African Studies Education and the Study of Africa
by
Corrie Decker
  • LAST REVIEWED: 06 May 2016
  • LAST MODIFIED: 25 October 2012
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199846733-0073

Introduction

Though some historians and anthropologists have examined precolonial or indigenous forms of socialization, most contemporary studies of education focus on formal education that came to the continent with European colonialism. Works on indigenous forms of instruction examine initiation, vocational training, and the impartation of cultural or historical knowledge. Islamic schools date back to the arrival of Islam in Africa several hundred years ago. The first European missionaries in Africa established Christian schools in the late 15th century, but these were not widespread until the 19th century. European colonial officials established secular schools for Africans in the early 20th century. Whereas French educators promoted educational “assimilation,” British territories introduced the “adapted education” system for Africans in the 1920s, a policy modeled after the American segregated school system. Africans made demands for more schools and a more literary curriculum in the 1930s and 1940s and, in some cases, even established their own schools. This period also saw the development of higher education for Africans. During the nationalist era, the educated elite were at the forefront of demands for independence, and many of the leaders of new nations in the 1960s were Western-educated elites. Independent governments attempted to implement universal primary education and create more opportunities for secondary and higher education, with varying success. They also paid more attention to the education of rural children and of women. Structural adjustment programs (SAPs) and other international economic interventions, however, resulted in less government revenue for and control over social services like education. In the early 21st century, governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are working to make education affordable and accessible for everyone.

General Overviews

Overviews of education in Africa give a general introduction to the success stories and the obstacles to universal education and education reform. Brock-Utne and Skattum 2009 and Moulton, et al. 2002 are collections of essays focusing on different regions and countries in Africa in order to find commonalities in successes and failures, whereas Bashir 2005 and Abdi 2002 focus on the Democratic Republic of Congo and South Africa, respectively. The essays in Olukoshi and Diarra 2007 discuss the financing of education and the place of education in national development plans.

  • Abdi, Ali A. Culture, Education, and Development in South Africa: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2002.

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    This historical overview begins with a historical survey of the period before and during apartheid and then analyzes the policy of “multicultural education” in postapartheid South Africa.

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    • Bashir, Sajitha. Education in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Priorities and Options for Regeneration. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005.

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      A study funded by the World Bank analyzing current enrollment, financing, and quality of primary, secondary, and higher education in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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      • Brock-Utne, Birgit, and Ingse Skattum, eds. Languages and Education in Africa: A Comparative and Transdisciplinary Analysis. Oxford: Symposium Books, 2009.

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        A collection of a variety of essays on the role of language in contemporary education in East and West Africa, and Francophone and Anglophone countries, including articles in English and French.

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        • Moulton, Jeanne, Karen Mundy, Michel Welmond, and James Williams, eds. Education Reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa: Paradigm Lost? Westport, CO: Greenwood, 2002.

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          A collection of essays examining case studies in Malawi, Uganda, Benin, and Ethiopia that focus on educational reforms of the 1990s associated with the transition to democratic governments.

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          • Olukoshi, Adebayo, and Mohamed Chérif Diarra, eds. Enjeux du financement et de la planification de l’éducation en Afrique: Ce qui marche et ce qui ne marche pas. Dakar, Senegal: Groupe de travail sur les finances et l’éducation de l’Association pour le développement de l’éducation en Afrique (ADEA), 2007.

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            A collection of essays on the financing of education in Africa. Most articles examine education in West African nations.

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            Historical Surveys

            Historical surveys of education, generally region- or country-specific, discuss the influence of indigenous education and the transformations that came with the introduction of Western education in the 19th and 20th centuries. Bianchini 2004, Ssekamwa and Lugumba 2001, Sifuna 1990, Mushi 2009, and Ijaduola 1998 emphasize the impact of Western education in the colonial and postcolonial period, whereas Kuenzi 2011 and Rwantabagu 2008 examine the continued influence of “nonformal” or family-based systems of education. Marshall 1993 focuses on the relationship between education and politics in southern Africa.

            • Bianchini, Pascal. École et politique en Afrique noire: Sociologie des crises et des réformes du système d’enseignement au Sénégal et au Burkina Faso (1960–2000). Ougadougou, Burkina Faso: Karthala, 2004.

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              Based on archival and oral research, Bianchini compares and contrasts the postcolonial histories of education in Senegal and Burkina Faso, paying special attention to the continuation of French intervention.

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              • Ijaduola, ‘Kayode Olu. Education in Nigeria: An Historical Perspective. Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria: Lucky Odoni (Nig.) Enterprises, 1998.

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                A broad history of indigenous, Islamic, and Western education systems in Nigeria.

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                • Kuenzi, Michelle T. Education and Democracy in Senegal. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

                  DOI: 10.1057/9780230118911Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                  Kuenzi investigates the relationship between nonformal education in African languages and the development of democracy in Senegal.

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                  • Marshall, Judith. Literacy, Power and Democracy in Mozambique: The Governance of Learning from Colonization to the Present. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993.

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                    This history of education analyzes the politics of literacy in colonial and postcolonial Mozambique.

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                    • Mushi, Philemon Andrew K. History and Development of Education in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Dar es Salaam University Press, 2009.

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                      A survey of the history of education in Tanzania from precolonial times to the present, with particular focus on the cultural, social, economic, and political realities shaping key historical shifts.

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                      • Rwantabagu, Herménégilde. Education in Burundi: An Evolutionary Perspective. Bujumbura: University of Burundi, 2008.

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                        An examination of the history of education in Burundi, including indigenous, family-based, and Western educational practices, and implications for the current state of education in Burundi.

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                        • Sifuna, Daniel. Development of Education in Africa: The Kenyan Experience. Nairobi, Kenya: Initiatives Publishers, 1990.

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                          Sifuna provides an overview of indigenous, Islamic, Christian, and secular institutions in Kenya from the precolonial, colonial, and postcolonial eras, with particular focus on how the politics of colonialism shaped the contemporary education system.

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                          • Ssekamwa, J. C., and S. M. E. Lugumba. A History of Education in East Africa. Kampala, Uganda: Fountain, 2001.

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                            Written by scholars at Makerere University, this is a survey of the history of education in Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika, and Zanzibar, from precolonial times to the present, including missionary and government schools.

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                            Bibliographies

                            Older bibliographies such as Couch 1965 focus almost entirely on colonial education, whereas more recent bibliographies, such as UNESCO 1985, Jakobsen 1998, Jyotsnajha 2007, and Bunji and Okkelmo 2000, hone in on specific educational issues regarding special education, Islamic education, and girls’ education.

                            • Bunji, Grace, and Kjersti Okkelmo. Girls’ Education: An Annotated Bibliography on 13 AGEI Countries in Eastern & Southern Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: UNICEF, Eastern and Southern Region, 2000.

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                              A list of sources on girls’ education in eastern and southern Africa for the United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative (UNGEI), of which African Girls’ Education Initiative (AGEI) is a component.

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                              • Couch, Margaret. Education in Africa: A Select Bibliography. London: University of London Institute of Education, 1965.

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                                Primarily a list of sources on colonial education, though it also includes references for Ethiopia and Liberia.

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                                • Jakobsen, Trine Paluden. The New “Knowers” of West Africa: Muslims, Education, and Social Change: A Commentated Bibliography. Copenhagen: Centre for Development Research, 1998.

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                                  A bibliography of sources and commentary on West African Islamic education, Qur’an schools, traditional education, sociocultural transformations, and the impact of modernization.

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                                  • Jyotsnajha, Jha, ed. An Annotated Bibliography on Gender in Secondary Education: Research from Selected Commonwealth Countries. London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 2007.

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                                    Includes published and unpublished sources on Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, India, and Pakistan, with an emphasis on gender and secondary education.

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                                    • UNESCO. An Annotated Bibliography for Special Education Relevant to Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: UNESCO, 1985.

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                                      A bibliography on special education in Africa compiled by UNESCO’s Sub-regional Project for Special Education in Eastern and Southern Africa.

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                                      Reference Works

                                      Guthrie 2003, which focuses primarily on the United States, has less to say about education in Africa than Altbach 1991, but Zeleza and Eyoh 2003 is probably the most reliable reference book for understanding the general context of the role of education in 20th-century Africa. Middleton and Miller 2008 provides the most comprehensive discussion of education in Africa from precolonial times to the present.

                                      • Altbach, Philip G., ed. International Higher Education: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland, 1991.

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                                        An introduction to the cost, expansion, and shifting purpose of higher education in the world. It includes articles that focus specifically on sub-Saharan Africa.

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                                        • Guthrie, James W. Encyclopedia of Education. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2003.

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                                          An overview of institutions, individuals, policies, and philosophies of educational practices across the world.

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                                          • Middleton, John, and Joseph Calder Miller. New Encyclopedia of Africa. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomas/Gale, 2008.

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                                            A comprehensive encyclopedia of African history, culture, and politics that covers both sub-Saharan and North Africa.

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                                            • Zeleza, Tiyambe, and Dickson Eyoh. Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century African History. New York: Routledge, 2003.

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                                              This overview of social, political, economic, and cultural changes in modern African history includes entries on colonial and postcolonial education.

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                                              Data Sources and Organizations

                                              Many public, private, and international organizations have funded educational research in Africa. UNESCO and UNICEF are United Nations organizations that manage development programs and provide resources for research on education. In the interest of overseeing international financial commitments and improving the economic status of African nations, the World Bank has also assisted educational research. The Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, an African research group, and Boston College Center for International Higher Education’s International Network for Higher Education in Africa, a network for educationalists, emerged out of private initiative.

                                              Journals

                                              There are several journals that publish studies of education in Africa. The Africa Education Review, Cahiers Africains de Recherche en Education, Africa Today, and Journal of Higher Education in Africa feature contemporary and historical studies of education in Africa. Articles on the history of education in Africa occasionally appear in History of Education Quarterly, Journal of African History, and Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth. Gender and Education also includes research that focuses specifically on Africa.

                                              African “Traditions” and Education

                                              Studies of indigenous educational practices in Africa, such as the passing down of oral traditions and the initiation of boys and girls into adulthood, often highlight the conflict that emerged (and continues to exist) between these rituals and those of Western education. Niane 2006 is a precolonial oral tradition that would have been used to educate young people about the history of their community. Whereas Fair 1996 examines the history of new female initiation traditions in early-20th-century Zanzibar before the establishment of Western schools for girls, Lonsdale 1999 recounts how Kikuyu Christians preserved their non-Christian traditions of female circumcision in reaction to missionary attempts to eradicate them. Richards 1982 demonstrates the extent to which European and American researchers were fascinated with the very custom that colonial education attempted to replace. Both Ndangam 2008 and Tumbo-Masabo and Liljeström 1994 examine the shifting meaning of male and female initiation from the mid-20th century as Western education becomes more pervasive and concerns about HIV/AIDS and adolescent sexuality preoccupy officials and development agents. Gerdes 1998 takes a different perspective by analyzing the ways in which formal mathematical instruction has influenced the traditional arts still alive in Africa.

                                              • Dinslage, Sabine. “Traditional Education and Oral Literature: A Comparative Study of the Transmission of Moral Codes of Sexual Behaviour in Folktales.” In African Oral Literature: Functions in Contemporary Contexts. Edited by Russell Kaschula, 46–52. Claremont, South Africa: New Africa, 2001.

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                                                Based on fieldwork in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Ghana, Dinslage analyzes the social and cultural values (and sexual mores) of the types of oral traditions still in use in three West African communities.

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                                                • Fair, Laura. “Identity, Difference, and Dance: Female Initiation in Zanzibar, 1890 to 1930.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 17.3 (1996): 146–172.

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                                                  Fair argues that though an “African” ritual, female initiation and the dances associated with it became popular among women of various class and ethnic backgrounds in early colonial Zanzibar.

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                                                  • Gerdes, Paulus. Women, Art and Geometry in Southern Africa. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1998.

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                                                    A unique analysis of women’s incorporation of mathematical themes into indigenous artistic traditions in Southern Africa.

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                                                    • Lonsdale, John. “Kikuyu Christianities.” Journal of Religion in Africa 29.2 (1999): 206–229.

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                                                      Lonsdale traces the emergence of Kikuyu independent churches and schools as a reaction to the female circumcision controversy in colonial Kenya.

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                                                      • Ndangam, Lilian N. “‘Lifting the Cloak on Manhood’: Coverage of Xhosa Male Circumcision in the South African Press.” In Masculinities in Contemporary Africa. Edited by Egodi Uchendu, 209–228. Dakar, Senegal: CODESRIA, 2008.

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                                                        Ndangam’s account of media coverage of male circumcision demonstrates the continued relevance and shifting political meanings of this practice in South Africa.

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                                                        • Niane, D. T., ed. Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali. New York: Pearson Longman, 2006.

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                                                          A recorded version of an oral tradition about the foundation of the Empire of Mali in the early 13th century.

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                                                          • Richards, Audrey. Chisungu: A Girls’ Initiation Ceremony among the Bemba of Zambia. London: Routledge, 1982.

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                                                            Based on fieldwork conducted in what was then Northern Rhodesia in the early 1930s, this is a detailed account of a female initiation ceremony witnessed by the author. Originally published in 1956.

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                                                            • Tumbo-Masabo, Zubeida, and Rita Liljeström, eds. Chelewa, Chelewa: The Dilemma of Teenage Girls. Stockholm: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 1994.

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                                                              An account of the contemporary difficulties that Tanzanian adolescent girls face as African customs like initiation fade fast in the increasingly “modern” world.

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                                                              Precolonial Islamic Education

                                                              Islamic education in Africa is as old as the presence of Islam itself on the continent. Historically, only elites could acquire an advanced education, but reform movements in the late 19th century resulted in more widespread access to Qur’anic schools and the introduction of secular education into Islamic madrasas. Saad 2010 provides a historical overview of one of the most important Islamic centers of West Africa: Timbuktu. Mack 2000 and Kassim 2002 recount stories of well-known female scholar-poets. The short chapter Reichmuth 2000 and the articles in Reese 2004 collectively give an overview of Islamic instruction across Africa. Bang 2003 focuses on the family networks of Sufi scholars in the Indian Ocean world.

                                                              • Bang, Anne K. Sufis and Scholars of the Sea: Family Networks in East Africa, 1860–1925. London: Routledge, 2003.

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                                                                An in-depth study of the scholarly connections between individuals and families across the Indian Ocean in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and their role in Islamic reform movements in East Africa.

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                                                                • Kassim, Mohamed. “‘Dhikr Will Echo from All Corners’: Dada Masiti and the Transmission of Islamic Knowledge.” Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies 2.7 (2002): 104–120.

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                                                                  Analysis of the poetry of Dada Masiti, a female poet and Sufi saint from Brava (present-day Barawa, Somalia).

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                                                                  • Mack, Beverly. One Woman’s Jihad: Nana Asma’u, Scholar and Scribe. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000.

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                                                                    The story of Nana Asma’u, the daughter of Shehu Usman dan Fodio (the leader of the Sokoto Empire), who was a scholar, poet, and leader in her own right.

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                                                                    • Reese, Scott S., ed. The Transmission of Learning in Islamic Africa. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2004.

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                                                                      A collection of articles about Islamic instruction, ranging from the 15th century to the present and examining Sufi networks, male and female ulama, and Africa’s connections to the broader Muslim world.

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                                                                      • Reichmuth, Stefan. “Islamic Education and Scholarship in Sub-Saharan Africa.” In The History of Islam in Africa. Edited by Nehemia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels, 419–440. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2000.

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                                                                        This essay provides a general introduction to the history of Islamic education in sub-Saharan Africa.

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                                                                        • Saad, Elias N. Social History of Timbuktu: The Role of Muslim Scholars and Notables, 1400–1900. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

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                                                                          Saad recounts the precolonial history of the city of Timbuktu in order to highlight the social and political role of Islamic scholars in this West African community.

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                                                                          Islamic Education since 1900

                                                                          Since the early 20th century, Islamic scholarship and educational reform in Africa have often embraced “modern” educational practices, which reflect both collaboration with and rejection of Western influences. Penrad 2003 discusses secular influence on private East African Islamic schools in the early 20th century, while Loimeier 2009 and Brenner 2001 examine negotiations between Islamic scholars and European education officials during the colonial period. Issa 2006 discusses the growing popularity of Sufism in colonial Zanzibar, and Chande 1998, Gandolfi 2003, and Jah 2009 discuss recent Islamic influences in the development of education.

                                                                          • Brenner, Louis. Controlling Knowledge: Religion, Power and Schooling in a West African Muslim Society. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

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                                                                            An analytical study of French colonial attempts to co-opt Islamic schools and the result of these efforts—the development of a hybrid modernist education system in colonial Mali (French West Africa).

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                                                                            • Chande, Abdin N. Islam, Ulamaa, and Community Development in Tanzania: A Case Study of Religious Currents in East Africa. San Francisco: Austin and Winfield, 1998.

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                                                                              Chande offers a detailed discussion of the relationship between Islamic scholars and activists in Tanzania working on issues related to education and development.

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                                                                              • Gandolfi, Stefania. “L’Enseignement islamique en Afrique noire.” Cahiers d’Études Africaines 43.169–170 (2003): 261–277.

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                                                                                An overview of the role of Islam in Africa’s education development and the problems with the dual system of education that has emerged in Islamic regions of the continent.

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                                                                                • Issa, Amina Ameir. “The Legacy of Qadiri Scholars in Zanzibar.” In The Global Worlds of the Swahili: Interfaces of Islam, Identity and Space in 19th and 20th-Century East Africa. Edited by Roman Loimeier and Rüdiger Seesemann, 343–362. Berlin: Lit Verlag, 2006.

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                                                                                  A study of the role of Sufi scholars engaged in Zanzibar’s Islamic reform movements of the 20th century, including the growing influence of women within local Sufi networks.

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                                                                                  • Jah, Fatou. “Islam and Girl’s Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploring the Size and Sources of the Gender Gap in Education.” In Power, Gender and Social Change in Africa. Edited by Muna Ndulo and Margaret Grieco, 177–206. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2009.

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                                                                                    An analysis of how Islam impacts gender equity in African schools.

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                                                                                    • Loimeier, Roman. Between Social Skills and Marketable Skills: The Politics of Islamic Education in 20th Century Zanzibar. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2009.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004175426.i-1929Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      An encyclopedic study of modern Islamic education and its intersection with colonial education in Zanzibar. The book includes extensive appendices, a biographical dictionary, and other resources useful for studying the history of education in Zanzibar.

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                                                                                      • Penrad, Jean-Claude. “Religieux et profane dans l’École coranique: Le cas de l’Afrique orientale et de l’océan Indien occidental” Cahiers d’Études Africaines 43.1–2 (2003): 321–336.

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                                                                                        A study of the religious and secular influences on modernist private Islamic schools on the Swahili Coast.

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                                                                                        Missionary Education

                                                                                        Studies of missionizing in Africa have been fraught with questions about their links to colonialism. Emerging out of the 19th-century abolitionist movement, missionaries like the famous David Livingstone promoted the three C’s: Christianity, civilization, and commerce. Education was key to all three. More recent accounts of missionaries and missionary education are less concerned with whether their intentions were good or misguided, but focus more on the impact of missionary education. Allen 2008 and Taylor 1996 demonstrate that missionaries working in Africa had a pedagogical agenda from the outset. The primary role that missionaries and missionary-educated Africans played in the broader work of colonialism in the 20th century is made evident in Booth 1995 and Tiberondwa 1998. Gaitskell 2002 and Sheldon 1998 examine the domestic curriculum of missionary education for girls as well as women’s myriad responses to this gender agenda. Sharkey 2002 highlights the failures of missionaries who refused to pay attention to local literacy practices in Sudan. Stambach 2010 takes the study of missionary education into the present and onto the global stage in its investigation of the university training of American missionaries and their work in East African schools.

                                                                                        • Allen, Julia. “Slavery, Colonialism and the Pursuit of Community Life: Anglican Mission Education in Zanzibar and Northern Rhodesia, 1864–1940.” History of Education 37.2 (2008): 207–226.

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                                                                                          Allen argues that, when they established a mission in Zanzibar to combat the slave trade, the Universities Mission to Central Africa (UMCA) missionaries made education a top priority, a policy they brought with them as they moved into Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia).

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                                                                                          • Booth, Bernard. Mill Hill Fathers in West Cameroon: Education, Health, and Development, 1884–1970. Bethesda, MD: International Scholars, 1995.

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                                                                                            A study of the role of St. Joseph’s Missionary Society of Mill Hill in the establishment of Western education, health, and development projects in western Cameroon.

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                                                                                            • Gaitskell, Deborah. “Ploughs and Needles: State and Mission Approaches to African Girls’ Education in South Africa.” In Christian Missionaries and the State in the Third World. Edited by Holger Bernt Hansen and Michael Twaddle, 98–120. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2002.

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                                                                                              Gaitskell discusses missionary attempts to domesticate, and literally keep confined to the home, South African women who had previously worked in the fields.

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                                                                                              • Sharkey, Heather J. “Christians among Muslims: The Church Missionary Society in Northern Sudan.” Journal of African History 43 (2002): 51–75.

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                                                                                                Sharkey recounts the story of the attempts of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) to promote literacy, which were unsuccessful because of their use of the Roman rather than the Arabic alphabet.

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                                                                                                • Sheldon, Kathleen. “‘I Studied with the Nuns, Learning to Make Blouses’: Gender Ideology and Colonial Education in Mozambique.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 31.3 (1998): 595–625.

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                                                                                                  Sheldon argues that Mozambican women valued the domestic science education offered at the mission school not because it prepared them for marriage and motherhood, but because it trained them for professional sewing work, a welcome source of income for poor families.

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                                                                                                  • Stambach, Amy. Faith in Schools: Religion, Education, and American Evangelicals in East Africa. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                    A fascinating exploration of the global exchange between American Christian universities that produce missionaries and the schools in East Africa where these missionaries go to work.

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                                                                                                    • Taylor, William. Mission to Educate: A History of the Educational Work of the Scottish Presbyterian Mission in East Nigeria, 1846–1960. New York: E. J. Brill, 1996.

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                                                                                                      According to Taylor, the Scottish Presbyterian missionaries prioritized both public instruction and the formal education system in its missionary work. They also laid the foundation for the emergence of an independent Nigerian church.

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                                                                                                      • Tiberondwa, Ado K. Missionary Teachers as Agent of Colonialism: A Study of Their Activities in Uganda, 1877–1925. Kampala, Uganda: Fountain, 1998.

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                                                                                                        An overview of the history of missionary education in Uganda and the role of missionary teachers in the development of colonialism.

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                                                                                                        Colonial Education

                                                                                                        It is often difficult to distinguish between missionary and colonial education, especially as many mission schools became co-opted, controlled, and/or financed by colonial administrations. These accounts directly address debates about colonial education policies and the role of colonial schools in developing an educated elite. This elite often became vocal in making demands for, as Küster 1999 put it, “more and better schools” (p. 251). Bouche 1966 examines the establishment of the first schools in French West Africa. Chafer 2001 and Gardinier 1994 provide fodder for comparing French and British education policies and the differences, if any, among assimilation, association, and adaptation. Kelly 2000 traces the role of colonial education in developing a new class of educated elites. Summers 2002 argues that Africans took their lessons from missionary education as a way to adjust to the confines of colonialism. Küster 1999 and Ranger 1965 focus on African agency, of which Ranger 1965 is particularly aware given that the author wrote in the middle of the nationalist period in Africa. Also interested in showing the link to nationalism, Burton 2010 and Charton-Bigot 2010 provide insight into the role of the increasingly politicized educated youth in late colonial East Africa. Sandgren 2012 demonstrates the link between colonial education and postcolonial politics in the author’s unique historical and ethnographic study of his own former students in Kenya.

                                                                                                        • Bouche, Denise. “Les écoles francaises au Soudan à l’époque de la conquête, 1884–1900.” Cahiers d’Études Africaines 6.22 (1966): 228–267.

                                                                                                          DOI: 10.3406/cea.1966.3066Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                          A study of the first French schools in West Africa, which preceded the formal establishment of the French colonial administration.

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                                                                                                          • Burton, Andrew. “Raw Youth, School-Leavers, and the Emergence of Structural Unemployment in Late Colonial Urban Tanganyika.” In Generations Past: Youth in East African History. Edited by Andrew Burton and Hélène Charton-Bigot, 108–134. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                            A fascinating study of the disconnect between growing educational opportunities and a decrease in higher-paying jobs, and its impact on the politicization of young people in 1950s Dar es Salaam.

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                                                                                                            • Chafer, Tony. “Teaching Africans to be French? France’s Civilising Mission and the Establishment of a Public Education System in French West Africa, 1903–1930.” Africa 56.2 (2001): 190–209.

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                                                                                                              Chafer argues against British colonial statements about French assimilation in showing that French education policies in West Africa had moved away from assimilation toward association from the beginning of the 20th century.

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                                                                                                              • Charton-Bigot, Hélène. “Colonial Youth at the Crossroads: Fifteen Alliance ‘Boys.’” In Generations Past: Youth in East African History. Edited by Andrew Burton and Hélène Charton-Bigot, 84–107. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                                Traces the history of the Alliance High School, the most elite high school in Kenya, which deviated from the British colonial tendency to emphasize vocational instruction and manual training over literacy, and the role of Alliance students in making demands for inclusion in the colonial administration.

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                                                                                                                • Gardinier, David E., ed. Education and Society: The Second World War in Africa. New York: Africana, 1994.

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                                                                                                                  A diverse collection of articles about the role of colonial schooling, languages, and literacy in shaping African societies during World War II.

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                                                                                                                  • Kelly, Gail Paradise. French Colonial Education: Essays on Vietnam and West Africa. Edited by David H. Kelly. New York: AMS, 2000.

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                                                                                                                    This is a comparative study of French colonial education in interwar Vietnam and West Africa. The author argues that, in West Africa, the colonial education system served as a wedge dividing educated elites from other Africans.

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                                                                                                                    • Küster, Sybille. African Education in Colonial Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi: Government Control, Settler Antagonism and African Agency, 1890–1964. Hamburg, Germany: Lit Verlag, 1999.

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                                                                                                                      A study of the role of African initiative in changing colonial education policy in colonial Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi.

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                                                                                                                      • Ranger, Terence. “African Attempts to Control Education in East and Central Africa, 1900–1939.” Past & Present 32 (1965): 57–85.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/past/32.1.57Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        Written during the nationalist era in Africa, Ranger examines the various reasons for African dissatisfaction with Britain’s “adapted education” policies and their efforts to establish independent schools, make demands for changes in education policy, and become leaders within the colonial education system.

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                                                                                                                        • Sandgren, David. Mau Mau’s Children: The Making of Kenya’s Postcolonial Elite. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2012.

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                                                                                                                          Forty years after teaching in a new secondary school in late colonial Kenya, Sandgren returned to interview his former students. This book recounts the experiences of both Sandgren and his students, who had grown up during Mau Mau and graduated to become Kenya’s postcolonial elite.

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                                                                                                                          • Summers, Carol. Colonial Lessons: Africans’ Education in Southern Rhodesia, 1918–1935. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2002.

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                                                                                                                            Summers argues that missionary education provided the means for Africans to negotiate their identities in the segregated colonial society even while it demonstrated the limits of African agency.

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                                                                                                                            Published Primary Sources

                                                                                                                            Colonial officials and education experts advising them produced a large body of published materials, a sample of which is included here. Lugard 1930 and Labouret 1935 provide insight into interwar British and French education policies, respectively, while Jones 1922 and Jones 1925 demonstrate the American influences on European colonial education in Africa.

                                                                                                                            • Jones, Thomas Jesse. Education in Africa: A Study of West, South, and Equatorial Africa by the African Education Commission. New York: Phelps-Stokes Fund, 1922.

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                                                                                                                              This is a report of the Phelps Stokes Fund’s African Education Commission, an organization that included American missionaries and American and African educationalists, on their educational and ethnographic survey of British, French, Belgian, and Portuguese territories in West, southern, and equatorial Africa. The Commission recommended an “adapted” education program modeled after that used in segregated African American schools in the southern United States.

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                                                                                                                              • Jones, Thomas Jesse. Education in East Africa: A Study of East, Central and South Africa by the Second African Education Commission under the Auspices of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, in Cooperation with the International Education Board. New York: Phelps-Stokes Fund, 1925.

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                                                                                                                                Report from the Phelps-Stokes Fund’s Second African Education Commission on their survey of colonial education in eastern, central, and southern Africa, recommending their “adapted” education policies in these territories.

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                                                                                                                                • Labouret, Henri. “L’éducation des masses en Afrique Occidentale Française.” Africa: Journal of the International Africa Institute 8.1 (1935): 98–102.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/3180402Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  A former lieutenant and colonial administrator in French West Africa, Labouret discusses policies of mass education recently instituted at the time he was writing.

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                                                                                                                                  • Lugard, Frederick John Dealtry. Education in Tropical Africa. London: Colonial Office, 1930.

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                                                                                                                                    A British colonial publication that discusses what Lugard believes were the major factors in and obstacles to the development of education in Britain’s African territories.

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                                                                                                                                    Education and Nationalism

                                                                                                                                    Colonial schools were sites of both cultural imperialism and anticolonial sentiment. Histories of colonial education such as Anderson 1970 and others that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s focused on the nationalist period as the culmination of colonial education policies and an organic reaction to them. Education was a contentious issue in South Africa and an important part of the movement in South Africa to end apartheid, as is shown in Christie 1986 and Morrow, et al. 2004. Carruthers 1999 and Nwauwa 1997 look at the politics of European and African scholarship (and African scholars trained in European universities) in the nationalist context, though Nwauwa 1997 remains in the period leading up to independence and Carruthers 1999 looks at the “intellectual wars” that continue to rage to the present day. Ngũgĩ 1986 is in many ways the subject of these debates as it argued for the “decolonization” of African literature.

                                                                                                                                    • Anderson, John E. The Struggle for the School: The Interaction of Missionary, Colonial Government and Nationalist Enterprise in the Development of Formal Education in Kenya. London: Longman, 1970.

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                                                                                                                                      Anderson’s foundational study of education in Kenya explains why the school more than any other colonial institution became the site of struggle over the state during the nationalist period.

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                                                                                                                                      • Carruthers, Jacob H. Intellectual Warfare. Chicago: Third World Press, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                        A study of how distinct African and European forms of education in the 20th century contributed to “intellectual wars” among African and European scholars about ancient Egypt, multiculturalism, and other pertinent issues in Pan-Africanist thought.

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                                                                                                                                        • Christie, Pam. The Right to Learn: The Struggle for Education in South Africa. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                          Christie traces the central role of education in the creation of the racial hierarchy in South Africa and in the antiapartheid movement.

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                                                                                                                                          • Morrow, Seán, Brown Maaba, and Loyiso Pulumani. Education in Exile: SOMAFCO, the African National Congress School in Tanzania, 1978 to 1992. Cape Town: HSRC, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                            This study illustrates the broader regional and global context of the antiapartheid movement in South Africa, as well as the individual connections between South Africans and Tanzanians engaged in an African nationalist education project.

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                                                                                                                                            • Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o. Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. Oxford: James Currey, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                              Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s important contribution to studies of cultural imperialism urges African authors to write in African languages as a way to “decolonize the mind.”

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                                                                                                                                              • Nwauwa, Apollos O. Imperialism, Academe, and Nationalism: Britain and University Education for Africans, 1860–1960. London: F. Cass, 1997.

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                                                                                                                                                Nwauwa argues that though Western education was the source of cultural imperialism, higher education abroad became the avenue through which Africans would make claims about their ability and right to self-government.

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                                                                                                                                                Education and Socialism

                                                                                                                                                When some newly independent nations turned to socialism in the 1960s and 1970s, they reformulated their education systems in line with socialist principles. Though this hardly lasted more than a decade or so in places like Tanzania and Mozambique, the products of these schools felt the lasting effects of socialism. Burgess 1999 examines early efforts toward the implementation of a socialist education system in Zanzibar, whereas Samoff 1987 gives a broad overview of Tanzania’s education policies between 1961 and 1987. Nyerere 1973 is a primary source demonstrating the state’s socialist education policies. Müller 2010 focuses on the products of socialist schools themselves as they attempted to adjust to the changing Mozambican society.

                                                                                                                                                • Burgess, Thomas. “Remembering Youth: Generation in Revolutionary Zanzibar.” Africa Today 46.2 (1999): 29–50.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1353/at.1999.0003Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  Burgess examines the role of the Afro-Shirazi Party’s Youth League and the development of the Young Pioneers in educating young people about their role in the socialist state.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Müller, Tanja R. “‘Memories of Paradise’: Legacies of Socialist Education in Mozambique.” African Affairs 109.436 (2010): 451–470.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1093/afraf/adq024Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    Müller follows the lives of the 899 Mozambican schoolchildren sent to study in East Germany and who returned to Mozambique in 1988, tracing both their symbolic meaning in the shifting politics of their nation and their ability to use their socialist training for personal development.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Nyerere, Julius Kambarage. Education for Self-Reliance. Brooklyn, NY: East Publications, 1973.

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                                                                                                                                                      A policy statement from the then-president of Tanzania discussing the importance of education to the country’s socialist development agenda.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Samoff, Joel. “School Expansion in Tanzania: Private Initiatives and Public Policy.” Comparative Education Review 31.3 (1987): 333–360.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1086/446695Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        An overview of private and public educational efforts under way in Tanzania since independence with special attention to the socialist period.

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                                                                                                                                                        Women’s Education

                                                                                                                                                        Many scholars argue that though most education systems in Africa included both male and female students, the impact of Western education on shifting notions about gender and sexuality calls for research focused specifically on girls. These studies highlight the gendered curricula, culture, and outcomes of education in an attempt to explain transformations in women’s engagement with social, cultural, economic, and political processes since the 19th century.

                                                                                                                                                        History and Anthropology

                                                                                                                                                        Historical and anthropological studies of women’s education tend to focus on the cultural factors that made education possible, attractive, and/or acceptable to women and their families. Barthel 1985 presents a long historical view, while Stambach 2000 gives a generational analysis. Decker 2010, Summers 1996, Thomas 2006, and Tibenderana 1985 focus on colonial policies toward female education and the reactions of women and girls to these interventions. Marks 1988 provides insight into the special case of South Africa, no longer a colony in the 1950s, the time of the letters, but very much governed like one by the white minority administration. Porter 1998 offers an anthropological interpretation of a public vignette in Kenya featuring a schoolgirl performance.

                                                                                                                                                        • Barthel, Diana. “Women’s Educational Experience under Colonialism: Toward a Diachronic Model.” Signs 11.1 (1985): 137–154.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1086/494204Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          Barthel’s diachronic model looks at the developments in girls’ education in Africa as a phenomenon occurring in three “stages”: 1820–1920 is the phase of “early efforts,” 1920–1960 was the period of “social disequilibrium and social development,” and 1960–1985 was the period in which new “educational options” for women arose.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Decker, Corrie. “Fathers, Daughters, and Institutions: Coming of Age in Mombasa’s Colonial Schools.” In Girlhood: A Global History. Edited by Jennifer Helgren and Colleen A. Vasconcellos, 268–288. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                            A discussion of the shifts in gendered and generational alliances that resulted from the political alliance between fathers and daughters fighting for girls’ education in colonial Mombasa, Kenya.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Marks, Shula, ed. Not Either an Experimental Doll: The Separate Worlds of Three South African Women. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.

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                                                                                                                                                              A rare collection of letters from three women in 1950s South Africa that provide insight into the experience of a Xhosa girl seeking financial assistance for school from a white female educationalist.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Porter, Mary Ann. “Resisting Uniformity at Mwana Kupona Girls’ School: Cultural Productions in an Educational Setting.” Signs 23.3 (1998): 619–643.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1086/495282Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                An anthropological analysis of Muslim girls’ public performance at a school in Mombasa, Kenya.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Stambach, Amy. Lessons from Mount Kilimanjaro: Schooling, Community, and Gender in East Africa. New York: Routledge, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Stambach looks at generations of educated men and women, as well as contemporary youth in Tanzanian schools, in an effort to explain cultural changes in attitudes toward education over time and the shifts in the perspectives of individuals at different stages in their personal histories of education.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Summers, Carol. “‘If You Can Educate the Native Woman . . .’: Debates over the Schooling and Education of Girls and Women in Southern Rhodesia, 1900–1934.” History of Education Quarterly 36.4 (1996): 449–471.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.2307/369783Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Summers discusses British colonial attempts to educate African women as a way to ensure the social and economic development of men in Southern Rhodesia.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Thomas, Lynn. “Schoolgirl Pregnancies, Letter-Writing, and ‘Modern’ Persons in Late Colonial East Africa.” In Africa’s Hidden Histories: Everyday Literacy and Making the Self. Edited by Karin Barber, 180–208. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                      An analysis of the self-perceived “modern” schoolgirls who use letter writing to prove the paternity of their babies and demand that the men take responsibility for them.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Tibenderana, Peter Kazenga. “The Beginnings of Girls’ Education in the Native Administration Schools in Northern Nigeria, 1930–1945.” Journal of African History 26.1 (1985): 93–109.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/S0021853700023100Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        An account of British attempts to institute schools for Muslim girls in Northern Nigeria, a project that failed when their focus shifted away from the elite and when they instituted a policy of coeducation.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Women’s Education and Development

                                                                                                                                                                        Contemporary studies of women’s education highlight issues of gender inequity, human rights, and women’s empowerment through education. Boch, et al. 1998 and Maslak 2007 offer studies useful for comparing experiences in different regions of Africa. Ogunjuyigbe, et al. 2006; Okeke-Ihejirika 2009; Greany 2008; and Omwami 2011 point to the limitations of earlier efforts to increase women’s access to education and emphasize the need for improvement in this direction.

                                                                                                                                                                        • Boch, Marianne, Josephine A. Beoku-Betts, and B. Robert Tabachnick, eds. Women and Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Power, Opportunities, and Constraints. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                          A collection of essays on “nonformal” and “formal” education, as well as the political and economic factors impacting women’s education in Africa.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Greany, Kate. “Rhetoric versus Reality: Exploring the Rights-Based Approach to Girls’ Education in Rural Niger.” Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education 38.5 (2008): 555–568.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/03057920802351317Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Greany outlines the difficulties of employing a rights-based approach to girls’ education to the local context where understandings of gender and education sometimes conflict with the discourse on universal rights.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Maslak, Mary Ann, ed. The Structure and Agency of Women’s Education. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                              An examination of the structural obstacles to and support systems available for women’s education. Several articles in the book focus specifically on girls’ education in Africa and address issues of gender equity and women’s empowerment.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Ogunjuyigbe, Peter O., Ebenezer O. Ojofeitimi, and Ambrose Akinlo. “Science Education in Nigeria: An Examination of People’s Perceptions about Female Participation in Science.” Journal of Science Education and Technology 15.3–4 (2006): 277–284.

                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1007/s10956-006-9014-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                This article outlines the cultural misperceptions about gender equity in girls’ access to instruction in science, mathematics, and technology, and some strategies for overcoming these.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Okeke-Ihejirika, Philomina. “Gender Equity in African Tertiary Education Systems: A Critical Look at Women’s Progress.” In Power, Gender, and Social Change in Africa. Edited by Muna Ndulo and Margaret Grieco, 207–230. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  This essay evaluates women’s participation in postsecondary educational programs and includes discussion of both the strides made and the obstacles still to be overcome in establishing gender equity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Omwami, Edith Mukudi. “Relative-Change Theory: Examining the Impact of Patriarchy, Paternalism, and Poverty on the Education of Women in Kenya.” Gender and Education 23.1 (2011): 15–28.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/09540251003674105Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    Omwami argues that efforts to increase women’s educational participation in Kenya have resulted in only “relative” change, that is, opportunities for certain women in certain circumstances to the exclusion of the majority.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Internationalization

                                                                                                                                                                                    International influence has always been a factor in the modern history of African education. These works take up the question specifically as it relates to global pedagogical theories and the non-African characteristics of African institutions. Paracka 2003 and King 1971 explore the historical impact of international theories of education on the development of African education systems. Abdi, et al. 2006 examines some of the negative impacts of globalization. Jowi 2009, Some and Khaemba 2004, and Teferra and Knight 2008 look at the contemporary internationalization of higher education in Africa and collectively present a thorough discussion of the challenges and aims of international education, as well as the wide range of African perspectives on the issue. Sako 2002 addresses the problem of the “brain drain,” the emigration of African professionals to other areas of the world.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Abdi, Ali A., Korbla P. Puplampu, and George J. Sefa, eds. African Education and Globalization: Critical Perspectives. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      The authors stress the need to problematize the impact of globalization on educational and development in Africa and offer specific discussions on the issues of Africa’s educational culture, higher education, the role of indigenous knowledge, the place of women, and the impact of technology in the classroom.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Jowi, James Otieno. “Internationalization of Higher Education in Africa: Developments, Emerging Trends, Issues and Policy Implications.” Higher Education Policy 22 (2009): 263–281.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1057/hep.2009.8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Jowi argues that higher education in Africa cannot be viewed from a national context only, but that international culture, history, and educational contexts have to be taken into account.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • King, Kenneth J. Pan-Africanism and Education: A Study of Race, Philanthropy, and Education in the Southern States of America and East Africa. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          This account of the influence of American philanthropic organizations and the Pan-Africanist movement on Britain’s colonial East African education policies is still relevant in the early 21st century.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Paracka, Daniel J. The Athens of West Africa: A History of International Education at Fourah Bay College, Freetown, Sierra Leone. New York: Routledge, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            A history of the Fourah Bay College from the late 18th century to the present, showing how international influences transformed the school from a center of Christian missionizing to a Pan-Africanist institution, the site of colonial development reforms, and ultimately, postcolonial student activism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sako, Soumana. “Brain Drain and Africa’s Development: A Reflection.” African Issues 30.1 (2002): 25–30.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.2307/1167086Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              A brief investigation of the causes of the “brain drain,” that is, the loss of Africa’s educated professions through emigration, and a discussion of new strategies emerging to counter it.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Some, David K., and Battan M. Khaemba, eds. Internationalisation of Higher Education: The African Experience and Perspective. Eldoret, Kenya: Moi University Press, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                A collection of over fifty short articles that range from a general discussion of the internationalization of education to specific case studies in Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Kenya, South Africa, and many other African countries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Teferra, Damtew, and Jane Knight, eds. Higher Education in Africa: The International Dimension. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College Center for International Higher Education, 2008.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Published by the Center for International Higher Education (CIHE) at Boston College, this edited volume includes chapters analyzing the benefits, challenges, and risks associated with the international dimension of higher education in several African nations as a research project aiding the establishment of the International Network for Higher Education in Africa (INHEA).

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Higher Education

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Research on higher education in Africa has been more prevalent since the early 2000s. Many of the debates about higher education relate to the issue of internationalization of education, the difficulties that African nations face in funding higher education, and the role of the university in national social and economic development. Adamu 1994 provides a history of the American influence on Nigerian universities. Green 2007 takes up similar issues in suggesting a balance between reliance on “indigenous knowledge” and global academic sciences in determining a university curriculum in South Africa. The essays in Afoláyan 2007 provide a vast amount of material based on studies from across the continent and therefore offer a rare opportunity for comparison. Sicherman 2005 and Mamdani 2007 both examine Makerere University in Uganda, the former recounting the long history of the university and the latter challenging recent tendencies toward privatization. Mkude, et al. 2003 also takes up the economic question as it relates specifically to postsocialist-era Mozambique. Kamau 2011 investigates the experience of female academic professionals, whose perspective is usually absent from discussions of higher education.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Adamu, Abdalla Uba. Reform and Adaptation in Nigerian University Curricula, 1960–1992: Living on the Credit Line. Lewiston, NY: Edward Mellen, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    An overview of Nigerian and American perspectives and influences on the development of Nigerian higher education, and the incorporation of American pedagogical standards in Nigerian universities.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Afoláyan, Michael Oládèjo. Higher Education in Postcolonial Africa: Paradigms of Development, Decline, and Dilemmas. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      A collection of essays on a variety of nations and regions of Africa examining the obstacles to developing higher and professional education on the continent and offering strategies for the future.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Green, Lesley J. F. “The Indigenous Knowledge Systems Policy of 2004: Challenges for South African Universities.” Social Dynamics: A Journal of African Studies 33.1 (2007): 130–154.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        Green argues for relaxed restrictions on collaborative scholarship across disciplines and universities as a way to better develop a more productive relationship between indigenous knowledge systems and the sciences.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kamau, Njoki M. “Outsiders Within: Experiences of Women Academics in Kenya.” In Gender Epistemologies in Africa: Gendering Traditions, Spaces, Social Institutions, and Identities. Edited by Oyeronke Oyewumi, 119–154. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kamau argues that, in spite of their elite status, women academics in Kenya face discrimination from both the general public and their academic colleagues.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mamdani, Mahmood. Scholars in the Marketplace: The Dilemmas of Neo-Liberal Reform at Makerere University, 1989–2005. Dakar, Senegal: CODESRIA, 2007.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mamdani warns against the privatization of the university, underway since reforms of the early 1990s, and argues that stressing the complimentarity between interdisciplinary and disciplinary scholarship will do more to produce an economically efficient and socially responsible university than encouraging departments to compete for funding.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mkude, Daniel, Brian Cooksey, and Lisbeth Levey, eds. Higher Education in Mozambique: A Case Study. Oxford: James Currey, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              The editors narrate the history of education within the context of Mozambique’s transitions from colonialism to socialism and from socialism to a market-based economy and provides an overview of the current state of higher education in Mozambique.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sicherman, Carol. Becoming an African University: Makerere, 1922–2000. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                An overview of the history of Makerere University, the premier higher education institution in East Africa, from its colonial beginnings to its rise to prominence in the 1950s, decline during periods of warfare, and resurgence in more recent decades.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pedagogy and Teacher Training

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The training of African teachers and the establishment of a standardized curriculum were fundamental components of the spread of Western schools during the colonial period and primary development aims for postcolonial African countries. Whereas Miescher 2006 and McMahon and Decker 2009 look at colonial policies and practices of teacher training and their impact on African teachers, Anderson-Levitt and Diallo 2003, Mulkeen 2010, and Zeichner and Dahlström 1999 focus on the challenges of teacher training in contemporary Africa. Anderson-Levitt and Diallo 2003 and Zeichner and Dahlström 1999 stress the importance of paying attention to local contexts, whereas Mulkeen 2010 attempts to create a more comprehensive plan that can be adapted to various African nations. Finally, Jansen and Christie 1999 takes issue with the outcomes-based approach to the South African curriculum and calls for a more nuanced education policy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M., and Boubacar Bayero Diallo. “Teaching by the Book in Guinea.” In Local Meanings, Global Schooling: Anthropology and World Culture Theory. Edited by Kathryn Anderson-Levitt, 75–98. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1057/9781403980359Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An investigation of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) project to develop teachers’ skills and promote student-centered learning in a school system in which the government usually micromanages teaching methods. Local teachers preferred teaching by the book and appropriated arguments put forth by international advisors only when they suited local conditions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Jansen, Jonathan D., and Pam Christie, eds. Changing Curriculum: Studies on Outcomes-Based Education in South Africa. Johannesburg: Thorold’s Africana, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A collection of essays on the problems associated with outcomes-based education and the need for other approaches to curriculum development.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • McMahon, Elisabeth, and Corrie Decker. “Wives or Workers? Negotiating the Social Contract between Female Teachers and the Colonial State in Zanzibar.” Journal of Women’s History 21.2 (2009): 39–61.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1353/jowh.0.0078Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      McMahon and Decker argue that the colonial state in Zanzibar modeled the women’s teacher training program after a respectable Islamic marriage in order to attract elite women into the profession. Once greater numbers of elite and middle-class women were joining the profession, the state began to treat them more as workers than as wives.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Miescher, Stephan. “‘My Own Life’: A. K. Boakye Yiadom’s Autobiography—The Writing and Subjectivity of a Ghanaian Teacher-Catechist.” In Africa’s Hidden Histories: Everyday Literacy and Making the Self. Edited by Karin Barber, 27–51. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Miescher provides a glimpse into the life history (or rather, histories) of a Ghanaian teacher as insight into the ways in which literacy, family demands, and missionary ideology shaped his self-perception.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mulkeen, Aidan. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in Teacher Supply, Training, and Management. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A policy statement advising African nations on recruiting, training, deploying, and supervising teachers, and on developing a national economic and political commitment to standardized teacher training.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Zeichner, Kenneth, and Lars Dahlström. Democratic Teacher Education Reform in Africa: The Case of Namibia. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1999.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Examines the viewpoints of various individuals in the Namibian education system, including state officials, school administrators, teachers, and even students, in demonstrating the importance of relying on local information in formulating teacher training policies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Literacy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Though some African societies, especially Islamic ones, long had traditions of literacy (in Arabic or in local languages using the Arabic script), in most areas of the continent literacy came as a by-product of colonialism. Basic literacy was always a primary aspect of mission and colonial schools. Africans often used these skills to “talk back” to the colonial state or to carve out new “modern” identities for themselves in communities that may have otherwise not recognized their social status. Hunwick 1997 explores Nigeria’s long precolonial literary tradition, while the other references focus on colonial and postcolonial forms of literacy. Hofmeyr 1991, Harries 2001, and the essays in Barber 2006 explore both the intended and unintended meanings that Africans make of forms of literacy introduced to them by missionaries and colonial officials. Peterson 2004 looks at how texts with political meaning are used and reinterpreted among official and popular audiences. Moshi and Ojó 2009 looks at the contemporary debates about the language of instruction and the usefulness of different types of literacy in African schools.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Barber, Karin, ed. Africa’s Hidden Histories: Everyday Literacy and Making the Self. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An edited volume of scholarship on historical and contemporary periods and various regions of the continent about the impact of literacy on African subjectivity.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Harries, Patrick. “Missionaries, Marxists and Magic: Power and the Politics of Literacy in South-East Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 27.3 (September 2001): 405–427.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/13632430120074518Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Harris argues that literacy is a “socially-embedded process” (p. 405) and that Africans reinterpreted the meaning of literacy, originally the hook for accessing missionary knowledge, as a necessary component of nationalism in the late colonial period.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hofmeyr, Isabel. “Jonah and the Swallowing Monster: Orality and Literacy on a Berlin Mission Station in the Transvaal.” Journal of Southern African Studies 17.4 (1991): 633–653.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/03057079108708296Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hofmeyr argues that there is not as clear a distinction between orality and literacy as has been previously argued, and that the attainment of literacy is not symbolic of the embrace of rationality, nor is it always a necessary characteristic of development.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hunwick, John. “The Arabic Literary Tradition of Nigeria.” Research in African Literatures 28.3 (1997): 210–223.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hunwick examines the revitalization of an eight-hundred-year-old tradition of Arabic literacy in Nigerian centers of Islamic scholarship.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Moshi, Lioba J., and Akinloyè Ojó, eds. Language Pedagogy and Language Use in Africa. London: Adonis & Abbey, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A collection of essays analyzing the culture and politics of the promotion of indigenous, European, and/or national languages, the media of instruction in African institutions, and African language study programs.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Peterson, Derek. Creative Writing: Translation, Bookkeeping, and the Work of the Imagination in Colonial Kenya. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Peterson examines that ways in which officials and ordinary people interpreted, employed, and redefined the political meaning of texts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Memoirs and Novels

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Because the issue has been so central to childhood socialization in colonial, and more pervasively, postcolonial Africa, many African memoirs and novels feature education as a central theme. Salih 2009, Bugul 1991, and Dangarembga 2004 interrogate the values of a system that inflicted disturbing psychological distress on its subjects, whereas Ngũgĩ 2010, Soyinka 1994, Mathabane 1986, and Ntantala 1993 stress the more positive impacts of education on their personal lives, even though they too recognize missionary and colonial education as the site of cultural imperialism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bugul, Ken. The Abandoned Baobab: Autobiography of a Senegalese Woman. Chicago: Lawrence Hill, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Written by the Senegalese novelist Mariètou Mbaye Biléoma under the pen name Ken Bugul, the story recounts the experiences of a young educated Senegalese woman who tries to find herself in Europe in the early postcolonial era. The autobiography was originally published in 1982 and translated into English in 1991.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dangarembga, Tsitsi. Nervous Conditions. Banbury, UK: Ayebia Clarke, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            First published in 1988, this fictional account tells the story of a young schoolgirl growing up in 1960s and 1970s Rhodesia who becomes increasingly aware of the damaging effects of the clash between African and Western cultures on educated Africans.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mathabane, Mark. Kaffir Boy: An Autobiography: The True Story of a Black Youth’s Coming of Age in Apartheid South Africa. New York: Macmillan, 1986.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A memoir of growing up in apartheid South Africa where the school system was both the tool of racial oppression and the only means of escaping it.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o. Dreams in a Time of War: A Childhood Memoir. New York: Pantheon, 2010.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A memoir by Kenya’s most well-known author recounting his experience excelling in school during the time of the Mau Mau war.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ntantala, Phyllis. A Life’s Mosaic: The Autobiography of Phyllis Ntantala. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The story of a woman educated in missionary schools in apartheid South Africa who became an internationally recognized scholar and activist.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Salih, Tayeb. Season of Migration to the North. New York: New York Review of Books, 2009.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Originally published in 1966, Salih’s first novel is a tale of a Sudanese man whose exposure to advanced colonial education and the academic world of Britain had dangerous psychological repercussions.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Soyinka, Wole. Aké: The Years of Childhood. New York: Vintage International, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The childhood memories of the Nobel Prize–winning Nigerian writer Wole Soyinka. Originally published in 1981, the autobiographical account weaves fantasy with reality in telling how education slowly became the center of his childhood.

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