culture might fare after the demise of UNITA leader Savimbi.

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                                                                                                                                        • Steenkamp, Willem. Borderstrike! South Africa into Angola. Pretoria, South Africa: Butterworths, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                          Steenkamp, a former member of the SADF (South African Defense Forces), outlines South Africa’s military incursions into Angola to strike at Angolan or SWAPO (Southwest Africa People’s Organization) forces or to assist UNITA combat operations.

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                                                                                                                                          • União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola. The Armed Struggle in Angola. Free Land of Angola: UNITA Central Committee, 1973.

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                                                                                                                                            A UNITA propaganda piece written to report alleged military victories over the Portuguese and success in spreading party ideology to the masses.

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                                                                                                                                            • União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola. The UNITA Leadership. Jamba, Angola: Kwacha UNITA, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                              The rebel group UNITA provides the biographies of the leadership during the civil war. Other UNITA documents reported military victories, political philosophy, and general anti-MPLA propaganda.

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                                                                                                                                              China

                                                                                                                                              Hutchison 1976 and Power and Alves 2012 are accounts of China’s many attempts to ingratiate itself with the southern African liberation movements, although as Corkin 2013 points out, Angola has exploited China for political benefit. China is not particular as to where it buys petroleum. Human rights, ecology concerns, or the existence of massive poverty present no problems for China, as affirmed in Vines, et al. 2009.

                                                                                                                                              • Corkin, Lucy. Uncovering African Agency: Angola’s Management of China’s Credit Lines. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                Corkin’s book is a case study of how Angola has, on occasion, turned the tables to take advantage of China to bolster its political capital. Among China’s trading partners in Africa, Angola has best shown the ability to profit from the relationship.

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                                                                                                                                                • Hutchison, Alan. China’s African Revolution. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                  The author explores various liberation movements in southern Africa, where, if multiple movements were present, Moscow supported one faction while Beijing supported the other. In Angola during the 1960s and 1970s the Soviet Union supported the MPLA while China supported the FNLA, and, to a lesser extent, UNITA.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Power, Marcus, and Ana Cristina Alves, eds. China and Angola: A Marriage of Convenience? Cape Town: Pambazuka, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                    The various authors explore how China has bolstered Angola’s economy and international prestige but at a cost of tension over labor conditions, shoddy workmanship, and other policy issues.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Vines, Alex, Lillian Wong, Markus Weimer, and Indira Campos. Thirst for African Oil: Asian National Oil Companies in Nigeria and Angola. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                      The authors discuss China’s growing presence in the African oil market. China makes no demands and does not insist that the seller observe human rights; rather, China tried to contract for as much petroleum as possible with little regard for who supplied it.

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                                                                                                                                                      Cuba and the Soviet Union

                                                                                                                                                      From 1974 to 1991 Cuba supplied Angola with as many as 60,000 combat troops, as noted in George 2005, while Vanneman and James 1976 and Stevens 1976 cite the military equipment provided by the Soviet Union to the Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA) during the early stages of the civil war. Fidel Castro spoke with regularity of “socialist solidarity” (Castro 1976), and Gleijeses 2002 explored the different policies of the Soviet Union, Cuba, and the United States toward Angola. Hatzky 2015 describes Cuba’s other contributions to Angola in the fields of medicine, education, and political and administration services. Klinghoffer 1980 and Westad 1996–1997 view Soviet involvement as a blueprint for further Third World adventures, while Porter 1984 provides a broad historical overview.

                                                                                                                                                      • Castro, Fidel. Angola—Africa Girón. Havana: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                        Castro’s book is a collection of speeches on Cuba’s military, political, and economic support of the MPLA in Angola.

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                                                                                                                                                        • George, Edward. The Cuban Intervention in Angola, 1965–1991. New York: Routledge, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                          George examines the relationship between Cuba and Angola’s MPLA, which expanded from a short-term military intervention into an “international solidarity” effort to rescue the MPLA and overthrow the apartheid regime of South Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Gleijeses, Piero. Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959–1976. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                            This book examines US and Cuban policies toward Africa, especially Angola. America viewed Africa as a Cold War battlefield while the Cubans, not a mere Soviet pawn as some argued, had their own agenda in Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Hatzky, Christine. Cubans in Angola: South-South Cooperation and Transfer of Knowledge, 1976–1991. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2015.

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                                                                                                                                                              Hatzky details Cuba’s other contributions to Angola beyond the military intervention—medical, educational, political, and administrative.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Klinghoffer, Arthur J. The Angolan War: A Study of Soviet Policy in the Third World. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1980.

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                                                                                                                                                                Klinghoffer sees Soviet involvement in the Angolan civil war as a case study for Soviet involvement throughout the Third World.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Porter, Bruce. The USSR in Third World Conflicts: Soviet Arms and Diplomacy in Local Wars, 1945–1980. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511571640Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  Porter provides a historical overview of Soviet activity in Third World conflicts.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Stevens, Christopher. “The Soviet Union and Angola.” African Affairs 75.299 (April 1976): 137–152.

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                                                                                                                                                                    This journal article presents a concise, analytical evaluation of Soviet involvement in Angola from independence through the early stages of the civil war.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Vanneman, Peter, and W. Martin James. “The Soviet Intervention in Angola: Intentions and Implications.” Strategic Review 4 (Summer 1976): 92–103.

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                                                                                                                                                                      A detailed study of Soviet military involvement in the Angolan civil war from 1974 to 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Westad, Odd Arne. “Moscow and the Angolan Crisis, 1974–1976: A New Pattern of Intervention.” Cold War International History Project Bulletin 8–9 (Winter 1996–1997): 1–21.

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                                                                                                                                                                        The author views the intervention in Angola as a new strategic foreign policy of the Soviet Union.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Republic of South Africa

                                                                                                                                                                        South Africa fought in Angola to destroy the Southwest Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) in Namibia (Lord 1992 and Williams 2011), to assist UNITA (Breytenbach 1990 and Hallett 1978), or to debilitate the Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA)—see Holness 1983, Korff 2009, and Mannall 2014. The 1994 elections in South Africa paved the way for a new type of mercenary (Hooper 2002), although one who still performed the role of the “hired gun” (Wright 1976).

                                                                                                                                                                        • Breytenbach, Jan. They Live by the Sword: 32 “Buffalo” Battalion: South Africa’s Foreign Legion. Alberton, South Africa: Lemur, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                          Breytenbach tells the story of the infamous 32nd Battalion, consisting of former Angolan soldiers commanded by South African officers, and details their combat operations in Angola from 1978 to 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Hallett, Robin. “The South African Intervention in Angola, 1975–76.” African Affairs 77.7 (July 1978): 347–386.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Hallett discusses the internal debate and international response to South African involvement in Angola.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Holness, Marga. Apartheid’s War against Angola. New York: United Nations Centre against Apartheid, 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                              The book provides extensive documentation of South Africa’s aggression against Angola.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Hooper, Jim. Bloodsong! An Account of Executive Outcomes in Angola. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Hooper, a journalist, explores the creation and development of Executive Outcomes, a private mercenary army employed by the governments of Angola, Sierra Leone, and Papua New Guinea.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Korff, Granger. 19 with a Bullet: A South African Paratrooper in Angola. Johannesburg: 30˚ South, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Korff shares a series of short stories by South African conscripts who served in Angola and Namibia fighting the Angolan government forces and SWAPO guerrillas.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lord, Brigadier R. S. “Operation Askari: A Sub-commander’s Retrospective View of the Operation.” Militaria 22.4 (1992): 1–13.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Lord presents a detailed story of the infamous “Operation Askari” in 1983.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mannall, David. Battle of Lomba 1987: The Day a South African Armoured Battalion Shattered Angola’s Last Mechanised Offensive – A Crew Commander’s Account. Solihull, UK: Helion, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Mannall, the commander of an armored fighting vehicle, relates the story of the 1987 Battle of Lomba River from a ground-level-view perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Williams, Mike. Battle for Cassinga: South Africa’s Controversial Cross-Border Raid, Angola 1978. Solihull, UK: Helion, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        This book contains Williams’s firsthand account of the battle for Cassinga, during which a South African military force attacked a SWAPO base deep inside Angola.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wright, Robin. “Angola’s Dogs of War.” New York: Alicia Patterson Foundation, 1976.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          The author presents a journalistic study about the influence of foreign mercenaries during Angola’s war for independence and civil war.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          United States

                                                                                                                                                                                          The United States wore several hats during the Angolan saga, as a peacemaker (Anstee 1996, Crocker 1992, Hare 1998) or in support of the UNITA rebels (Stockwell 1978, Windrich 1992). Congress, the president, and the Department of State also weighed in, as noted in Davies 2007, Livingstone and von Nordheim 1977, and Wright 1997.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Anstee, Margaret Joan. Orphan of the Cold War: The Inside Story of the Collapse of the Angolan Peace Process, 1992–93. New York: St. Martin’s, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            This is a personal account by Margaret Anstee, former special representative of the secretary-general of the United Nations for Angola from 1992 to 1993, as she attempts to implement the Angolan peace accord on a very limited budget while facing resistance from the Angolan political parties.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Crocker, Chester. High Noon in Southern Africa: Making Peace in a Rough Neighborhood. New York: Norton, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Written by the former US assistant secretary of state for African affairs from 1981 to 1989, this book details the diplomatic struggle to negotiate a peace agreement between the Angolan government and UNITA along with their foreign sponsors Cuba, South Africa, and the Soviet Union.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Davies, J. E. Constructive Engagement? Chester Crocker & American Foreign Policy in South Africa, Namibia & Angola. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                A critical examination of the “constructive engagement” policy as articulated by Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Chester Crocker during President Ronald Reagan’s administration in the 1980s as it applied to South Africa, Namibia, and Angola.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hare, Paul. Angola’s Last Best Chance for Peace: An Insider’s Account of the Peace Process. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  The US special representative for the Angolan peace process writes about his experiences trying to negotiate and implement the 1994 peace agreement.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Livingstone, Neil C., and Manfred von Nordheim. “The US Congress and the Angola Crisis.” Strategic Review 5.2 (Spring 1977): 34–45.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    The authors explore the pros and cons of US involvement in Angola’s civil war from a military and political perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Stockwell, John. In Search of Enemies. New York: Norton, 1978.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Written by a former CIA agent working in Zaire and Angola, this book attempts to detail the illicit activities of the United States during the Angolan civil war.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Windrich, Elaine. The Cold War Guerrilla: Jonas Savimbi, the US Media, and the Angolan War. New York: Greenwood, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Windrich argues that UNITA’s Jonas Savimbi was more a creation of American right-wing politicians than a genuine Angolan revolutionary. See Minter 1988 (cited under União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA)).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Wright, George. The Destruction of a Nation: United States’ Policy toward Angola since 1945. London: Pluto, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          The author presents a case study of US policy toward Angola from 1945 to 1997, emphasizing the internal actors and external forces shaping US policy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Culture

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Angolan culture is examined in its entirety in Oyebade 2007. More detailed studies are discussed in the following subsections on Art, Language and Literature, Language and Folktales, Fiction, Poetry, Music and Dance, and Film and Photography.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Oyebade, Adebayo O. Culture and Customs of Angola. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Oyebade presents a comprehensive overview of Angola’s history, customs, and culture with chapters on music, religion, literature, and women.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Art

                                                                                                                                                                                                            African art is diverse, beautiful, and unique, as displayed in Beckwith and Fisher 1999 and Koloss 2002. Jordan and van Wyk 1998 describes the art of Angola’s Chokwe people, who are famous for their ceremonial masks and figurines of Chokwe royalty. Henda 2015 captures through photography Angola as it attempts to recover from the civil war that ended in 2002.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Beckwith, Carol, and Angela Fisher. African Ceremonies. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              Written about African art, in general, this book does include several text/visual chapters on the art of Angola.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Henda, Kiluanji Kia. Travelling to the Sun through the Night. Göttingen, Germany: Steidl, 2015.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                A noted photographer, Henda captured on film postwar Angola and its residents as the nation remembered while building for the future.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Jordan, Manuel, and Gary N. van Wyk, eds. Chokwe! Art and Initiation among the Chokwe and Related Peoples. New York: Prestel, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Chokwe people have long been considered the best artisans in Angola, as Jordan’s work amply demonstrates.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Koloss, Hans-Joachim, ed. Africa Art and Culture. Munich: Prestel, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The author employs a continent-wide analysis of African art and culture including several chapters on Angolan art and culture.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Language and Literature

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Most of Angola’s history has been passed orally from generation to generation. Writers such as Merlin Ennis and António Fonseca have placed those folktales and history in written form, while others, such as Héli Chatelain and M. Paul Lewis, explore the languages of Angola (Language and Folktales). With the end of the civil war, Angolan authors of Fiction have written about more traditional subjects such as romance, although others have also written about more contemporary subjects. Angola is also noted for its Poetry and its Music and Dance, such as the sensual style of capoeira, which is popular in both Brazil and Angola. Cinematic production has begun in Angola, most notably O Herói and Hollow City (see Gamboa 2005 and Ganga 2005, both cited under Film and Photography).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Language and Folktales

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chatelain 1964 examines the Kimbundu language and Lewis 2009 describes all forty-two known Angolan languages. Fonseca 1996 explores the tradition of oral literature in Angolan society. The folktales of the Umbundu people are presented in Ennis and Lord 1962, while Walker 2002 describes how the “national animal” is emblematic of Angola’s, placing the fabled giant sable antelope firmly in Angolan culture.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Chatelain, Héli. Kimbundu Grammar: Grammatica Elementar do Kimbundu ou Lingua de Angola. Ridgewood, NJ: Gregg, 1964.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Chatelain provides a presentation of the elementary grammar of the Kimbundu language spoken in northern Angola.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ennis, Merlin, and Albert Bates Lord. Umbundu: Folk Tales from Angola. Boston: Beacon, 1962.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ennis presents a collection of Umbundu (Ovimbundu) folktales from south-central Angola.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Fonseca, António. Contribuição ao Estudo da Literatura Oral Angolana. Luanda, Angola: Instituto Nacional do Livro e do Disco, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fonseca explores the cultural tradition of Angolan oral storytelling.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lewis, M. Paul “Angola.” In Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 16th ed. Edited by M. Paul Lewis. Dallas: SIL International, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Lewis offers probably the best work on the languages of Angola. His work can be accessed either online or as hard copy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Walker, John Frederick. A Certain Curve of the Horn: The Hundred-Year Quest for the Giant Sable Antelope of Angola. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Walker presents a vivid account of the endangered giant sable antelope. The animals were hunted to near extinction during the Angolan conflict. The perseverance of the creature reflects that of the Angolan people, who endured colonialism, a war for independence, a civil war, and finally, a precarious peace.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fiction

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Recent writing in Angola has been more traditional, focusing upon romance (Rui 2008) and the search for meaning (Bella 1995, Aqualusa 2008). Others, such as Pepetela 2002, Jamba 1990, and Ribas 2009, focus on the civil war and the devastating effects of the conflict on civil society.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Aqualusa, José Eduardo. The Book of Chameleons. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This novel is written from the perspective of a house gecko who makes observations about his own life and those of the people he encounters. English translation of O Vendedor de Passados (Lisbon, Portugal: Dom Quixote, 2008).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bella, John. Agua da Vida. Luanda, Angola: Brigada Jovem de Literatura de Angola, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bella is one of many young Angolan writers whose works focus upon war-torn societies or the aftermath of the Angolan civil war.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Jamba, Sousa. Patriots. London: Viking, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Patriots is an autobiographical novel about a young man fleeing Angola after the death of his parents during the civil war.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Pepetela. The Return of the Water Spirit. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pepetela is perhaps Angola’s most prominent author. In 2003, he was voted Angola’s most widely read author. Pepetela in the name under which Artur Carlos Mauricio Pestana dos Santos writes. English translation of O Desejo de Kianda (Lisbon, Portugal: Dom Quixote, 1995).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ribas, Óscar. Temas da Vida Angolana e Suas Incidências. Luanda, Angola: Chá de Caxinde, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ribas is one of Angola’s most popular authors. He writes on Angolan life in a post-conflict society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Rui, Manuel. Janela de Sónia. Luanda, Angola: União dos Escritores Angolanos, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The novel focuses on the romantic and fanciful whimsies of Sonya.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Poetry

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The now deceased Ruy Duarte de Carvalho was one of Angola’s leading poets (see Carvalho 2000 for his moving poems about Angola’s raging civil war). While Angola’s first president enjoyed world renown (Neto 1982), Júlia Lello is one of Angola’s most prominent female writers (Lello 1982).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Music and Dance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Capoeira is considered a defining piece of Angola’s culture, as expressed in Capoeira 2002 and Moorman 2008. Moorman 2008 presents an overview of Angola’s musical styles. Angola Soundtrack and Angola Soundtrack 2 are cds of various Angolan musicians.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Capoeira, Nestor. Capoeira: Roots of the Dance-Fight-Game. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An examination of the dance called “capoeira” that is popular in both Angola and Brazil. The book discusses the history, the instruments needed, and the movements of this sensual dance.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Moorman, Marissa J. Intonations: A Social History of Music and Nation in Luanda, Angola, from 1945 to Recent Times. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Moorman offers a story about how young urban Angolans employed music during the latter stages of colonial rule (1945–1974) to defy Portuguese control, and to define their “Angolan-ness,” along with their hopes and dreams for the future.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Various Artists. Angola Soundtrack. B0046JPPQ0. CD. Frankfurt: Analog Africa, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Angolan music performed by Santos Junior, Dimba Diangola, Jovens DO Prenda, Mamukueno and others.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Various Artists. Angola Soundtrack 2: Hypnosis, Distortions, and Other Sonic Innovations, 1969–1978. B00G09PXWU. CD. Frankfurt: Analog Africa, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Angolan music performed by Africa Ritmos, Cisco, Oscar Neves, Os Anjos and others.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Film and Photography

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Life in post-conflict Angola is being examined cinematographically, as best seen in the work of Gamboa 2005, Gamboa 2012, and Ganga 2005. Coelho 2005 presents evidence of the ravages of the civil war in photographs that reflect on the consequences of Portuguese colonialism and the devastating effects of the civil war.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Coelho, Joaquim. O Despertar dos Combatentes: Fotos com Estórias em Angola. Lisbon, Portugal: Clássica, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coelho provides an assortment of photographs exploring the devastating effects of the Angolan civil war on society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gamboa, Zézé, dir. O Herói, 2004. VHS and DVD. San Francisco: California Newsreel, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      One of the best of the “new wave” movies coming from post-conflict Angola. The film concerns three boys who return to Luanda to reconstruct their lives in a city they no longer recognize. Portuguese with English subtitles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gamboa, Zézé, dir. O Grande Kilapy, 2012. DVD. Lisbon, Portugal: Raíz Produções, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        During the colonial era, a young mestizo, Joao Fraga, is a senior executive with the National Bank of Angola. He is arrested and imprisoned after diverting the bank’s funds to revolutionary groups. Upon release from prison he is hailed as a hero.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ganga, Maria João, dir. Hollow City, 2004. DVD. New York: Global Film Initiative, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hollow City is another “new wave” cinematic feature from Angola, dealing with the adventures of a war orphan in Luanda and the unusual characters he encounters. Portuguese with English subtitles.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Disaster Assistance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Angola has served as a laboratory for development programs, as detailed in Duarte 2003 and case studies for the normality of war in Beck 2012. Refugees and displaced individuals need assistance (Kaun 2008, Sapir and Gómez 2006); landmines remain an unresolved issue (Mills, et al. 2007); and the Angolan people have suffered from a lack of health care infrastructure, as described in Human Rights Watch 2002 and Doctors Without Borders 2002. To some extent, the United Nations has failed Angolans, as depicted in Kukkuk 2005 and Moorhouse and Chang 2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Beck, Teresa Koloma. The Normality of Civil War: Armed Groups and Everyday Life in Angola. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Beck offers a glimpse of how war eventually is accepted as normal in everyday life and how combatants and noncombatants respond to violence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Doctors Without Borders. Angola: Sacrifice of a People. New York: Doctors Without Borders, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Doctors Without Borders worked in Angola from 1983 to 2007, establishing feeding stations, battling cholera and malaria, and employing almost 2,500 people.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Duarte, Mafalda. Aid Policy in War-Torn Countries: Promoting Development in Conflict Situations: The Case of Angola. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Duarte provides a case study of the efficacy of implementing development programs in war-torn nations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Human Rights Watch. Landmine Monitor Report 2002: Toward a Mine-Free World. Washington, DC: Human Rights Watch, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Human Rights Watch offers a report on the progress in removing landmines from Angola’s agricultural areas, national parks, and riverbanks.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Kaun, Alexandra. When the Displaced Return: Challenges to “Reintegration” in Angola. Geneva, Switzerland: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Policy Development and Evaluation Service, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kaun assesses the problems of refugees who return home after long years of exile to reintegrate into a society that may be welcoming, hostile, or indifferent to their plight.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kukkuk, Leon. Letters to Gabriella: Angola’s Last War for Peace, What the UN Did and Why. Sarasota: Florida Literary Foundation Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Letters to Gabriella presents a damning indictment of UN incompetence in post-conflict Angola. The book details the author’s experiences and frustrations in central Angola while working for a UN development project.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mills, Heather, Tim Page, Lou McGrath, and Sean Sutton. Angola: Journey through Change. Stockport, UK: Dewi Lewis, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The authors present a stark examination of the effect that approximately two million landmines have had upon the daily life of Angolans.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Moorhouse, Karin, and Wei Chang. No One Can Stop the Rain: A Chronicle of Two Foreign Aid Workers during the Angolan Civil War. Toronto: Insomniac Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The engaging story of two foreign aid workers who attempt to assist the civilian population from the ravages inflicted during the Angolan civil war.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sapir, Debarati Guha, and Vicente Terán Gómez. Angola: The Human Impact of War. Brussels: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The authors provide an examination of the effect the Angolan civil war has had on the psychological, physical, and emotional health of the civilian population.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ecology and Tourism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In the future Angola could become an “extreme vacation” destination for intrepid travelers as described in Stead and Rorison 2009 and Bredin 1995. See also Walker 2002 (cited under Language and Folktales). Kreike 2004 examines the historical ecological impact of the Ovambo floodplain on the local population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bredin, Miles. Blood on the Tracks: A Rail Journey from Angola to Mozambique. London: Picador, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Here is a tale of two journalists who board the Benguela Railroad traveling from Angola to Mozambique in 1992 to explore the land, meet the people, examine the effect of the wars, and visit the various cultures.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Kreike, Emmanuel. Recreating Eden: Land Use, Environment, and Society in Southern Angola and Northern Namibia. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kreike presents a case study of the Ovambo floodplain, which overlaps from Angola into Namibia, focusing upon the history and the social and environmental impact the floodplain has had upon the local population.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Stead, Mike, and Sean Rorison. Angola. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Stead and Rorison provide us the first travel guide written in English about vacation opportunities in Angola. While certainly not a destination for the casual traveler, Angola does offer gorgeous beaches, rainforests, some wildlife, and excellent fishing. The authors visited all eighteen provinces, including the capital city, Luanda.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Economy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Diamonds and petroleum are each a curse and a blessing for Angola (Campbell 2002; Global Witness 1998; Hodges 2001; Reed 2009; Gutiérrez, et al. 2014). Angola has transformed itself from a state-controlled and centrally planned economy to one based on capitalism, as Somerville 1986 and Sogge 2009 detail.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Campbell, Greg. Blood Diamonds: Tracing the Deadly Path of the World’s Most Precious Stones. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A journalistic account of “blood diamonds” in Sierra Leone: how the stones are mined, transported, and sold on the international market. Though the book is a study of the diamonds of Sierra Leone, the story is applicable to Angola as well.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Global Witness. A Rough Trade: The Role of Companies and Governments in the Angolan Conflict. London: Global Witness, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A detailed account of how “blood diamonds” helped fund the União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) rebels during the Angolan civil war.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gutiérrez, Carlos Castilla, José-León García Rodríguez, and Francisco J. García Rodríguez. The Power of Oil in Angola. Huntington, New York: Nova Science, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The authors provide a detailed history of the growth of the petroleum industry in Angola.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hodges, Tony. Angola from Afro-Stalinism to Petro-Diamond Capitalism. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          An overview of Angola’s economy from independence through 2000, He emphasizes the government’s overreliance on petroleum and diamond revenues at the expense of overall economic growth.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Reed, Kristin. Crude Existence: Environment and the Politics of Oil in Northern Angola. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Reed describes how Angola’s oil wealth has proven to be disastrous to the environment and to Angolans who do not benefit from the wealth yet suffer from the consequences of oil exploration and environmental degradation.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sogge, David. Angola: “Failed” yet “Successful”. Working Paper 81. Madrid: Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This book examines Angola’s possible avenues to economic success, which will benefit all Angolans and not just the elite of society.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Somerville, Keith. Angola: Politics, Economics, and Society. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Somerville provides a discussion of the history and development of the Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA) as a Marxist political party. He details policies and the attempts to implement them against a backdrop of civil conflict.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Women and Gender Issues

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In many ways, women suffered more than did the combatants in the Angolan civil war (Topouzis 1988, Hunt 1991). Whether the males were present or not the women had to feed their families, plus raise and educate the children (Organização da Mulher Angolana 1985, Dos Santos 2000). In post-conflict Angola many of the problems still remain, as described in Sheldon and Rodrigues 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Dos Santos, Naiole Cohen. Beyond Inequalities: Women in Angola. Harare, Zimbabwe: Southern African Research and Documentation Center, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dos Santos presents a comprehensive assessment of women in Angolan society as they struggle to maintain their family units and provide food and education for their children, often with the male either in the military or otherwise not present.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hunt, Simon. The Situation Analysis of Women and Children in Angola. Oxford: University of Oxford, International Development Centre, Food Studies Group, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) evaluates the situation facing women and children in war-torn Angola in the 1980s at the height of the civil war.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Organização da Mulher Angolana. Organization of Angolan Women. London: Blackmore, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Organização da Mulher Angolana is the broad-based women’s arm of the MPLA.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sheldon, Kathleen, and Isabel P. B. Fêo Rodrigues. “Outras Vozes: Women’s Writings in Lusophone Africa.” African and Asian Studies 7.4 (2008): 423–445.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The authors focus primarily on writings during the liberation struggle and on more recent issues, such as women’s rights in post-conflict Angola.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Topouzis, Daphne. “Women and Children on the Frontline: Interview with Maria Eugenia Neto.” Africa Report 33.4 (July–August 1988): 37–39.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The former first lady of Angola provides a magazine interview during which she details the struggles faced by women, children, and families in war-torn Angola.

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