African Studies Conservation and Wildlife
by
Heidi G. Frontani
  • LAST REVIEWED: 25 May 2017
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 June 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846733-0022

Introduction

Conservation in Africa, as elsewhere, involves decisions about the allocation and use of resources, including scarce ones, and, as such, tends to be highly politicized. Many human activities have had a conservation effect while serving a different primary purpose. Respecting sacred areas can create “no-take” zones that form biologically diverse “islands” in time. Indeed, virtually all modern techniques for resource conservation, including wildlife conservation, such as zones of limited or no access, closed seasons, size restrictions, and limited off-take, have been in use for millennia. Pharaohs in ancient Egypt set aside lands as hunting preserves to protect diminishing wildlife populations, reducing lands available to common people. Similarly, colonizers, especially the British, set aside lands in Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries for hunting. New ideas about wildlife management came with colonial rule and some species, namely large predators, were designated as “pests” or “vermin” and their populations greatly reduced to protect colonial ranchers and farmers. Indigenous hunting was often banned at the same time that settler communities were paid for their kills. Colonial land and labor policies changed people-environment relationships. Communities became more sedentary, easier to tax and police, by moving them to indigenous reserves or reservations. Communal and customary land rights were weakened or lost with the increasing privatization of land. Mass relocations had a twofold effect, namely, to free the most productive lands for use by white settlers and for game parks, and to create overcrowded indigenous areas with a ready supply of labor. Colonial interpretations of environmental change generally involved mismanagement on the part of Africans and a need for corrective conservation measures that were generally based on best practices for European lands and often did not result in environmental improvement. Conservation during colonial rule rarely included respecting ancestral grounds, but became associated with fines and imprisonment for hunting, forced relocations without adequate compensation, and the creation of no-take zones for the leisure activities of outsiders. Independent regimes continued top-down colonial conservation approaches into the 1980s before reevaluating the cost effectiveness of trying to protect resources from people. By the 1990s many countries were looking for more people-friendly approaches to resource and wildlife management that included community development and local participation. In the early 21st century, wildlife conservation challenges have focused on how to move beyond community management rhetoric to more genuine and meaningful involvement of local people.

General Resources and Reference Collections

Available resources are somewhat limited if one is looking for a brief general overview or sets of bibliographic sources to assist with understanding conservation and wildlife in Africa. The topic is complex and people’s relation to wildlife on the continent has varied considerably depending on the time period. Perhaps the best way to begin, other than taking a look at DeGeorges and Reilly 2008, a more than 3,570-page, seven-volume set on conservation and development in sub-Saharan Africa, is to consider the time frame, species, country, or region one is most interested in knowing more about. A search of bibliographic or other reference works (Africa South of the Sahara: Selected Internet Resources, Bederman 1974, Howell 1978) is one starting point, but key term searches in journals (see also Journals) may prove the fastest way to narrow in on relevant works. Reference works will range from reports from agencies that gather information on fish and wildlife and provide a broader context (such as from the Food and Agriculture Organization), to richly illustrated and multivolume guidebooks (see Brown, et al. 1982–2004) and others that can be helpful in the field (see also Biology, Ecology, and Guidebooks).

  • Africa South of the Sahara: Selected Internet Resources.

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    A compilation of sources available on the Internet relating to Africa.

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    • Bederman, Sanford Harold. Africa, a Bibliography of Geography and Related Disciplines: A Selected Listing of Recent Literature Published in the English Language. Atlanta: Publishing Services Division, School of Business Administration, Georgia State University, 1974.

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      Previous editions were published under the title: A Bibliographic Aid to the Study of the Geography of Africa.

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      • Brown, Leslie, Emil K. Urban, Kenneth B. Newman, Stuart Keith, and C. H. Fry. The Birds of Africa. 7 vols. New York: Academic Press, 1982–2004.

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        Each volume contains encyclopedic text on hundreds of species complemented by detailed paintings and drawings. Full bibliographies, acoustic references, and indexes complete the authoritative, comprehensive series.

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        • DeGeorges, Paul Andre, and Brian Kevin Reilly. A Critical Evaluation of Conservation and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. 7 vols. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2008.

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          A big-picture look at conservation, development, human rights, and foreign policy in Africa, including the history of conservation initiatives and their impact on policy formulation into recent times. Foreword by R. J. Gutierrez.

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          • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

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            The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations’ “State of the World’s . . .” publications include statistical information and overviews globally, by region, or by country, and can be a good starting point for researchers interested in placing Africa or particular African countries in a broader context in terms of deforestation, fisheries production, and other areas related to resource management or conservation.

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            • Howell, John Bruce. Kenya: Subject Guide to Official Publications. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1978.

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              Kenya has more written about its wildlife than most African countries and may serve as a useful starting point for the researcher not entirely sure in which area he or she would like to focus.

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              Biology, Ecology, and Guidebooks

              Researchers interested in virtually any aspect of conservation of wildlife in Africa will likely find themselves helped by having access to resources related to biology, ecology, and field research (Shorrocks 2007, Sinclair and Griffiths 1995, Wrangham and Ross 2008) and one or more field guides. Field guides range from continent-wide guidebooks on mammals (Alden, et al. 1995), including their behavior (Estes 1992) and how to count them (Jachmann 2001), to regional- or country-specific guides to birds or fishes from Collins, Princeton, or other publishers (Lévêque 2006). In recent years, guides to specific, popular national parks, such as Kruger (Biggs, et al. 2003) and Serengeti, Etosha, and Kalahari/Gemsbok, have also been published. Illustrated guides can prove invaluable to those interested in learning local names for wildlife and/or learning from nonliterate populations knowledgeable about fish and/or wildlife populations that cannot readily be obtained via questionnaires or surveys. For those interested in wildlife populations historically, see also Photographs, Films, Maps, and Spatial Data Sets and Memoirs and Museum Collections from Natural History and Hunting Expeditions.

              • Alden, Peter, Richard D. Estes, Duane Schlitter, and Bunny McBride. National Audubon Society Field Guide to African Wildlife. New York: Knopf, 1995.

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                A resource compiled by African wildlife experts and safari leaders. It is a relatively comprehensive field guide to the continent’s mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects, and its parks and reserves. It contains more than 575 color animal and habitat photographs and provides information on more than 850 species.

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                • Biggs, Harry C., Johan T. du Toit, and Kevin H. Rogers, eds. The Kruger Experience: Ecology and Management of Savannah Heterogeneity. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2003.

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                  Summarizes a century of ecological research and management. Kruger has one of the most extensive research records of any protected area in the world.

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                  • Estes, Richard D. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

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                    This guide helps readers understand what animals do and what their behavior means. The author draws on his own fieldwork and the research of many other scientists to offer an informative guide useful to zoologists and the general public. Estes also wrote the popular The Safari Companion (Post Mills, VT: Chelsea Green, 1993).

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                    • Jachmann, Hugo. Estimating Abundance of African Wildlife: An Aid to Adaptive Management. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 2001.

                      DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4615-1381-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                      This is a helpful guide for non-mathematically oriented students and fieldworkers. It offers suggestions for methods for diverse habitat settings, management objectives, and species.

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                      • Lévêque, Christian. Biodiversity Dynamics and Conservation: The Freshwater Fish of Tropical Africa. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

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                        This book is based on the premise that conservation cannot be effective if an understanding of what species are present and in what abundance is absent.

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                        • Shorrocks, Bryan. The Biology of African Savannahs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

                          DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570660.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                          This is an accessible textbook for undergraduates and graduates. It describes major plant and animal populations, and examines the biological and ecological factors that influence them as well as conservation issues, including climate change, hunting, and conflict between wildlife and domestic animals.

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                          • Sinclair, Anthony R. E., and M. Norton Griffiths. Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

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                            Originally published in 1979, the work represented one of the first comprehensive syntheses of the patterns and processes at work in a major ecosystem. Also by Sinclair, Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management, and Conservation of an Ecosystem (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996) and Serengeti III: Human Impacts on Ecosystem Dynamics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008) follow up on the original work.

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                            • Wrangham, Richard, and Elizabeth Ross, eds. Science and Conservation in African Forests: The Benefits of Long-Term Research. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

                              DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511754920Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                              Lessons learned from twenty years of research in Kibale National Park are used to illustrate the consequences that biological research has had for conservation, including effects on habitat management, community relations, ecotourism, and training.

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                              Photographs, Films, Maps, and Spatial Data Sets

                              Although academic writing on African wildlife increasingly recognizes the contributions of Africans in supporting viable populations or at least the need to work with local communities so as not to alienate and impoverish them to the point of turning to poaching, popular contemporary still images and films (Brandt 2005, Poliza 2006, National Geographic Society) often maintain a focus on majestic animals in landscapes largely devoid of human presence. Digital archives from major African studies programs, including the Africa Focus collection at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and the African Studies Center at the University of Pennsylvania, as well as from museum and national archive holdings (see also Archives) can provide access to a broader range of wildlife images, although some sources may not be indexed or contain geospatial notations. Map collections, including the collection from the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, and geographic information systems (GIS) data sets from the Environmental Systems Research Institute can assist researchers who seek to make connections between wildlife populations and specific locations.

                              Archives

                              Archives on Africa, including in the countries of key former colonizers (including the British National Archives and the French Archives nationales d’outre-mer) and elsewhere (such as the Rockefeller Archive Center in the United States), can provide a wealth of information on conservation and wildlife, from legal documents to letters and diaries written by officers stationed in wildlife-rich areas. It may be necessary to obtain a research permit to access some African archives, and most archives have restrictions on the kinds of items that can be carried into research rooms. With few exceptions (National Archives and Records Service of South Africa, National Archives of Egypt, and others), national archives in African countries cannot be searched online for holdings, but contact information for most can be obtained by searching the web. Anticipate conservation and wildlife holdings at any archive to be catalogued under a wide range of headings, and it may not be possible to find all relevant items easily or within a day or two.

                              Blogs

                              Whereas resources on African conservation and wildlife often must be purchased or accessed through university or public libraries with subscriptions to databases and academic journals, blogs now offer those with Internet access new, freely available resources. There are blogs on a range of topics from wildlife documentaries and filmmaking (Deeble’s A Wildlife Filmmaker in Africa) to wildlife research (Primate and Predator Project) and conservation (African Wildlife Foundation). Some sites address more specialized topics, such as serving as a bush pilot in and around protected areas (Cadd’s Captain’s Blog Africa).

                              Dissertations and Theses

                              Dissertations and master’s theses can be an excellent source of in-depth research, including the latest studies, although they are generally in a less polished form than the journal articles and books that are based on them. Most university libraries subscribe to Dissertation Abstracts, an excellent database to mine for relevant works. Essentially all topics covered in this bibliographic resource will be found when searching dissertations. State university libraries in the United States generally allow access to their collections to residents of their state free of cost and offer nonstate residents free one-day passes for the same. Some private universities offer more limited versions of the same services. The works cited in this section offer insights into the range of topics covered, including on photographic and remote-sensing methods (Beh 2011 and Rogers 2011), biological and ecological subjects (Talbot 1963), studies in population dynamics (Manore 2011), and subjects focusing on poaching or conservation of particular species (Marceau 2001, Kankam 2010) or on protected areas, terrestrial wildlife (Naughton 1996, Ayebare 2011), and marine life (Glaesel 1997).

                              • Ayebare, Samuel. “Influence of Industrial Activities on the Spatial Distribution of Wildlife in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda.” PhD diss., University of Rhode Island, 2011.

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                                Examines the impact of the oil and gas industries on wildlife in a Ugandan park.

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                                • Beh, Adam. “Do You See What I See? Photovoice, Community-Based Research, and Conservation Education in Samburu, Kenya.” PhD diss., Colorado State University, 2011.

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                                  Local Samburu use photographs to share their insights into land use and conservation.

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                                  • Glaesel, Heidi. “Fishers, Parks, and Power: The Socio-environmental Dimensions of Marine Resource Decline and Protection on the Kenya Coast.” PhD diss., University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1997.

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                                    Examines local and state approaches to marine resource management near four marine parks.

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                                    • Kankam, Bright Obeng. “Colobus Population Dynamics and Forest Change in a Fragmented Habitat in Central Ghana.” PhD diss., University of Calgary, 2010.

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                                      Identified factors most important to maintaining Colobus monkey presence in forest patches.

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                                      • Manore, Carrie Anna. “Non-spatial and Spatial Models for Multi-host Pathogen Spread in Competing Species: Applications to Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus and Rinderpest.” PhD diss., Oregon State University, 2011.

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                                        Uses models to examine disease and population dynamics.

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                                        • Marceau, Sylvie Yolande. “More Worthless Elephants? Positive and Normative Effects of an Ivory Trade Ban with Smuggling and Costly Anti-poaching Enforcement.” PhD diss., University of California–Berkeley, 2001.

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                                          Mathematical models, economic sanctions, and laws are examined.

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                                          • Naughton, Lisa. “Uneasy Neighbors: Wildlife and Farmers around Kibale National Park, Uganda.” PhD diss., University of Florida, 1996.

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                                            Examines crop raiding and damage caused by elephants and other wildlife.

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                                            • Rogers, Jessica. “The Effectiveness of Protected Areas in Central Africa: A Remotely Sensed Measure of Deforestation and Access.” PhD diss., Columbia University, 2011.

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                                              Measures deforestation in eighty-seven protected areas in five Central African countries.

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                                              • Talbot, L. M. “Ecology of Western Masailand, East Africa.” PhD diss., University of California–Berkeley, 1963.

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                                                A geographer examines southern Kenya’s Maasailands.

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                                                Journals

                                                Research on African wildlife conservation appears in a wide range of scholarly journals and magazines, from more biologically and ecologically based publications to those in geography, as well as interdisciplinary ones in the social sciences with or without an Africa focus. It is unlikely that those engaged in research on African wildlife conservation will find the majority of articles useful to them neatly arranged in a small number of publications, although many relevant journals may be accessed via broader library databases such as Academic Search Premier. A few journals and magazines focus entirely on African wildlife conservation, including the South African Journal of Wildlife Research and Swara (cited under Biology, Ecology, and Natural Sciences).

                                                Interdisciplinary/Social Sciences with an Africa Focus

                                                Journals with an Africa focus (Africa, African Affairs, African Studies Quarterly, African Studies Review, Canadian Journal of African Studies, and the Journal of Modern African Studies) are generally only somewhat more likely to contain articles or book reviews of interest to those engaged in research on conservation and wildlife in Africa than journals that do not specialize in Africa. Those interested in articles written during the colonial period should look to journals such as Africa and African Affairs, as they have a longer history of publication than most interdisciplinary, Africa-focused journals.

                                                Interdisciplinary/Social Sciences without an Africa Focus

                                                Non-Africa-specific publications can be mined for articles on people-park conflicts in Africa (Cultural Survival Quarterly), wildlife tourism (Annals of Tourism Research), resource management that relates to fish or wildlife populations in Africa, co-management of community resources in or near protected areas, and other issues related to sustainable development. Several publications potentially cover a number of the aforementioned areas (Human Ecology, Journal of Environmental Management, Society & Natural Resources, and World Development).

                                                Geography

                                                Geographers tend to be highly interdisciplinary in their research and several journals in the field of geography contain occasional articles relating to African wildlife conservation. Journals specific to African geography include the African Geographical Review and the South African Geographical Journal. Many key journals in geography are published by professional societies in the United States (Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Geographical Bulletin, Geographical Review, and the Professional Geographer) and the United Kingdom (Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers). The magazine of the National Geographic Society (cited under Photographs, Films, Maps, and Spatial Data Sets) contains a wealth of popular press coverage.

                                                Biology, Ecology, and Natural Sciences

                                                The journals described in this section (Biological Conservation, Ecological Monographs, Environmental Conservation, Nature, Science, South African Journal of Wildlife Research, and Swara) will be of interest to social scientists whose work includes some study of the natural sciences, but they are less likely to be of interest to those mostly or solely interested in the human aspects of wildlife conservation.

                                                Wildlife as Food and for Game/Sport

                                                Although wildlife conservation efforts date to the time of the pharaohs, most early conservation efforts were inadvertent, such as avoiding certain areas considered sacred; indirect, such as controlled burns on savannahs meant to maintain habitats that supported large numbers of ungulates; or meant to keep wildlife populations abundant so that they could be hunted for sport by the elite. Although African landscapes reflect active human-environment interactions, including controlled burns for hunting animals considered Bushmeat, colonial impressions and laws generally included the perspective that it was acceptable for them to “humanely” shoot wildlife for sport and trophies, but that wildlife populations needed protection from local people who used kill methods, including traps, that caused animals to suffer unnecessarily. Individuals leading natural history and hunting expeditions sponsored by museums often held outlooks similar to the colonizers (see Memoirs and Museum Collections from Natural History and Hunting Expeditions). Many national parks and reserves in Africa had their beginnings as game reserves in which colonizers, but not local people, were allowed to hunt.

                                                Bushmeat

                                                Although hunting of wildlife is outlawed in several African countries, or extremely restricted, the historic value of bushmeat for food and wildlife kills for rites of passage in certain communities will assist those wishing to understand wildlife management, people-park conflicts, and the promise of co-management. Although most studies on the topic are found in journals rather than books, books on wildlife and food security can be found (Bakaar, et al. 2001; Ntiamoa-Baidu 1997). In the early 21st century, debates over bushmeat have included livelihood issues (Davies and Brown 2007).

                                                • Bakaar, Mohamed, et al., eds. Hunting Bushmeat and Utilization in the African Rain Forest: Perspectives toward a Blueprint for Conservation Action. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, 2001.

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                                                  Volume 2 in the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science series and one of the few book-length studies of bushmeat or wildlife that is used as food in Africa.

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                                                  • Davies, Glyn, and David Brown, eds. Bushmeat and Livelihoods: Wildlife Management and Poverty Reduction. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.

                                                    DOI: 10.1002/9780470692592Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                    Explores the controversies over bushmeat utilization using case studies from a number of countries. It focuses on the human side of the debate and is supplemented by sections on institutions and governance.

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                                                    • Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa. Wildlife and Food Security in Africa. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization, 1997.

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                                                      A useful conservation guide. Written in conjunction with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Text available online.

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                                                      Memoirs and Museum Collections from Natural History and Hunting Expeditions

                                                      Insight into Africa’s biodiversity prior to most formal efforts to conserve it can be gleaned from memoirs (Roosevelt 1910, Selous 2001), museum collections (Royal Museum for Central Africa, South African Museum), and holdings related to hunting and natural history expeditions (American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909–1915; Barrett, et al. 1970; Smithsonian-Roosevelt African Expedition). Some materials have been digitized and can be examined, to some degree, via the websites of museums, but those with an interest in African wildlife during the late 19th and early 20th centuries should consider visiting key museums in person.

                                                      • American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909–1915.

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                                                        This online resource provides diaries and images of primates, birds, insects, and other organisms, as well as where to find watercolors, the work of taxidermists, and other items stemming from the expedition that are now held in the New York City–based museum.

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                                                        • Barrett, S. A., Ira Edwards, Owen J. Gromme, and Irving J. Perkins, eds. The Cudahy-Massee-Milwaukee Museum African Expedition, 1928–29. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1970.

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                                                          Natural history specimens include 1,406 birds, 1,056 insects, 312 mammals (from 62 species), and 288 plants collected during the Cudahy-Massee British East Africa Expedition. Many specimens are on exhibit. See online.

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                                                          • Celebrating 100 Years: Smithsonian-Roosevelt African Expedition.

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                                                            Those with bona fide research interests may request permission to gain access to specimens from this expedition, but most items from the expedition are no longer on display. The museum’s library also has manuscripts, photographs, films, and other expedition items.

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                                                            • Roosevelt, Theodore. African Game Trails. New York: Scribner, 1910.

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                                                              This book is a collection of the monthly accounts of Roosevelt’s East African adventures that were originally published in Scribner’s Magazine. Roosevelt collected more than 23,000 natural history samples on an expedition that was supported by the Smithsonian Institution. A number of his collected specimens are found in displays in the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC.

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                                                              • Royal Museum for Central Africa.

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                                                                Located in Tervuren, just outside of Brussels, Belgium, the museum has ethnographic and natural history collections, largely from the former Belgian Congo (current Democratic Republic of the Congo). Only around 1 percent of the museum’s items are on permanent exhibit.

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                                                                • Selous, Frederick C. A Hunter’s Wanderings in Africa: Being a Narrative of Nine Years Spent amongst the Game of the Far Interior of South Africa. Alexander, NC: Alexander Books, 2001.

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                                                                  Originally published in 1907 by Macmillan, this still popular book describes the travels of the man for whom Tanzania’s largest, if not most visited, reserve is named.

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                                                                  • South African Museum.

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                                                                    Although not associated with particular expeditions, this museum, founded in Cape Town in 1825, houses more than 1.5 million specimens from nearly 700-million-year-old fossils to recent finds. The museum includes considerable marine specimens in addition to terrestrial ones. Part of the Iziko Museums of Cape Town.

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                                                                    Ideologies of Land, Place, and Conservation

                                                                    Many conservation initiatives were not focused on wildlife-rich areas, but they impacted policies in such areas. Researchers interested in wildlife conservation will want to familiarize themselves with general conservation initiatives to best understand wildlife conservation policy in context. An understanding of how outsiders and local people’s notions of land and place differed is also important in making sense of the many conflicts that arose between local people and protected areas. Whereas many European travelers and colonists viewed African lands as aesthetically pleasing, underused, in need of development, or even dangerous, local people were much more likely to view lands as connected to community, customary tenure, their ancestors, and the sacred.

                                                                    Memoirs and Biographies

                                                                    Many Westerners acquired both an early and an ongoing understanding of wildlife in Africa and the need to conserve it from reading the first-person accounts of non-African people living and working with wildlife in Africa or watching films based on those works (Adamson 2000, Dinesen 1992, Goodall 2009, Fossey 2000, Grzimek and Grzimek 1973, Kingsley 2003, and Sheldrick 2013). Although the life stories of Africans who are interested in conservation and wildlife protection are generally available only for more recent decades, they are invaluable in gaining a greater range of voices on the subject (Maathai 2007, Saitoti 1988).

                                                                    • Adamson, Joy. Born Free: A Lioness of Two Worlds. New York: Pantheon, 2000.

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                                                                      Originally published in 1960 and followed by a popular film with the same name, the now classic memoir introduced many to the moral and aesthetic arguments for African wildlife preservation.

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                                                                      • Dinesen, Isak. Out of Africa. New York: Modern Library, 1992.

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                                                                        In her 1937 memoir, Danish baroness Karen von Blixen-Finecke describes her years managing a coffee plantation in British East Africa, in what is now Kenya. The Academy Award–winning film (1985) by the same name is based only loosely on the memoir, and it is essentially a love story that showcases landscapes and wildlife.

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                                                                        • Fossey, Dian. Gorillas in the Mist. Boston: Mariner, 2000.

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                                                                          This memoir is a plea for the preservation of the mountain gorillas and a condemnation of poachers. It was released as a film by the same name. Like Joy Adamson, author of Born Free, Fossey was murdered. Originally published in 1983 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin).

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                                                                          • Goodall, Jane. In the Shadow of Man. Boston: Mariner, 2009.

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                                                                            A classic account of primate behavior that combines a scientific study with the author’s reflections on how she patiently worked to approach primates in the wild as no one had done before. Originally published in 1971.

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                                                                            • Grzimek, Bernhard, and Michael Grzimek. Serengeti Shall Not Die. New York: Ballantine, 1973.

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                                                                              Professor Bernhard Grzimek, president of the Frankfurt Zoological Society, and his son Michael, a cinematographer, journey from Germany to Serengeti National Park to film wildlife and encourage its preservation. The Academy Award–winning documentary film by the same name (Serengeti darf nicht sterben, 1959) popularized the Serengeti as an animal paradise. Originally published in 1959.

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                                                                              • Kingsley, Mary H. Travels in West Africa. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2003.

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                                                                                First published in 1897, this classic describes the author’s adventures traversing West Africa alone and on foot, while collecting specimens of local fauna in an effort to complete the work of her father.

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                                                                                • Maathai, Wangari. Unbowed: A Memoir. New York: Anchor, 2007.

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                                                                                  Nobel Laureate Wangari Maathai describes her efforts to curb soil loss and deforestation, empower women, and start the Green Belt (conservation) Movement in Kenya.

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                                                                                  • Saitoti, Tepilit Ole. The Worlds of a Maasai Warrior: An Autobiography. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

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                                                                                    This is an accessible account by a Maasai of his life growing up in Tanzania, including his education in a mission school and work as a ranger and game park guide. “Man of Serengeti,” an episode in the National Geographic film World’s Last Great Places (1972), tells of Saitoti’s life.

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                                                                                    • Sheldrick, Daphne. Love, Life, and Elephants: An African Love Story. New York: Picador, 2013.

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                                                                                      Tells the moving story of Dame Daphne Sheldrick’s efforts to raise orphaned and newborn elephants in Kenya, as well as her life with her well-known Tsavo National Park warden husband, David Sheldrick. Dame Sheldrick is the first person to successfully raise newborn elephants.

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                                                                                      The Myth of Wild Africa

                                                                                      The reports and memoirs of early travelers, hunters, traders, and colonists had a long-term impact on the way outsiders viewed Africans and Africa, and, to some degree, influenced rules, regulations, and laws put in place during the colonial period with regard to conservation and wildlife (Kjekshus 1996; Maddox, et al. 1996). Whereas African perspectives on landscapes often were not understood (Peires 1989, Ranger 1999) and hunting for food by Africans was often criminalized, Europeans who engaged in the same for sport were often viewed as performing heroic deeds, a sign of overcoming and “taming” “wild” Africa (Mackenzie 1998, Steinhart 2006). Because many of the leaders of newly independent African countries obtained their formal education at least in part in Europe or elsewhere outside the continent, it is perhaps not surprising that nonlocal perspectives on African landscapes were carried into post-independence period legislation and have continued to influence wildlife management initiatives (McCann 1999). These outsider-adopted perspectives all held that people were inherently separate from nature and harmful to it (Bonner 1994, Adams and McShane 1996).

                                                                                      • Adams, Jonathan S., and Thomas O. McShane. The Myth of Wild Africa: Conservation without Illusion. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

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                                                                                        Akin to Bonner 1994, the authors use historical and contemporary examples to challenge the notion once popular among conservationists that people are necessarily at odds with nature in a book that is well documented, but less scholarly in tone.

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                                                                                        • Bonner, Raymond. At the Hand of Man: Hope and Peril for Africa’s Wildlife. New York: Vintage, 1994.

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                                                                                          Written in a journalistic style, Bonner’s book examines African wildlife management and conservation through a case study of the effort to save elephants via a ban on ivory sales. The author is critical of Westerners who attempt to impose regulations on Africans without their consent.

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                                                                                          • Kjekshus, Helge. Ecology Control and Economic Development in East African History. 2d ed. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                            This classic work by Kjekshus marked the onset of historical research in Africa, which has examined the role of colonial rule in bringing about ecological change. Originally published in 1977.

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                                                                                            • Mackenzie, A. Fiona D. Land, Ecology, and Resistance in Kenya, 1880–1952. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1998.

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                                                                                              This is a useful book for understanding colonial notions of the “betterment” of land via Western science, technology, and environmentalism. The ideologies presented also were applied to wildlife conservation.

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                                                                                              • Maddox, Gregory, James Giblin, and Isaria N. Kimambo, eds. Custodians of the Land: Ecology and Culture in the History of Tanzania. London: James Currey, 1996.

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                                                                                                The authors help readers understand that although colonizers actively attempted to get farmers and pastoralists to change the way they interacted with lands, the initiatives of local people very much shaped people-environment relations.

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                                                                                                • McCann, James C. Green Land, Brown Land, Black Land: An Environmental History of Africa, 1800–1990. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1999.

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                                                                                                  Using examples drawing from issues such as population growth, agricultural change, disease, and the changing role of the state, the author argues that far from being unchanging, primordial spaces, Africa’s landscapes were created by human actions.

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                                                                                                  • Peires, J. B. The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement of 1856–7. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                    This is a groundbreaking work that examines the intersections among religious beliefs, colonial activities, and local people’s behavior.

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                                                                                                    • Ranger, Terence. Voices from the Rocks: Nature, Culture & History in the Matopos Hills of Zimbabwe. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

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                                                                                                      An important work on people’s role in shaping “natural” landscapes and the efforts to remove local people from a region that had been their homeland for 40,000 years to make way for a national park and the grave of Cecil Rhodes.

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                                                                                                      • Steinhart, Edward I. Black Poachers, White Hunters: A Social History of Hunting in Colonial Kenya. Oxford: James Currey, 2006.

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                                                                                                        Examines the transformation of indigenous people involved in hunting into criminal poachers whom settler colonists and conservationists eliminated from hunting.

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                                                                                                        The Yellowstone Model and the Establishment of National Parks

                                                                                                        Yellowstone National Park, often considered the world’s first national park, was established in 1872. The model was largely preservationist, namely, to keep people other than short-term visitors, scientists, and park officials out of the area to protect the wildlife in it. Native people were excluded from the park so as to protect the wildlife. The Yellowstone model entailing the exclusion and forced removal of local people was adopted around the world, including in Africa. Whereas earlier writers tended to praise park creation (Cowie 1961, Huxley 1960) for bringing progress and development (charging park entry fees could bring needed hard currency from foreign guests), since the mid-1980s researchers have more often been at least somewhat critical of the Yellowstone model (Dowie 2011, Marks 1984, Yeager and Miller 1986). The ideology behind the model has been contested by local people, who point out that the “park-like” landscapes from which they were expelled were often created by the seasonal burns that they carried out and maintained by their presence.

                                                                                                        • Cowie, M. I Walk with Lions: The Story of Africa’s Great Animal Preserves, the Royal National Parks of Kenya, as Told by Their First Director. New York: Macmillan, 1961.

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                                                                                                          Typical of what was being written at the time, Cowie is full of praise for Kenya’s new park system.

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                                                                                                          • Dowie, Mark. Conservation Refugees: The Hundred-Year Conflict between Global Conservation and Native Peoples. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011.

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                                                                                                            The author examines how officially protected conservation areas have been established worldwide using the Yellowstone model, resulting not only in unmanageable protected areas, but also native populations who are reduced to poaching and trespassing on their ancestral lands or brought into the lowest rungs of the tourist economy.

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                                                                                                            • Huxley, Julian S. The Conservation of Wild Life and Natural Habitats in Central and East Africa. Paris: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1960.

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                                                                                                              Typical of what was being written at the time, Huxley is full of praise for East and Central Africa’s new parks.

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                                                                                                              • Marks, S. A. The Imperial Lion: Human Dimensions of Wildlife Management in Central Africa. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1984.

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                                                                                                                This is one of the earlier books that challenged the status quo and reported on the need to involve local communities in wildlife management decision making. It includes discussion of bushmeat and other issues of relevance to local communities.

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                                                                                                                • Yeager, R., and N. N. Miller. Wildlife, Wild Death: Land Use and Survival in Eastern Africa. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986.

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                                                                                                                  One of the earlier works to challenge the merits of what has come to be known as the Yellowstone model.

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                                                                                                                  Local Livelihood and Protected Area Conflicts

                                                                                                                  The Yellowstone model by which local people are removed from the lands they traditionally occupied has been widely used to create protected areas, and, inadvertently, conflict with local people who relied on the now-protected areas for their livelihood. Stakeholder groups, from local people to environmental organizations, tourist boards, and governments, generally hold rather divergent interests and negotiate for access to, and control over, resources. When the outcomes of these negations are not to the satisfaction of all parties, violence, illegal activities (such as poaching), and other forms of people-park conflicts arise. All six works included here focus on eastern or eastern and southern Africa and take on multiple complex issues associated with people-park conflicts. Three are country studies (Shetler 2007 and Neumann 1998 both focus on Tanzania and Duffy 2001 on Zimbabwe), while the authors of the other three works (Anderson and Grove 1989, Gibson 1999, and Nelson 2010) use examples from several countries to make their points. Poaching is an obvious way to show disregard for parks; however, other local residents might simply state that they are discontented with parks because of loss of access to, or control over, resources, such as watering holes and pastures for livestock, animals to hunt, medicinal plants, and construction materials, and because funds collected by parks tend to go to the national government rather than local communities or local communities get only a very small portion of the income, yet suffer most of the losses (of crops due to marauding wildlife, of family members due to the same, etc.).

                                                                                                                  • Anderson, David, and Richard Grove, eds. Conservation in Africa: People, Policies, and Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                    This excellent, relatively early volume brings together biologists, social scientists, anthropologists, and historians to critically examine the potentially negative impact of conservation initiatives on local people and community development.

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                                                                                                                    • Duffy, Rosaleen. Killing for Conservation: Wildlife Policy in Zimbabwe. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                      The author explores the human versus wildlife conflict in Zimbabwe within the context of global environmental politics and challenges the rhetoric that conservation is an apolitical issue focused merely on saving animals.

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                                                                                                                      • Gibson, Clark C. Poachers and Politicians: The Political Economy of Wildlife Policy in Africa. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511625640Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        The author explores the politics of wildlife conservation policy in Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, including the ways in which decision makers and institutions use wildlife policy for their own political ends.

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                                                                                                                        • Nelson, Fred, ed. Community Rights, Conservation and Contested Land: The Politics of Natural Resource Governance in Africa. London: Earthscan, 2010.

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                                                                                                                          This volume examines the politics of natural resource governance through comparative case studies from eastern and southern Africa, focusing on land rights, tourism development, wildlife conservation, participatory forest management, and the impact of climate change.

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                                                                                                                          • Neumann, Roderick P. Imposing Wilderness: Struggles over Livelihood and Nature Preservation in Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

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                                                                                                                            An analysis of Arusha National Park in northern Tanzania is used to show how a single park can embody the political-ecological dilemmas facing protected areas across the continent.

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                                                                                                                            • Shetler, Jan Bender. Imagining Serengeti: A History of Landscape Memory in Tanzania from Earliest Times to the Present. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                              The author blends oral history with geographic techniques to uncover local people’s location-specific memories of the Serengeti plains from earlier times to the present day.

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                                                                                                                              Community-Based Conservation

                                                                                                                              Co-management and community-based management have been championed as alternatives to the top-down Yellowstone model in which local people experience hardships associated with living near wildlife, from animals that eat or trample their crops to others that kill or maim their livestock or children, but not the benefits (Kiss 1990; Wells, et al. 1992). Often park budgets would not include compensation for people who experienced such losses, but would fine or imprison people attempting to protect their families from marauding animals. Co-management, in which park officials and local leaders both have a voice in park management, was viewed as a way to address community concerns (Hulme and Murphree 2001, Nelson 2010). However, the opportunity merely to offer indigenous knowledge (Fairhead and Leach 2003) and give input while still suffering without adequate compensation for losses related to wildlife protection led to calls to turn some areas entirely over to communities to manage, within limits, as they saw fit (Homewood, et al. 2009). Obtaining benefits in meat, hides, hunting licenses, and more, ideally, would lead to responsible community-level management of wildlife resources (African Biodiversity Network, CAMPFIRE Association Zimbabwe).

                                                                                                                              • African Biodiversity Network.

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                                                                                                                                This organization was created by Africans in 1996. Its members come from a dozen countries and work together for the purpose of solving ecological and socioeconomic challenges facing the continent. Focus areas include indigenous knowledge, biodiversity, policy, and legislation.

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                                                                                                                                • CAMPFIRE Association Zimbabwe.

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                                                                                                                                  Founded in the early 1980s, the Community Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) was one of the earlier attempts to view African wildlife conservation from a less colonial, more local perspective.

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                                                                                                                                  • Fairhead, James, and Melissa Leach. Science, Society, and Power: Environmental Knowledge and Policy in West Africa and the Caribbean. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                    Examines the importance of local environmental knowledge in policymaking.

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                                                                                                                                    • Homewood, Katherine, Patricia Kristjanson, and Pippa Trench, eds. Staying Maasai? Livelihoods, Conservation and Development in East African Rangelands. New York: Springer, 2009.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-87492-0Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      A comparative approach is used to examine the extent to which community conservation approaches have succeeded or failed among Maasai communities in Kenya and Tanzania.

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                                                                                                                                      • Hulme, David, and Marshall Murphree. African Wildlife & Livelihoods: The Promise and Performance of Community Conservation. Oxford: James Currey, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                        Examines the extent to which community-based approaches have been successful in meeting their twin objectives of conserving African environments and enhancing rural livelihoods.

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                                                                                                                                        • Kiss, Agnes, ed. Living with Wildlife: Wildlife Resource Management with Local Participation in Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank, 1990.

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                                                                                                                                          Based in part on the Workshop on Wildlife Resource Management with Local Participation in Africa, held in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, 19–24 September 1989.

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                                                                                                                                          • Nelson, Fred, ed. Community Rights, Conservation and Contested Land: The Politics of Natural Resource Governance in Africa. London: Routledge, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                            Academics and field practitioners examine the politics of community resource management through case studies from eastern and southern Africa and through an exploration of issues such as land rights, participatory forest management, tourism development, and wildlife conservation.

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                                                                                                                                            • Wells, Michael, Katrina Brandon, and Lee Hannah. People and Parks: Linking Protected Area Management with Local Communities. Washington, DC: World Bank, 1992.

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                                                                                                                                              Examines the benefits of involving local people in wildlife conservation, and the dangers of not doing so.

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                                                                                                                                              Endangered Species and Animal Rights–Influenced Legislation

                                                                                                                                              In the 1970s endangered species should have been receiving the highest protection due to a ban on the ivory trade and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES); however, the global reality has been quite different (Sellar 2014). In Africa, the poaching of the elephant and rhinoceros was at an all-time high in 2012 (Orenstien 2013). In Kenya, a country long praised for its wildlife conservation initiatives, a 1977 ban on hunting and trading wildlife products curtailed community-based conservation and has been tied to perceived cultural imperialism and crashes in wildlife populations (Martin 2012). In South Africa, rhinoceros populations continue to face great threats despite notable species protection efforts (Rademeyer 2013).

                                                                                                                                              • Martin, Glen. Game Changer: Animal Rights and the Fate of Africa’s Wildlife. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                                                This work familiarizes readers with global conservation challenges through a case study of Kenya’s 1977 ban that criminalized the country’s subsistence hunters and eliminated the possibility of community-based conservation programs that had been effective elsewhere in Africa. Tragically, the ban has backfired, and Kenya’s wildlife has been devastated post-1977.

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                                                                                                                                                • Orenstien, Ronald. Ivory, Horn and Blood: Behind the Elephant and Rhinoceros Poaching Crisis. Richmond Hill, ON: Firefly, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                  The author makes an impassioned-yet-precise case that legislation is not protecting wildlife as it should and explores controversial options that include legalizing the ivory trade. The book provides a history of organized crime, law enforcement, and conservation efforts as related to poaching and the ivory trade.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Rademeyer, Julian. Killing for Profit: Exposing the Illegal Rhino Horn Trade. New York: Random House Struik, 2013.

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                                                                                                                                                    The author documents his two-year study of the poaching of rhinoceros and the trafficking of their horns. Although conservationists are making considerable efforts in South Africa and elsewhere on the continent to protect rhinos, their efforts are undermined by Asian pharmaceutical markets paying exceedingly high sums for rhinoceros horns.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Sellar, John M. The UN’s Lone Ranger: Combating International Wildlife Crime. Dunbeath Mill, Scotland: Whittles, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                      Memoir by the man who served for fourteen years as the senior law enforcement official for wildlife crime transnationally. Although the focus is not exclusively on Africa, the work places wildlife crimes there in global context.

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                                                                                                                                                      Conservation for Development/Ecotourism

                                                                                                                                                      Whereas many individuals engaged in park management and research have begun to accept the notion that local people should be consulted or even actively involved in protected area management, implementation of these newly stated ideals has proven somewhat illusive. Compensation for damages from wildlife remains rare, “co-management” is frequently in name only, and development opportunities have been limited or even culturally inappropriate. Ongoing people-park woes have given rise to concerns over rhetoric versus reality for people living near protected areas (Barrow, et al. 2000), but new functional models are still in their infancy (Ngari and Arinaitwe 2007, Rutten 2002).

                                                                                                                                                      • Barrow, Edmund, Helen Gichohi, and Mark Infield. Rhetoric or Reality? A Review of Community Conservation Policy and Practice in East Africa. London: International Institute for Environment and Development, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                        The entire report is available online.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Ngari, Solomon Mwangi, and Julius Arinaitwe. Conserving Biodiversity in Africa: Guidelines for Applying the Site Support Group Approach. Nairobi, Kenya: BirdLife International, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                          Describes how volunteers can work with communities to protect birds. Report available online.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Rutten, Marcel. Parks beyond Parks: Genuine Community-Based Wildlife Eco-tourism or Just Another Loss of Land for Maasai Pastoralists in Kenya? London: International Institute for Environment and Development, Drylands Programme, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                            This thirty-two-page report is available in its entirety online. It points to the disconnect between government rhetoric that parks benefit local people and the reality for the Maasai living near Amboseli National Park and the Eselenkei Conservation Area in Kenya.

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                                                                                                                                                            Nonterrestrial Conservation and Conservation under “Special Circumstances”

                                                                                                                                                            Although much of the literature on conservation and wildlife in Africa focuses on terrestrial environments, often in protected areas, some works have been published in recent years on freshwater and marine management. Marine and freshwater conservation initiatives are not the only nontraditional examples of conservation. Some conservation of wildlife occurs in zoos or aquariums, or, on a much smaller scale, in circuses, laboratories, and other venues. Cases also exist in which conservation may be suspended entirely or severely curtailed, such as when countries are at war.

                                                                                                                                                            Conservation via Zoos, Aquariums, and Other Special Settings

                                                                                                                                                            Although they are not viewed as conventional means for conservation or necessarily moral (Wemmer and Christen 2008), research laboratories, zoos, aquariums, fish farms, and other venues can serve to protect biological diversity (Smith 2000 and Smith 2008).

                                                                                                                                                            • Smith, Mark. Lake Malawi Cichlids. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Series, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                              Describes how aquarium owners can properly care for many species of cichlids endemic to biodiverse Lake Malawi.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Smith, Mark. Lake Tanganyika Ciclids. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Series, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                Describes how aquarium owners can properly care for many species of cichlids endemic to biodiverse Lake Tanganyika.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Wemmer, Christen, and Catherine A. Christen. Elephants and Ethics: Towards a Morality of Coexistence. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Examines the morality of humans’ relations with elephants as beasts of burden, in war, as circus performers, in zoos, in parks, and as prey. Foreword by John Seidensticker.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Inland Waters

                                                                                                                                                                  Although Africans have engaged in freshwater wildlife management activities with a conservation effect for millennia, fisheries management has become the subject of several book-length works only relatively recently (Anderson 2002, Geheb and Sarch 2002, Gordon 2006).

                                                                                                                                                                  • Anderson, David. Eroding the Commons: The Politics of Ecology in Baringo, Kenya, 1890s–1963. Oxford: James Currey, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                    A valuable book in its examination of the long-term impact of colonial intervention in Baringo; it offers a study of colonial ideologies and practices that are fundamental to understanding the history of development in Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Geheb, Kim, and Marie-Thérèse Sarch, eds. Africa’s Inland Fisheries: The Management Challenge. Kampala, Uganda: Fountain, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                      The editors provide eleven case studies of Africa’s major inland lakes (Victoria, Tanganyika, Malawi) and smaller water bodies in examining the viability of co-management approaches.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Gordon, David M. Nachituti’s Gift: Economy, Society, and Environment in Central Africa. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                        The author uses a comparative study of inland fisheries in Zambia and the Congo to challenge conventional theories of economic development. The study points to the continued relevance of local history, social networks, and mythology in people-environment relations.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Coastal and Marine

                                                                                                                                                                        Whereas virtually all earlier studies of conservation in Africa focused on terrestrial environments, in recent years some attention has been directed at coastal and marine settings. With certain exceptions, such as McClanahan, et al. 2000, many of these works address the people of the coastal zone and the manner in which their spiritual beliefs and social structures influence how they interact with the sea (Akyeampong 2001, Hauk and Sowman 2003, Walley 2004).

                                                                                                                                                                        • Akyeampong, Emmanuel Kwaku. Between the Sea & the Lagoon: An Eco-social History of the Anlo of Southeastern Ghana, c. 1850 to Recent Times. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                          The author offers a social interpretation of ecological processes.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Hauk, Maria, and Merle Sowman, eds. Waves of Change: Coastal and Fisheries Co-management in South Africa. Lansdowne, South Africa: University of Cape Town Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                            This book is one of relatively few published in Africa on fisheries management. It examines the possibility of co-management as an approach to improved management of coastal regions using nine case studies from South Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • McClanahan, Timothy R., C. S. Sheppard, and David O. Obura, eds. Coral Reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their Ecology and Conservation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                              The authors offer one of the first overviews of the conservation and ecology of coral reefs from South Africa to Kenya for teachers, naturalists, and planners.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Walley, Christine J. Rough Waters: Nature and Development in an East African Marine Park. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1515/9781400835751Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                This work focuses on the human relationships among coastal stakeholders in the region of Mafia Island Marine Park and points out that although the rhetoric may be co-management, the reality is often quite different.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Resource Conservation and Management in Conflict Zones

                                                                                                                                                                                Some African countries are struggling to regain their premier protected areas after periods of conflict. Although direct conflict can lead to depletion of otherwise protected resources (Richards 1996), in many cases it is the neighboring countries—namely, those receiving refugees from conflict and environmental stress—that suddenly find themselves facing crisis situations (Hjort af Ornäs and Salih 1989)

                                                                                                                                                                                • Hjort af Ornäs, Anders, and M. A. Mohamed Salih, eds. Ecology and Politics: Environmental Stress and Security in Africa. Uppsala, Sweden: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  One of the earliest compilations to address environmental refugees using case studies from across the continent.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Richards, Paul. Fighting for the Rain Forest: War, Youth & Resources in Sierra Leone. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    An examination of resource conservation in war and postconflict situations and what aid agencies must learn if they do not want their assistance to fuel the economy of conflict.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    African Wildlife Management in Global Context

                                                                                                                                                                                    Too often crises in Africa, environmental or otherwise, are viewed as occurring only on that continent. Those interested in African wildlife conservation would do well to gain an understanding of how models of protected area management (see also the Yellowstone Model and the Establishment of National Parks) were brought to Africa, spreading and repeating problems that were created elsewhere (Ghimire and Pimbert 2009), as well as how modified models (Ramutsindela 2007) and the challenges and successes of conservation efforts in Africa compare with other world regions (Beinart and Coates 1995, Igoe 2004). Emerging areas of interest related to wildlife conservation and management in Africa and elsewhere are those of climate change (Oba 2014) and infectious disease control and the possible threat to humans from diseases originally found in animals (Quammen 2014, Williams and Barker 2000).

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Beinart, William, and Peter Coates. Environment and History: The Taming of Nature in the USA and South Africa. London: Routledge, 1995.

                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.4324/9780203295786Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      A clear, concise text that is appropriate for introductory-level undergraduate courses. It examines settler incursion, indigenous ideas and practices toward the environment, and the rise of environmentalism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ghimire, Krishna B., and Michael P. Pimbert, eds. Social Change and Conservation: Environmental Politics and Impacts of National Parks and Protected Areas. London: Earthscan, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Examines why so many conservation funds and efforts have not had the desired effects; draws on case studies from Africa, Asia, North America, Central America, and Europe.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Igoe, Jim. Conservation and Globalization: A Study of National Parks and Indigenous Communities from East Africa to South Dakota. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          This book highlights the value of anthropology in understanding and addressing human problems and includes implications for advocacy, policy formation, and community action.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Oba, Gufu. Climate Change Adaptation in Africa: An Historical Ecology. London: Routledge, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Reviews Sahelian pastoralists’ adaptations to climate change within the context of armed conflicts, social memory, rainfall variability, and changing governmental policies. It draws on a variety of sources including paleo-ecological data, historical documents, archeology, and rock art.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Quammen, David. Ebola: The Natural and Human History of a Deadly Virus. New York: W. W. Norton, 2014.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              This short, unsettling book expands upon the substantial Ebola section of the author’s 2013 work entitled Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic. In Spillover he reports the rise in zoonotic diseases due to increasingly fragmented ecosystems, deforestation, and rising human populations.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ramutsindela, Maano. Transfrontier Conservation in Africa: At the Confluence of Capital, Politics, and Nature. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1079/9781845932213.0000Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                This is one of the first books to examine the emergence of “transfrontier conservation” (conservation that spans one or more international boundaries) in Africa in an international context. The roles of the state and local populations are analyzed, as well as the ecological, socioeconomic, and political implications.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Williams, Elizabeth S., and Ian K. Barker, eds. Infectious Diseases of Wild Animals. 3d ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  The numerous contributors to this book provide wildlife biologists, researchers, veterinarians, and medical and public health personnel with the etiology, history, distribution, treatment, and control of several animal-based infectious diseases found in North America. A similarly comprehensive work for Africa has yet to be written.

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